miércoles, 28 de julio de 2010

The Superiority of Navadvipa Dhama

The Superiority of Navadvipa Dhama PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 17 March 2005

Srila Narayana Maharaja arrived in Kuala Lumpur on April 22 and a few of his spiritual children were present at his apartmant to welcome him. Here he is giving out prasadam from the Deity of Giriraja Govardhana.

Sri Kesavaji Gaudiya Math:
Koladvipa, Navadvipa-dhama: March 17, 2005
Tridandisvami Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja

What is the glory of Navadvipa? The original Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna appeared in this world and performed His astonishing pastimes in Vrndavana. Yet, all of His desires were not fulfilled at that time. Those desires that were not fulfilled by Him during His pastimes in Vrndavana were fulfilled when He appeared here in Navadvipa-dhama in the form of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In Vrndavana He tasted prema as the object of the prema (pure love of God) of His devotees, but He did not know how the devotees felt in their love for Him. He could not taste what they experience in their loving mood. Also, in Gokula (Vrndavana manifest in this world), He did not distribute prema to one and all. It is only here in Navadvipa-dhama that He – as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu – so freely distributed it. He tasted the prema of the reservoir of love, His devotees, and especially the prema of Srimati Radhika, and He also distributed prema – especially the prema of Radhika’s maidservants.

Not only did Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu distribute this to the devotees who had become qualified by their practices, but even to those who were fallen and offensive. When He was on His way to Vrndavana He came to Kasi, and there He gave mercy to the leader of the mayavadis, Prakasananda Sarasvati – and not only to him, but also to his 60,000 sannyasa disciples. He is the most merciful incarnation. In other incarnations if anyone was opposed to Krsna, He would take up His weapon and kill him. But Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu never did so. Rather, He purified the hearts of the offenders through the chanting of the holy names and bestowed upon them love of God. Here in Navadvipa-dhama, He gave His mercy to the most sinful Jagai and Madhai, and so many others. He caused an inundation of transcendental love and made everyone dance.

After taking sannyasa, Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to Jagannatha Puri, and there He met with Sri Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, who was a leader of themayavadis, those who are very much antagonistic to the cult of pure devotion. He also gave mercy to him and converted him. When He was in South India, traveling here and there, He was so merciful that all the living entities, even those who saw Him from very far away, became overwhelmed with prema.

So many pastimes of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took place here in Navadvipa. He also spent many years in Jagannatha Puri. He also went to South India, to the bank of the Godavari, where He met with Sri Raya Ramananda and had very confidential discussions. Of these three abodes of the Lord – Navadvipa, Jagannatha Puri and Godavari – which one is superior? Nowadays there is a great deal of confusion about this topic. Many people are convinced about the wrong understanding, because the real philosophical conclusion is very deep and difficult to understand.

Navadvipa-dhama, where we have now come, is highest.*[See endnote] This place is superior to both Jagannatha Puri and Godavari. Why? There are so many reasons.

Someone may say that Jagannatha Puri is the highest place, because it was there in the Gambhira that Mahaprabhu relished vipralamba rasa (the mood of separation; Srimati Radhika’s separation for Sri Krsna) and fulfilled His three desires. But Jagannatha Puri is a manifestation of Dvaraka Puri. Otherwise, according to Mahaprabhu’s mood, He would also see it as Kuruksetra and become absorbed in the meeting of Radha and Krsna there. We cannot say that it is Vrndavana. In Vrndavana there are twelve forests, such as Vrndavana, Kumudvana, Bahulavana, Kelanvana, etc. Where are they in Jagannatha Puri? We cannot find them. On the other hand, here in Navadvipa-dhama, all the twelve forests of Vrndavana are present. This place in which we are now situated is called Koladvipa. Koladvipa is non-different from Giriraja-Govardhana, and very close by is Syama-kunda and Radha-kunda. Where is Syama-kunda and Radha-kunda in Jagannatha Puri? Very close by here is Panca-veni, which is superior to Prayag. At Prayag the Yamuna, Ganga and Sarasvati rivers meet. But here, Yamuna, Ganga, Sarasvati, Alakananda, Godavari, Kaveri, Sindhu, Narmada and all the other holy rivers meet. We call it Panca-veni, the meeting of five holy places or holy rivers, but don’t think there are only five. Thousands upon thousands – all the sacred rivers – have descended and are meeting together here at Panca-veni in Navadvipa. In Jagannatha Puri the ocean is a maha-tirtha (great holy place), because Caitanya Mahaprabhu bathed the transcendental body of Srila Haridasa Thakura there. But even the ocean came here to Navadvipa-dhama at Samudragadha ghat (bathing place). So this place is superior to Prayag.

Navadvipa-dhama is called gupta (hidden) Vrndavana, because all the pastime places of Vrndavana, like the rasa-sthalis (the areas of the rasa dance), Giriraja-Govardhana, Syama-kunda, Radha-kunda - all twelve forests - are here in a hidden way.

Another important point: Lord Krsna’s eternal pastimes (nitya-lila) in Vrndavana are called asta-kaliya-lila.The 24-hour day of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna is divided into eight parts, beginning with nisanta-lila (pre-dawn pastimes), pratah-lila (morning pastimes), purvahna-lila (forenoon pastimes), madhyana-lila (midday pastimes), aparahna-lila (afernoon pastimes), sayama-lila (dusk pastimes), pradosa-lila (evening pastimes) and ratri-lila (nighttime pastimes). Just as Sri Sri Radha-Krsna performed Their asta-kaliya-lila in Vrndavana, Sri Gauranga, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, performed His asta-kaliya-lila here in Navadvipa-dhama.

Is it mentioned in any scripture that He performed His asta-kaliya-lila in Jagannatha Puri? Does He perform His asta-kaliya-lila in Godavari? There is no mention. His nitya-lila, the origin or root of all His pastimes, takes place here in Navadvipa-dhama. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu remembers the nisanta-lila of Radha and Krsna at the end of the night and becomes overwhelmed in ecstasy. Then later, early in the morning he goes with His friends to take bath in the Ganga. In His ratri-lila, He performs His sankirtana rasa. In this way He performs His asta-kaliya-lila, completely absorbed in the asta-kaliya-lila of Radha and Krsna.

Another reason for the superiority of Navadvipa-dhama is as follows. Even though Jagannatha Puri and Godavari are very levated, transcendental abodes, there is aisvarya-mayi-lila (pastimes in opulence and majesty) there. There, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was worshipped as God. In Godavari He manifested His form as Rasaraja-mahabhava, Sri Sri Radha and Krsna combined as one, and this pastime is also aisvarya-mayi-lila. In Jagannatha Puri He performed pastimes in the Gambhira, but only Sri Svarupa Damodara, Sri Raya Ramanada, Sri Sikhi Mahiti and His sister Srimati Madhavi devi – 3 1Ú2 intimate associates – could take part. Here in Navadvipa-dhama, on the other hand, His pastimes are madhurya-mayi-lila (sweet, human-like), not aisvarya-mayi-lila. Here, Sri Sacinandana Gaurahari meets in lokika sadbhanduvat sambhanda (natural, family-like relationships) with all the residents. When we try to understand if a particular pastime is superior to others, the ultimate measure is whether that pastime is purely madhurya. Madhurya-lila are those pastimes resembling sweet, human-like activities with human-like relationships, without out any trace of the mood of aisvarya. And, even if any of those pastimes would be full of opulence, they would be seen as human-like by the Lord's associates.

Thus, this dhama is so exalted and extraordinary, so superior to every other place of Mahaprabhu’s pastimes. Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami prays:

yat kincit trna-gulam kikata mukham gosthe samastam hi tat
sarvanandamayam mukunda dayitam lilanukulam param
sastrair eva muhur muhuh sphutam idam nistankitam yacnya
brahmader api sasprhena tad idam sarvam maya vandyate

[“With great longing I worship all the living entities of Vraja including the grass, bushes, flies, and birds, which are filled with transcendental bliss. There fortune is so great that it is aspired for by personalities like Sri Brahma and Uddhava. Srimad Bhagavatam and other sastras have repeatedly and clearly propounded their glories. They are very dear to Sri Mukunda and assist in His pastimes.” (Raghunatha dasa - Stavavali, Vraja-vilasa-stava, 102)]

“I pray to all the living entities of Vrndavana, including the grass, bushes, insects and birds.” This verse is also applicable to Navadvipa-dhama. Every living entity here – every tree and creeper – is sat-cit-ananda, made of eternity, full knowledge and bliss, and they assist the Lord’s pastimes. Therefore, even great personalities such as Lord Brahma have prayed to become stones and blades of grass in such an unprecedented and transcendental abode.

Who can realize these truths? Our previous acaryas, Srila Jagannatha dasa Babaji Maharaja and Srila Gour Kisora dasa Babaji Maharaja, can do so. They used to give respects even to the dogs of this abode. Srila Jagannatha dasa Babaji Maharaja used take his prasadam with puppies, who were eating from his plate. He used to say, “Oh, they are the dogs of Navadvipa-dhama”. Our acaryas illustrated through their lives what kind of very high level of respect one should have in approaching this extraordinary place.

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu lived here in the house of Sacimata in Mayapura, in Antardvipa. He performs His pastimes here, and after 24 years He took sannyasa and went to Jagannatha Puri and so many other places. However, even when He takes sannyasa and appears to this leave this dhama, He’s still present here. Only those who are extremely fortunate and whose love is mature can realize how He always performs His pastimes here in this transcendental place, and how He never leaves.

Sri Navdvipa-dhama ki jaya!

[*Endnote – The following is another lecture by Srila Narayana Maharaja on the same subject, given a few years ago in Australia:

Tridandiswami Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja


Murwillumbah, Australia: Feb. 13, 2002
Now I will begin Jaiva Dharma, first chapter, which is about nitya and naimittika-dharma. Nitya-dharma means transcendental, eternal dharma (religion), and naimittika-dharma means temporary dharma. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura is explaining that Prthivi-loka, the Earth, is the most superior planet in the entire universe. There are so many lakhs and lakhs of planets, and lakhs and lakhs of suns, moons and twinkling stars, and it may be that these stars are even greater than the suns and moons, but Prthivi-loka is most superior among all of them. This is because Krsna, Rama, and all other incarnations appeared in this land.

There are seven islands or continents in this Prthivi, and the most superior among them is Jambudvipa, where there was a very big tree of jambu (blackberries). That black tree is actually Vrndavana's tamala tree, and tamala is actually Tamala Krsna. Krsna is there in Jambudvipa.

In Jambhudvipa, the most superior place is Bharatavarsa. First, its name was Ilavrta-varsa, but due to the famous king Bharata Maharaja, who was dedicated to Krsna and who attained liberation in three births, it became known as Bharatavarsa. Amongst 100 brothers, Bharata was the King, and he was superior to his 99 brothers.

In Bharatavarsa, Gauda-bhumi is the most superior place, and Gauda-bhumi includes five tracts of land. For example, the first is the land between the Yamuna River and the Sindhu Rivers, in Punjab; the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers, Kanyakubja, is the second; and the land passing through Ayodhya, between the Ganges and Gomati rivers where Salagrama is found, is the third Gaura. The place in which Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took birth is the fifth Gauda, and therefore, among the five Gauda-bhumis, Navadvipa is the best place.

What is the meaning of Navadvipa? The nine islands denote the nine processes of bhakti.

sravanam kirtanam visnoh
smaranam pada-sevanam
arcanam vandanam dasyam
sakhyam atma-nivedanam

"Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Visnu, remembering them, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord one's best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words)." (SB 7.5.23)

This Navadvipa has been addressed as Svetadvipa in the Vedas, Upanisads and so many other Vaisnava literatures.

sriyah kantah kantah parama-purusah kalpa-taravo
druma bhumis cintamani-gana-mayi toyam amrtam
katah ganam natyam gamanam api vamsi priya-sakhi
cid-anandam jyotih param api tad asvadyam api ca

sa yatra ksirabdhih sravati surabhibhyas ca su-mahan
nimesardhakhyo va vrajati na hi yatrapi samayah
bhaje svetadvipam tam aham iha golokam iti yam
vidantas te santah ksiti-virala-carah katipaye

"I worship that transcendental seat known as Svetadvipa, where as loving consorts the Laksmis in their unalloyed spiritual essence practice the amorous service of the Supreme Lord Krsna as their only lover; where every tree is a transcendental purpose tree; where the soil is the purpose gem, all water is nectar, every word is a song, every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite attendant, effulgence is full of transcendental bliss and the supreme spiritual entities are all enjoyable and tasty, where numberless milk cows always emit transcendental oceans of milk; where there is eternal existence of transcendental time, who is ever present and without past or future and hence is not subject to the quality of passing away even for the space of half a moment. That realm is known as Goloka only to a very few self-realized souls in this world." (Brahma-samhita 5.56)
Srila Rupa Gosvami has quoted this verse, and Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has also quoted it, along with many such verses. Navadvipa is Svetadvipa. In transcendental Goloka Vrndavana there are two parts: Vrndavana and Svetadvipa. Vrndavana and Navadvipa are parasistha, complementary. Without Navadvipa, Vrndavana is incomplete, and without Vrndavana, Navadvipa is incomplete. Together they are complete, as when separation and meeting mix together, the resultant situation is complete. Where there is no separation mood, sanyoga (meeting) is incomplete.

The twelve vanas (forests) and upavanas of Vrndavana are in Navadvipa, within the nine islands: Madhuvana, Talavana, Kumudvana, Bahulavana, Kamyavana, Kadirvana, Badhravana, Bandhirvana, Baelvana, Mahavana, Vrndavana, and Mahavana. All of these forests, in some way, are in Navadvipa.

Don't think that Jagannatha Puri is superior to Navadvipa. Don't think that Godavari-tata, where Mahaprabhu revealed His form and mood of Rasaraja-Mahabhava, is superior to Navadvipa. Navadvipa is far superior to both these places. On one hand, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu revealed His transcendental form of Rasaraja-mahabhava at Godavari, and that most high class of hari-katha, Raya Ramananda Samvad, took place there. On one hand, Caitanya Mahaprabhu showed His extreme moods of separation in Gambira. He jumped in the ocean near there, and He relished Srimati Radhika's moods of separation with Svarupa Damodara and Raya Ramananda there. This may be said, therefore, to be the deepest and highest hari-katha, but there are so many reasons why it is not.

Jagannatha Puri is a very elevated pastime place, especially regarding the Gambira-lila of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, but still it is like Dvaraka. There is no forest or sub-forest of Vrndavana there. Neither Gokula, Bandhiravana, Nandagaon, or Varasana are there. These forests are not in Godavari-tata, neither are they in Kuruksetra or Jagannatha Puri. Therefore, Navadvipa must be superior to these places.

Because so many places of Vrndavana are there in Navadvipa in a hidden way, Navadvipa is known as Gupta-Vrndavana. One of the nine islands of Navadvipa is Godrumadvipa, and this island is described by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Jaiva Dharma. Godrumdvipa is Nandagaon, nearby Varsana.

The birthplace of Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Mayapura is Mathura and Gokula combined. Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Krsna, with the internal mood and complexion of Srimati Radharani. Krsna took birth in Vrndavana; partly in Mathura, but fully in Gokula, and both places are combined there in Mayapura Yogapitha.

Crossing Ganga from there to Koladvipa, where our Devananda Gaudiya Matha is situated, we find Giriraja-Govardhana. There, all the kunjas and caves in which Krsna played with the sakhas and sakhis are situated. Nearby there is Rasauli, or Rasa-sthali, where Chandra-sarovara is located at the foot of Giriraja-Govardhana. Nearby there is Rthudvipa, where Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda are situated, and that is Kokhilvana. Our Devananda Gaudiya Matha was constructed by our Gurudeva on the West bank of the Ganges, the bank where Yamuna flows. Mayapura is on the East bank of Ganges, where the Ganges itself flows, and Lord Brahma performed thousands and thousands austerities on that Ganges bank.

In Navadvipa there is Pancaveni, the meeting place of the Ganges, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Godavari, Narmada, and Sindhu, and Manasi Ganga is also there. Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda are there, and this is all very wonderful. In Mamagaci (Modadrumadvipa) Bhandiravat is present, and Jahnudvipa is Bhadravana. All these truths have been explained by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Sri Navadvipa Dhama Mahatmya; Vrndavana is in Navadvipa, not in Jagannatha Puri or Godavari.

There is one very important thing to know, and I am explaining it for those who are senior Vaisnavas. They will be able to understand. Junior devotees should note it down, and they should also try to understand. You should know these things very deeply. With regards to Navadvipa being Vrndavana, there are two asta-kaliya-lilas. One is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's asta-kaliya-lila and one is Radha and Krsna's asta-kaliya-lila. Mahaprabhu's asta-kaliya-lila takes place in Navadvipa, and it is that asta-kaliya-lila upon which devotees meditate. They do not meditate on such lilas in Jagannatha Puri.

In their gaura-gayitri mantra, the brahmanas chant, "Gauraya." Why do they utter, "Gauraya"? Who is Gaura? Gaura, or Gauranga, is Krsna, with the intrinsic mood and beauty or golden color of Radhika, and He is actually Krsna, but now He is fully absorbed in the mood of Radhika. He feels as though He has become Radhika. But there are three Radhikas. One is Vrsabhanuja or Vrsabhanunandini Radhika, one is Viyogini Radhika, and one is Sanyogini Radhika.

