domingo, 18 de julio de 2010

Dissapearance Of Dr. O.B.L. Kapoor (Srila Adikeshava Das)

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Mother Urmila on her way to school...
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The school moved into the Detroit temple's prasadam room for about a year, while a school building was being constructed.
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Ambarish's birthday. His mother, Mukhya, brought cake to school for lunch. :P
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Preschool lunch time
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WORLD June 8, 2001 VNN6789 Comment on this story

Dissapearance Of Dr. O.B.L. Kapoor


VRINDAVAN, INDIA, Jun 8 (VNN) — On April 9th of 2001, Dr. O.B.L. Kapoor (Srila Adikeshava Das), a dear disciple of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur and Srila Gauranga Das Babaji, abandoned this mortal world at 3 a.m. in Sri Vrindavan Dham. Most provably to be reunited with them again in the spiritual realm.

Srila Adikeshava Maharaja was born Oudh Bihari Lal Kapoor in 1909. He had strong leanings towards the Advaitic philosophy of Shankara. In August 1931, when he was working as a research scholar in the University of Allahabad, he met his diksha-guru Sri Srimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Prabhupada, who puled him out of his Advaitic moorings and initiated him into Bhakti. His initiation ceremony took place in Sri Radhakunda-the holiest of all places in Vraja. On Srila Bhaktisiddhanta's advice and under his close supervision he wrote a thesis on the Philosophy of Sri Chaitanya. The thesis was approved by the Allahabad University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Srila Adikeshava Maharaja had the unique distinction of being the first Doctor of Philosophy of this prestigious University.

He was very much distressed after the physical disappearance of his beloved diksha-guru . Although he thought that his guru's benedictory hand was still on him, he felt that without his living presence he was like an orphan. While living in Vrindavana Dhama he received the advice of a saint to meet a Siddha-Mahatma. On this saint's own opinion: The only Siddha-saint in Vrindavana at he present. He is most unostentatious and humble. But the spiritual treasure behind his simplicity can hardly escape the eyes of a discerning sadhaka. You must go and see him. After accepting siksha from the distinguished Siddha-saint Sri Gauranga Dasa Babaji of Ramanareti, the blessings of his diksha-guru thus fully manifested. Srila Adikeshava Maharaja was living in Vrindavana since 1967 and wrote books and articles in Hindi on the philosophy of Bhakti and the lives of the Vaishnava saints. Having already accepted the vow of sannyasa-tirtha, i.e., never to leave Sri Vrindavan Dhama, in 1998 he moved to the original ashram in Ramamareti, where he met Srila Gauranga Das Babaji.

Due to his close association with his dear God brother, the world known Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, he was named as one of the trust members on the occasion of the establishment of the first Western temple in the history of Vrindavana - the Krishna-Balarama Mandir of ISKCON. Srila Prabhupada had a long and very friendly relationship with Srila Adikeshava Das, which was established during a period of eight years while he was living at Hallahabad. They used to meet often at the Gaudiya Math temple and in their respective houses. Srila Prabhupada deeply appreciated his articles in English and published several of them in the magazine of his international society. He also recognized Srila Adikeshava Maharaja's dialectic on Gaudiya Vaishnavism and expressed it clearly on a review for his book "The Philosophy and Religion of Sri Chaitanya", written few years before Srila Prabhupada's physical departure:

...the teatrise bears the hall-mark of authentic research. It is, in my opinion, the first scientific delineation of the philosophy of Sri Chaitanya, based primarily on His direct utterances, as contained in Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata, and supported profusely by reference to the vast literature left by His learned disciples, most of which was written under His express command and on the basis of the guide-lines provide by Him.

The book is written in elegant style. I am sure it will be acclaimed, not only by the Vaishnavas in India, but by the members of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness and the lovers of philosophy and religion all over the world.

