martes, 6 de julio de 2010

dEdidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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5.Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna


Edidhishupati: (sáns. hindú). The husband of a younger sister whose older sister is unmarried.

Eka: (sáns. hindú). 1. The One (God). 2. Vishnu's 725th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Ekabandhu: (sáns. hindú). Sole kinsman. Shiva's 1006th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ekabhakta: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + bhakta "devoted") Devoted to (the) One.

Ekabuddhi: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + buddhi "intellect") The being whose intelligence rests in the One.

Ekacakra: (sáns. hindú). A city in the country of the Kichakas, where, by advice of Vyasa, the Pandavas dwelt for a time during their exile. Some believe that it is the modern Ara or Arrah.

Ekadanshtra: (sáns. hindú). Having one tusk. A name of Ganesha.

Ekadanta: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + danta "tooth") A name of Ganesha, who is said to have broken one of his tusks to write the Mahabharata.

Ekadhanah: (sáns. hindú). Waters in Soma ceremonies.

Ekadhenus: (sáns. hindú). Sacrificial waters.

Ekadrish: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + drish "eye, sight") A name of Shiva referring to His having the third eye of knowledge on His forehead, with which He consumed Kamadeva, or Cupid.

Ekadyu: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Rishi.

Ekagrata: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + agra "point" + ta "in the state of") One-pointedness.

Ekajyoti: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + jyoti "light") A name of Shiva.

Ekajyoti: (sáns. hindú). Single luminary. Shiva's 1086th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ekaksha: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + aksha "eye") 1. The one-eyed. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His having the third eye of knowledge on His forehead, with which He consumed Kamadeva, or Cupid.

Ekalavya: (sáns. hindú). The grandson of Devashravas, the brother of Vasudeva. He was brother of Shatrughna He was abandoned in infancy, and was brought up among the Nishadas, of whom he became king. He assisted in a night attack upon Dvaraka, and was eventually killed by Krishna, who hurled a rock at him.

Ekalinga: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + linga "penis") 1. Symbol of oneness. 2. The lingam is associated with Shiva and represents oneness and formlessness.

Ekalocana: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + locana "eye") 1. Having one eye. 2. Name of Shiva referring to His having the third eye of knowledge on His forehead. He consumed Kamadeva, or Cupid, by looking at him with his third eye.

Ekalu: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Rishi.

Ekamati: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + mati "thought") The being whose thought rests in the One.

Ekamra: (sáns. hindú). A forest in Utkala or Orissa, which was Shiva's favorite place. It became a great seat of his worship as the city of Bhuvanesvara, where some very fine temples sacred to him still remain.

Ekamrakanana: (sáns. hindú). See Ekamra.

Ekanatha: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + natha "lord") The One Lord.

Ekanayaka: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + nayaka "ruler") 1. The one ruler or leader. 2. Having only one ruler or leader.

Ekanayaka: (sáns. hindú). Sole leader. Shiva's 1003rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ekanayana: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + nayana "eye") See Ekalocana.

Ekanetra: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + netra "eye") See Ekalocana.

Ekanta: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + anta "end") The being whose end is Oneness.

Ekapada: (sáns. hindú). One-footed. A fabulous race of men spoken of in the Puranas.

Ekapara: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + para "devoted; supreme") 1. Devoted to the One (God). 2. One for whom the One (God) is supreme..

Ekaparna: (sáns. hindú). These, with their sister Aparna, were, according to the Harivansha, daughters of Himavat and Mena. They performed austerities surpassing the power of gods and Danavas, and alarmed both worlds. Ekaparna took only one leaf for food, and Ekapatala only one patala (Bignonia) Aparna took no sustenance at all and lived aparna; that is, "without a leaf." Her mother being distressed at her abstinence, exclaimed in her anxiety, "Uma," which means, "O don't." Through this she became manifest as the lovely goddess Uma, the wife of Shiva.

Ekapatala: (sáns. hindú). See Ekaparna.

Ekapurusha: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + purusha "Being, Spirit") The One (Supreme) Being.

Ekarada: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + rada "tooth") See Ekadanta.

Ekarama: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + arama "enjoyment") 1. The being whose delight is in the One. 2. Having only one delight.

Ekarasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. With a long terminal a (eka "one" + rasa "delight") Lalita's 33rd name as listed in the Lalita Trishati. See the Taittiriya Upanishad. 2. With a standard terminal a (eka "one" + rasa "essence") The one essence of truth. See rasa.

Ekarata: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + rata "delighted") Delighted in the One (God).

Ekarati: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + rati "delight, pleasure") She whose delight is in the One (God).

Ekarshi: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + rishi "seer") 1. The one seer. 2. The solitary traveler. 3. The Sun-God (Surya) in the Isha Upanishad. 4. Name of a Rishi.

Ekasati: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + sati "existence") 1. The daughter of Daksha, who was Shiva's consort and who immolated herself when Shiva was shown disrespect by Her father. Later she was reborn as Parvati, the daughter of Himavan or Himalaya. 2. The only Sati or faithful wife.

Ekashraya: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + ashraya "refuge") 1. The being whose refuge is in the One (God). 2. Having only one refuge.

Ekashtaka: (sáns. hindú). A deity mentioned in the Atharvaveda as having practiced austere devotion. She was the daughter of Prajapati and mother of Indra and Soma.

Ekata: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + ta "in the state of) Oneness.

Ekatman: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + atman "Self") 1. The one Self. 2. Vishnu's 965th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Ekavrata: (sáns. hindú). (eka "one" + rata "vow, obedience, mode of life") 1. A being who observes one vow. 2. A being who takes food once a day.

Ela: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Elattaria cardamomum, the cardamon (large variety).

Elabaluka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Gisekia pharmaceoides, a kind of red camphor.

Eluva: (sáns. hindú). See Elabaluka.

Emusha: (sáns. hindú). In the Brahmana, a boar which raised up the earth, represented as black and with a hundred arms. This is probably the genesis of the Varaha or boar incarnation of Vishnu. See Avatara.

Enva: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Cucumis utilissimus, a cucumber or gourd.

Etasha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A favorite of Indra. 2. One of the Sun's horses.

Evavada: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi.


Gada: (sáns. hindú). A younger brother of Krishna.

Gadapunna: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means "Boerhavia diffusa" commonly known as "hogweed."

Gadhi: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Kushika race, and father of Vishvamitra. He was son of Kushamba, or, according to the Vishnupurana, he was Indra, who took on that form. Also called Gathin.

Gahana: (sáns. hindú). Abstruse. Shiva's 411th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gairikshita: (sáns. hindú). A patronymic of Trasadasyu.

Gajamukha: (sáns. hindú). (gaja "elephant" + mukha "face") The elephant-faced. See Ganesha.

Gajanana: (sáns. hindú). (gaja "elephant" + anana "face") The elephant-faced. See Ganesha.

Gajapippala: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means Scindapsis officinalis.

Gajara: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See grinjana.

Gajavadana: (sáns. hindú). (gaja "elephant" + vadana "face") The elephant-faced. See Ganesha.

Gajavaktra: (sáns. hindú). (gaja "elephant" + vaktra "face") The elephant-faced. See Ganesha.