Vrsabhanunandini Radhika never goes out of Vrndavana, and Krsna and Rohininandana Rama are always in Vrndavana. If Rama and Krsna are coming towards Mathura, they will turn back to Vrndavana at the borderline. Rohininandana Rama cannot go out of Vrndavana, because He always remains with Krsna. Only Their manifestations, Vasudevanandana Krsna and Vasudevanandana Baladeva, will go to Mathura and Dvaraka. The pastimes of Krsna in Mathura and Dvaraka are transcendental and everlasting, as are the pastimes of Vrajendranandana Krsna in Vrndavana. Vasudeva Krsna plays eternally in Mathura, and in Vrndavana, Vrajendranandana Krsna plays eternally.

Similarly, there are three Radhikas. Actually there is only one Radhika, but She has three moods or three features. Krsna will not change when He goes to Mathura, but He will not use His flute and peacock-feather. He will change His father and mother, but not His form. Only His mood will be changed, and mood is the prominent factor of determination. If He takes His flute and peacock-feather, and He tells everyone, "I am the son of Nanda and Yasoda," then He is Vrajendranandana Krsna. On the other hand, if He has no peacock-feather and flute and He tells everyone, "I am the son of Vasudeva and Devaki," then His is present by His prakasa (manifestation). His manifestation is not fully the Supreme Krsna Himself.

In the same way, Vrsabhanunandini Radhika is always with Krsna in Vrndavana. In Nandagaon, where Radhika felt so much separation and spoke Brahmara-gita, She is Viyogini Radhika. Actually, She is never in viyoga, in the sense that she is never separated from Krsna. Srila Rupa Gosvami has explained this truth in his Lalita-Madhava and also in Ujjvala Nilamani, and that is why Kavi Karnapura has not discussed the lila of Mathura and Dvaraka. He completes his Ananda Vrndavana Campu just after rasa-lila. Our acaryas can never tolerate the idea that Radhika should be separated from Krsna. In Her original and complete feature She is called Vrsabhanunandini. She is always with Nandanandana Krsna, and the Radhika who feels separation in Nandagaon is Her manifestation, Viyogini Radhika. She is the same Radhika, but She is feeling viyoga. Then, in Kuruksetra, She is Sanyogini Radhika. She goes there for a moment, for one or two days and, keeping Krsna on the chariot of Her mind, She brings Him back to Vrndavana. Sanyoga means 'always meeting.'

In the mantra 'tan no gaura pracodayat', the name Visvambhara is uttered. Visvambhara never lived in the cave (Gambhira) in Jagannatha Puri, for He is Sacinandana Gaurahari in Navadvipa. From there He gives so much knowledge, so much love and affection, and a very high-class prema to the jivas. 'Visvambharaya dhimahi' means that we meditate on Him in Navadvipa.

In the cave of Gambira, Mahaprabhu played a role of great opulence. At that time, in the night, no one but Raya Ramananda and Svarupa Damodara (Visakha and Lalita) were able to witness His pastimes. At that time, although he was always hearing and knowing all Mahaprabhu's pastimes, even Srila Rupa Gosvami could not go there. In Godavari, Mahaprabhu manifested His form as Rasaraja-Mahabhava. This is opulence. At that time, even Ramananda Raya began to pray like Devaki or Arjuna, "O, You are that same Supreme Personality of Godhead." This is opulence.

In Navadvipa, however, there is no opulence. In Navadvipa, Sacinandana played as Krsna played with the girls in Vrndavana. While bathing in the Ganges He would say to the little girls, “Will you marry me? I want to marry you. If you will not marry Me, you will not be happy. Give your offerings of sandesa and bananas to Me." This comes in the category of the asta-kaliya-lila of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and it is therefore far superior to any lila in Jagannatha Puri. In Navadvipa there is svarasikhi-upasana (meditation and worship of the continual flow of unlimited lilas taking place throughout each twenty-four hour day), whereas in Puri there is mantramayi-upasana (meditation and worship of a specific lila, in this case Srimati Radhika's separation feelings for Krsna).

Now we're going in Godrumadvipa, which is Nandagaon, where Premadasa Babaji performed his bhajana. What is Godruma? Go-druma. The druma means a very big pipal (aswattha) tree, and 'go' refers to the Surabhi cow. After Krsna's pastimes, she brought Indra to this place and performed thousands and thousands years of austerities in order to receive the darsana of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. At last she received His darsana, when He was performing nagara-sankirtana in mahabhava. It was also in this place that Surabhi gave milk to Markendeya Rsi. So Navadvipa-dhama is not an ordinary or general place. It is the most superior place.

Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has an abode there in Nandagaon, Ter Kadambha, which is so glorious because unlimited very sweet pastimes took place there. During the day Krsna used to play on His flute, calling, "Shamali, Davali, Gange, Yamune, Pisange," and thousands and thousands of cows used to meet Him there. During the night His flute called, "Radhe, Lalite, Visakhe!" and they all came to Him. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura preferred Godrumadvipa, just as Srila Rupa Gosvami preferred to have his bhajana-sthali in between Nandagaon and Yavat. Godruma is the same as that Ter Kadambha in Nandagaon. Antardvipa is Mahaprabhu's janmasthana and also Krsna's janmasthana, Gokula and Mathura. But Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura preferred Nandagaon, because Radha's and Krsna's separation and meeting are both present there.

Let us now go to Godruma. You should all come with me, offer your pranama in Godruma-kunja, the place of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura's bhajana-sthali and samadhi, and then we can begin Jaiva Dharma.

[Devotee:] In Kuruksetra, Radharani felt separation from Krsna, even though They were meeting there. Why is She called Sanyogini there, since 'sanyogini' means 'always meeting'?

[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] They are never separated. For lila, They appeared to be separated.

radha krsna-pranaya-vikrtir hladini saktir asmad
ekatmanav api bhuvi pura deha-bhedam gatau tau
caitanyakhyam prakatam adhuna tad-dvayam caikyam aptam
radha-bhava-dyuti-suvalitam naumi krsna-svarupam

"The loving affairs of Sri Radha and Krsna are transcendental manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Radha and Krsna are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Srimati Radharani although He is Krsna Himself." (Cc Adi 1.5)

They have become two for lila-rasa, but They are one, and in this way They are always meeting. In meeting there is also separation, and this is called madanakya-maha-bhava.

[Sripad Asrama Maharaja:] Is Saccinandana Gaurahari tasting madankya-maha-bhava in prakrata-lila, in Navadvipa, in Srivasa Angam and other places?

[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Yes, He was, but it was in His heart. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has explained this, as has Caitanya-caritamrta. Those who will go deep can collect these truths everywhere. Without madanakya-maha-bhava, He is not Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He has become Saccinandana Gaurahari especially for tasting this mood. It was especially for this.

[Sripad Asrama Maharaja:] He is tasting this in Svetadvipa, but is He also tasting it in prakata-lila?

[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Yes, either in seed or prakata (externally manifest); everywhere it will be so].

Editorial advisors: Pujyapad Madhava Maharaja and Sripad Brajanatha dasa
Translator: Sripad Aranya Maharaja
Transcriber: Sripad Radha-kanta dasa and Sripad Sajjana Maharaja
Editor: Syamarani dasi
Typist: Savitri dasi and Radhika dasi
Proof-reader: Vasanti dasi


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Äabda-brahma: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental sound vibration; the injunctions of the Vedas and Upaniëads.

Äabda-pramâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the evidence of transcendental sound, especially of the Vedas.

Äabda-tanmâtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material element of sound vibration.

Äabda: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental sound; Sound, especially the Vedic sound, which is the self-evident proof of knowledge. As an authoritative testimony, the third of the three Vaiëòava pramâòas. See Anumâna, Pramâòa, Pratyakëa.

Sabji: (sáns. vaiëòava). vegetable or vegetable dish.

Sac-cid-ânanda-vigraha (Bs. 5.1): (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord's transcendental form, which is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss; the eternal transcendental form of the living entity.

Sac-cid-ânanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the natural condition of spiritual life: eternal, full of knowledge and bliss; The three qualities of Kèëòa and His spiritual world: eternality, knowledge and bliss. See Brahmajyoti, Kèëòa, Râ-dhârâòî.

Äacî-devî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mother of Äri Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Äacîpati: (sáns. vaiëòava). Indra-the chief demigod of heaven and presiding deity of rain, and the father of Arjuna. He is the son of Aditi.

Sacred thread: (sáns. vaiëòava). a thread worn by persons initiated into the chanting of the Gâyatrî mantra.

Ëaò-aiävarya-pûròa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord who is complete with six opulences.

Ëaò-bhûja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the form of the Lord with six arms-two arms of Râmacandra, two arms of Kèëòa and two arms of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Äaò-daräana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Six views or systems of Vedic philosophy. See Six systems.

Sadâäiva: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Äiva

Sâdhaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a practitioner of sâdhana-bhakti; one who is nearing the perfection of Brahman realization; one who is a suitable candidate for liberation.

Sâdhana-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). following the rules and regulations of devotional service to develop natural love for Kèëòa.

Sâdhana-siddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has attained perfection by executing the rules and regulations of devotional service.

Sâdhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the beginning phase of devotional service, consisting of regulated practice.

Sâdhu-nindâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the offense of criticizing a Vaiëòava.

Sadhu-saôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the association of saintly persons (Cc. Madhya 22.83).

Sâdhu-varya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the best of gentlemen.

Sâdhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a saint or Krishna conscious devotee, or Vaiëòava. A wandering holy man; A saintly person, a devotee of the Lord; one of the three authorities for a Vaiëòava. See Guru, Äâstra.

Sâdhyas: (sáns. vaiëòava). demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets.

Sagarbha-yogî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yogî who worships the Supersoul in the Viëòu form.

Sagar: (sáns. vaiëòava). lake.

Saguòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). "possessing attributes or qualities." In reference to the Supreme Lord, the term signifies that He has spiritual, transcendental qualities.

Sahadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). Nakula's twin, and the fifth of the sons of Pâòàu, and younger brother of Arjuna. He was born of the union of the Aävinî-kumâra demigods and Kuntî. He was reputed for knowledge of scriptures, and he was exceptionally handsome.

Sahadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Jarâsandha. He took the side of the Pâòàavas during the Kurukëetra war and was killed by Droòa.

Sahajiyâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). a class of so-called devotees who, considering God cheap, ignore the scriptural injunctions and try to imitate the Lord's pastimes; an offensive, immature devotee who does not follow proper devotional regulations.

Sahasra-äîrëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who has a thousand heads;" Ananta-Äeëa-an incarnation of the Supreme Lord in the form of His thousand-headed serpent, on which Viëòu rests, and who sustains the planets on His hoods.

Sahasra-giti: (sáns. vaiëòava). thousand prayers composed by Nâmmâlvâra.

Sahasra-vadana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the thousand-mouthed snake incarnation, called Äeëa Nâga.

Sahib "Lord": (sáns. vaiëòava). title given to any gentlemen and usually to Europeans. This is a compliment.

Äaibyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the great archers on the side of the Pâòàavas during the Kurukëetra war; one of the four horses that drove Lord Kèëòa's chariot; one of the wives of Lord Kèëòa, after the Lord's disappearance she entered fire and attained the spiritual world.

Sainika: (sáns. vaiëòava). the condition of threefold miseries.

Sairandhrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name used by Draupadî during the Pâòàavas last year of exile in the kingdom of Virâùa.

Äaivism: (sáns. vaiëòava). the philosophy of the Äiva-sampradaya, the disciplic succession descending from Lord Äiva

Äaivite: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotee of Lord Äiva; one who worships Äiva as the Supreme Lord.

Sajâtîyâäaya-snigdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). pleasing to people of a similar nature.

Sajâtîya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person within the intimate circle of the Lord.

Äâka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a leafy vegetable that was a favorite of Lord Caitanya's.

Sakâma-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee with material desires.

Sakhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). gopîs who are close associates of Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî's and who expand the conjugal love of Kèëòa and His enjoyment among the gopîs.

Sakhya-prema: (sáns. vaiëòava). love of God in friendship.

Sakhya-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a relationship with the Supreme Lord in devotional friendship.

Sakhya-rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Sakhya-rasa above.

Sakhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of maintaining friendship with Kèëòa.

Sâkëi-gopâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Deity of Kèëòa who acted as a witness to the promise of an elder brâhmaòa to a younger one.

Äakti-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). persons who are plenary expansions of the Lord's internal potency; the various energies of the Lord.

Äaktyâveäa-avatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). an empowered living entity who serves as an incarnation of the Lord; empowered by the Supreme Lord with one or more of the Lord's opulences.

Äaktyâveäa-jîvas: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Äaktyâveäa-avatâra above.

Äakuni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the evil brother of Gândhârî and notorious friend of Duryodhana. He master-minded the great gambling match that sent the Pâòàavas into exile for 13 years. In the great Kurukëetra war he was killed by Sahadeva.

Äâlagrâma-äilâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the worshipable Deity of the Lord Nârâyaòa in the form of a round stone. It is described in detail in the final canto of the Padma Purâòa.

Äâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a hardwood tree found in northern India.

Äala: (sáns. vaiëòava). he was one of the sons of Somadatta, a Kuru King. His brothers were Bhûri and Bhûriäravas. He was killed by Sâtyaki during the Kurukëetra war.

Sâlokya-mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberation of residing on the same planet as the Lord.

Sâlokya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of residing on the same planet as the Supreme Lord.

Äâlva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demon who desired Ambâ for his wife. He was defeated by Bhîëma in his attempt to win Ambâ. He attacked Dvârakâ with an airship made by the demon Maya. He was killed by Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Äalya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Madras. His sister was Mâdrî who was married to Pâòàu. He wanted to join the side of the Pâòàavas during the Kurukëetra war, but was tricked by Duryodhana into offering him his services. He was killed by Yudhiëùhira during the Kurukëetra war.

Salvation: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Life after death.

Sâma Veda: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four original Vedas. It consists of musical settings of the sacrificial hymns. The Sâma Veda is rich with beautiful songs played by the various demigods. One of these songs is the Bèhat-sâma, which has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight.

Sama-daräî: (sáns. vaiëòava). seeing with equal vision. Therefore, one who has knowledge of the soul and how the soul transmigrates from one body to another does not pay attention to the body, which is nothing but a covering dress. Paòàitâì sama-daräinaì (Bg. 5.18). Such a person sees the soul, which is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Therefore he is a sama-daräi, a learned person.

Samâdhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). total absorption and trance of the mind and senses in consciousness of the Supreme Godhead and service to Him. The word samâdhi also refers to the tomb where a great soul's body is laid after his departure from this world.

Samana-vayu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the internal bodily air which adjusts equilibrium. It is one of the five bodily airs controlled by the breathing exercises of the aëtanga-yoga system.

Samatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). stage when one is fully attached to Kèëòa's lotus feet.

Sama: (sáns. vaiëòava). control of the mind.

Äambhu-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the principle of Lord Äiva.

Sambandha-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge of one's original relationship with the Lord.

Sâmba: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the heroic sons of Lord Kèëòa born of Jâmbavatî.

Sambhoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstasy of the meeting and embracing of lovers.

Sambhrama-dâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the indirect relationships, respect.

Saêhitâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). supplementary Vedic literatures expressing the conclusions of particular self-realized authorities.

Sâmîpya-mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberation of living as a personal associate of the Lord.

Sâmîpya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of becoming a personal associate of the Supreme Lord.

Sampradâya-âcâryas: (sáns. vaiëòava). founders of the four Vaiëòava schools; they include Ärî Râmânujâcârya, Madhvâcârya, Viëòu Svâmî and Nimbârka.

Sampradâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a disciplic succession of spiritual masters, along with the followers in that tradition, through which spiritual knowledge is transmitted; School of thought. See Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas.

Samprekëya nâsikâgram: (sáns. vaiëòava). keeping one's eyes half-open in the practice of yoga.

Saêsâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cycle of repeated birth and death in the material world; The baddha-jîva (conditioned soul), captivated by the modes of material nature, is moved as if on a wheel through 8,400,000 kinds of births, lifetime after lifetime. At the lower range of the cycle are births within aquatic, vegetative and animal forms. At the middle range are births within human forms. At the upper range are births within superhuman forms, such as the demigods. But as high as the soul may reach, even up to the position of Brahmâ, there is no freedom from saêsâra. Impelled by prakèti, kâla and karma, the jîva will surely be forced into another womb, until the day that soul surrenders to the origin of the force that turns the wheel of saêsârathe îävara, Kèëòa.

The materialistic theory of evolution put forward by Anaximander and Darwin imperfectly recapitulates the Vedic description of the cycle of birth and death. It is true that we were once microbes, fish, reptiles, mammals and apes. But who are we?
We are spirit souls. Materialists have no knowledge of the soul. They are unable to explain how and why dead matter assumes the forms of the gradient species. The Vedas explain that the gradient species mark the evolution and devolution of the soul's material desires. See Evolution, Karma, Life after death, Reincarnation.

Saêäaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Doubt. One of the five functions of buddhi. See Buddhi.

Saêsèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cycle of repeated birth and death.

Saêskâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Vedic reformatory rituals performed one by one from the time of conception until death for purifying a human being.

Saêskèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). purified.

Samvit-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the knowledge portion of the Lord's spiritual potency.