After The Philosophy and Religion of Sri Chaitanya, which has been sanctioned by learned devotees as a text book for any serious student on Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy for all generations to come, Srila Adikeshava Maharaja wrote more than 25 books in Hindi besides dozens of articles dealing with the lives of the Vaishnava saints and the philosophical essence of the Universal Religion of Love of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. His work in Hindi Vrij Ke Bhakta (published in English under the title The Saints of Vraja in an abridged version) has been printed in five editions and is still being acclaimed by the inhabitant all round Vraja.

When the need to support the Gaudiya Vaishnava siddhanta and the primacy of the rasika-acharyas followers of Sri Chaitanya over the conclusions of some saints of other Sampradayas, Srila Adikeshava Maharaja wrote Vrij Ke Rasika Upasana, thus defining for ever the supremacy of the six Gosvamis of Vrindavana as the original holders of the topmost conlusions on Rasa-Tattva.

Srila Adikeshava Maharaja's contribution to the welfare of the young Hare Krishna movement all over the world started to fully manifest after his writings produced in Vrindavana were first published in 1992 in English version. Surely, they occupy a significant place in behalf of the spiritual growth of the followers of Sri Chaitanya's movement. For the first time in the history of the Western Gaudiya Vaishnavism a learned and devoted follower of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, broadly recognized by bonafide saintly devotees, has brought to the attention of the ample Western audience the deep philosophical understanding relating to the mode of worship brought by Mahaprabhu Himself, together with the relevant biographical data-mostly collected personally-of uncompromising Siddha-saints.

Srila Adikeshava Maharaja brought a new, refreshing and unprecedent inner inspiration from contemplating the numerous biographical references given on the lives of the Vaishnava saints from the time of Sri Chaitanya up to recent days. Srila Adikeshava Das contribution in bringing to light such biographies is unique, since becoming absorved in the devotional activities of the saintly devotees of the Lord, invokes our natural faith in the process of Bhakti, since they are the models of devotion and can safely lead us on the path to a complete and pure contemplation of the nectarean pastimes of the Divine Couple Sri Sri Radha-Krishna.

Srila Adikeshava Maharaja's departure was surrounded by all auspicious signs since he was constantly engaged in chanting and hearing about the Lord and His devotees. Barely a week before his departure Srila Adikeshava Maharaja's clear memory and jolly mood had impressed again a devotee who spoke with him over the phone from US. Ovbiously, it is a mistake to think that a Vaishnava dies, since he continues living in sound through his writings. A web site offering his books ( had just being released before the news of his physical departure. Regretfully, Srila Adikeshava Maharaja could not be informed on time about this, however, it is believed that he would be very happy of his valuable devotional contributions being exposed to the Vaishnava community worldwide. We feel thankful and inspired by the exemplary life manifested by Srila Adikeshava Maharaja during his physical permanence amongst us. Nitai-Gaura Haribol!

ISKCON desire tree - Sri Krishna Kathamrita - Bindu 98


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Anuga - The meaning of the term

Anuga - The meaning of the term

jiva - Fri, 19 Apr 2002 00:24:39 +0530
Some scholars interpreting Gaudiya Vaisnavism for English readers present Raganuga as a process of 'imitation' (S.C.Cakravarti,O.B.L.Kapoor,N.C.Ghose...) But,others have objected to the use of the word imitation and would rather speak of anuga or anusara as ''putting oneself in the service of '' or ''becoming subordinate to'' one of Vrajaloka.This is particularly true of modern Bengali writers (for example-Radhagovinda Nath),who point out that some important commentaries on Rupa's works make much of the fact that Rupa used the term anusara as a synonym for anuga,not anukara.

One is to ''follow'' (anuga or anusara) the Vrajaloka, not ''merely imitate''(anukara) them. Anuga, they insist, is not anukara.