Gajendra: (sáns. hindú). (gaja "elephant" + indra "chief") 1. Chief of the elephants. 2. One of the four elephants guarding the quarters.

Galava: (sáns. hindú). 1. A pupil of Vishvamitra. It is told in the Mahabharata that at the conclusion of his studies, Galava persistently pleaded for his master to tell him what he could give him for a present. Vishvamitra became annoyed with Galava's insistence and told him to bring him 800 horses, each having one black ear. In his perplexity Galava went to Garuda for help. Garuda took him to King Yayati at Pratishthana. The king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his daughter Madhavi. Galava gave her in marriage successively to Haryashva, king of Ayodhya, Divodasa, king of Kashi, and Ushinara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the horses he was seeking. contingent upon Madhavi giving birth to a son by each of them. Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava presented her and the horses to Vishvamitra.

The sage accepted them, and had a son by Madhavi, who was named Ashtaka. When Vishvamitra retired to the forest, he gave his hermitage and his horses to Ashtaka. In the meantime, Galava had taken Madhavi back to her father and had retired to the forest himself just as his preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the Brahman Richika from the god Varuna. There were originally 1000 horses, but his descendants sold 600 of then, and gave the rest away to Brahmana. According to the Harivansha, Galava was the son of Vishvamitra, and in a time of great distress he tied a cord around his son's waist and offered him for sale. Prince Satyavrata gave him liberty and restored him to his father. From his having been bound with a cord (gala) he was called Galava. 2. There was a teacher of the White Yajurveda named Galava, and Panini spoke of an old grammarian by the name.

Gambhira: (sáns. hindú). Majestic. Shiva's 388th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ganadevatas: (sáns. hindú). Troops of deities. Deities who generally appear, or are spoken of, in classes. Nine such classes are mentioned: 1) Adityas; 2) Vishvas or Vishvedevas; 3) Vasus; 4) Tushitas; 5) Abhasvaras; 6) Anilas; 7) Maharajikas; 8) Sadhyas; 9) Rudras. These minor deities are attendant upon Shiva, and under the command of Ganesha. They dwell on Ganaparvata, i.e., Kailasa.

Ganakarya: (sáns. hindú). The work of Ganas. Shiva's 177 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gananatha: (sáns. hindú). (Gana "troop of demi-gods attending Shiva" + natha "lord") 1. Lord of the Gana troop (i.e. demi-gods attending Shiva). 2. Shiva. 3. Ganesha.

Ganapati: (sáns. hindú). (Gana "troop of demi-gods attending Shiva" + pati "lord") See Ganesha.

Ganapatya: (sáns. hindú). A small sect who worship Ganapati or Ganesha as their chief deity.

Ganas: (sáns. hindú). See Ganadevatas.

Gandaki: (sáns. hindú). The river Gandak in Oude.

Gandhadhara: (sáns. hindú). (gandha "fragrance" + dhara "bearing") 1. Bearing a divine fragrance. 2. A name of Shiva, which refers to His subtleties which is all-pervading like the fragrance that permeates sandalwood.

Gandhakali: (sáns. hindú). 1. A being who is fragrant. 2. The name of Vyasa's mother, Satyavati, which was given to her because once she conceived her son Vyasa, she always smelled fragrant.

Gandhamadana: (sáns. hindú). Intoxicating with fragrance. 1) A mountain and forest in Ilavrita, the central region of the world, which contains the mountain Meru. 2) A general of the monkey allies of Rama. He was killed by Ravana's son Indrajit, but was restored to life by the medicinal herbs brought by Hanuman from Mount Kailasa.

Gandhara: (sáns. hindú). A country and city on the west bank of the Indus about Attock. Mohammedan geographers call it Kandahar, but it must not be confounded with the modern town of that name. It is the Gandharitis of the ancients, and its people are the Gandarii of Herodotus. The Vayupurana says it was famous for its breed of horses.

Gandhari: (sáns. hindú). Princess of Gandhara. The daughter of Subala, king of Gandhara, wife of Dhritarashtra, and mother of his hundred sons. Her husband was blind, so she always wore a bandage over her eyes to be like him. Her husband and she, in their old age, both perished in a forest fire. She is also called by the patronymics Saubali and Sanbaleyi. She is said to have owed her hundred sons to the blessing of Vyasa, who, in acknowledgment of her kind hospitality, offered her a boon. She asked for a hundred sons. Then she became pregnant, and continued so for two years, at the end of which time she was delivered of a lump of flesh. Vyasa took the shapeless mass and divided it into 101 pieces, which he placed in as many jars. In due time Duryodhana was produced, but with such accompanying fearful portents that Dhritarashtra was besought. though in vain, to abandon him. A month afterwards ninety-nine other sons came forth, and an only daughter, Duhsala.

Gandharva: (sáns. hindú). 1. The "heavenly Gandharva" of the Veda was a deity who knew and revealed the secrets of heaven and divine truth in general. He is thought by Goldstücker to have been a personification of the fire of the sun. The Gandharvas generally had their dwelling in the sky or atmosphere, and one of their offices was to prepare the heavenly Soma juice for the gods. They had a great partiality for women, and had a mystic power over them. The Atharvaveda speaks of "the 6,333 Gandharvas." The Gandharvas of later times are similar in character; they have charge of the Soma, are skilled in medicine, regulate the asterisms, and are fond of women. Those of Indra's heaven are generally intended by the term, and they are singers and musicians who attend the banquets of the gods.

The Puranas give contradictory accounts of the origin of the Gandharvas. The Vishnupurana says, in one place, that the were born from Brahma, "imbibing melody. Drinking of the goddess of speech (gam dhayantah), they were born, and thence their appellation." Later on it says that they were the offspring of Kashyapa and his wife Arishta. The Harivansa states that they sprang from Brahma's nose, and also that they were descended from Muni, another of Kashyapa's wives. Chitraratha was chief of the Gandharvas; and the Apsarases were their wives or mistresses. The "cities of the Gandharvas" are often referred to as being very splendid. The Vishnupurana has a legend of the Gandharvas fighting with the Nagas in the infernal regions, whose dominions they seized and whose treasures they plundered. The Naga chiefs appealed to Vishnu for relief, and he promised to appear in the person of Purukutsa to help them. Thereupon the Nagas sent their sister Narmada (the Nerbudda river) to this Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions below, where he destroyed the Gandharva. They are sometimes called Gatus and Pulakas. In the Mahabharata, apparently, a race of people dwelling in the hills and wilds is so called. 2. A special term used in the Kama Sutra signifying an angelic marriage, by elopement or mutual agreement.

Gandharvaloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.

Gandharvashala: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra meaning "music room."

Gandharvaveda: (sáns. hindú). The science of music and song, which is considered to include drama and dancing. It is an appendix of the Samaveda, and its invention is ascribed to the Muni Bharata.

Gandhasara: (sáns. hindú). (gandha "fragrance" + sara "essence") The fragrant essence (i.e. sandalwood and jasmine).

Gandhini: (sáns. hindú). A being who is fragrant.

Gandini: (sáns. hindú). 1. The daughter of Kashiraja; she had been twelve years in her mother's womb when her father desired her to come forth. The child told her father to present to the Brahmans a cow every day for three years, and at the end of that time she would be born. This was done, and the child, on being born, received the name of Gandini which means "cow daily." She continued the gift as long as she lived. She was wife of Shvaphalka and mother of Akrura. 2. The Ganga or Ganges.