Sanâtana Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Six Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana who was authorized by Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu to establish and distribute the philosophy of Kèëòa consciousness. He was the older brother of Rûpa Gosvâmî and was accepted by Rûpa Gosvâmî as his spiritual master. He and Rûpa Gosvâmî were both ministers in the Mohammedan court in Gauòa, but renounced everything for the service of Lord Caitanya. The two brothers were ordered by Ärî Caitanya to write books establishing
the philosophy of Gauàîya Vaiëòavism and to excavate the holy places in Vèndâvana.

Sanâtana-dhâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal abode, the Vaikuòùha planets in the spiritual sky.

Sanâtana-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally, the "eternal activity of the soul", or the eternal religion of the living being-to render service to the Supreme Lord, which in this age is executed mainly by chanting the mahâ-mantra. See also: Bhâgavata-dharma.

Sanâtana-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal activities performed by the living entity.

Sanâtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal, having no beginning or end.

Sanctum sanctorum: (sáns. vaiëòava). inner sanctuary or altar room that contains the main Deity of the temple.

Sandeäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a delicate sweetmeat made with curd and sugar.

Sandhinî-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the existence potency of the Lord.

Saôgam: (sáns. vaiëòava). meeting point of two or more rivers.

Saëjaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). charioteer and minister to King Dhètarâëùra. Saëjaya narrated the events of the Kurukëetra war to Dhètarâëùra by the mercy of Vyâsa; also a former king of the Ikëvâku dynasty.

Äaôkarâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of Lord Äiva who appeared in South India at the end of the 7th century A.D. to re-establish the authority of the Vedic scriptures. He was a philosopher and lived about three hundred years before Râmânuja. He did this at a time when India was under the sway of Buddhism, whose tenets deny the authority of the Vedas. He took sannyâsa at a very tender age and wrote commentaries establishing an impersonal philosophy similar to Buddhism, substituting Brahman (Spirit) for the void. He traveled all over India defeating the great scholars of the day and converting them to his doctrine of Mâyâvâda, the advaita (non-dualism) interpretation of the Upaniëads and Vedânta. He left the world at the age of 33; The incarnation of Äiva who appeared about 1400 years ago in South India to propagate Advaita Vedânta. He taught that Brahman is impersonal, there is no individuality apart from Brahman (all souls are really one soul), the cosmic manifestation does not emanate from Brahman, and the cosmic manifestation is without reality, like a hallucination. Though his philosophy is a distortion of the Vedic teachings, his mission was very important. He turned the Indian people away from Buddhism, back to the Vedas. See Advaita, Brahmajyoti, Brahman, Buddhism, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Mâyâvâda philosophy, Six systems, Vedânta.

Äaôkâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). doubt, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Äaôkha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of King Viraùa. He was killed Droòa during the Kurukëetra war; the conchshell held by Lord Viëòu.

Saôkara: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Äiva

Saôkarëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four original expansions of Lord Kèëòa in the spiritual world; also, another name of Balarâma, given by Garga Muni.

Saôkîrtana-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sacrifice prescribed for the Age of Kali, namely, congregational chanting of the name, fame and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Saôkhoddhâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place where the Lord killed Sankhâsura.

Sâôkhya-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the process of linking with the Supreme by intellectually tracing out the source of creation.

Sâôkhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). analytical discrimination between spirit and matter and the path of devotional service as described by Lord Kapila, the son of Devahûti in the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam; analytical understanding of the body and the soul. Sâôkhya-yoga-the process of linking with the Supreme by intellectually tracing out the source of creation; An analysis of matter and spirit taught by sage Nirîävara Kapila. One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy. See Analysis, Six systems.

Saôkîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). The congregational glorification of the Lord through chanting His holy name. The most recommended process of spiritual upliftment in the present age (Kali-yuga). See Caitanya Mahâ-prabhu, ISKCON, Kîrtana.

Saôkrântî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the day when a Bengali month ends. Also, the passage of the sun or any other planet from one Zodiacal sign to another.

Äânta-bhaktas: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotees in the neutral stage of devotional service.

Sannipâti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a convulsive disease caused by combination of kapha, pitta, vâyu.

Sannyâsa-daòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the staff carried by a sannyâsî.

Sannyâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the renounced order, and fourth stage of Vedic spiritual life in the Vedic system of varòâsrama-dharma, which is free from family relationships and in which all activities are completely dedicated to Kèëòa. It is the order of ascetics who travel and constantly preach the message of Godhead for the benefit of all. The sannyâsî has no other purpose in life but to serve and please the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and he acts as the guru for the other divisions of society; The order of renunciation accepted by males in the Vedic culture. The fourth spiritual devision of life, according to the social system of four âäramas, sannyâsa is meant for ending material existence.

It is usually accepted at age fifty, after a man has fulfilled his household responsibilities. The original Vedic sannyâsîs carried the tridaòàa, three bamboo rods wrapped together around a fourth, symbolizing that the body, minds and words are dedicated to the Supreme. The fourth stood for the soul. Mâyâvâdî sannyâsîs in the line of Äaôkarâcârya carry only one daòàa; the Buddhists carry none. All bona fide sannyâsîs wear orange or saffron robes and keep their heads shaven; all must follow standard principles: no meat-eating, sexual activity, gambling or intoxication, and all are meant to travel and preach as their only duty in life. See Brahmacârî, Gèhasta, Vânaprastha.

Sannyâsî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one in the sannyâsa (renounced) order.

Sanskrit: (sáns. vaiëòava). the oldest language in the world. The Vedas, or India's holy scriptures, are written in Sanskrit; From saôs (together) and kèta (made), hence speech made together (refined), Sanskrit is an ancient language of culture, learning and spiritual wisdom. The Vedas are all written in Sanskrit.

Äânta-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the marginal stage of devotional service, passive love of God; the relationship with the Supreme Lord in neutrality.

Äânta-rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Äânta-rasa above.

Äantanu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Bhîëma by Gaôgâ. He gave Bhîëma the benediction that he could die only when he wanted to. It was said that anything he touched with his two hands would become youthful.

Äânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). peaceful.

Äântipur: (sáns. vaiëòava). a village in the Ranaghat subdivision of the West Bengal district of Nadia. It is famous as the home of Ärî Advaita Âcârya, the associate of Lord Caitanya and incarnation of Mahâ-Visòu. It is close to Mâyâpura.

Santan: (sáns. vaiëòava). Coconut milk-known as santan in Indonesian cooking, this creamy white liquid with a fresh, coconut flavour is extracted from fresh coconut pulp and is used in varieties of South East Asian and Indonesian dishes. It is available in cans from supermarkets and Asian grocers.

Äâpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brâhmaòa's curse.

Sapta-dvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seven islands of the earth.

Sapta-suta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seven sons, namely hearing, chanting, remembering, offering prayers, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, worshiping the Deity and becoming a servant of the Lord.

Sapta-tâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seven palm trees in Râmacandra's forest.

Äaradvân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Gautama, and the father of Kèpâcârya.

Sâra grass: (sáns. vaiëòava). a whitish reed.

Saralatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). simplicity.

Sarasvatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). goddess of learning. Wife of Lord Brahmâ. She usually sits on a white swan and holds a veena (stringed instrument) in her hands.

Sarga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first material creation by Viëòu.

Äârîraka-bhâëya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Äaôkarâcârya's commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra.

Äarîrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the soul, owner of the body.

Sârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). traditional Indian dress worn by Hindu women-six yards long as a rule; Vedic women's dress.

Äârkarâkëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). lit. "those who have sand in their eyes"; those situated in the gross bodily conception of life.

Sarmiëùhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second wife of King Yayâti. On account of overattachment to her, the king was cursed by Äukrâcârya to lose his youth.

Äârôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the bow of Lord Kèëòa.

Sârëùi-mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of achieving opulences equal to those of the Lord.

Sârëùi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of achieving equal opulence with the Lord.

Sârûpya-mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of having the same bodily features as the Lord's.

Sârûpya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of attaining a spiritual form like that of the Supreme Lord.

Sarva-jña: (sáns. vaiëòava). omniscient; one who knows everything-past, present and future.

Sarva-kâma-deha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the body engaged for the satisfaction of all kinds of material desires.

Sarva-kâmada: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who fulfills the desires of His devotees."

Sarva-kâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who desires material perfection.

Sarva-kâraòa-kâraòam: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the cause of all causes (Bs. 5.1).

Sarva-loka: (sáns. vaiëòava). all the material worlds.

Sârvabhauma Bhaùùâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a famous logician, adviser to King Pratâparudra of Orissa who surrendered to Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Sarvârambha-parityâgî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is indifferent to both pious and impious activities.

Sarvâtma-nivedana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Âtma-nivedana-the devotional process of surrendering everything to the Lord.

Sarvâtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Paramâtmâ-the Supersoul, the localized aspect Viëòu expansion of the Supreme Lord residing in the heart of each embodied living entity and pervading all of material nature.

Äâstra-cakëuù: (sáns. vaiëòava). seeing everything through the medium of the Vedic literature; Cakëuëa means eyes; äâstra-cakëuëa means seeing through the eyes of scripture, as opposed to gross sense perception or mental speculation.

Äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the revealed scriptures, obeyed by all those who follow the Vedic teachings. Äâs means "to regulate and direct" and tra means "an instrument"; Vedic literature; The Vedic scriptures; one of the three authorities for a Vaiëòava. In his purport to Cc., Âdi-lîlâ 17.157, Ärîla Prabhupâda writes: The word äâstra is derived from the dhâtu, or verbal root, äas. Sas-dhâtu pertains to controlling or ruling. A government's ruling through force or weapons is called äastra. Thus whenever there is ruling, either by weapons or by injunctions, the äas-dhâtu is the basic principle. Between äastra (ruling through weapons) and äâstra (ruling through the injunctions of the scriptures), the better is äâstra. Our Vedic scriptures are not ordinary law books of human common sense; they are the statements of factually liberated persons unaffected by the imperfectness of the senses. Äâstra must be correct always, not sometimes correct and sometimes incorrect. In the Vedic scriptures, the cow is described as a mother. Therefore she is a mother for all time; it is not, as some rascals say, that in the Vedic age she was a mother but she is not in this age. If äâstra is an authority, the cow is a mother always; she was a mother in the Vedic age, and she is a mother in this age also. If one acts according to the injunctions of äâstra, he is freed from the reactions of sinful activity. For example, the propensities for eating flesh, drinking wine and enjoying sex life are all natural to the conditioned soul. The path of such enjoyment is called pravètti-mârga. The äâstra says, pravèttir eëâê bhûtânâê nivèttis tu mahâ-phalâ: one should not be carried away by the propensities of defective conditioned life; one should be guided by the principles of the äâstras. A child's propensity is to play all day long, but it is the injunction of the äâstras that the parents should take care to educate him. The äâstras are there just to guide the activities of human society. But because people do not refer to the instructions of äâstras, which are free from defects and imperfections, they are therefore misguided by so-called educated teachers and leaders who are full of the deficiencies of conditioned life.

Äâstramûlaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mûla means root; äâstramûlaka means rooted in scripture, as opposed to laukika. See Laukika.

Sâëùânga-pranâma (Daòàavat): (sáns. vaiëòava). a respectful obeisance executed by prostrating eight limbs of the body, namely the thighs, feet, hands, chest, thoughts or devotion, head, voice, and closed eyes.

Sat: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal, unlimited existence.

Ëaù-sandarbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). six Sanskrit works on the science of devotional service or Vaiëòava philosophy by Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî. These works present the entire philosophy and theology of Gauàîya Vaiëòavism in a systematic form. The six Sandarbhas are as follows: Tattva-sandarbha, Bhâgavat-sandarbha, Paramâtma-sandarbha, Kèëòa-sandarbha, Bhakti-sandarbha and Prîti-sandarbha. The Ëaù-sandarbha is also called Bhâgavata-sandarbha, as it is an exposition on the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam The first four Sandarbhas are devoted to sambandha-tattva, which establishes Kèëòa as the highest Deity and the most exclusive object of worship. The Bhakti-sandarbha deals with abhidheya-tattva, which is bhakti (devotion to Krëna), and the Prîti-sandarbha is concerned with prayojana-tattva, pure love of Godhead.

Äatânîka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Nakula who was killed by Aävatthâmâ while awaking from sleep in his tent; the brother of King Virâùa. He was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Äatarûpâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Svâyambhuva Manu and mother of Devahûti.

Satî rite: (sáns. vaiëòava). voluntary suicide by a chaste widow at her husband's funeral.

Satî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Lord Äiva and the daughter of Dakëa, who burned herself alive when her father insulted her husband; when a widow burns herself in her husband's cremation/funeral fire.

Sattva-guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mode of material goodness, predominated by Lord Viëòu.

Sattvatanu: (sáns. vaiëòava). Viëòu who expands the quality of goodness.

Sâttvika: (sáns. vaiëòava). symptoms of ecstatic love coming from the transcendental platform; in the mode of goodness.

Sâtvata-saêhitâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). scriptures that are products of the mode of goodness.

Sâtvata scriptures: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vedic scriptures meant especially for the devotees of the Lord.

Sâtvata-pañcarâtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Pañcarâtras, consisting of a conversation between Nârada Muni and Lord Saôkarëaòa describing the rules and regulations of devotional service.

Satya-kâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). directing all of one's desires to the Supreme Truth.

Satya-yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first and best of the four cyclic ages of a mahâ-yuga in the progression of universal time. Satya-yuga is characterized by virtue, wisdom and religion. It is known as the golden age, when people lived as long as one hundred thousand years. It lasts 1,728,000 solar years.

Satyaê param: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Absolute Truth, Kèëòa.

Satyabhâmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the principal queens of Lord Kèëòa during His pastimes in the city of Dvârakâ.

Satyadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a warrior from Kaliôga who was killed by Bhîma during the Kurukëetra war.

Satyadhèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a renowned archer on the side of the Pâòàavas. He was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Satyâgraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). fasting for political purposes performed by Mahatma Gandhi.

Satyajit: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brother of King Drupada. He was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Sâtyaki: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Äini, and a prominent member of the Yadu dynasty. He was an intimate friend of Lord Kèëòa and student of Arjuna. He fought during the Kurukëetra war and killed many kings on the side of the Kauravas.

Satyaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Brahmâ's abode, the highest planet in the material universe; also called Brahmaloka.

Satyaratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brother of King Suäarma, the King of the Trigartas.

Satyasena: (sáns. vaiëòava). another brother of King Suäarma, the King of the Trigartas. He was killed by Arjuna during the Kurukëetra war.

Satyavarma: (sáns. vaiëòava). another brother of King Suäarma, the King of the Trigartas.

Satyavatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daughter of the fisherman King. She was the mother of Vyâsadeva by Paraäara Muni. She later married Mahârâja Äantanu and begot two children, Citrâôgada and Vicitravîrya.

Satyavrata Manu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the administrative demigods who are the fathers and lawgivers
of mankind.

Satyavrata: (sáns. vaiëòava). another brother of King Suäarma, the King of the Trigartas.

Satya: (sáns. vaiëòava). truthfulness.

Satyeëu: (sáns. vaiëòava). another brother of King Suäarma, the King of the Trigartas. He was killed by Arjuna during the Kurukëetra war.

Saubhari Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a powerful mystic who accidentally fell down to sex attraction.

Saubha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the airship of King Äâlva. It was created by the demon Maya, and Äâlva used this airship to attack Dvârakâ. It was destroyed by Lord Kèëòa.

Äaunaka Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the chief sages at the conclave of sages gathered at the forest of Naimiëâraòya when Sûta Gosvâmî spoke Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Sauhèdya: (sáns. vaiëòava). endeavor.

Sautrâmaòi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a particular Vedic fire sacrifice offered to Lord Indra.

Savitri: (sáns. vaiëòava). lady who saved her husband from death by her chastity.

Sâyujya-mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of merging into the Brahman effulgence.

Sâyujya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberation of merging into the spiritual effulgence of the Lord.

Scepticism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A state of doubting that may range from a tentative doubt in the process of reaching certainty to complete, total disbelief in everything. Usually, scepticism refers to a philosophy of disbelief, of which there are many. In India, the philosophies of Cârvaka Muni, the Buddhists and the Jains are founded upon disbelief in the Vedas.

Mâyâvâdîs claim to accept the Vedas, but they sceptically reject the Vedic philosophy of Vaiëòavism. As Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, a famous Mâyâvâdî scholar, wrote about the teachings of âcârya Râmânuja: Râmânuja's beautiful stories of the other world, which he narrates with the confidence of one who had personally assisted at the origination of the world, carry no conviction. These are the words of a man confined to a miniscule spectrum of awareness by his pratyakëa and anumâna. Yet he thinks he can pass judgement on that which is beyond his senses and mind. There are many forms of Western scepticism as well, which go back to the ancient Greeks. See Buddhism, Materialism, Mâyâvâdî philosophy, Six systems, Voidism.

Semantics: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek sma, sign. The study of how words (or linguistic symbols) make sense, and how words apply to the things they refer to. Semantics attempts to define the conditions under which a statement can be analyzed as true or false.

Semi-deism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A variant of deism in which God, the first cause, is supposed to sometimes intervene in the regular course of nature through geological catastrophes and the sudden rise of species. Noted semi-deists were nineteenth century British natural theologicans William Buckland (1784-1856), Adam Sedgewick (1785-1873), W.D. Conybeare (1787-1857), and Charles Lyell (1797-1875). See Atheism, Deism, Theism.