Mina - Fri, 19 Apr 2002 01:52:18 +0530
I think you might have seen some English translations where the Indian writer whose native tongue is Hindi or Bengali did not get the meaning across in translation. For example Dr. Kapoor in one place translates from the Hindi "they all ran to see the snake", when he meant to say "they all ran away upon seeing the snake". The opposite meaning came out in translation. I noticed that he makes more of these types of mistranslations in the biographies than in his "Philosophy and Religion of Sri Caitanya".

So it could be the 'imitation' was there just as a poor choice of words. I do not know for sure, without looking more closely at the originals and the translations.
jiva - Sat, 20 Apr 2002 00:32:48 +0530
Thanks Ananga.

In my understanding,Jiva Goswamin(in his Bhakti Sandarbha) illustrates that anuga includes anukara.

In the context of a discusion of Raganuga,Jiva says that because the demoness Putana merely imitate (anukara) a wet nurse for Krsna (by suckling him at her breast,though her intention was to kill him) she attained salvation.Jiva does not claim that Raganuga is altogether different from imitation (anukara) but that is something MORE than 'merely imitation'. That is,anuga is ''imitation''plus something more. That 'something more' is the right intention,the intention of gaining the emotional state (bhava) of the model one is imitating.

Without this spiritual intention,imitation would be but more impersonation. Isn't?


Mina - Sat, 20 Apr 2002 01:32:37 +0530
Now I understand the distinction more clearly after your second post. I agree with your assessment. The raganuga tradition has never condoned concocted practices or imitation of the Lord or His eternal associates. I have heard of gurus falsely claiming to teach the bhakti tradition that role play as kRSNa and surround themselves with young women in imitation of the rAsa dance. That type of imitation is an example of what you are talking about. One would have to liken such persons more to rock stars than genuine spiritual preceptors. Someone told me once that most of them stand out on account of wearing dark orange robes (like followers of Shankaracarya).
jiva - Sun, 21 Apr 2002 00:19:08 +0530
Yes,you speak about Sahajiya-Vaisnavas.

But ,questions concerning the proper method of `imitating` the Vrajaloka with the sadhaka-rupa,the physical body, were not firmly settled by either Rupa or Jiva,and over the course of time a variety of interpretations arose and came into conflict.In particular,two strategies developed to deal with the incongruity of the female models and the male practicioners.The two strategies eventually came into conflict,with the result that the first strategy was soundly condemned by the orthodox tradition.

This first strategy followed the seemingly logical development of the Raganuga Bhakti Sadhana and encouraged its male adherents to actually transform the physical body to be congruent with the female models,whereas the second strategy developed an interpretation which involved two different sets of models for the two different bodies.

The practicioners following the first strategy literally and physically imitate the gopis by taking on the dress and behavior of a woman.They believe that since their true and essential identity is a gopi,they should dress and act the part.Many of the early followers of this path must certainly have had their own strong rationale for so doing,but they have left no writen records.Rupa Kaviraja (NOT Rupa Goswamin!),is usually blamed for giving written rationalization for such literal imitative action with the physical body and his works were condemned by a council held in Jaipur in 1727.

Raga - Sun, 21 Apr 2002 03:41:09 +0530
Yes,you speak about Sahajiya-Vaisnavas.

A short note on the classical meaning of the word "sahajiya" -- I believe originally it was attributed to a class of men who imitated the roles of Radha-Krishna and the gopis, and in their material bodies tried to act the erotic pastimes of Vraja. This appears to be quite different from the class of men (or ladies) who try to attain a particular bhava by adopting his/her (the role model's) clothes and nature in one's external body. The difference being that in the "classical sahajiyaism" there are also people who enact the role Krishna, and hence both ashraya and visaya are present in the "sadhana". Though I am not familiar with the philosophy of Ativadi Rupa Kaviraja, I believe this was not his doctrine.

By the way, is there a standard definition of "sahajiya" found anywhere? It is often loosely attributed to one and all.

jiva - Sun, 21 Apr 2002 17:36:12 +0530
QUOTE(raga @ April 20 2002,15:11)
Though I am not familiar with the philosophy of Ativadi Rupa Kaviraja, I believe this was not his doctrine.