Gandiva: (sáns. hindú). The bow of Arjuna which is said to have been given by Soma to Varuna, by Varuna to Agni, and by Agni to Arjuna.

Ganesha: (sáns. hindú). (Gana "demi-gods" + isha "lord") The lord of the Ganas or troops of minor deities, especially those attendant upon Shiva. Ganesha is a son of Shiva and Parvati, or of Parvati only. One theory states that he sprang from the scurf of Parvati's body. He is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles; hence he is invariably propitiated at the beginning of any important undertaking, and is invoked at the commencement of books. He is said to have written down the Mahabharata from the dictation of Vyasa. He is represented as a short fat man of a yellow color, with a protuberant belly, four hands, and the head of an elephant, which has only one tusk. In one hand he holds a shell, in another a discus, in the third a club or goad, and in the fourth a water-lily (sometimes the fourth hand is holding a container of laddu, a confection made from chickpeas, of which he is believed to be particularly fond). Sometimes he is depicted riding upon a rat or attended by one; hence his appellation Akhuratha.

His temples are very numerous in the Dakhin. There is a variety of legends accounting for his elephant head. One is that his mother Parvati, proud of her offspring, asked Sani (Saturn) to look at him, forgetful of the effects of Sani's glance. Sani looked and the child's head was burnt to ashes. In her distress, Brahma told Parvati to replace the head with the first she could find, and that was an elephant's. Another story is that Parvati went to her bath and told her son to keep the door. Shiva wished to enter and was opposed, so he cut of Ganesha's head. To pacify Parvati, he replaced it with an elephant's the first that came to hand. Another version is that his mother formed him to suit her own fancy, and a further explanation is that Shiva slew Aditya (the sun) but restored him to life again. For this violence Kashyapa doomed Shiva's son to lose his head; and when he did lose it, the head of Indra's elephant was used to replace it. The loss of one tusk is accounted for by a legend which represents Parashurama as coming to Kailasa on a visit to Shiva. The god was asleep and Ganesha opposed the entrance of the visitor to the inner apartments. An argument ensued, which ended in a fight.

"Ganesha had at first the advantage, seizing Parashurama with his trunk and giving him a twirl that left him sick and senseless. On recovering, Parashurama threw his axe at Ganesha, who, recognizing it as his father's weapon (Shiva having given it to Parashurama), received it with all humility on one of his tusks, which it immediately severed; hence Ganesha has but one tusk, and is known by the name of Ekadanta or Ekadanshtra (the single-tusked). These legends are narrated at length in the Brahmavaivarttapurana. Ganesha is called also Gajanana, Gajavadana, and Karimukha, "elephant-faced"; Heramba, "boastful"; Lambalarna, "Long-eared"; Lambodara, "pendant-bellied"; Dvideha, "Double-bodied"; Vighnesha, Vighnahari, "remover of obstacles." A peculiar appellation is Dvaimatura, "Having two mothers," an allusion, it is said, to his birth from the scurf of Parvati's body.

Ganesha Gita: (sáns. hindú). The Bhagavad Gita with the name of Ganesha substituted for that of Krishna. It is used by the Ganapatyas or worshippers of Ganesha.

Ganeshapurana: (sáns. hindú). An Upapurana having special reference to the glory and greatness of Ganesha Ganeshvara- Lord of the Ganas. Shiva's 39 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ganga: (sáns. hindú). The sacred river Ganges. It is said to be mentioned only twice in the Rigveda. The Puranas represent Viyadganga, or heavenly Ganges, to flow from the toe of Vishnu and to have been brought down from heaven, by the prayers of the saint Bhagiratha, to purify the ashes of the sixty thousand sons of King Sagara, who had been burned by the angry glance of the sage Kapila. From this earthly parent the river is called Bhagirathi. Ganga was angry at being brought down from heaven, and Shiva, to save the earth from the shock of her fall, caught the river on his brow, and checked its course with his matted locks. From this action he is called Gangadhara, "upholder of the Ganges."

The river descended from Shiva's brow in several streams, four according to some, and ten according to others, but the number generally accepted is seven, being the Saptasindhava, the seven sindhus or rivers. The Ganges proper is one of the number. The descent of the Ganges disturbed the sage Jahnu as he was performing a sacrifice, and in his anger he drank up the waters, but he relented and allowed the river to flow from his ear, hence the Ganges has the name of Jahnavi. Personified as a goddess, Ganga is the oldest daughter of Himavat and Mena, and her sister was Uma. She became the wife of King Shantanu and bore a son, Bhishma, who is also known by the metronymic Gangeya. Being also, in a peculiar way, the mother of Kartikeya, she is called Kumarasu; Gold, according to the Mahabharata, was borne by the Ganga to Agni, by whom she had been impregnated. Other names and titles of the Ganges are Bhadrasoma, Gandini, Kirati, Devabhuti, "produced in heaven"; Harashekhara, "crest of Shiva"; Khapaga, "flowing from heaven"; Mandakini, "gently flowing"; Tripathaga or Trisrotah, "triple flowing," running in heaven, earth, and hell.

Gangabhrit: (sáns. hindú). (ganga "the river Ganges" + bhrit "bearer") 1. The bearer of the Ganges. 2. Shiva's name referring to the Ganges flowing from His head.

Gangadhara: (sáns. hindú). (ganga "the river Ganges" + dhara "bearing") 1. The bearer of the Ganges. 2. Shiva's 21st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See Ganga.

Gangadvara: (sáns. hindú). The gate of the Ganges. The opening in the Himalaya mountains through which the river descends into the plains, now known as Hardvar.

Gangaplavodaka: (sáns. hindú). Identical with water flowing in the Ganga. Shiva's 167th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gangasagara: (sáns. hindú). The mouth of the Ganges, a holy bathing-place sacred to Vishnu.

Gangasuta: (sáns. hindú). (ganga "the River Ganges" + suta "son") 1. Son of the Ganges. 2. Bhishma. 3. Karttikeya.

Gangeya: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Bhishma, from his reputed mother, the river Ganga. 2. Karttikeya.

Ganika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. meaning "courtesan."

Garbhadhana: (sáns. hindú). A ceremony to facilitate and bless conception.

Garga: (sáns. hindú). An ancient sage, and one of the oldest writers on astronomy. He was a son of Vitatha. The Vishnupurana says, "From Garga sprang Shina (or Shini); from them were descended the Gargyas and Shainyas, Brahmans of Kshatriya race." The statement of the Bhagavata is, "From Garga sprang Sina; from them Garya, who from a Kshatriya became a Brahman." There were many Gargas; one was a priest of Krishna and the Yadavas.

Gargas: (sáns. hindú). Descendants of Garga, who, "although Kshatriyas by birth, became Brahmans and great Rishis."

Gargi: (sáns. hindú). Name of a learned woman who questioned Yajnavalkya in BrihadAranyaka Upanishad and was instructed on the Aksharam (the Imperishable).

Gargya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Balaki. He was a Brahman, renowned as a teacher and as a grammarian, who dealt especially with etymologies and was well read in the Veda, but still submitted to receive instruction from the Kshatriya Ajatasatru.

Gargya Balaki: (sáns. hindú). See Gargya.

Gargyas: (sáns. hindú). See Gargas.