Sentimentalism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A mental attitude permeated by or predisposed to emotions produced of sense perception. For example, the sceptic David Hume rejected the standard moral obligations of his time, and argued that morality could only be valid when based upon what he termed sympathy and sentiment.

Äeëa Nâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). an expansion of Lord Balarâma or Saôkarëaòa who takes the form of a many-hooded serpent and serves as Lord Viëòu's couch and other paraphernalia. He also holds the millions of universes on His hoods.

Äeëa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the last twenty-four years of Lord Caitanya's pastimes.

Sevâ-aparâdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). offenses in Deity worship.

Sevâ-pûjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Deity worship.

Sevaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a servant.

Sevâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service.

Sevya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is served.

Shyama: (sáns. vaiëòava). Krsna appearing bluish in the Dvarapa-yuga.

Shukla: (sáns. vaiëòava). white in the Satya-yuga.

Siddha-deha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a perfected spiritual body.

Siddhaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heavenly planet whose inhabitants possess all mystic powers; the planets of materially perfect beings.

Siddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a perfected person, or mystic; a demigod from Siddhaloka; one who has realized the Brahman effulgence; a perfect devotee.

Siddhânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). Essential conclusion. See Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas.

Siddhi-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Jëâna-kâòàa-the division of the Vedas dealing with empirical speculation in pursuit of truth; also, such speculation itself; the portions of the Vedas containing knowledge of Brahman, or spirit.

Siddhi-lobhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is greedy for material perfection.

Siddhi-traya: (sáns. vaiëòava). philosophical work of Yâmunâcârya

Siddhi-vraja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mystic perfections.

Siddhis: (sáns. vaiëòava). mystic perfections usually acquired by yoga practice and natural to residents of Siddhaloka: becoming small like a particle (aòimâ-siddhi), or lighter than a soft feather (laghimâ-siddhi), Get anything from everywhere (prâpti-siddhi), becoming heavier than the heaviest (mahimâ-siddhi), create something wonderful or annihilate anything at will (îäitva-siddhi), to control all material elements (vaäitva-siddhi), possessing such power as will never be frustrated in any desire (prâkâmya-siddhi), assuming any shape or form one may even whimsically desire (kâmâvasâyitâ-siddhi).

Äikhariòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a blend of yogurt and sugar candy.

Sikhaòàî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of King Drupada, and the rebirth of Ambâ, the daughter of the King of Kâäî. He was born to kill Bhîëma, who he hated from his previous life. During the battle of Kurukëetra, he fought in front of Arjuna, while attacking Bhîëma. Bhîëma dropped his weapons and this allowed Arjuna to fill Bhîëma with arrows. Äikhaòàî was later killed by Aävatthâmâ, while awaking from sleep in the Pâòàavas camp.

Äikhara: (sáns. vaiëòava). curved temple tower or spire The roof of the sanctum sanctorum It is crowned by a cakra in a Lord Viëòu temple and a trident in a Lord Äiva temple.

Äikëâ-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). an instructing spiritual master.

Äikëâëùaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). eight verses by Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu glorifying the chanting of the
Lord's holy name.

Siêha-dvâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the main gate of the Jagannâtha temple.

Siêhâsana: (sáns. vaiëòava). sitting place.

Äimulî: (sáns. vaiëòava). silk cotton tree.

Sindhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province in Bharata that was ruled by Jayadratha.

Äini: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Sâtyaki, and a king of the Yadu dynasty.

Äiäumâra-cakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the orbit of the polestar.

Äiäupâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king who was an enemy of Kèëòa. The son of Damaghoëa and King of Cedi.

He was an incarnation of Jaya, a gatekeeper of Vaikuòùha. He was killed by Lord Ärî Kèëòa during the Râjasûya sacrifice.

Äîtâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). subordinate ecstatic symptoms including singing, yawning, etc.; a division of anubhâva.

Sîtâ-Râma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the transcendental couple manifested as Lord Râmacandra, Kèëòa's incarnation as the perfect king, and Lord Râma's eternal consort, Sîtâ.

Sîtâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the beloved consort of Lord Râmacandra. She appeared in the house of Janaka Mahârâja, one of the twelve leading spiritual authorities in the universe. She was abducted by ten-headed demon, Râvaòa.

Äiva-liôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a rounded stone representation of Lord Äiva's genitals often worshiped as a Deity by Äaivites.

Äiva-pûjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). worship of Lord Äiva's linga. See above.

Äiva-râtrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Äiva's appearance day, celebrating his advent from between Lord Brahmâ's eyebrows.

Äivatama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the most auspicious.

Äiva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Sivânanda Sena: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great householder devotee of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Six Gosvâmîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). they were deputed to go to Vèndâvana to excavate the present places of pilgrimage. The present city of Vèndâvana and the importance of Vrajabhûmi were thus disclosed by the will of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. See also: Rûpa Gosvâmî, Sanâtana Gosvâmî, Jîva Gosvâmî, Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî, Raghunâtha Dâsa Gosvâmî and Raghunâtha Bhaùùa Gosvâmî.

Six systems: (sáns. vaiëòava). There are six systems of philosophy associated with the Vedic scriptures.

These together are known as the ëaò-daräana. The ëaò-daräana (six views) are: 1) Nyâya (logic), 2) Vaiäeëika (atomic theory), 3) Sâôkhya (analysis of matter and spirit), 4) Yoga (the discipline of self-realization), 5) Karma-mîmâêsâ (the science of fruitive work) and 6) Vedânta (the science of God realization). The ëaò-daräana are termed âstika philosophies (from asti, or it is so), because they all acknowledge the Veda as authoritative, as opposed to the nâstika philosophies of the Cârvakas, Buddhists and Jains (nâsti, it is not so), who reject the Vedas. Beginning with Nyâya, each of the ëaò-daräana in their turn presents a more developed and comprehensive explanation of the aspects of Vedic knowledge. Nyâya sets up the rules of philosophical debate and identifies the basic subjects under discussion: the physical world, the soul, God and liberation. Vaiäeëika engages the method of Nyâya or logic in a deeper analysis of the predicament of material existence by showing that the visible material forms to which we are all so attached ultimately break down into invisible atoms. Sâôkhya develops this analytical process further to help the soul become aloof to matter. Through Yoga, the soul awakens its innate spiritual vision to see itself beyond the body. Karma-mîmâêsâ directs the soul to the goals of Vedic ritualism. Vedânta ultimately focuses on the supreme spiritual goal taught in the Upaniëads. As can be seen in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, the basis of these daräanas was an original, unified spiritual science (bhagavad-tattva-vijñâna) taught in very olden times by the twelve Mahâjanas: Brahmâ, Nârada, Äiva, Kumâras, Kapila, Manu, Prahlâda, Janaka, Bhîëma, Bali, Äukadeva and Yamarâja. But due to the influence of mâyâ, scholars who followed the teachings of later sages like Gautama, Kaòâda, Nirîävara Kapila, Pataëjali and Jaimini, became divided and contentious. The Vedic philosophy was misunderstood, and opposing schools came into being to serve sectarian ends. For instance, Karma-mîmâêsâ (which by 500 BC had become the foremost philosophy of the brâhmaòa class) was misused by bloodthirsty priests to justify their mass slaughter of animals in Vedic sacrifices. But the unexpected rise of a novel non-Vedic religion challenged the power of Karma-mîmâêsâ. This new religion was Buddhism.

By 250 BC, the influence of Karma-mîmâêsâ and other daräanas had weakened considerably. When King Aäoka instituted the Buddha's doctrine as the state philosophy of his empire, many brâhmaòas abandoned Vedic scholarship to learn and
teach nâstika concepts of ahiêsâ (nonviolence) and äûnyatâ (voidism). Buddhism in its turn was eclipsed by the teachings of the Vedântist Äaôkarâcârya, who revived the Vedic culture all over India in the seventh century after Christ. But Äaôkarâcârya's special formulation of Vedânta was itself influenced by Buddhism and is not truly representative of the original Vedânta-daräana. After Äaôkarâcârya, Vedânta was refined by the schools of great teachers (âcâryas) like Râmânuja and Madhva. Having shed the baggage of Äaôkarâcârya's crypto-Buddhism, Vedânta philosophers brought Vedic studies back to their original form as seen in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. See Advaita, Analysis, Dvaita, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Mâyâvâda philosophy, Veda, Vedânta.

Skanda Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas, or Vedic historical scriptures. It extensively describes Kali-yuga.

Äleëokti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a statement having two meanings.

Äloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Sanskrit verse.

Smaraòam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of remembering the Supreme Lord; constant thinking of Kèëòa (one of the nine methods of devotional service).

Smârta-brâhmaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brâhmaòa interested more in the external performance of the rules and rituals of the Vedas than in attaining Lord Kèëòa, the goal of the Vedas; one who strictly follows the Vedic principles on the mundane platform.

Smârta-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). a professional spiritual master.

Smârta-vidhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the regulations of mundane religious activity.

Smarta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the popular name for followers of the Vedas who are overly attached to elevation and salvation. They are very careful about the latter, but often not the spirit, of scriptural injunctions, confounding the mundane with the spiritual. They are very fond of the smèti-äâstras and are thus known as smartas.

Smèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). remembrance, a vyabhicâri-bhâva; revealed scriptures supplementary to the äruti, or original Vedic scriptures, which are the Vedas and Upaniëads; scriptures compiled by living entities under transcendental direction; the corollaries of the Vedas; One of the five functions of buddhi. See Buddhi.

Smèti-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). A section of the Vedic scriptures including the Mahâbhârata and the Purâòas. See Äâstra, Äruti-äâstra.

Smèty-âcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a spiritual master expert in the supplementary Vedic literatures.

Snâna-yâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the bathing ceremony of Lord Jagannâtha.

Sneha: (sáns. vaiëòava). affection for Kèëòa, at which stage the lover cannot be without the beloved.

Snigdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). very peaceful.

Socrates: (sáns. vaiëòava). Socrates (470-399 BC) is the most influential philosopher in the recorded history of the Western world. Plato was his disciple and Aristotle his grand-disciple. Socrates lived in Athens and taught a doctrine of the soul that is similar in many ways to the Vedic conception. In a 1966 Bhagavad-gîtâ lecture, Ärîla Prabhupâda said Socrates was a mukta-puruëa (a liberated soul). According to his biographer Plato, Socrates was unjustly convicted for anti-state activities by the Athenean authorities, who ordered him drink poison. He did so cheerfully, and died preaching we are not these bodies to his followers.

Solipsism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Latin solus, (alone), and ipse, (self). A Western doctrine stating that the self is all that exists or can be known. There are two forms of solipsism: epistemological and metaphysical. The first form holds that since there is nothing to be known beyond the content of one's own consciousness, one's own consciousness is the underlying justification for, and cause of, the existence and nonexistence of knowledge of anything. The second form holds that there is no reality other than one's own self. All things are creations of one's consciousness at the moment one is conscious of them. In other words, there is no existence apart from my own awareness. Like Mâyâvâda philosophy, solipsism arrives at a philosophical dead end.

The questions that remain unanswered are: If my consciousness is the only reality, why can't I change the universe at will, simply by thought? And if only I myself truly exist, why am I dependent for my life, learning and happiness upon a world full of living entities that refuse to acknowledge this truth? See Mâyâvâda philosophy.

Soma-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a life-extending heavenly beverage available on the moon to demigods on the higher planets.

Somadatta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of King Bâlhîka and the grandson of King Pratîpa. He had three sons name Bhûri, Bhûriäravas, and Äala. He was killed by Sâtyaki during the battle of Kurukëetra.

Somaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a former king of Pâñcâla.

Somarâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). Candra, the demigod in charge of the moon.

Soma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the presiding deity of the moon.

Soul: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal living entity, who is the marginal energy, eternally part and parcel of the Supreme Lord; Known in Sanskrit as jîva, jîva-âtmâ or âtmâ, the soul is the eternal individual self, who is a tiny particle of Lord Kèëòa's spiritual potency located in the heart of the material body. The symptom of the soul is consciousness, and the power of the soul is taùastha-äakti, the power of choice. Thus the soul is responsible for his liberation or bondage, though he has no power to either liberate himself or enjoy matter. The result of his choice, whether auspicious or inauspicious, is arranged by the Supersoul. As the air is always different from the smells it carries, so the soul is always different from the material designations it assumes due to the influence of the modes of nature. How a yogî perceives the soul's direct relationship with the Supreme Soul is described in SB 11.14.45: He sees the individual souls united with the Supreme Soul, just as one sees the sun's rays completely united with the sun. The sun is jyotiëi, the source of light. Similarly, Kèëòa, the Supreme Soul, is the source of the light of consciousness of all living entities. Sunlight is composed of photons, which are tiny units of light. Similarly, each individual soul (jîva-âtmâ) is a tiny unit
of consciousness. See Consciousness, Ecstasy, Modes of nature, Supersoul.

Sparäas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet.

Spirit soul: (sáns. vaiëòava). Jîva (jîvâtmâ)-the living entity, who is an eternal soul, individual but part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.

Sphoùavâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). Also known as äabda-tattva, sphoùavâda is the philosophy of a metaphysical school of Sanskrit grammarians that goes back to one Sphoùâyaòa, whose followers include Bhartèhari and Jayanta Bhaùùa. The famous karma-mîmâêsâ philosopher Madana Miära also accepted the sphoùavâda doctrine, though other teachers of mîmâêsâ opposed it. Accordingly, there is a continuum of vibration (ekam eva yad âmnâtam), which is partless (akhaòàa) and unbroken (akrama), which becomes manifest in sounds (dhvani) or syllables (varòa). The sounds and syllables are not important. They are used as aids to achieve meditation upon the underlying continuum, where the indivisible unit of meaning (sphoùa) is realized through äabda-pûrva-yoga. When the sphoùa is realized, liberation is achieved in the monistic absolute. Clearly, this is a form of Mâyâvâda philosophy. Interestingly, Äaôkarâcârya rejected the sphoùavâda of the grammarians. Yet he accepted the basis of the sphoùavâda philosophy, which is the äabda-yoga of Pataëjali. In his Prabodhasudhâkara 13.144, Äaôkarâcârya wrote, When one's essential nature is contemplated upon for a moment or half a moment, then the subtle sound called anâhata is heard in the right ear. In 148 he explained further: If the mind is completely absorbed for a long time in that Light comprised within the subtle sound, it is surely not slated for the bondage of worldly existence again. Many modern forms of mysticism and meditation can be traced to this doctrine: Transcendental Meditation, Radha-Soami Satsang, Kirpal Singh Satsang, and so on. The subtle sound sought in these systems is the egoistic sound at the root of material existence. Beyond this, however, is the pure name (äuddha-nâma), which cannot be extracted from the âkâäa by äabda-yoga, but which must be received from the pure devotee of Kèëòa.

What these äabda-yogîs really seek is explained by Kèëòa Himself: I am the sound in ether. ... Of vibrations I am the syllable oê. ... Of letters I am the letter A, and among compound words I am the dual compound. ... Of poetry I am the Gâyatrî mantra. (Bg. 7.8, 10.33, 10.35) Hence, they seek Kèëòa but He is to be known only by pure devotion (bhakti-yoga). See Mâyâvâda philosophy.

Spiritual world: (sáns. vaiëòava). Referred to as Vaikuòùha, Goloka, the supreme abode (param-dhâma), and the spiritual sky (param-vyoma), it is the transcendental, eternal, three-quarters display of Lord Kèëòa's personal splendor. The names, form, qualities, activities and relationships of the spiritual world are ever-fresh and ever-free of the defects of birth, death, disease, and old age. Here the Lord displays His divine pastimes (lîlâ) which overflood the spiritual world with the sweetest nectar, the very life and soul of the liberated devotees who dwell there. As a tree on the bank of a river is reflected upside-down in the water, so the material world is a reflection of the spiritual world.

What is highest in the spiritual world is lowest here. The highest lîlâ is Kèëòa's conjugal affairs with the gopîs. That is reflected here as sex life, the most entangling activity for the embodied soul. See Kèëòa.

Ärâddha-pâtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a plate (containing remnants of prasâdam) offered to the forefathers and then to the best of the brâhmaòas.

Ärâddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremony of making offerings to one's ancestors to free them from suffering; firm faith and confidence.

Ärama: (sáns. vaiëòava). fatigue, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Ärauta-panthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the acquirement of knowledge by hearing from scriptural authorities.

Ärauta-vâkya: (sáns. vaiëòava). acceptance of the words of the revealed scripture and of the spiritual master.

Sravaòam kîrtanaê viëòoì (SB 7.5.23): (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of hearing and chanting about Lord Viëòu, or Kèëòa.

Sravaòam: (sáns. vaiëòava). hearing from an authorized source. (This is the chief of the nine methods of devotional service).

Sravaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of hearing about the Supreme Lord.

Äreyas: (sáns. vaiëòava). activities that are ultimately beneficial and auspicious.

Ärî-bhâëya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra by Râmânujâcârya.

Ärî Kèëòa-vijaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a book of poems by Guòarâja Khân, considered to be the first poetry book written in Bengal.

Ärî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the energy of Godhead that maintains the cosmic manifestation; Ärîla-a title indicating possession of exceptional spiritual qualities. The most beautiful (spiritual) person.