By the way, is there a standard definition of "sahajiya" found anywhere? It is often loosely attributed to one and all.

Rupa Kaviraja does not accept the interpretation which insists that the practicioner imitate Vrajaloka only in the mind and follow the injunctions of the Vaidhi Bhakti with the body.Instead,he urges the practicioner to imitate the residents of Vrajaloka with the mind ,body,and voice of BOTH bodies.

There is no direct evidence that suggests whether Rupa Kaviraja did or did not participate in such acts as dressing as a gopi,but his theories did lend themselves to the rationale,an even impetus,for such acts.However,we can conclude that if he were important enough that a council convened especially to condemn his works,
he must have offered a significantly influential interpretation of the sadhana.But,Rupa Kaviuraja's interpretation of what Rupa Goswamin meant by "imitating the Vrajaloka with the sadhaka- rupa" was not accepted as authoritative by orthodox Gaudiya Vaisnavas;the honor was to go to Visvanatha Cakravartin.

The term 'sahaja' litarally means "easy" or "natural",and in this meaning the term is applied to a system of worship and belief in which the natural qualities of the senses should be used,not denied or suppressed.

The roots of Sahajiya sects/schools lie well within the ancient tradition of the Tantras.Both Tantrics and Sahajiyas believe that man is a microcosm,a miniature universe;both believe in unity as the guiding principle of this universe,that all duality,even that of the sexes,is falsehood and delusion and that cosmic unity is regained, or represented,by man and woman in sexual union;both are humanistic,and begin with the analysis of the nature of man,and see as the end of man the gaining of the "natural state",the sahaja,the state of ultimate and blissful unity.

Caitanya,who was considered even by the orthodox to contain Radha and Krsna within his own body,was a perfect illustration of the Sahajiya principle of unity in seeming duality.It must be remembered,however,that as the Sahajiyas gave doctrinal value to what the Vaisnavas meant symbolically,so in the area of theology the Sahajiyas to a certain extent took symbolically what the Vaisnavas meant doctrinally.

Mina - Sun, 21 Apr 2002 22:48:09 +0530
What I read on a sahajiya website a few years ago talked about doing japa of kama gayatri while engaged in the tantric sexual sadhana in order to raise the kundalini from the root chakra to the crown chakra. That clearly indicates a fusion of the Vaishnava sadhana with tantric yoga. I am not aware of any orthodox Gaudiya practitioners that employ such techniques, although there were rumors about one small group in Braj started by a former sannyasi of Gaudiya Math that left that organization and was re-initiated.
Raga - Sun, 21 Apr 2002 23:43:59 +0530
Caitanya,who was considered even by the orthodox to contain Radha and Krsna within his own body,was a perfect illustration of the Sahajiya principle of unity in seeming duality.

Jiva, would you clarify this sentence for me?

jiva - Mon, 22 Apr 2002 01:22:54 +0530
QUOTE(raga @ April 21 2002,11:13)
Caitanya,who was considered even by the orthodox to contain Radha and Krsna within his own body,was a perfect illustration of the Sahajiya principle of unity in seeming duality.

Jiva, would you clarify this sentence for me?

According to some sahajiya texts,man and woman have in them both the divine Krsna and Radha: a woman is female because she has in her a preponderance of Radha;a man is man because he is mostly Krsna.Love between man and woman thus reduplicates in microcosm the love of Radha and Krsna, a love that had both phases,separation and union. Thus,when one realizes himself as divine,one experiences in union not the insignificant joys of human love,but the perpetual divine joys of the love of Radha and Krsna.