Garhaptya: (sáns. hindú). The western sacred fire of a householder.

Gartsmada: (sáns. hindú). Name of Rigveda Book II or Rigveda, mandala II.

Garuda: (sáns. hindú). A mythical bird or vulture, half-man, half-bird, on which Vishnu rides. He is the king of birds, and descended from Kashyapa and Vinata, one of the daughters of Daksha. He is the great enemy of serpents, having inherited his hatred from his mother, who had quarreled with her co-wife and superior, Kadru, the mother of serpents. His luster was so brilliant that soon after his birth the gods mistook him for Agni and worshipped him. He is represented as having the head, wings, talons, and beak of an eagle, and the body and limbs of a man. is face is white, his wings red, and his body golden. He had a son named Sampati, and his wife was Unnati or Vinayaka. According to the Mahabharata, his parents gave him liberty to devour bad men, but he was not to touch Brahmans. Once, however, he swallowed a Brahman and his wife, but the Brahman so burned his throat that he was glad to disgorge them both. Garuda is said to have stolen the Amrita from the gods in order use it to purchase the freedom of his mother from Kadru. Indra discovered the theft and fought a fierce battle with Garuda.

The Amrita was recovered, but Indra was beaten in the fight, and his thunderbolt was smashed. Garuda has many names and epithets. From his parent he is called Kasyapi and Vainateya. He is the Suparna and the Garutman, or chief of birds. He is also called Dakshaya, Shalmalin, Tarkshya, and Vinayaka, and among his epithets are the following: Sitanana, "white faced"; Raktapaksha, "red winged"; Svetarohita, "the white and red"; Suvarnakaya, "golden bodied"; Gaganeshvara, "lord of the sky"; Khagesvara, "king of birds"; Nagantaka, and Pannaganashana, "destroyer of serpents"; Sarparati, "enemy of serpents"; Tarasvin, "the swift"; Rasayana, "who moves like quicksilver"; Kamacharin, "who goes where he will"; Kamayus, "who lives at pleasure"; Chirad, "eating long"; Vishnuratha, "vehicle of Vishnu"; Amritharana and Sudhahara, "stealer of the Amrita"; ' Surendrajit, "vanquisher of Indra"; Vajrajit, "subduer of the thunderbolt."

Garudapurana: (sáns. hindú). The description given of this Purana is, "That which Vishnu recited in the Garuda Kalpa, relating chiefly to the birth of Garuda from Vinata, is called the Garudapurana, and in it there are read 19,000 stanzas" The works bearing this name which have been examined by experts have not corresponded in any respect with this description, and they consider it doubtful if a genuine Garudapurana is in existence.

Garuna: (sáns. hindú). Name of a mythical bird.

Gatha: (sáns. hindú). A song, a verse. A religious verse, but one not taken from the Vedas. Verses interspersed in the Sanskrit Buddhist work called Lalitavistara, which are composed in a dialect between the Sanskrit and the Prakrit, and have given their name to this the Gatha dialect. The Zend hymns of the Zoroastrians are called Gathas.

Gathaka: (sáns. hindú). The singer of the Puranas.

Gathin: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Kushika race, and father of Vishvamitra. He was son of Kushamba, or, according to the Vishnupurana, he was Indra, who took on that form. Also called Gadhi.

Gati: (sáns. hindú). The goal. Shiva's 367th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gatu: (sáns. hindú). 1. A singer. 2. A Gandharva.

Gauda: (sáns. hindú). The ancient name of Central Bengal; also the name of the capital of that country. The great northern nation of Brahmans. See Brahman.

Gaudavaho: (sáns. hindú). A writing by the late seventh or early eighth century writer Vakpati. See Vindhyavasini.

Gaupayanas: (sáns. hindú). Sons or descendant of Gopa. Four Rishis who were the authors of four remarkable hymns in the Rigveda. One of them, named Subandhu, Was killed and miraculously brought to life again.

Gaura: (sáns. hindú). The Bos gaurus, a wild bull. One of two kinds of wild cattle mentioned in the Rigveda, the other being the Gavaya. The gaurasya and gavayasya of the Rigveda are believed by some authorities to be taken as a partitive genitives after vidai. Wilson stated, "The purport of the expression, according to the scholiast, is, that Indra obtains these two animals tau dvau pashu labhate, either for himself as sacrificial flesh or for his worshippers, some of whom, at least, even now, would not object to eat the flesh of the wild oxen." See also Gauda.

Gauranga: (sáns. hindú). The name of a 15th century devotee of Krishna.

Gauri: (sáns. hindú). The "yellow" or "brilliant," 1. A name of the consort of Shiva (see Devi). 2. Varuna's wife is also called Gauri. 3. A wild cow; 4. A buffalo; 5. A cloud. 6. The golden one. In the Vamanapurana Parvati was called Kali (the black one) because of her dark complexion. When Shiva called her by this name, she was offended and went through austerities to gain a new complexion and accomplishing her goal, was thereafter called Gauri (the golden one). But the story did not end there, for the dark sheath that Parvati shed was transformed into another (intermediary) goddess called Kaushiki who was a furious battle queen. In her fury, Kaushiki created Kali. This story indicates that Kali is the dark, violent, negative nature of Parvati.

Gauribhartri: (sáns. hindú). Husband of Gauri. Shiva's 38th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gaurinatha: (sáns. hindú). (Gauri "name of Parvati" + natha "lord") Lord of Gauri (i.e. of Parvati); a name of Shiva.

Gauripati: (sáns. hindú). (Gauri "name of Parvati" + pati "lord") The Lord of Gauri (i.e. of Parvati); a name of Shiva.

Gaurisha: (sáns. hindú). (Gauri "name of Parvati" + isha "lord") The Lord of Gauri (i.e. of Parvati); a name of Shiva.

Gauritanaya: (sáns. hindú). (Gauri "name of Parvati" + tanaya "son") The son of Gauri (i.e. of Parvati); a name of Ganesha.

Gauriviti: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi.

Gautama: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of the sage Sharadvat, as son of Gotama. He was the husband of Ahalya, who was seduced by Indra. This seduction has been explained mythologically as signifying the carrying away of night by the morning sun, Indra being the sun, and Ahalya being explained as meaning night. 2. The author of a Dharmashastra. 3. A name common to many men.

Gautamesha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Lord of Gautama. 2. Name of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga.

Gautami: (sáns. hindú). 1. An epithet of Durga. 2. Name of a fierce Rakshasi or female demon.

Gavha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra commonly known as "carrot."

Gavishthira: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi.

Gavishthir: (sáns. hindú). A sage belonging to Atri's family.

Gavyaya: (sáns. hindú). The Bos gavaeus, the wild ox. See Gaura.

Gaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. A city in Bihar which is connected with the Rishi Gaya. It is one of the seven sacred cities, and is a place of pilgrimage. 2. A man's name. 3. A Vedic Rishi who awakened Agni.

Gayas: (sáns. hindú). Descendants of the sage Atri.

Gayati: (sáns. hindú). Name of Krishna.