Sri (sree, shree, shri): (sáns. vaiëòava). honorific prefix, to be used before the Deities name.

Ärî Saila: (sáns. vaiëòava). sacred hill near Tirupati.

Srî-kaòtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Lord Äiva meaning "he whose throat is beautifully blue."

Ärîdhara Svâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the author of the earliest extant Vaiëòava commentaries on Bhagavad-gîtâ and Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. Though a resident of Benares and a sannyâsî of Äaôkara's Mâyâvâda school of philosophy, he taught pure Vaiëòava philosophy. He was a devotee of Lord Nèsiêhadeva, and his works were highly regarded by Lord Caitanya, especially his Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam gloss, Bhâvârtha-dîpikâ. The Lord commented that anyone who wanted to write a commentary on Srîmad-Bhagavatam must follow the commentary of Srîdhara Svâmî.

Ärîla Prabhupâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1896-1977) His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda. He is the tenth generation from Caitanya Mahâprabhu. The founder-âcârya, spiritual master of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). Ärîla Prabhupâda was the widely-acclaimed author of more than seventy books on the science of pure bhakti-yoga, unalloyed Kèëòa consciousness. His major works are annotated English translations of the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, the Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta, and the Bhagavad-gîtâ As It Is. He was the world's most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought. Ärîla Prabhupâda was a fully God conscious saint who had perfect realization of the Vedic scriptures. He worked incessantly to spread Kèëòa consciousness all over the world.

He guided his society and saw it grow to a worldwide confederation of hundreds of ashrams, schools, temples, institutes, and farm communities. See Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda.

Ärîla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a title indicating possession of exceptional spiritual qualities. The most beautiful (spiritual) person.

Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the foremost of the eighteen Purâòas, the complete science of God that establishes the supreme position of Lord Kèëòa. It was glorified by Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu as the amalam purâòam, "the purest Purâòa." It was written by Ärîla Vyâsadeva as his commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra, and it deals exclusively with topics concerning the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Lord Kèëòa) and His devotees. Ärîla Prabhupâda has given Bhaktivedanta purports in English and wonderfully presented it to the modern world, specifically to give a deep understanding of Lord Kèëòa; Also known as the Bhâgavata Purâòa, this is a work of eighteen thousand verses compiled by sage Vyâsa as his natural commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra. It takes up where the Bhagavad-gîtâ leaves off. In Bg. 4.9, Lord Kèëòa says that by knowing His transcendental appearance and activities in this world, one becomes free of the cycle of repeated birth and death. Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam recounts with great relish the details of the Lord's appearance and activities, beginning with His puruëa incarnations and their lîlâ of cosmic manifestation, and culminating with Kèëòa's own appearance in Vèndâvana 5000 years ago, and His most sweet rasa-lîlâ with the His cowherd girlfriends, the gopîs headed by Râdhârâòî. See Bhagavad-gîtâ, Caitanya-caritâmèta, Vedânta-sûtra.

Ärînivâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Viënu.

Ärînivâsâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a chief follower of the six Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana.

Ärîvatsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sign of the goddess of fortune, Lakëmî, on the chest of Lord Viëòu, or Nârâyaòa.

Srîvâsa Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnation of Äri Nârada Muni in Lord Caitanya's pastimes. An intimate associate of Lord Caitanya. His courtyard served as the birthplace of Lord Caitanya's saôkîrtana movement, and his altar was the site of the mahâ-prakâäa pastime (twenty-one hours of ecstatic manifestation) of Ärî Caitanya.

Äèôgâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). conjugal love of God; an array of garments worn for amorous purposes.

Sèëùi-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the power to create the cosmic manifestation.

Ärutâyudha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of Kaliôga. He was the son of Varuòa by Paròâäâ. He died on the battlefield of Kurukëetra when he released his mace at Lord Ärî Kèëòa. His mace could not be thrown at one who was not engaged in combat or it would come back and kill the one who threw it. Since Lord Kèëòa was not engaged in combat, the mace came back and killed Ärutâyudha.

Äruti-äâstra-nindana: (sáns. vaiëòava). offense of blaspheming the Vedic literature.

Äruti-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Literally, hearing. The core Vedic literature including the four Vedas (Èg, Sâma, Yajur and Atharva) and the Upaniëads. See Äâstra, Smèti-äâstra.

Äruti-gaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the personified Vedas.

Äruti-mantras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the hymns of the Vedas.

Äruti: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge via hearing; the original Vedic scriptures (the Vedas and Upaniëads), given directly by the Supreme Lord.

Srutakarmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Sahadeva by Draupadî. He fought in the battle of Kurukëetra and was killed by Aävatthâmâ while rising from sleep in his tent.

Srutakîrti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Arjuna by Draupadî. He fought in the battle of Kurukëetra and was killed by Aävatthâmâ while rising from sleep in his tent.

Sthâòu-puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). mistaking a dry tree without leaves for a person.

Sthâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the maintenance of the universe by Viëòu.

Sthâyi-bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). continuous love of Godhead in devotional service.

Sthita-dhîr-muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). (sthita-steady + dhîra-undisturbed + muni-sage) one who is always fixed in Kèëòa consciousness and as a result is undisturbed by material nature.

Sthûla-äarîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Gross body.

Stotra-ratna: (sáns. vaiëòava). book of prayers composed by Yamunâcârya.

Stotra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prayer.

Strî-sambhâëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). talking with women.

Strî: (sáns. vaiëòava). women.

Stupa: (sáns. vaiëòava). hemispheric Buddhist monument of worship.

Su-snigdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). affectionate.

Su-viëaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). regulated sense gratification according to the Vedas.

Subjective: (sáns. vaiëòava). In philosophy, that which is derived from the mind and not external sources, or that which exists in the mind without any external reference or possible confirmation. It also refers to the particular way an individual understands an experience. Even though others experienced the same thing, because of his subjective attitude and outlook, he forms an opinion of what happened that is different from theirs. See Objective reality, Reality.

Subala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Äakuni and Gândhârî. He was the King of Gândhâra.

Äubha-dâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). description of pure devotional service indicating that it bestows all good fortune.

Subhadrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). younger sister of Lord Ärî Kèëòa, and an incarnation of Yogamâyâ, the internal potency of the Supreme Lord. She married Arjuna, and begot Abhimanyu as her son. She is the yellow Deity found between Lord Jagannâtha and Baladeva.

Subrahmaòya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kârtikeya, the son of Lord Äiva. The god of war. Also known as Skanda.

Substance: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Latin substare, be under, be firm, support. Substance (vastu in Sanskrit) is the underlying support of all phenomena. It is the eternal Brahman, the cause, of which the world is the effect. The Vedic view of the substance of the world is different from the Christian view, called creatio ex nihilo. According to this theory put forward by Augustine (175-242), God created the world out of nothing.

Augustine's reasoning was based on the Biblical statement that in the beginning there was only God. Creatio ex nihilo was an attempt to break out of the paradoxical question, If in the beginning there was only God, and God is eternal, why is the
world ever-changing? It was assumed that a doctrine of the material world's direct emanation from God's own substance could be true only if the material world had the same nature as God. But since it does not, and since God was alone in the beginning, He must have created the world from nothing. There is a paradox upon which creatio ex nihilo stumbles: ex nihilo, nihil fit, From nothing, nothing comes. According to the Vedic view, the substance of creation is tattva, true, just as God is true. The tattva of matter (prakèti) is eternal, but it assumes temporary forms as God wills. Like a shadow, the material creation resembles the original form of the substance. But it does not have the potency of the original. Yet it has no other source than the substance. Its source is not nothing. See Absolute, Brahman.

Subtle body: (sáns. vaiëòava). Called liôga-äarîra in Sanskrit, and also known as the astral body, the subtle body is the result of the conditioning of consciousness by the three modes of material nature. It includes the false ego, intellect and mind and is composed of cetana, consciousness under material influence. As long as the living entity remains within the cycle of saêsâra, the subtle body is retained. But the steady practice of bhakti-yoga dissolves the subtle body, thus freeing consciousness from matter. See Consciousness, Ecstasy, False ego, Gross body, Intellect, Mind, Modes of nature, Saêsâra, Soul, Supersoul.

Sudakëiòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a King of Kâmbhoja. He brought an akëauhiòî division of troops for Duryodhana. He was killed by Arjuna during Kurukëetra war. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Sudâmâ Vipra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a poor householder friend and devotee of Lord Kèëòa who was given immeasurable riches by the Lord.

Sudâmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the cowherd boy associates of Lord Kèëòa.

Sudaräana cakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the disc weapon of the Supreme Lord.

Sudaräana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the discus of Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Äuddha-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure devotional service.

Äuddha-bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure consciousness.

Äuddha-sattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual platform of pure goodness; The transcendental mode of purified goodness. See Kèëòa, Modes of nature.

Sûddîpta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the manifestation in a devotee of all eight ecstatic symptoms multiplied a thousand times and all visible at once.

Sudeëòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of King Virâùa. Draupadî spent the last year of exile as a maidservant to this queen. (Virâùa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Sudharmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the royal assembly court of the Yadus at Dvârakâ.

Äûdra-mahâjana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person born in a low family but raised to the platform of brâhmaòa by initiation.

Äûdrâòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of a äûdra.

Äûdra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a member of the fourth social order, laborer class, in the traditional Vedic social system. He is meant to render service to the three higher classes, namely the brâhmaòas, the këatriyas, and the vaiäyas.

Sughoëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conchshell of Nakula.

Äuka: (sáns. vaiëòava). parrot.

Sukadeva Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an exhalted devotee who recited the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam to King Parîkëit during the last seven days of the King's life.

Sukham: (sáns. vaiëòava). happiness or pleasure.

Äukla-yajur Veda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a version of the Yajur Veda.

Äukla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person in the mode of goodness; also, a name for Lord Viëòu.

Äukrâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual master of the demons.

Äukra: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: above

Sukètina: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious persons who obey the rules of scripture and are devoted to the Supreme Lord.

Sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). auspicious activity; pious persons.

Sulocana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Sumeru: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great mountain situated at the center of the universe. It is the hub of the chariot of the sun.

Sunâbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Sunanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the chief personal servants of Lord Nârâyaòa in His spiritual abode, Vaikuòùha.

Sunîthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of King Aôga and mother of Vena.

Sunîti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mother of Dhruva Mahârâja.

Suparòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for Garuòa.

Supersoul: (sáns. vaiëòava). Paramâtmâ-the Supersoul, the localized aspect Viëòu expansion of the Supreme Lord residing in the heart of each embodied living entity and pervading all of material nature; Known as Paramâtmâ in Sanskrit, He is the third of Lord Kèëòa's three puruëa incarnations: 1) Mahâ-Viëòu, from whom unlimited universes emanate; 2) Garbhodakaäâyî Viëòu, who enters each universe and is the source of birth of Brahmâ; and 3) Këîrodakaäâyî Viëòu, who expands into the heart of every living entity and every atom within the universe. The Supersoul dwells within the hearts of all living beings next to the soul. His spiritual form is four-armed and the size of a thumb. From him come the living entity's knowledge, rememberance and forgetfulness. The Supersoul is the witness and permitter of karma. What He witnesses is punished or rewarded by prakèti (see Bg. 13.23). See Brahman, Intellect, Îävara, Karma, Life after death, Kèëòa, Modes of nature, Soul.

Supratîka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of King Bhagadatta's elephant that was very formidable during the battle of Kurukëetra. He was killed by Arjuna.

Supti: (sáns. vaiëòava). deep sleep, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Äûrasena: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Vasudeva and Pâthâ.

Surabhî cows: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cows in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk.

Suras: (sáns. vaiëòava). demigods, devotees.

Suruci: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stepmother of Dhruva Mahârâja.

Sûryadatta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brother of King Virâùa. He was killed by Droòa during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Karòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Suryaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sun planet.

Sûrya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sun-god, who became the father of Karòa. He is said to be the right eye of the Supreme Lord.

Suäarmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of the Trigartas. He was an ally of Duryodhana and brought an akëauhiòî division of troops to Kurukëetra. He was very envious of Arjuna and was ultimately killed by Arjuna.

Suëupti: (sáns. vaiëòava). deep sleep, one of the levels of material consciousness.

Sûta Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Romaharsaòa. He was the great sage who related the discourse between Parîkëit Mahârâja and Äukadeva Gosvâmî, which forms the basis of the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam;.Naimiëâraòya-a sacred forest in central India where the eighteen Purâòas were spoken and which is said to be the hub of the universe.

Sutapâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of Vasudeva in a previous birth.

Sutasoma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Bhîmasena and Draupadî. He was killed by Aävatthâmâ while awaking from sleep on the last night of the Kurukëetra war.

Suta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Vaidarbhî, or, in other words, one who is somewhat advanced in fruitive activities and who comes in contact with a devotee spiritual master. Such a person becomes interested in the subject matter of devotional service.

Sûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mixture of different castes.

Sûtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the intermediate manifestation of the mahat-tattva, when it is predominated by the mode of passion; an aphorism expressing essential knowledge in minimum words; a book of such aphorisms.

Äva-paca: (sáns. vaiëòava). dog-eater.

Sva-sevana-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the power to perform the personal service of the Supreme Lord.

Svabhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). Nature, especially one's individual nature; intuitive psychology; instinct.

Svâbhâvya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a scripture.

Svadharmas: (sáns. vaiëòava). specific duties of a particular body performed in accordance with religious principles in order to achieve liberation.

Svâdhyâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). personal study of Vedic literature.

Svâhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Agni, the fire-god.

Svakîyâ-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). relationship with Kèëòa as a formally married wife.

Svâêäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's plenary portions.

Svâmî-nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the impersonalist misconception that one can become God simply by adopting the dress of a sannyâsî.

Svâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one fully in control of his senses and mind; title of one in the renounced, or sannyâsa, order; Gosvâmî-a person who has his senses under full control: the title of a person in the renounced order of life, sannyasa. (go-senses + svamî-master) master of the senses.

Svâôga-viäeëâbhâsa-rûpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the form by which the Lord begets living entities in the material world .

Svâpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sleep, dreaming. One of the five functions of buddhi. See Buddhi.

Svarga: (sáns. vaiëòava). Heaven. See Demigods, Life after death, Tri-loka.

Svârâjya-lakëmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the personal spiritual potency of the Lord.

Svarâù: (sáns. vaiëòava). fully independent.

Svargaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heavenly planets or abodes of the demigods in the material world.

Svarûpa Dâmodara Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnation of the gopî Viäâkha. He served as the secretary and intimate associate of Lord Caitanya at Purî and used to ease the pain of the Lord's feelings of separation by reciting appropriate verses and singing devotional songs.

Svarûpa-gata: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage of understanding Kèëòa in truth while still maintaining some material connection.

Svarûpa-lakëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the characteristics of the soul when purified of all material contamination.

Svarûpa-sandhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the meeting of similar ecstasies from separate causes.

Svarûpa-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the perfection of one's eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord.

Svarûpa-upalabdhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). realization of one's eternal service relationship with the Lord.

Svarûpa-vismèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). forgetting one's real constitutional position.

Svarûpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the living entity's original eternal relationship of service to the Lord, the real form of the soul.

Svar: (sáns. vaiëòava). the upper material planets.

Svayaê-rûpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's original form as a cowherd boy in Vèndâvana.

Svayaêvara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremony in which a princess is allowed to choose her husband.

Svâyambhuva Manu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Manu who appears first in Brahmâ's day and who was the grandfather of Dhruva Mahârâja.

Svetâävatara Upaniëad: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the 108 Upaniëads. It very clearly presents the Vaiëòava point of view regarding the Lord and the living entity.

Svetadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual planet where Lord Viëòu resides within the material universe.

Sveta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of King Virâùa. He was killed in a ferocious battle with grandfather Bhîëma. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Äyâmasundara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of Kèëòa meaning "He who has a very beautiful blackish form."

Syâmânanda Gosvâmî (1535-1631): (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the great Vaiëòava âcâryas who lived in Vèndâvana after the time of Ärî Caitanya. He received the direct mercy of Râdhârâòî in Vèndâvana, was tutored in the bhakti-äâstras by Jîva Gosvâmî and delivered countless souls, especially in Orissa. He was initiated by Hèdâya Caitanya dâsa and got the name Duìkhi Kèëòadâsa, but later he was called Syâmânanda by Jîva Gosvâmî, who noted his attraction for the Deity Äyâmâsundara.

Syllogism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek syllogisms, a reckoning all together, it is a logical structure of reasonable thought (step-by-step argument). The Sanskrit equivalent is parârthânumâna, reasoning for others' understanding. See Logic.


Tad-ekâtma-rûpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). forms of the Lord which are nondifferent from His original form, but which have different bodily features and specific activities.

Tadîya: (sáns. vaiëòava). everything belonging to the Lord.

Takëaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king of the snakes. He killed Mahârâja Parîkëit.

Takuwan: (sáns. vaiëòava). Japanese white daikon radish, pickled in rice bran and salt.

Tamâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a tree whose color resembles Lord Kèëòa's. It is found mostly in Vèndâvana, India.

Tamasaì: (sáns. vaiëòava). the coverings of the universe.

Tamas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material mode of ignorance.

Tamo-guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mode of ignorance, or darkness of material nature. It is controlled by Lord Äiva. See Modes of nature.

Tânava: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstatic symptom of thinness.