For even while Caitanya lived,people considered him divine. Some thought he was an avatara, an incarnation, of Krsna; some thought he was Krsna himself (C.c.,Adi 2:19). And some saw him as Radha and Krsna,the divine lovers, in the most intimate possible union-in one body. "Radha and Krsna were one soul in two bodies...then even the two bodies become one, in Caitanya." (C.c.,Adi 4:49-50)

The concept of the dual incarnation of Caitanya-that he was Radha and Krsna in one body-is central to the doctrine of the Sahajiya Vaisnavas, to the concept of the essential unity of things.

jiva - Mon, 22 Apr 2002 03:35:42 +0530
QUOTE(Ananga @ April 21 2002, 10:18)
What I read on a sahajiya website a few years ago talked about doing japa of kama gayatri while engaged in the tantric sexual sadhana in order to raise the kundalini from the root chakra to the crown chakra. That clearly indicates a fusion of the Vaishnava sadhana with tantric yoga.

Exactly how and when the Vaisnavas-Sahajiyas blending took place is a matter of considerable puzzlement to me. Some would trace it to the Tantras and to the Buddhist Sahajiya, ignoring to a large extent such doctrinal requisites as the notion of the necessity of prema for transformation, which is present in the Vaisnava- sahajiya because of its Vaisnava inheritance and not in the mechanistic Tantras. Others attempt to find its roots in post-Caitanya Bengal, evidently choosing to ignore its obvious debt to the very old Tantric tradition. The question is more than an academic one.

Sahajiya worshiper is taught a mantra by his diksa-guru, and thus the sadhana is initiated. At each stage of the sexual discipline, mantras are to be repeated, from a few to several hundreds, thus causing increasing realization of the presence of the divine svarupa within. The most frequent mantras are called the kama-bija and kama-gayatri. These pure Tantric or Sahajiya mantras are, interestingly, mentioned in the writings of the Goswamins. For example, Gopala Bhatta, in his Haribhaktivilasa, says that they are appropriate mantras for a Vaisnava guru, using as his authority the Gautamiya-tantra. Krsnadasa says, in a statement that must have delighted the Sahajiyas, that the kama-gayatri is svarupa of Krsna (Cc Madhya, 8:109).

DHRao - Tue, 21 Oct 2003 20:50:13 +0530
QUOTE(jiva @ Apr 18 2002, 06:54 PM)
raganuga as a process of `imitationVrajaloka,not merely imitate``(anukara) them. Anuga,they insist,is not anukara.

If I am not wrong, it is raaga + anu + ga ; where raaga= anuraaga, prema, bhakti, bhaavana... etc; anu = in tow, in step with with, behave in accordance or in agreement with; ga = gamana - from dhaatu gaml = to go, to pursue, to tread in that pathway etc. as in anubandha, anugaamitva, anusaraNiiya, anugaami dharma - etc.

Jayadeva uses it many times for eg - aSTapadi 13-2. yat= for which [Krishna]; anu gama naaya= to go in tow... etc. Here in raganuga - one 'a' after 'ra' is short syllabled - rather than aa - am I correct - dhrao
Madhava - Wed, 22 Oct 2003 01:23:55 +0530
Thank you for the valuable points above. However, I think the issue is more with how the traditon has come to define the term, what they consider it to include and what not.
Gaurasundara - Wed, 22 Oct 2003 06:12:19 +0530
Where is Jivaji these days anyway? Long time no see?
jiva - Thu, 23 Oct 2003 23:17:48 +0530
Here I am back.Thanks for query.

with respect,
DHRao - Mon, 27 Oct 2003 18:14:12 +0530
QUOTE(Madhava @ Oct 21 2003, 07:53 PM)
how the traditon has come to define the term, what they consider it to include and what not - ABOUT ANUGA, ANU CAR, ANU BANDH etc

This is what I am looking for. Whether there is a def. or is this a misplet Itrans lingo - because our elders or poets were not in the habit of giving captions, or headings, or names to their ideas. They are given by laterers. Madhava - u see gg 7th sarga where I had to touch this topic. Instead of evolving something out of what I have read - I am asking you all. - dhrao
DHRao - Sun, 02 Nov 2003 10:53:31 +0530
Why this topic has an+anugaamitva dharma - why not continue - a lot can be detailed to the unfamiliar - dhr
Madhava - Sun, 02 Nov 2003 17:20:45 +0530
As I said, the issue is more with how the traditon has come to define the term, what they consider it to include and what not -- not all that much in the infinite possibilites of interpretation. It appears in a certain context in the Gaudiya canon, and that is what we have been exploring.