Gayatri: (sáns. hindú). 1. A most sacred verse of the Rigveda, of which it is the duty of every Brahman to repeat mentally in his morning an evening devotions. It is addressed to the sun as Savitri, the generator, and so it is called also Savitri. Personified as a goddess, Savitri is the wife of Brahma, mother of the four Vedas, and also of the twice-born or three superior castes. Colebrooke's translation of the Gayatri is "Earth, sky, heaven. Let us meditate on (these, and on) the most excellent light and power of that generous, sportive, and resplendent sun, (praying that) it may guide our intellects" Wilson's version is, in his translation of the Rigveda, "We meditate on that desirable light of the divine Savitri who influences our pious rites."

In the Vishnupurana Wilson had before given a somewhat different version, "We meditate on that excellent light of the divine sun: may he illuminate our minds." A later version by Benfey is, "May we receive the glorious brightness of this, the generator, of the god who shall prosper our works." Wilson observed of it: "The commentators admit some variety of interpretation; but it probably meant, in its original use, a simple invocation of the sun to shed a benignant influence upon the customary offices of worship; and it is still employed by the unphilosophical Hindus with merely that signification. Later notions and especially those of the Vedanta, have operated to attach to the text an import it did not at first possess, and has converted it into a mystical propitiation of the spiritual origin and essence of existence, or Brahma." It is considered so holy that copyists often refrain from transcribing it. 2. The name given to Satarupa, Brahma's female half, daughter, and consort, as "the declarer of sacred knowledge." 3. A title applied to the consort of Shiva in the Harivansa. 4. The Savior of the organs.

Gayatrivallabha: (sáns. hindú). One who is the lover of Gayatri. Shiva's 555th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ghandhaka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means sulphur.

Ghandhapalashika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See daruhaladi.

Gharma: (sáns. hindú). 1. A libation of hot milk. 2. A caldron.

Ghata: (sáns. hindú). A pot.

Ghatakarpara: (sáns. hindú). A poet, who was one of the "nine gems" of the court of Vikramaditya. There is a short artificial poem, descriptive of the rainy season, bearing this name. The words mean "potsherds," and form probably an assumed literary name.

Ghatotkacha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Bhima by the Rakshasi Hidimba. He was killed in the great battle by Karna with the fatal lance that Karna had obtained from Indra.

Ghee: (sáns. hindú). Clarified butter.

Ghi: (sáns. hindú). A word usually spelled "ghee" in American-English transliterations. The word means "clarified butter."

Ghora: (sáns. hindú). The Rishi Kanva's father.

Ghosha: (sáns. hindú). It is said in the Veda that the Ashvins "bestowed a husband upon Ghosha growing old," and the explanatory legend is that she was a daughter of Kakshivat, but being a leper, was incapable of marriage. When she was advanced in years the Ashvins gave her health, youth, and beauty, so that she obtained a husband.

Ghrinin: (sáns. hindú). 1. The compassionate. 2. One of Krishna's brothers.

Ghrita: (sáns. hindú). Clarified butter. Ghi or Ghee.

Ghritachi: (sáns. hindú). A medicinal herb.

Girdevi: (sáns. hindú). (gir "voice, speech" + devi "goddess") 1. Goddess of speech. 2. Sarasvati.

Giri: (sáns. hindú). 1. A being who is like a mountain. 2. One of the ten orders of Sannyasins founded by Shankara. The members of this order add the word "Giri" to their names.

Giribandhava: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + bandhava "friend, relative") 1. A being who is the friend of the mountains. 2. Shiva.

Giribandhava: (sáns. hindú). Kinsman of the Mountain i.e. Himavan. Shiva's 84th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Giribandhu: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + bandhu "friend, relative") 1. A being who is the friend of the mountains. 2. Shiva.

Giribhu: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + bhu "to be born") 1. The mountain-born. 2. Name of Parvati indicating that she is the daughter of Himavan or Himalaya.

Giridhanva: (sáns. hindú). One who used the mountain as his bow. Shiva's 26th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Giridhara: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + dhara "bearer") 1. The Mountain-supporter. 2. A name of Krishna referring to the time that He lifted up Mount Govardhana with one finger and held it for seven days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Krishna's divinity.

Giridhava: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + dhava "lord, man, husband) 1. Lord of the mountains. 2. Shiva.

Giriduhita: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + duhita "daughter") 1. Mountain-daughter. 2. Name of Parvati as the daughter of Himavan.

Girija: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + ja "born") 1. Mountain-born. 2. Name of Parvati as the daughter of Himavan. See Devi.

Girijadhava: (sáns. hindú). (girija "mountain-born" + dhava "lord, man, husband") Lord of the mountain-born (i.e. of Parvati); Shiva.

Girijaputri: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of the king of the mountains. A name of Parvati.

Girikarnika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means "Clitoria ternatea."

Girinandini: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + nandini "joy") 1. Joy of the mountains. 2. Name of Parvati as the daughter of Himavan.

Girindra: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + indra "chief") 1. Chief of the mountains. 2. Name of Himavan or Himalaya.

Giripati: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + pati "lord") 1. Lord of the mountains. 2. Name of Shiva. 3. Name of Himavan.

Giriputra: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of the mountains. A name of Parvati.

Giriraja: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + raja "king") 1. King of the mountains. 2. Name of Himavan.

Girirata: (sáns. hindú). One who loves the mountain. Shiva's 560th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Girisha: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + isha "lord") 1. Mountain-Lord. 2. Shiva's 83rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. It refers to His being the Lord of outer Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas or the inner Kailasa that is the space within the heart lotus.

Girishvara: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + ishvara "lord") 1. Mountain-Lord. 2. Shiva.

Girisuta: (sáns. hindú). (giri "mountain" + suta "daughter") 1. Mountain-daughter. 2. Name of Parvati as the daughter of Himavan.

Girivraja: (sáns. hindú). A royal city in Magadha, identified with Rajagriha in Bihar.

Gita: (sáns. hindú). The Bhagavad Gita.

Gitagovinda: (sáns. hindú). A lyrical poem by Jayadeva on the early life of Krishna as Govinda the cowherd. It is an erotic work, and sings the loves of Krishna with Radha, and other of the cowherd damsels, but a mystical interpretation has been put upon it. The poems are supposed to have been written about the twelfth or thirteenth century.

Gitagovinda: (sáns. hindú). A twelfth century (CE) writing by Jayadeva in which Radha's personality and character is fully developed as a heroine.

Gitapriya: (sáns. hindú). (Gita "name of a scripture" + priya "devoted to") Fond of, or delighting in the Bhagavad Gita.

Gnas: (sáns. hindú). Consorts of the Gods.

Gobhila: (sáns. hindú). An ancient writer of the Sutra period. He was author of some Grihya Sutras, and of some Sutras on grammar.

Godavari: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of India's seven holy rivers.

Gokarna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Cow's ear. 2. A place of pilgrimage sacred to Shiva, on the west coast, near Mangalore.

Gokhuru: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See shvadanshtra.

Gokshuraka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See shvadanshtra.

Gokula: (sáns. hindú). A pastoral district on the Yamuna, about Mathura, where Krishna passed his boyhood with the cowherds.

Gokulesha: (sáns. hindú). (gokula "herd of cattle" + isha "lord") 1. Lord of Gokula village. 2. Name of Krishna.

Goloka: (sáns. hindú). 1. The place of cows. 2. Krishna's heaven; a modern addition to the original series of seven Lokas.

Goman: (sáns. hindú). Possessing cows. Shiva's 453 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gomanta: (sáns. hindú). A great mountain in the Western Ghats. According to the Harivansha it was the scene of a defeat of Jarasandha by Krishna.