Tâòàava-nètya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Äiva's dance, which he performs at the time of universal devastation, and at other times also.

Tan-mâtras: (sáns. vaiëòava). The five qualities of the mahâ-bhûtas that subtly manifest in the mind as sound, touch, form, taste and smell. See Mahâ-bhûtas, Modes of nature, Pradhâna.

Tantras: (sáns. vaiëòava). minor scriptures describing various rituals, mostly for persons in the mode of ignorance; Vedic literatures consisting mostly of dialogues between Lord Äiva and Durgâ. They contain instructions on Deity worship and other aspects of spiritual practice; special hymns for conjuring magic or producing mystical effects.

Tapasvîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). persons who undergo severe penances for elevation to higher planets.

Tapasya: (sáns. vaiëòava). austerity; voluntary acceptance of some material trouble for progress in spiritual life.

Tapas: (sáns. vaiëòava). austerity or penance. There are many rules and regulations in the Vedas which apply here, like rising early in the morning and taking a bath. Sometimes it is very troublesome to rise early in the morning, but whatever voluntary trouble one may suffer in this way is called penance. Similarly, there are prescriptions for fasting on certain days of the month. One may not be inclined to practice such fasting, but because of his determination to make advancement in the science of Kèëòa consciousness, he should accept such bodily troubles when they are recommended.

Tapaì: (sáns. vaiëòava). the acceptance of hardships for spiritual realization.

Tapoloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a heavenly planet.

Târâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Bèhaspati. She was kidnapped by the moon-god.

Târuòyâmèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the nectar of youth.

Taùastha-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the living entities, the marginal potency of the Supreme Lord.

Tattva-daräî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has seen the truth.

Tattvas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Absolute Truth's multifarious categories.

Tattvavâdîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). the followers of Madhvâcârya.

Tattvavit: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who knows the Absolute Truth in His three different features.

Tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). truth, reality. According to Baladeva Vidyâbhûëaòa, Vedic knowledge categorizes reality into five tattvas, or ontological truths: îävara (the Supreme Lord), jîva (the living entity), prakèti (nature), kâla (eternal time) and karma (activity).

Tava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a slightly concave cast-iron frying pan used for cooking capatis and other flat Indian breads.

Technology: (sáns. vaiëòava). This term is derived from the Greek tchne, handicraft, skill, and that term in turn is derived from takëa (cutting through), the Sanskrit word for the work of a carpenter. Thus modern technology is glorified carpentry.

Teleology: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek tlos, purpose, goal and lgos, knowledge of. The logic of teleology is that one can know the purpose of something by deducing it from its origin. See Deduction.

Theism: (sáns. vaiëòava). According to the Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy, p. 120, the philosophy of theism in most interpretations is, God is partly immanent in the universe and partly transcendent. In essence, this definition is the Vedic philosophy of the Supreme Person. As stated in Puruëa-äukta (Èg-Veda 10.90.4): With three-fourths of Himself, the Puruëa ascended; the other fourth was born here. From here on all sides He moved, toward the living and the non-living. Again and again in the Vedic literatures we find references to tripâda-vibhûti and ekapâda-vibhûti, the three-fourths of the Lord's splendor displayed as the spiritual world, and the one-fourth by which He pervades the material world. About the material manifestation, Lord Kèëòa says in Bg. 10.41: yad yad vibhûtimat sattvaê ärîmad ûrjitam eva vâ tat tad evâvagaccha tvaê mama tejo-'àäa-sambhavam. Know that all these opulent, beautiful and glorious creations are born from a part of My total splendor. Because they oppose theism, the theories of deism, monism, pantheism and dualism are actually atheism. Deism separates God completely from His material creation. Monism renders God partless. Pantheism confines Him to the material universe. And dualism divides creation against Him, placing part of it in the hands of a rival. Even major religious traditions like Christianity are influenced by deism and dualism. The English natural theologian Robert Boyle (1627-1691) expressed open contempt for theism as a doctrine of infidels. When he drew up his last will and testament, he bequeathed fifty pounds per annum for ever, or at least for a considerable number of years in order to institute a series of lectures for proving the Christian Religion, against notorious Infidels, viz. Atheists, Theists, Pagans, Jews, and Mahometans. Monotheism and panentheism are synonyms for theism.

Monotheism means belief in one God. In the Vedic religion, there is only one God, though He empowers servants who act as demigods on His command. These demigods are worshiped as God only by foolish people. Panentheism teaches that all things are imbued with God's presence, because all things are in God. God is more than all there is. He is all-conscious and the supreme unifying factor. See Atheism.

Tempo: (sáns. vaiëòava). three-wheeler vehicle used like a small bus.

Theogony: (sáns. vaiëòava). A poem written around 700 BC by the Greek shepherd Hesiod who was inspired by the angelic Muses, the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. The Theogony, along with the works of Homer, formed the scriptural basis of the historical Greek religion. There was a religious culture in Greece long before this historical period, but from the empirical point of view, it is largely shrouded in mystery.

Thes: (sáns. vaiëòava). God.

Ùhâkura Haridâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Haridâsa Ùhâkura-although born in a Muslim family, he was a confidential associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He was so absorbed in the nectar of the Holy Name that he chanted day and night, and it was his regular practice to chant 300,000 names of the Lord daily. Lord Caitanya made him the nâmâcârya (teacher of chanting of the holy name).The Muslim government and caste-conscious Hindus attempted to persecute him, but all of their efforts failed, as he was under the direct protection of the Lord.

Ùhâkurâòîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wives of devotees.

Thali: (sáns. vaiëòava). vegetarian meal which includes many different preparations, usually all you can eat; a low-rimmed metal plate.

Theodore Parker (1810-1860): (sáns. vaiëòava). an American Unitarian clergyman and social reformer who promoted the antislavery cause.

Ùîkâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a commentary.

Tilaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). sacred clay markings placed on the forehead and other parts of the body to designate one as a follower of Viëòu, Râma, Äiva, Vedic culture, etc.

Timiôgila: (sáns. vaiëòava). a huge aquatic monster that can swallow whales.

Tîrtha (teertha): (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred place of pilgrimage associated with a pastime of an incarnation of God, such as a holy river, a temple of the Lord, or the residence or place of meditation of a holy sage or saintly person.

Tithis: (sáns. vaiëòava). days of the Vedic calendar measured according to the phases of the moon.

Titikëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). tolerance; endurance of unhappiness.

Tonga: (sáns. vaiëòava). two-wheeled horse carriage.

Toovar dal: (sáns. vaiëòava). also called arhar dal, toor dal, or pigeon peas, these cream-coloured split lentils, which are paler in colour, flatter, and larger than yellow split peas, are widely used for cooking in Northern and Southwestern India. They have a delightful, slightly sweet flavour and are easy to digest, especially in the famous South Indian soup-like dishes rasam and sambar. Toovar dal is available at Indian grocers.

Ùoùâ-gopînâtha temple: (sáns. vaiëòava). a temple in Jagannâtha Purî housing a Deity which was found by Lord Caitanya and given to Gadâdhara Prabhu to worship. He also gave Gadâdhara a place to live in the garden of Yameävara, where the temple was later built. Gadâdhara Prabhu stayed there for the duration of his life, absorbing himself in the service of Lord Caitanya and Gopînâtha.

Trâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). shock, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Trayî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the three Vedas. (Èg, Sâma and Yajur), which explain fruitive activities for material benefits.

Trayodaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the thirteenth day after the new and full moons.

Threefold miseries: (sáns. vaiëòava). This is another feature of the influence of the three modes of material nature. All living entities within this material world are controlled by material nature (prakèti), who subjects them to threefold miseries: adhidaivika-kleäa (sufferings caused by the demigods, such as droughts, earthquakes and storms), adhibhautika-kleäa (sufferings caused by other living entities like insects or enemies), and adhyâtmika-kleäa (sufferings caused by one's own body and mind, such as mental and physical infirmities). Daiva-bhûtâtma-hetavaì: the conditioned souls, subjected to these three miseries by the control of the external energy, suffer various difficulties.

This suffering is the impetus for seeking answers to the fundemental questions of life: Who am I? Why am I suffering? How can I get free of suffering? See Modes of nature, Prakèti.

Tretâ-yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second in the cycle of the four ages of the universe or mahâ-yuga. It lasts 1,296,000 years. In this age Lord Râmacandra appeared.

Tribunga: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Krsna's famous three-curved stance.

Tri-daòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a staff, made of three rods, carried by Vaiëòava sannyâsîs who are devotees of Lord Kèëòa, signifying service with mind, body and words.

Tridaòài-sannyâsî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a member of the renounced order of life who accepts the personal nature of the Absolute Truth.

Trigarta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province in ancient Bharata. The King of this country, Suäarma, fought on the side of Duryodhana and was killed by Arjuna.

Tri-loka: (sáns. vaiëòava). The Sanskrit term tri-loka is often found in Vedic scriptures. Tri-loka means three worlds. The universe is divided into three worlds, or realms of consciousness: bhûr, bhuvaì and svaì (the gross region, the subtle region and the celestial region). In Svargaloka or the celestial heaven, superhuman beings called demigods (devatas) exist, enjoying a life that in human terms is almost unimaginable. In the subtle region exist ghosts and elemental beings. And in the gross or earthly realm exist human beings and other creatures with tissue-bodies, including the animals and plants. There is also a
subterranean region where powerful demons reside. And there is a region known as naraka, hell. As explained in Bg. 3.27, the souls within these regions of material consciousness wrongly identify themselves as the doers of physical and mental
activities that are actually carried out by three modes of material nature. This wrong identification is called ahaôkâra, or false ego, the basis of our entanglement in material existence. See Demigods, Svarga.

Time: (sáns. vaiëòava). In his purport of SB 3.10.11, Ärîla Prabhupâda writes as follows about time: The impersonal time factor is the background of the material manifestation as the instrument of the Supreme Lord. It is the ingredient of assistance offered to material nature. No one knows where time began and where it ends, and it is time only which can keep a record of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material manifestation. This time factor is the material cause of creation and is therefore a self expansion of the Personality of Godhead. Time is considered the impersonal feature of the Lord. The time factor is also explained by modern men in various ways. Some accept it almost as it is explained in the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. For example, in Hebrew literature time is accepted, in the same spirit, as a representation of God. It is stated therein: God, who at sundry times and in diverse manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets... Metaphysically, time is distinguished as absolute and real.

Absolute time is continuous and is unaffected by the speed or slowness of material things. Time is astronomically and mathematically calculated in relation to the speed, change and life of a particular object. Factually, however, time has nothing to do with the relativities of things; rather, everything is shaped and calculated in terms of the facility offered by time. Time is the basic measurement of the activity of our senses, by which we calculate past, present and future; but in factual calculation, time has no beginning and no end. Câòakya Pâòàita says that even a slight fraction of time cannot
be purchased with millions of dollars, and therefore even a moment of time lost without profit must be calculated as the greatest loss in life. Time is not subject to any form of psychology, nor are the moments objective realities in themselves, but they are dependent on particular experiences.

Tripura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a large district on the far eastern side of Bengal, just south of the Ärî Hatta (Sylhet) area of Assam. In olden times Tripura was part of Bengal. The kings of Tripura had a long-standing relationship with Ùhâkura Bhaktivinoda and later with Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura.

Triveòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the confluence of the three sacred rivers Ganges, Yamunâ and Sarasvatî at Prayâga.

Trivikrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Lord indicating His incarnation as the dwarf brâhmaòa Vâmanadeva. Meaning literally "He who took three big steps," this name recalls the Lord's pastime of extending His foot through the coverings of the material universe and into the Causal Ocean.

Triyuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Viëòu meaning one who appears in only three yugas.

Triyugî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who appears in three yugas," namely Satya, Tretâ, and Dvâpara. The Lord appears in a covered incarnation in Kali-yuga, as Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Tèòâvarta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a whirlwind-shaped demon who was sent by Kaêsa to kill Kèëòa, but whom Kèëòa killed instead.

Try-adhîävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the proprietor of the three worlds.

Tulasî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pure devotee in the form of a basil plant held sacred by the Vaiëòavas and is very dear to Ärî Kèëòa. Its leaves and maëjarîs (buds) are always offered to His lotus feet; Maëjarî- the small, purplish flowers of the tulasî plant. Maëjarîs, along with tulasî leaves, are offered only to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They must be fresh.

Tyâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). renunciation of activities performed with material consciousness.


Uccaiìäravâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a horse born from nectar and considered to be a representative of Kèëòa.

Ucchèôkhala: (sáns. vaiëòava). whimsical.

Udâna-vâyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). bodily air which moves upwards and which is controlled by the breathing exercises of the aëùâôga-yoga system.

Udâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). magnanimous.

Udbhâsvara: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind.

Uddhava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a learned disciple of Bèhaspati and confidential friend of Lord Kèëòa in Dvârakâ; In Kèëòa's Mathurâ and Dvârakâ lîlâ, Uddhava is Kèëòa's best friend. He visited the residents of Vèndâvana to console them in their grief due to Kèëòa's absence. In the Eleventh Canto of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Kèëòa imparts most important transcendental knowledge to Uddhava.

Uddîpta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the manifestation in a devotee of five, six or all eight ecstatic symptoms simultaneously.

Udghâtyaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a dancing appearance of a player in drama.

Udvega: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstatic symptom of mental agitation.

Ugra-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). evil activities.

Ugrasena: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of the Yadus, and the father of Kaêsa.

Ujjvala-nîlamaòi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Sanskrit work that describes the complete science of mâdhurya-rasa, the conjugal relationship with Lord Kèëòa. It was compiled by Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî in the sixteenth century.

Ulûka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Äakuni. He was killed by Sahadeva during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Äalya Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Ulûpî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Arjuna and the mother of Irâvân.

Umâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). wife of Lord Äiva. See also: Durgâ

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: (sáns. vaiëòava). the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Unmâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). craziness, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Upadeäâmèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a short Sanskrit work by Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî containing important instructions about devotional service to Lord Kèëòa.

Upâdhis: (sáns. vaiëòava). material designations.

Upâdhyâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a teacher who makes a living teaching Sanskrit grammar.

Upala-bhoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). morning refreshments offered to Lord Jagannâtha.

Upaniëads: (sáns. vaiëòava). one-hundred and eight Sanskrit treatises that embody the philosophy of the Vedas. Considered the most significant philosophical sections and crest jewels of the Vedas, the Upaniëads are found in the Âraòyaka and Brâhmaòa portions of the Vedas. They are theistic and contain the realizations and teachings of great sages of antiquity; The term upaniëad literally means that which is learned by sitting close to the teacher. The texts of the Upaniëads teach the philosophy of the Absolute Truth (Brahman) to those seeking liberation from birth and death, and the study of the Upaniëads is known as Vedânta, the conclusion of the Veda. The contents of the Upaniëads are extremely difficult to fathom; they are to be understood only under the close guidance of a spiritual master (guru). Because the Upaniëads contain many apparently contradictory statements, the great sage Vyâsa systematized the Upaniëadic teachings in the Vedânta-sûtra. His natural commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra is the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. See Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Vedânta-sûtra.

Upaplavya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the capital city of King Virâùa.

Uparasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first kind of rasâbhâsa, occurring when one tastes one kind of mellow and something extra is imposed.

Upâsanâ-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). portions of the Vedas dealing with ceremonies of worship, especially demigod worship; The path of devotional service. One of the three departments of Vedic knowledge, upâsanâ-kâòàa is taught by Nârada Muni. See Bhakti, Jëâna-kâòàa, Karma-kâòàa, Para-vidyâ.

Upâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). worshipable.

Upendra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vâmanadeva, who sometimes appears as the younger brother of Indra.

Urugâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of the Lord meaning "He who is glorified with sublime prayers."

Urukrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, who takes wonderful steps (especially as the dwarf-brâhmaòa incarnation, Vâmanadeva).

Urvaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the heavenly Apsarâs. She tried to seduce Arjuna when he was in the heavenly kingdom. Arjuna refused to satisfy her because he considered her the mother of the Kuru dynasty having taken Puru for her husband. Because of Arjuna's refusal, Urvaäî cursed Arjuna to become a eunuch for one year. This curse took its effect during last year of exile of the Pâòàavas in the kingdom of Virâùa; a woman from the heavenly planets who became enamored of King Purûravâ.

Üti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the urge for creation that is the cause of all inventions.

Utkala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eldest son of Dhruva Mahârâja.

Uttama-adhikârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a first-class devotee who is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme Lord; he can deliver the whole world.

Uttamaäloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, who is worshiped by select poetry.

Uttamaujas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prince of Pâñcâla, and a valiant warrior during the Kurukëetra battle. He was killed by Aävatthâmâ while in his bed during the last night of the Kurukëetra war.

Uttama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the brother of Dhruva Mahârâja.

Uttânapâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king who was a son of Svâyambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Mahârâja.

Uttara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of King Virâùa. He was afraid to confront the Kurus when they stole the cows from his father's kingdom. Arjuna revealed his disguise to this prince and then single-handedly fought with the Kauravas and defeated them all. Uttara was killed in the first day's fighting at Kurukëetra by Äalya.

Uttarâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daughter of King Virâùa and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virâùa first want Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son, Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttarâ became the mother of King Parîkëit.


Vâcâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person who can speak according to Vedic authority.