Panca-tattva - Origin of the concept

Panca-tattva - Origin of the concept? - origin and development

jiva - Fri, 17 May 2002 00:37:59 +0530
Vrndavana Goswamins do not,in their authoritative Sanskrit works,explicitly recognize the doctrine of Panca-Tattva,and seldom mention Advaita and Nityananda.Only in the introductory verses to the "Vaisnava Tosani",obeisance is made to Advaita and Nityananda but there is nothing there to distinguish them from the other disciples and associates of Caitanya,mentioned along with them in a fairly long list.

Recognition is found,however,in the works of Kavikarnapura (especially "Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika") and in the Bengali lives of Caitanya;and the promotion to the exclusive dignity is thus of popular growth in the Navadvipa,rather than in the Vrndavana ,circle.

Kavikarnapura,however,attributes the origin of the doctrine of Panca-Tattva to Svarupa Damodara("Gaura-tattva-nirupana"),the five Tattvas being Caitanya,Nityananda,Advaita,Gadadhara and Srivasa (Locana substitutes his own guru Narahari Sarakara for Srivasa).Advaita is mentioned in the first "Caitanyastaka" of Rupa Goswamin(verse 3).



Raga - Fri, 17 May 2002 02:30:40 +0530
Krishnadas Kaviraja based the historical accounts of Caitanya Caritamrta mainly on the notes of Svarupa and Murari. Caitanya Caritamrta, completed 1615 AD, presents very elaborately the concept of Panca Tattva.

Are there any theories on when the theology of "Panca-tattva" would have been "imported" to Braja, if ever?
adiyen - Fri, 17 May 2002 08:17:05 +0530
See Jagat's comments on the importance of the Kheturi festival (on the SP thread?) for uniting the Vrindavan and Bengali followers of Sri Chaitanya, also the central importance in this of Ma Jahnava who would have brought the doctrine to Vrindavan along with Krishnadas Kaviraj, yes?

Raga - Fri, 17 May 2002 08:28:03 +0530
Are you sure it was on this board? I remotely recall reading something like that, but can't figure out where it was.

Could you just copy/post it here please, if you find it?
adiyen - Fri, 17 May 2002 17:12:34 +0530
Yes, here it is from Indiadivine SiddhaPranali thread p1, quoting Sri Jagat:

"The following is an excerpt from an article I wrote recently, which briefly summarizes how and when "siddha pranali" came about. The footnoted comments are relevant. My excuses for the lengthy post:

Perhaps predicably, the early period of the fledgling Vaishnava movement in post-Chaitanya times was not without a certain amount of turmoil, particularly in its homeland of Gauda. The principal reasons for this conflict were the conflicting visions of who Chaitanya himself was and the nature of his teaching, as well as a certain amount of jostling for supremacy among the followers of his leading associates, particularly Advaita and Nityananda.
It was only when the influence of the Vrindavan school, carried east by Narottam, Shyamananda and Srinivas Acharya, was brought to bear in the last third of the sixteenth century, that the Gaudiya Vaishnava world was consolidated and took on the characteristics that held it in good stead for several hundred years. The writing of the Chaitanya Charitamrita by Krishna Das in 1612, which reproduced the principal ideas of the Vrindavan school in the Bengali language, may be said to mark the completion of the consolidation process, but the festival at Kheturi in the early 1570s was its defining moment.