Gomanti: (sáns. hindú). The Gumti river in Oude; but there are others which bore the name. One fell into the Sindhu or Indus.

Gomati: (sáns. hindú). Name of a river.

Gopala: (sáns. hindú). 1. A cow-keeper. 2. A name of the youthful Krishna, who lived among the cowherd in Vrindavana.

Gopalatapani: (sáns. hindú). A Upanishad in honor of Krishna.

Gopalika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means an extract from a cow's bile.

Gopatha Brahmana: (sáns. hindú). The Brahmana of the Atharvaveda.

Gopati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of Go i.e., cow or speech. Shiva's 119th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gopatirishabha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Chief of herdsmen." 2. A title of Shiva. 3. A demon mentioned in the Mahabharata as slain by Krishna.

Gopavana: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi.

Gopijana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beloved of the Gopis. 2. Krishna.

Gopika: (sáns. hindú). 1. The cowherd damsels and wives with whom Krishna sported in his youth. 2. Name of Krishna's devotees who are said to be the incarnations of Rishis.

Gopinatha: (sáns. hindú). (Gopi "cowherdess" + natha "lord") The Lord of the Gopis; a name of Krishna.

Gopis: (sáns. hindú). 1. The cowherd damsels and wives with whom Krishna sported in his youth. 2. Name of Krishna's devotees who are said to be the incarnations of Rishis.

Gopishvara: (sáns. hindú). (Gopi "cowherdess" + ishvara "lord") 1. The sovereign Lord of the Gopis. 2. Krishna.

Gopta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Protector. 2. Vishnu's 496th and 593rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 120th and 1057th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Goptri: (sáns. hindú). Protector. Shiva's 67th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gorachana: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means a bulls gall.

Goshakha: (sáns. hindú). (Meaning unclear). Shiva's 162nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gosharya: (sáns. hindú). Protegé of the Ashvins.

Goshthiparigraha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra meaning group sex.

Gotama: (sáns. hindú). The founder of the Nyaya school of philosophy. He is called also Shatananda, and is author of a Dharmashastra or law book.

Govardhana: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in Vrindavana, which Krishna induced the cowherd and cowherdesses to worship instead of Indra. This enraged the god, who sent a deluge of rain to wash away the mountain and the people of the country; however, Krishna held up the mountain on his little finger for seven days to shelter the people of Vrindavana. Indra became quite baffled and stopped the rain and afterwards paid homage to Krishna.

Govardhanadhara: (sáns. hindú). Upholder of Govardhana. A title of Krishna.

Govinda: (sáns. hindú). 1. He who is known through the Scriptures. 2. Vishnu's 187th and 539th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Cowkeeper. 4. Name of Krishna.

Graha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Seizing. 2. The power that seizes and obscures the sun and moon, causing eclipses; the ascending node, Rahu. 3. Evil spirits with which people, especially children, are possessed, and which cause sickness and death. They are supposed to be amenable to medicine and exorcism.

Grahapati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the planets. Shiva's 603rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Grahi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Seizing. 2. Female fiend who seizes men and kills them.

Gramadevata: (sáns. hindú). A village deity who is specially identified with the village and its inhabitants. There may be several gramadevatas in a single village with each having a specific function. At times, the deity may have a popularity throughout India while others may be known only to the local inhabitants. Local deities are usually female and usually not represented in an anthropomorphic way. They may be represented by trees, an uncarved stone, or may be represented by a small empty shrine. Another significant thing about the village deities is that they may, in fact usually are, worshipped with more intensity than the primary deities of the Hindu pantheon. The warding away of diseases, sudden deaths, or catastrophes are usually the motifs of the gramadevatas.

Granthakarini: (sáns. hindú). Who causes books to be made. An epithet of Sarasvati.

Granthini: (sáns. hindú). Name of an Apsara.

Grihastha: (sáns. hindú). Householder. A Brahman in the second stage of his religious life. See Brahman.

Grihya Sutras: (sáns. hindú). Rules for the conduct of domestic rites and the personal sacraments, extending from the birth to the marriage of a man. See Sutra.

Grinjana: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic.

Grishma: (sáns. hindú). Summer. Shiva's 691 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gritachi: (sáns. hindú). An Apsara or celestial nymph. She had many amours with great sages and mortal men. She was mother of ten sons by Raudrashva or Kushanabha, a descendant of Puru, and the Brahma Vaivarttapurana attributes the origin of some of the mixed castes to her issue by the sage Vishvakarman. The Harivansha asserts that she had ten daughters as well as ten sons by Raudrahva. Another legend represents her as mother by Kushanabha of a hundred daughters, whom Vayu wished to accompany him to the sky. They refused, and in his rage he cursed them to become deformed; but they recovered their natural shape and beauty, and were married to Brahmadatta, king of Kampila.

Gritsamada: (sáns. hindú). The reputed Rishi of many hymns in the second Mandala of the Rigveda. According to the Vishnupurana he was a Kshatriya and son of Shunahotra, being descended from Pururavas of the Lunar race. From him sprang Shaunaka, the eminent sage versed in the Rigveda "who originated the system of four castes." The Vayupurana make Shunaka to be the son of Gritsamada, and Shaunaka the son of Shunaka: this seems probable. "It is related of him by Sayana that he was first a member of the family of Angiras, being the son of Shunahotra. He was carried off by the Asuras while performing a sacrifice, but was rescued by Indra, under whose authority he was henceforth designated as Gritsamada, the son of Shunaka or Shaunaka of the race of Bhrigu. Thus the Anukramanika says of him: He who was an Angirasa, the son of Shunahotra, became Shaunaka of the race of Bhrigu." According to the Mahabharata, he was son of Vitahavya, a king of the Haihayas, a Kshatriya, who became a Brahman. See Vitahavya. The Mahabharata alludes to a legend of his having assumed the resemblance of Indra and thereby was able to escape from the Asuras, who were lying in wait to destroy him. There are several versions of the story, but they all agree that after Indra had escaped Gritsamada saved himself by reciting a hymn in which he showed that Indra was a different person.

Guda: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra meaning anus.

Gudakashaya: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for "red molasses."

Gudakesha: (sáns. hindú). Whose hair is in tufts. An epithet of Arjuna.

Gudchi: (sáns. hindú). A medicine, that is one among many, said to cure leprosy, bronchitis, diabetes, boils, and wounds.

Gudeyci: (sáns. hindú). The fort-protectress. A name of a goddess.

Guha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Secret. 2. A name of the god of war. See Karttikeya. 3. A king of the Nishadas or Bhils, who was a friend of Rama. 4. A people near Kalinga, who possibly got their name from him. 5. Vishnu's 383 rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Guhapriya: (sáns. hindú). (Guha "the concealer" + priya "beloved") 1. Beloved of Guha. 2. Name of Indra's daughter. 3. A being who is fond of the hidden Self (i.e. God).

Guheshvara: (sáns. hindú). (guha "cavity" + ishvara "lord") The Lord of the (heart) cavity.

Guhyakas: (sáns. hindú). Hidden beings. Minor divinities attendant upon Ruvera, and guardians of his hidden treasures.