Vahana mandapa: (sáns. vaiëòava). where the mount of the Deity (vahana) such as Lord Viëòu carrier's Garuòa or Äiva's bull Nandi is located.

Vaibhâëikas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a class of philosophers, akin to the Buddhists, who existed when Lord Kèëòa spoke Bhagavad-gîtâ and who accept that life is a product of a mature combination of material elements.

Vaidarbhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the woman who was formerly a man but took birth as a woman in his next life because of too much attachment to woman. Darbha means kuäa grass. In fruitive activities, or karma-kâòàîya ceremonies, one requires kuäa grass. Thus vaidarbhî refers to one who takes birth in a family of karma-kâòàîya understanding. However, if by karma-kâòàa activities one by chance comes in contact with a devotee, as Vaidarbhî did when she married Malayadhvaja, his life becomes successful. He then pursues the devotional service of the Lord. The conditioned soul becomes liberated simply by following the instructions of the bona fide spiritual master.

Vaidhi-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Vidhi-bhakti.

Vaidûrya-maòi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a spiritual gem that can display different colors.

Vâli: (sáns. vaiëòava). name of a monkey who was the son of Indra, the King of heaven, and elder brother of Sugrîva, the monkey king in the epic Râmâyaòa.

Vaijayantî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a garland containing flowers of five colors and reaching down to the knees. It is worn by Lord Kèëòa.

Vaikâli-bhoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). food offered to the Deity at the end of the day.

Vaikuòùha lokas: (sáns. vaiëòava). variegated spiritual planets situated in the brahmajyoti.

Vaikuòùha-jagat: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Vaikuòùha lokas above.

Vaikuòùha-nâtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord of Vaikuòùha.

Vaikuòùha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal planets of the spiritual world, the abode of Lord Nârâyaòa, which lies beyond the coverings of the material universe. Literally, "the place with no anxiety". See Spiritual world.

Vaiäya (Vaishyas): (sáns. vaiëòava). member of the mercantile or agricultural class, according to the system of four social orders and four spiritual orders.

Vairâgî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person in the renounced order of life.

Vairâgya: (sáns. vaiëòava). renunciation; detachment from matter and engagement of the mind in spirit.

Vaiäeëikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kaòâda-the propounder of Vaiäeëika philosophy, which states that atoms are the original cause of the creation; One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy. See Six systems.

Vaiëòava-aparâdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an offense to the devotee of Kèëòa.

Vaiëòava-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal principle of service to the Supreme Lord, Viëòu.

Vaiëòava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee of the Supreme Lord, Viëòu, or Kèëòa.

Vaiëòavism: (sáns. vaiëòava). the science of bhakti-yoga, devotional service to Viëòu, or Kèëòa.

Vaivasvata Manu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the current Manu, the seventh of fourteen.

Vaiyâsaki: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sukadeva Gosvâmî-great devotee who recited the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam to King Parîkëit during the last seven days of the King's life.

Vajradatta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of King Bhagadatta. He fought with Arjuna for the sacrificial horse.

Vajra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great grandson of Lord Ärî Kèëòa. He became the king of Mathurâ when Lord Kèëòa left this world.

Vâlmîki: (sáns. vaiëòava). the author of the original Râmâyaòa-the original epic history about Lord Râmacandra and Sîtâ, written by Vâlmîki Muni.

Vâmadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage who was a competitor of Gautama Èëi's. He was the secretary of Daäaratha Mahârâja, the father of Lord Râma.

Vâmanadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord's fifth incarnation as a dwarf brâhmaòa, to whom Bali Mahârâja surrendered everything; Trivikrama-a name for the Supreme Lord indicating His incarnation as the dwarf brâhmaòa Vâmanadeva. Meaning literally
"He who took three big steps," this name recalls the Lord's pastime of extending His foot through the coverings of the material universe and into the Causal Ocean.

Vâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). left-wing group of gopîs, who are eager to be jealously angered.

Vânaprastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). retired family life, in which one quits home to cultivate renunciation and travels from holy place to holy place in preparation for the renounced order of life; the third order of Vedic spiritual life; A retired householder. A member of the third spiritual devision of life, according to the Vedic social system of four âäramas. See Brahmacârî, Gèhasta, Sannyâsî.

Vana: (sáns. vaiëòava). forest.

Vandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of offering prayers to the Lord.

Vâòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the words of the spiritual master, which exist eternally.

Vaòik: (sáns. vaiëòava). a merchant.

Vapu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the physical presence of the spiritual master.

Varadarâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). Deity of Lord Viëòu worshiped Kâñcîpuram.

Vârâòasî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the oldest and most famous places of pilgrimage in India; also known as Kâäî and Benares. It is a center of impersonalistic, or Mâyâvâda, philosophy. Here is where Lord Caitanya defeated Prakâäânanda Sarasvati, the leading Mâyâvâdî of his day.

Vâraòâvata: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place where Duryodhana built the palace of lac. (Âdi Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Varâha Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas. It deals with the transcendental pastimes of the Lord's boar incarnation.

Varâha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the gigantic boar incarnation of Lord Kèëòa.

Varòa-saôkara: (sáns. vaiëòava). children conceived without regard for Vedic religious principles; thus, unwanted population.

Varòâärama-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the system of four social and four spiritual orders established in the Vedic scriptures and discussed by Ärî Kèëòa in the Bhagavad-gîtâ.

Varòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four Vedic social-occupational divisions of society, distinguished by quality of work and situation with regard to the modes of nature (guòas); Brâhmaòa-a member of the intellectual, priestly class; a person wise in Vedic knowledge, fixed in goodness and knowledgeable of Brahman, the Absolute Truth; One of the four orders of occupational life, brâhmaòa, këatriya, vaiäya and äûdra. The brâhmaòas are the intellectual class and their occupation is hearing Vedic literature, teaching Vedic literature, learning deity worship and teaching deity worship, receiving charity and giving charity. Brâhmaòa; Këatriya-third of the four orders of the varòâärama system.

A warrior who is inclined to fight and lead others. The administrative or protective occupation according to the system of four social and spiritual orders. Këatriya;

Vaiäya (Vaishyas): (sáns. vaiëòava). member of the mercantile or agricultural class, according to the system of four social orders and four spiritual orders. Vaiäya; Äûdra-a member of the fourth social order, laborer class, in the traditional Vedic social system. He is meant to render service to the three higher classes, namely the brâhmaòas, the këatriyas, and the vaiäyas.

Vartma-pradaräaka-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the one who first gives information about spiritual life.

Varuòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod in charge of the oceans.

Vâsanâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a wish or desire.

Vasiëùha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage who was a rival of Viävâmitra Muni's. He was the family priest of Mahârâja Daäaratha, the father of Lord Râmacandra.

Vastra-haraòa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's pastime of stealing the gopîs' clothes.

Vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Substance.

Vastu-gata: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage of being completely uncontaminated by the material body and mind.

Vâtsalya-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the relationship with Kèëòa as His parent.

Vâtsalya-rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Vâtsalya-rasa above.

Vâsudeva-parâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one whose desire is fixed on the Supreme Lord.

Vasudeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Kèëòa, and the half-brother of Nanda Mahârâja; the state of pure goodness, which transcends the material modes of nature and in which one can understand the Supreme Lord.

Vâsudeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, son of Vasudeva, and proprietor of everything, material and spiritual.

Vasundharâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for mother earth meaning "she who has very fertile soil and unlimited wealth.

Vasuëeòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Karòa during his younger years.

Vatsâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demon who came to Vèndâvana in the form of a calf to kill Kèëòa but who was instead killed by Him.

Vâyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). air, one of the three major elements of the gross body; the demigod in charge of the wind. He was the father of Bhîma and Hanumân.

Veda-cakëuì: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally, seeing through the eyes of the Vedas.

Veda-vâda-rata: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who gives his own explanation of the Vedas a smârta; fruitive workers who become entangled in material activities disguised as spiritual activities.

Vedâäraya-nâstikya-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). agnosticism under the shelter of Vedic culture. Vedânta-daräana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the philosophy of Ärîla Vyâsadeva, which culminates in bhakti-yoga.

Vedânta-sûtra (Brahma-sûtra): (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîla Vyâsadeva's conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowledge, written in brief codes. The philosophy of the Absolute Truth, which finds implicit expression in the Vedas and the Upaniëads, was put into a systematic and more explicit form in the Vedânta-sûtra. All apparent contradictory statements of the vast literature of the Vedas are resolved by the great Vyâsa in this work. In this work there are four divisions 1) reconciliation of all scriptures; 2) the consistent reconciliation of apparently conflicting hymns; 3) the means or process of attaining the goal (spiritual realization); and 4) the object (or desired fruit) achieved by the spiritual process. The Vedânta-sûtra establishes that Godhead exists, that devotion is the means of realizing transcendental love for Godhead, and that this love is the final object of man's endeavors. This book is the textbook of all theistic philosophy, and, as such, many commentators have elaborated on the significance of its conclusions; This most important work of nyâya-prasthâna (Vedic logic), which is also known as Brahma-sûtra, Äârîraka, Vyâsa-sûtra, Bâdarâyaòa-sûtra, Uttara-mîmâêsâ and Vedânta-daräana, was composed by the great sage Vyâsa 5000 years ago. Sûtra means code. The Vedânta-sûtra is a book of codes that present, in concise form, brahma-jñâna, i.e. conclusive Vedic knowledge. These codes are very terse, and without a fuller explanation, their meaning is difficult to grasp. In India there are five main schools of Vedânta, each established by an âcârya (founder) who explained the sûtras in a bhâëya (commentary). The natural commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra is the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. See Advaita, Dvaita, Brahmajyoti, Brahman, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Äaôkarâcârya, Six systems, Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Upaniëads, Vedânta, Vyâsa.

Vedânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conclusion of Vedic philosophy; the philosophy of the Vedânta-sûtra of Ärîla Vyâsadeva, containing a conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowledge and showing Kèëòa as the goal; One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy; taught by the great sage Vyâsadeva. Vedânta (literally the end of all knowledge or the conclusion of the Veda) is the highest degree of Vedic education, traditionally reserved for the sannyâsîs (renunciates). Vedânta is mastery of the texts known as the Upaniëads. See Six systems, Vyâsa.

Vedântî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person who knows Vedânta, that is, who perfectly knows Kèëòa.

Vedas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the original Veda was divided into four by Ärîla Vyâsadeva. The four original Vedic scriptures, Saêhitâs (Èg, Sâma, Atharva and Yajur) and the 108 Upaniëads, Mahâbhârata, Vedânta-sûtra, etc. The system of eternal wisdom compiled by Ärîla Vyâsadeva, the literary incarnation of the Supreme Lord, for the gradual upliftment of all mankind from the state of bondage to the state of liberation. The word veda literally means "knowledge", and thus in a wider sense it refers to the whole body of Indian Sanskrit religious literature that is in harmony with the philosophical conclusions found in the original four Vedic Saêhitâs and Upaniëads. The message of the transcendental realm that has come down to this phenomenal world through the medium of sound is known as the Veda. Being the very words of Godhead Himself, the Vedas have existed from eternity. Lord Kèëòa originally revealed the Vedas to Brahmâ, the first soul to appear in the realm of physical nature, and by him they were subsequently made available to other souls through the channel of spiritual disciplic succession; Veda, Vedas, Vedic knowledge. The Sanskrit root of the word Veda is vid, knowledge. This root is widespread even in modern Western language: e.g. video (from the Latin word to see) and idea (Gr. ida). The term Vedic refers to the teachings of the Vedic literatures. From these literatures we learn that this universe, along with countless others, was produced from the breath of Mahâ-Viëòu some 155,250,000,000,000 years ago. The Lord's divine breath simultaneously transmitted all the knowledge mankind requires to meet his material needs and revive his dormant God consciousness. This knowledge is called Veda. Caturmukha (four-faced) Brahmâ, the first created being within this universe, received Veda from Viëòu. Brahmâ, acting as an obedient servant of the Supreme Lord, populated the planetary systems with all species of life. He spoke four Vedas, one from each of his mouths, to guide human beings in their spiritual and material progress. The Vedas are thus traced to the very beginning of the cosmos. Some of the most basic Vedic teachings are: 1) every living creature is an eternal soul covered by a material body; 2) as long as the souls are bewildered by mâyâ (the illusion of identifying the self with the body) they must reincarnate from body to body, life after life; 3) to accept a material body means to suffer the four-fold pangs of birth, old age, disease and death; 4) depending upon the quality of work (karma) in the human form, a soul may take its next birth in a subhuman species, or the human species, or a superhuman species, or it may be freed from birth and death altogether; 5) karma dedicated in sacrifice to Viëòu as directed by Vedic injunctions elevates and liberates the soul.

Veda: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Vedas above.

Vedic culture: (sáns. vaiëòava). life-style based on the tenets of the four original scriptures of India, the Vedas.

Vedic: (sáns. vaiëòava). pertaining to a culture in which all aspects of human life are under the guidance of the Vedas.

Vena: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demoniac son of King Aôga and father of King Pèthu.

Veôkateävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). Deity of Lord Viëòu worshiped at Tirupati.

Vidyanagara: (sáns. vaiëòava). at the time of cosmic desolution, Lord Matsya preserves the Vedic wisdom.

Vîbhatsu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the ten names of Arjuna.

Vibhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the causes or bases for relishing transcendental mellows.

Vibhîëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a grandson of Pulastya Muni and the pious brother of Râvaòa. He was a staunch devotee of Lord Râma, who offered him the kingdom of Ärî Lankâ for four yugas. He is one of eight personalities who lives for more than one cycle of four yugas.

Vibhinnâêäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the separated expansions of the Supreme Lord, the minute living entities, who are part and parcel of Kèëòa.

Vibhu-âtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supersoul.

Vibhûti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a secondary incarnation indirectly empowered by the Supreme Lord; opulence by which Kèëòa controls the entire material manifestation.

Vicâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Consideration, philosophical speculation, as opposed to mental speculation.

Vidyanagara: (sáns. vaiëòava). at the time od cosmic desolution, Lord Matsya preserves the Vedic wisdom.

Vidagdha-mâdhava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a seven-act play written by Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî describing the pastimes of Ärî Kèëòa in Vèndâvana.

Vidagdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is expert in the art of attracting women.

Vidarbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient province of old India. Rukmiòî, the wife of Lord Kèëòa, was the daughter of the King of this province.

Vidarbha-râjasiêha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the best of persons who are expert in fruitive activities.

Viddha-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). mixed devotional service.

Videharâja Nimi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee king, ruler of Videha.

Videha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the kingdom of Mithilâ in India ruled by King Nimi.

Vidhi-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service under scheduled regulations.

Vidhi-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). see vidhi-bhakti above

Vidûra-vigata: (sáns. vaiëòava). Caòàâla-an outcaste or untouchable; dog-eaters, the lowest class of human beings.

Vidura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Vyâsadeva by a maidservant of Ambalikâ and the half brother of Dhètarâëùra. He was an incarnation of the great devotee mahâjana, Yamarâja, and an uncle of the Pâòàavas. A great devotee of Kèëòa who inquired and heard from
Maitreya Muni, as narrated in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. He was cursed to become a Äûdra by Mâòàavya Muni. He was constantly trying to restrain Dhètarâëùra from mistreating the Pâòàavas. In the end when Dhètarâëùra lost everything Vidura was
able to deliver his brother to the path of self-realization.

Vidyâdharas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a race of celestial beings who are attendants of Lord Äiva and who possess material mystic knowledge.

Vidyâpati: (sáns. vaiëòava). an author of Vaiëòava poetry who was particularly admired by Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge.

Vihara: (sáns. vaiëòava). Buddhist monastery.

Vijara: (sáns. vaiëòava). not subjected to the miseries of old age.

Vijâtîya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is outside devotional service.

Vijayâ-daäamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the celebration of the conquest of Laôkâ by Lord Râmacandra.

Vijayadhvaja Tîrtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vaiëòava spiritual master in the line of Madhvâcârya. He was a commentator on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Vijighatsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). free from desire for material enjoyment.

Vijita-ëaò-guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has conquered the six material qualities.

Vijitâäva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eldest son of King Pèthu (also known as Antardhâna).

Vijñânam: (sáns. vaiëòava). specific knowledge of spirit soul, his constitutional position and his relationship with the Supreme Soul.

Vijñânamaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). with full knowledge, that is, conscious of the self as different from matter.

Vijñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the practical realization of spiritual knowledge; Transcendental knowledge of the self's relationship to the Supreme Self. See Jëâna.

Vikaròa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was the only one to stand up in defense of Draupadî during the gambling match. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Vikarma: (sáns. vaiëòava). unauthorized or sinful work, performed against the injunctions of revealed scriptures.

Vilâsa-vigrahas: (sáns. vaiëòava). expansions of the Lord who manifest bodily differences.

Vilâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). symptoms manifested in a woman's body when she meets her lover.

Vimânam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the tower over the sanctum of the deity; an airplane.

Vimûòhas: (sáns. vaiëòava). foolish rascals.

Vîòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a stringed musical instrument.

Vinda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prince of Avanti. He was the bother of Mitravindâ, a queen of Lord Kèëòa. He was very envious of Lord Kèëòa and Arjuna. He was killed along with his brother Anuvinda during the Kurukëetra war. Both brothers were killed by Arjuna.