Along with the theology of Radha and Krishna as the supreme form of the Godhead, the Vrindavan doctrine emphasized the idea that Chaitanya was something more than a yuga avatar—he was the combined form of Radha and Krishna. What this did was to strengthen the basis for the legitimacy of the entire movement by adding layers of meaning to the Chaitanya symbol; the need for him to be legitimized by any external agent became even less important. Thus though certain passages in the scriptures were reinterpreted—and others invented—to support Chaitanya’s claims to being an incarnation of Krishna, these played a secondary role in creating faith in his followers and inspiring new converts to the movement.

Expanded liturgical norms were also established at Kheturi, in particular that of lila kirtan. In particular, the songs of Jnana Das and Govinda Das, who were both more profoundly influenced by the poetic writings of Rupa Goswami than by the Bhagavata itself, the avowed ultimate scriptural authority of the school, had a tremendous impact on the Bengali popular culture of the time.

Besides firmly establishing the Vrindavan theology, which presented a clear hierarchical understanding of religious experience culminating in service to Radha and Krishna in the madhura-rasa, the principal doctrine with practical effects for subsequent developments established at Kheturi was that of the Pancha Tattva.(1) This doctrine confirmed the status of Nityananda and Advaita as incarnations of the Deity in their own right, gave specific prominence to Gadadhar as the incarnation of KrishnaÂ’s shakti, i.e. Radha, and identified all of ChaitanyaÂ’s other associates as descents of KrishnaÂ’s eternal companions in the spiritual world.(2) This had the effect of confirming the descendants of these now deceased members of the movementÂ’s first generation as participants in their charisma. It is notable that the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika even identifies NityanandaÂ’s wife Jahnava, as RadhaÂ’s sister Ananga Manjari, and Virabhadra, his son, as a form of Vishnu, even though neither of them ever met Chaitanya.

It also seems likely that the particular esoteric practices of identifying as a participant in KrishnaÂ’s pastimes became a part of the Gaudiya Vaishnava culture of raganuga bhakti at this time (siddha-pranali).(3) This concept first appeared textually in the writings of Gopal Guru and Dhyana Chandra Goswami, the monks responsible for the prestigious Radha Kanta Math, which stood on the grounds of the Cha

itanya residence in Puri. Jahnava, an important organizer of the Kheturi festival, was a major force in sixteenth century who changed the orientation of the Nityananda group from the mood of friendship to that of madhura-rasa.

(1) Both the doctrine of Chaitanya as the combined form of Radha and Krishna and that of the Pancha Tattva are credited to Svarupa Damodar, a close associate of Chaitanya in Puri. Though the Pancha Tattva idea seems to have come to Kheturi without passing through Vrindavan, the other doctrine certainly received is potent force through the theological efforts of the Vrindavan school.

(2) This doctrine was put to paper in the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika by Kavi Karnapur in 1572, around the same time as the Kheturi festival, where he was present.

(3) The principle of siddha pranali was that the possibility of attaining the ultimate goal of spiritual life, a role in the eternal pastimes of Radha and Krishna, came through establishing a connection with ChaitanyaÂ’s original companions through disciplic succession."

Mahadeva - Sun, 19 May 2002 15:53:56 +0530
Some scholars think that before the Panca-tattva doctrine was fully established,the faith believed in the Caitanya-Gadadhara Tattva in Navadvipa lila?


Madhava - Sat, 01 Jun 2002 04:10:47 +0530
I just browsed through Kavi Karnapura's Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika. He draws much of its contents from Svarupa Damodara. In verses 9-10, he attributes the famous Panca-tattva sloka to him.

paJca-tattvAtmakaM kRSNaM
bhaktAvatAraM bhaktAkhyaM
namAmi bhakta-zaktikam

Considering the extent to which Kavi Karnapura draws from Svarupa's kadaca, it indeed seems that the kadaca was much more than a biographical account.

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