Guhyapati: (sáns. hindú). (guhya "secret" + pati "lord") Lord of the secret (i.e. referring to God revealing the secret knowledge of His true Self in the Upanishads).

Gulabasa: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See amalaka.

Gulabavasa: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Tinospermum cordifolius.

Gulamsha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See gulabavasa.

Gulara: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See baragada.

Gulma: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the small cardamom.

Gumti: (sáns. hindú). Name of a river that flows through Oudh and empties into the Ganges.

Gunadhara: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + dhara "bearer") A being who possesses of virtues (i.e. the sattvaguna).

Gunagrahi: (sáns. hindú). One who takes up good qualities. Shiva's 1029th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gunagrahin: (sáns. hindú). One who takes good qualities. Shiva's 982nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gunakara: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + akara "mine") 1. Mine of virtues (i.e. the sattvaguna). 2. Shiva's 250th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gunalaya: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + alaya "abode") Abode of virtues.

Gunanidhi: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + nidhi "treasure") 1. Treasure of virtues (i.e. the sattvaguna). 2. Shiva.

Gunarama: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + arama "enjoyment") Pleasure-grove of virtues (i.e. the sattvaguna).

Gunarashi: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + rasi "heap") 1. Heap of virtues. 2. Abode of Gunas. Shiva's 249 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gunaratna: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + ratna "gem, pearl") Pearl or gem of virtues.

Gunasagara: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + sagara "ocean") Ocean of virtues.

Gunasampat: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + sampat "wealth") Wealth of virtues.

Gunasamudra: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + samudra "celestial waters, ocean") Ocean of virtues.

Gunatita: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + atita "gone beyond") The being who has gone beyond the three binding qualities of nature (i.e. sattvas, rajas and tamas).

Gunavan: (sáns. hindú). (guna "quality of nature, virtue" + van "having") Possessor of virtues.

Gundadabbe: (sáns. hindú). A goddess from the Kannada area. An inscription that dates back to 991 CE we are informed of a loyal subject of Gundadabbe who offered his head to the goddess when his vow was fulfilled that the king would have a son.

Gundakani: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See vajrasnuhi.

Gungu: (sáns. hindú). Lunar Goddess.

Gungus: (sáns. hindú). A nonAryan people.

Gunottama: (sáns. hindú). Excellent in good qualities. Shiva's 752nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Guptas: (sáns. hindú). A dynasty of kings who reigned in Magadha. The period of their ascendancy has been a subject of great contention.

Gupti: (sáns. hindú). The preserving or protecting.

Gurjjara: (sáns. hindú). The country of Gujarat.

Guru: (sáns. hindú). Weighty. Shiva's 412th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Gurubhava: (sáns. hindú). (guru "spiritual teacher" + bhava "he who feels/thinks about") A being whose feelings or thoughts are in the Guru.

Gurudasa: (sáns. hindú). (guru "spiritual teacher" + das "servant") Servant of the Guru.

Gurukula: (sáns. hindú). A teacher's house.

Gurumurti: (sáns. hindú). She whose form is the guru. An epithet of Devi. The 603rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Gurupadika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See bahupadika.

Guruprem: (sáns. hindú). (guru "spiritual teacher + prem "divine love") l. A being who has divine love for the Guru. 2. Divine love of the Guru.

Gurupriya: (sáns. hindú). (guru "spiritual teacher + priya "beloved) A being who is beloved of the Guru.

Gurusevaka: (sáns. hindú). (guru "spiritual teacher" + sevaka "servant") Servant of the Guru.

Gyan: (sáns. hindú). Higher knowledge.

Gyan Indriyas: (sáns. hindú). Organs of perception.


Haihaya: (sáns. hindú). This name is supposed to be derived from haya, "a horse." 1. A prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson of Yadu. 2. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin has been ascribed. The Vishnupurana represents them as descendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally associated with borderers and outlying tribes. In the Vayu and other Puranas, five great divisions of the tribe are named: Talajanghas, Vitihotras, Avantis, Tundikeras, and Jatas, or rather Sujatas. They conquered Bahu or Bahuka, a descendant of King Harischandra, and were in their turn conquered, along with many other barbarian tribes, by King Sagara, son of Bahu. According to the Mahabharata, they were descended from Saryati, a son of Manu. They made incursions into the Doab, and they took the city of Kashi (Benares), which had been fortified against them by King Divodasa; but Pratardana, King Divodasa's grandson, destroyed the Haihayas, and re-established the kingdom of Kasi. Arjuna-Kartavirya, of a thousand arms, was king of the Haihayas, and he was defeated and had his arms cut off by Parasu-rama. The Vindhya mountains would seem to have been the home of these tribes; and according to some authorities on the subject, a tribe of Haihayas still exists "near the very top of the valley of Sohagpoor, in Bhagelkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and, though few in number, still celebrated for their valour."

Halabhrit: (sáns. hindú). Bearing a plow. A name for Balarama.

Halayudha: (sáns. hindú). Who has a plowshare for his weapon. A name for Balarama.

Haldi: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for turmeric.

Hamsa: (sáns. hindú). 1. Swan. 2. Surya, the Sun, is sometimes called Hamsa.

Hansa: (sáns. hindú). 1. This, according to the Bhagavatapurana, was the name of the "one caste," when, in olden times, there was only "one Veda, one God, and one caste." 2. A name used in the Mahabharata for Krishna. 3. A mountain range north of Meru. 4. Hansa and Dimbhaka were two great warrior brothers mentioned in the Mahabharata as friends of Jarasandha. A certain king also named Hansa was killed by Balarama. Hearing that "Hansa was killed," Dimbhaka, unable to live without him, committed suicide, and when Hansa heard of this, he drowned himself in the Yamuna .

Hanuman Nataka: (sáns. hindú). A long drama by various hands upon the adventures of the monkey chief Hanuman. This drama is fabled to have been composed by Hanuman, and inscribed by him on rocks Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana, saw it and feared that it would throw his own poem into the shade. He complained to the author, who told him to cast the verses into the sea. He did so, and they remained concealed there for ages. Portions were discovered and brought to King Bhoja, who directed Damodara Mishra to arrange them and fill up the lacunæ. He did so, and the result was this drams. "It is probable," says Wilson, "that the fragments of an ancient drama were connected in the manner described. Some of the ideas are poetical, and the sentiments just and forcible; the language is generally very harmonious, but the work itself is, after all, a most disjointed and nondescript composition, and the patchwork is very glaringly and clumsily put together." It is a work of the tenth or eleventh century.

Hanuman: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated monkey chief. He was son of Pavana (the Wind) by Anjana, wife of a monkey named Kesari.. He was able to fly, and is a conspicuous figure in the Ramayana. He and the other monkeys who assisted Rama in his war against Ravana were of divine origin, and their powers were superhuman. Hanuman jumped from India to Lanka in one bound; he tore up trees, carried away the Himalayas, seized the clouds, and performed many other wonderful exploits. See Surasa. His form is "as vast as a mountain and as tall as a gigantic tower. His complexion is yellow and glowing like molten gold. His face is as red as the brightest ruby; while his enormous tail spreads out to an interminable length.