Vindhyâcala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a range of mountains west of the Himâlayas; Agastya Muni-a great sage who authored many Vedic hymns and writings on Âyurvedic medicine. The son of Mitra and Varuòa, he was born from a water jar. Once he swallowed the ocean and
forced the Vindhya mountain range to prostrate itself before him.

Viparyâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Misapprehension. One of the five functions of bu-ddhi. See Buddhi.

Vipralambha: (sáns. vaiëòava). ecstasy in separation.

Vipralipsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cheating propensity.

Vipra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Brâhmaòa-a member of the intellectual, priestly class; a person wise in Vedic knowledge, fixed in goodness and knowledgeable of Brahman, the Absolute Truth; One of the four orders of occupational life, brâhmaòa, këatriya, vaiäya and äûdra. The brâhmaòas are the intellectual class and their occupation is hearing Vedic literature, teaching Vedic literature, learning deity worship and teaching deity worship, receiving charity and giving charity.

Vîra-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). chivalry, one of the indirect relationships with Kèëòa.

Vîra-vrata: (sáns. vaiëòava). fully determined.

Vîrabhadra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demon created by Lord Äiva to destroy the sacrifice of Mahârâja Dakëa.

Vîrarâghava Âcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vaiëòava spiritual master in the line of Râmânujâcârya, and commentator on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Viraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental bliss in separation from the Lord.

Virajâ River: (sáns. vaiëòava). the river that divides the material world from the spiritual world.

Virakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). detachment.

Virâù-puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the universal form of the Supreme Lord as the totality of all material manifestations.

Virâù-rupa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the universal form of the Supreme Lord. See also: Viäva-rûpa.

Virâùa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of the Matsyas. He unknowingly sheltered the Pâòàavas during their last year of exile. He took the side of the Pâòàavas and was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Vîrya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has mercy.

Visrama-ghata: (sáns. vaiëòava). After Varaha killed Hiranyaksa, He spoke the Âdi-varaha-Purana to mother Bhumi (Earth) while relaxing at Visrama-ghata. Thousands of years He rested here after killing Kamsa and dragging his body to shores of the Yamuna.

Viëâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). moroseness, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Viëaya-taraôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the waves of material existence.

Viëaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the object of worship; an object of material sense gratification.

Viëayî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is interested only in material sense gratification.

Visrama-ghata: (sáns. vaiëòava). After Varaha killed Hiranyaksa, He spoke the Âdi-varaha-Purana to mother Bhumi (Earth) while relaxing at Visrama-ghata. Thousands of years He rested here after killing Kamsa and dragging his body to shores of the Yamuna.

Visarga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the secondary creation by Brahmâ.

Viäiëùâdvaita-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vaiëòava philosophy established by Râmânujâcârya's Ärî-bhâëya commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra.

Viëòoì smaraòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of remembering.

Viëòu-bhaktas: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotees in Kèëòa consciousness.

Viëòu-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service to Lord Viëòu.

Viëòu-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Viëòu-mûrtî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Deity form of the Lord worshiped in the temple.

Viëòu-purana: (sáns. vaiëòava). scripture describing the glories of Lord Viëòu.

Viëòu-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a primary expansion of Kèëòa having full status as Godhead. The term applies to primary expansions of the Supreme Lord.

Viëòu-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacrifice performed for the satisfaction of Lord Viëòu.

Viëòudûtas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the messengers of Lord Viëòu who come to take perfected devotees back to the spiritual world at the time of death, the personal servants of Lord Viëòu, they closely resemble If Him in appearance.

Viëòuloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the abode of Lord Viëòu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. See also: Vaikuntha

Viëòupriyâ-devî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second wife of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, whom He left to accept sannyâsa, the renounced order of life.

Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His four-armed expansion in Vaikuòùha; A plenary expansion of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ärî Kèëòa. Viëòu supervises the maintenance of the created universe, and enters into the
material universe before creation. He is worshiped by all the demigods and sages, and described throughout the Vedas as the summum bonum of all knowledge-the Absolute Truth; Literally, the all-pervading God; a prominent Sanskrit name of the Personality of Godhead. See Kèëòa, Supersoul, Vaiëòava.

Viäoka: (sáns. vaiëòava). callous to material distress and happiness.

Viäoka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the charioteer of Bhîma.

Viärambha: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service devoid of a respectful attitude toward the Lord.

Viäruta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son begotten by the Pracetâs through Mâriëâ.

Viäuddha-sattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual platform of pure goodness.

Viäva-rûpa (viraù-rûpa): (sáns. vaiëòava). the universal form of Lord Kèëòa, as described in the Eleventh Chapter of Bhagavad-gîtâ.

Viäva-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). universal religion.

Viävakarmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the architect of the devas or demigods. He built the city of Indraprastha for the Pâòàavas at the request of Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Viävakoäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient Sanskrit dictionary.

Viävambhara: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who maintains the entire universe and who leads all living beings; the name of Lord Caitanya before He entered the renounced order.

Viävâmitra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prominent sage and rival of Vasiëùha Muni.

Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great âcârya in the Caitanya school of Vaiëòavism and the most prominent âcârya after Narottama dâsa Ùhâkura. On the order of his guru he went to Vèndâvana and by his life's end he had composed twenty-four valuable books on the science of bhakti. He established the Gokulânanda Temple. In his final years he lived at Râdhâ-kuòàa; he has written commentaries on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam and Ärîmad Bhagavad-gîtâ.

Viävâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a government secretary; confidence.

Visvarupa: (sáns. vaiëòava). brother of Lord Caitanya, he took sanyassa at an early age; the life-breath of Nimai.

Viävâvasu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a leader of the Gandharvas, singers in the heavenly planets.

Vitarka: (sáns. vaiëòava). argument, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Vîthî: (sáns. vaiëòava). beginning of a drama consisting of only one scene.

Vivâha-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sacrifice of marriage.

Vivarta-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the erroneous concept; propounded by Äaôkarâcârya, that God is no longer complete after He expands His energies for creation; the Mâyâvâdî interpretation of the Vedânta-sûtra that the Supreme Lord becomes changed when He expands and that all manifest varieties are unreal.

Vivarta: (sáns. vaiëòava). illusion; also, sorrow and confusion due to nonfulfillment of material desires.

Vivasvân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of the present sun-god, to whom Bhagavad-gîtâ was instructed at least 120,400,000 years ago.

Viviêäati: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Viyoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage of separation when the mind is fully absorbed in thoughts of Kèëòa.

Voidism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The mind has two functions, accepting and rejecting. Voidism is the result of total frustration, when the mind negates and rejects everything as just too troublesome. Voidism in Sanskrit is äûnyavâda, a doctrine associated with Buddhism.

As the Bodhicaryâvatâra-panjikâ, a Buddhist scripture, puts it, niùasvabhâvavatâ äûnyatâthe absence of the self-existence of all things, voidnessis the paramârtha (supreme goal) of Buddhism. In ancient Greece, Democritus and other atomists
reduced reality down to atoms and the void. Modern physicists propose scenarios of the universe popping out of a primordial void. Ärîla Prabhupâda writes: The Äaôkarites and Buddhists claim that the world beyond is void, but Bhagavad-gîtâ does not disappoint us like this. The philosophy of voidness has simply created atheists. We are spiritual beings, and we want enjoyment, but as soon as our future is void, we will become inclined to enjoy this material life. In this way, the impersonalists discuss the philosophy of voidism while trying as much as possible to enjoy this material life.

One may enjoy speculation in this way, but there is no spiritual benefit. (Beyond Birth and Death, Chap. Four) The ultimate paradox of voidism is that if everything is void, then there is nothing to philosophize about. Consequently, those professing
voidism logically ought to behave as Cratylus did. See Buddhism, Cratylus, Impersonalism, Mâyâvâda philosophy, Mind, Äaôkarâcârya, Scepticism.

Vrajabhûmi: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vèndâvana-Kèëòa's eternal abode, where He fully manifests His quality of sweetness; the village on this earth in which He enacted His childhood pastimes five thousand years ago; the topmost transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord. It is His personal spiritual abode descended to the earthly plane. It is situated on the Western bank of the river Yamunâ. He was present on earth about 5,000 years ago. Also see Vraja-the 168-square-mile (84 kroäa) area in the district of Mathurâ where five thousand years ago Lord Kèëòa displayed His pastimes. It is the principal holy place of pilgrimage for all Vaiëòavas. It is said in the äâstras that Vraja is the essence and sum total of all holy places.

Vraja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the 168-square-mile (84 kroäa) area in the district of Mathurâ where five thousand years ago Lord Kèëòa displayed His pastimes. It is the principal holy place of pilgrimage for all Vaiëòavas. It is said in the äâstras that Vraja is the essence and sum total of all holy places. See also: Vèndâvana.

Vrajendra-kumâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the child of King Nanda.

Vrajendra-nandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the son of Nanda Mahârâja.

Vrajendra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Nanda Mahârâja, the foster father of Lord Kèëòa.

Vèddhakëatra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Jayadratha.

Vrîòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). shame, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Vèkodara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Bhîmasena meaning "he of the voracious appetite."

Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnation of Vedavyâsa in Lord Caitanya's pastimes and the author of Caitanya-bhagavata, one of the earliest biographies of Lord Caitanya, in which he especially describes Caitanya Mahâprabhu's early pastimes.

Vèndâvana-vihâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pastimes of Vèndâvana.

Vèndâvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's eternal abode, where He fully manifests His quality of sweetness; the village on this earth in which He enacted His childhood pastimes five thousand years ago; the topmost transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord. It is His personal spiritual abode descended to the earthly plane. It is situated on the Western bank of the river Yamunâ. He was present on earth about 5,000 years ago. Also see Vraja.

Vèëasena: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Karòa. He was considered a Mahârathi. He was killed by Arjuna in the presence of his father Karòa. (Karòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Vèòài: (sáns. vaiëòava). a famous king of the Yadu dynasty. Lord Kèëòa took birth in his dynasty.

Vètra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vètrâsura, a great demon killed by Indra. He was actually the devotee Citraketu, who had been cursed to take a low birth.

Vyabhicârî-bhâvas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the thirty-three transitory bodily symptoms manifest in ecstatic love.

Vyâdhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). disease, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Vyakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). material creation when it is manifested from the total energy of mahat-tattva.

Vyâna-vâyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the internal bodily airs which is controlled by the aëùâôga-yoga
system. The vyâna-vâyu acts to shrink and expand.

Vyâsa-pûjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). worship of the compiler of the Vedas, Vyâsadeva; worship of the bona fide spiritual master as the representative of Vyâsadeva on his appearance day.

Vyâsadeva (Vyâsa): (sáns. vaiëòava). the literary incarnation of God, and the greatest philosopher of ancient times. The son of Parâäara, and the compiler of the original Vedic scriptures, including the eighteen Purâòas, Vedânta-sûtra, the Mahâbhârata, and the Upaniëads.

He played a very important part in guiding the Pâòàavas during crucial times. He gave the vision of the battle of Kurukëetra to Saëjaya so that he could relate it to Dhètarâëùra. He is still living in this world.

Vyâsâsana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seat of Vyâsa, on which the representative of Vyâsadeva sits.

Vyâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vyâsadeva (Vyâsa)-the literary incarnation of God, and the greatest philosopher of ancient times. The son of Parâäara, and the compiler of the original Vedic scriptures, including the eighteen Purâòas, Vedânta-sûtra, the Mahâbhârata, and the Upaniëads.

He played a very important part in guiding the Pâòàavas during crucial times. He gave the vision of the battle of Kurukëetra to Saëjaya so that he could relate it to Dhètarâëùra. He is still living in this world; The son of Parâäara Muni and
Satyavatî-devî, Vyâsa is the empowered (äaktyâveäa-)avatâra of God who rendered the Vedic äabda into written texts some 5000 years ago. He is also known as Vedavyâsa, Bâdarâyaòa and Dvaipâyana. See Avatâra (Äaktya-aveäa), Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Veda, Vedânta-sûtra.


Wittgenstein, Ludwig: (sáns. vaiëòava). Austrian-born logician and philosopher (1889-1951) who taught at Cambridge University. He is probably the most influential theorist of language in the twentieth century. In Tractatus Logico-philosophicus he wrote, My propositions serve as elucidations in the following way: anyone who understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical. ... He must transcend these propositions, and then he will see the world aright.


Yâdava dynasty. see: Yadu dynasty below.

Yadavadri: (sáns. vaiëòava). town of Melkot in South India.

Yâdava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who appears in the Yadu dynasty."

Yadu (Yâdava) dynasty: (sáns. vaiëòava). the dynasty in which Lord Kèëòa appeared.

Yadu-kumâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa as the young darling of the Yadus in Mathurâ and Dvârakâ.

Yadupati: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of Kèëòa meaning "King of the Yadu dynasty."

Yadus: (sáns. vaiëòava). the descendants of Yadu.

Yadu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of King Yayâti. He was the founder of the Yadu dynasty.

Yadvâ-tadvâ kavi: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who writes poetry without proper knowledge.

Yajamânas: (sáns. vaiëòava). those for whom a priest executes sacrifices.

Yajana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the duty of a brâhmaòa to perform Vedic rituals.

Yajña-puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the supreme enjoyer of all sacrifices.

Yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vedic sacrifice; also, a name for the Supreme Lord meaning "the personification of sacrifice"; the goal and enjoyer of all sacrifices.

Yajñeävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). an epithet of Kèëòa, "Lord of sacrifice."

Yakëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). ghostly followers of the demigod Kuvera, the treasurer of the demigods. They were born from the feet of Lord Brahmâ.

Yamadûtas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the messengers of Yamarâja, the lord of death.

Yamarâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod of death, who passes judgment on non-devotees at the time of death. He is the son of the sun-god and the brother of the sacred river Yamunâ.

Yama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the process of controlling the senses.

Yâmunâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great Vaiëòava spiritual master and author in the Ärî-sampradâya, one of the important disciplic lines.

Yamunâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sacred river where Kèëòa performed many pastimes. One of the holy rivers of India, flowing through Vèndâvana. It was here that Lord Ärî Kèëòa sported when He was a young child. The personification of the Yamunâ River, known as Kâlindî, is the daughter of the sun god and the sister of Yamarâja, the god of death. She is also called Yamî. In Kèëòa-lîlâ she became one of Kèëòa's queens at Dvârakâ.

Yaäodâ-nandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, who played as the son of Yaäodâ.

Yaäodâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the foster mother of Kèëòa, who was the Queen of Vraja and wife of Mahârâja Nanda.

Yâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a journey.

Yavana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a class of humans fallen from the Vedic culture; a low-class person, generally a meat-eater; a barbarian.

Yavana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the servant of Yamarâja.

Yayâti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king who, because of his lust, was cursed by Äukrâcârya to prematurely accept old age.

Yoga-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of developing mystic powers.

Yoga-mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the internal, spiritual energy of the Supreme Lord, to which the external energy, mahâ-mayâ, is subordinate, and which hides Him from non devotees.

Yoga-nidrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). mystic slumber in which Mahâ-Viëòu creates universes.

Yoga-siddhis: (sáns. vaiëòava). mystic perfections; mystic powers.

Yogarudha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest stage of yoga.

Yogarurukëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the beginning stage of yoga.

Yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a spiritual discipline meant for linking one's consciousness with the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa; Literally, connection; the discipline of self-realization. One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy, taught by Pataëjali. According to Bhagavad-gîtâ, the most sublime form of yoga is bhakti-yoga (the yoga of pure devotion). Through the process of bhakti-yoga, the consciousness of the individual soul connects with its source, Kèëòa. This is called Kèëòa consciousness. By Kèëòa consciousness, the soul rids itself of the bondage of the three modes of material nature and returns back home, Back to Godhead. See Bhakti-yoga, Six systems.

Yogeävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the supreme master of all mystic powers, Kèëòa.

Yogendras: (sáns. vaiëòava). nine devotee sons of Èëabhadeva.

Yogî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a transcendentalist who practices one of the many authorized forms of yoga, or processes of spiritual purification; those who practice the eight-fold mystic yoga process to gain mystic siddhis or Paramâtmâ realization.

Yojana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a standard Vedic measurement equal to eight miles.

Yuddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Sanskrit word for war.

Yudhâmanyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prince of Pâñcâla. He fought on the side of the Pâòàavas and was killed on the last night of the battle when Aävatthâmâ entered his tent severed his head.

Yudhiëùhira: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eldest of the Pâòàavas in the Mahâbhârata, and the son of Dharmarâja or Yamarâja, the god of death. It was the dispute over his succession to the throne in India that led to the Battle of Kurukëetra; he ruled the earth after the Kurukëetra war.

Yuga-avatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of the Lord in each millennium who prescribes the appropriate process of self-realization for that age.

Yuga-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the religion for the age.

Yugala-pirîti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conjugal love between Râdhâ and Kèëòa.

Yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four ages of the universe, which differ in length and which rotate like
calendar months. See also: Satya-yuga, Treta-yuga, Dvâpara-yuga and Kali-yuga.

Yukta-vairâgya: (sáns. vaiëòava). befitting, real renunciation, in which one utilizes everything in the service of the Supreme Lord.

Yuyutsu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Dhètarâëùra by a Vaiäya wife. He took the side of the Pâòàavas during the Kurukëetra war. He lived through the battle and performed the last funeral rites for the slain warriors on the side of Kurus.


Zamindâr: (sáns. vaiëòava). a wealthy landowner.

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