He stands on a lofty rock and roars like thunder. He leaps into the air, and flies among the clouds with a rushing noise, while the ocean waves are roaring and splashing below." In one of his fights with Ravana and the Rakshasas, they greased his tail and set it on fire, but to their own great injury, for with it he burned down their capital city, Lanka This exploit obtained for him the name Lankadahi. His services to Rama were great and many. He acted as his spy, and fought most valiantly. He flew to the Himalayas, and brought medicinal herbs with which he healed the wounded, and he killed the monster Kalanemi, and thousands of Gandharvas who assailed him. He accompanied Rama on his return to Ayodhya, and there he received from him the reward of perpetual life and youth. The exploits of Hanuman are favorite topics among Hindus from childhood to old age, and paintings of them are common. He is called Marutputra, and he has the patronymics Anili, Maruti, et al, and the metronymic Anjaneya. He is also Yogachara, from his power in magic or in the healing art, and Rajatadyuti, "the brilliant." Among his other accomplishments, Hanumat was a grammarian; and the Ramayana says, "The chief of monkeys is perfect; no one equals him in the shastras, in learning, and in ascertaining the sense of the scriptures [or in moving at will]. In all sciences, in the rules of austerity, he rivals the preceptor of the gods. . . . It is well known that Hanumat was the ninth author of grammar." (From Muir, iv. 490. as quoted by Dowson.)

Hanumat: (sáns. hindú). Hanuman.

Hapusha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Juniperus communis, which is commonly known as juniper.

Harachuraka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See Draksha.

Harayana: (sáns. hindú). A chief mentioned in the Rigveda.

Hara: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva.

Hari-Hara: (sáns. hindú). A combination of the names of Vishnu and Shiva and representing the union of the two deities in one, a combination which is accounted for in many different ways.

Haridrava: (sáns. hindú). A word used in the Veda that has confused meanings. In Griffith's translation of the Rigveda, haridrava means either a yellow vegetable powder or a certain yellow bird. Griffith quotes the Petersburg Lexicon for the yellow bird definition. "To parrots and to starlings: similarly among the Romans, People with the jaundice were called 'icterici' according to Pliny (HN., xxx. II), from the fanciful notion that the disease was cured by looking at the icterus, one of the many varieties of the sturnidae or starling family. The bird was said to die instead of the patient."

Haridra: (sáns. hindú). A medicine mentioned in the Atharvaveda that cures leprosy, bronchitis, diabetes, boils, and wounds.

Haridra: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Curcuma domestica, which is commonly known as turmeric.

Haridvara: (sáns. hindú). 1. The gate of Hari. 2. The modern Hardvar. The place where the Ganges finally breaks through the mountains into the plains of Hindustan. It is a great place of pilgrimage.

Harishchandra: (sáns. hindú). The twenty-eighth king of the Solar Race, and son of Trishanku. He was celebrated for his piety and justice. There are several legends about him. The Aitareya Brahmana tells the story of his purchasing Shunahshephas to be offered up as a vicarious sacrifice for his own son. (See Shunahshephas.) The Mahabharata relates that he was raised to the heaven of Indra for his performance of the Rajasuya sacrifice and for his unbounded liberality. The Markandeyapurana expands the story at considerable length. One day while Harishchandra was hunting he heard female lamentations, which proceeded "from the Sciences, who were being mastered by the austerely fervid sage Vishvamitra, and were crying out in alarm at his superiority." Harishchandra, as defender of the distressed, went to the rescue, but Vishvamitra was so provoked by his interference that the Sciences instantly perished, and Harishchandra was reduced to a state of abject helplessness. Vishvamitra demanded the sacrificial gift due to him as a Brahman, and the king offered him whatever he might choose to ask, "gold, his own son, wife, body, life, kingdom, good fortune," whatever was dearest. Vishvamitra stripped him of wealth and kingdom, leaving him nothing but a garment of bark and his wife and son. In a state of destitution he left his kingdom and Vishvamitra struck Shaibya, the queen, with his staff to hasten her reluctant departure. To escape from his oppressor he proceeded to the holy city of Benares, but the relentless sage was waiting for him and demanded the completion of the gift. With bitter grief the wife and child were sold, and there remained only himself.

Dharma, the god of justice, appeared in the form of a hideous and offensive Chandala, and offered to buy him. Notwithstanding the exile's repugnance and horror, Vishvamitra insisted upon the sale, and Harishchandra was carried off "bound, beaten, confused, and afflicted," to the abode of the Chandala. He was sent by his master to steal grave-clothes from a cemetery.

In this horrid place and degrading work he spent twelve months. His wife then came to the cemetery to perform the obsequies of her son, who had died from the bite of a serpent. They recognized each other, and Harishchandra and his wife resolved to die upon the funeral pyre of their son, though he hesitated to take away his own life without the consent of his master. After all was prepared, he gave himself up to meditation on Vishnu. The gods then arrived, headed by Dharma and accompanied by Vishvamitra. Dharma entreated him to refrain from his intention, and Indra informed him "that he, his wife, and son, had conquered heaven by their good works." Harishchandra declared that he could not go to heaven without the permission of his master the Chandala. Dharma then revealed himself. When this difficulty was removed, Harishchandra objected to go to heaven without his faithful subjects. "This request was granted by Indra, and after Vishvamitra had inaugurated Rohitashva, the king's son, to be his successor, Harishchandra, his friends, and followers, all ascended in company to heaven." There he was induced by the sage Narada to boast of his merits, and this led to his expulsion from heaven. As he was falling he repented of his fault and was forgiven. His downward course was arrested, and he and his followers dwell in an aerial city, which, according to popular belief, is occasionally visible in mid-air.

Haritaka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Terminalia chebulla, which is commonly known as yellow myrobalan.

Haritala: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Cynodon dactilon, which is commonly known as yellow arsenic.

Haritala: (sáns. hindú). A tree, according to Sayana.

Haritas or Harita Angirases: (sáns. hindú). See Harita.

Harita: (sáns. hindú). 1. A son of Yuvanashva of the Solar race, descended from Ikshvaku. From him descended the Harita Angirasas. In the Lingapurana it is said, "The son of Yuvanashva was Harita, of whom the Haritas were sons. They were, on the side of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans) of Kshatriya lineage;" or according to the Vayu, " they were the sons of Angiras twice-born men (Brahmans), of Kshatriya race," possibly meaning that they were sons raised up to Harita by Angiras. According to some he was a son of Chyavana. 2. Author of a Dharmashastra or law-book. 3. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for aromatic plants. Also Harits or Haritas: 1. Green. 2. In the Rigveda the horses, or rather mares, of the Sun, seven or ten in number, and typical of his rays. According to Max Müller, "The prototype of the Grecian Charites."

Harivansha: (sáns. hindú). The genealogy of Hari or Vishnu, a long poem of 16,374 verses. It purports to be a part of the Mahabharata, but it is of much later date, and "may more accurately be ranked with the Pauranik compilations of least authenticity a latest date." It is in three parts; the first is introductory, and gives particulars of the creation and of the patriarchal and regal dynasties; the second contains the life and adventures of Krishna; and the last treats of the future of the world and the corruptions of the Kali age. It contains many indications of it having been written in the south of India.

Harivan: (sáns. hindú). Lord of Bay steeds; Indra.

Hariyupiya: (sáns. hindú). The name of a place.

Hari: (sáns. hindú). A name which commonly designates Vishnu, but it is exceptionally used for other gods.

Harshana: (sáns. hindú). A deity who presides over the Shraddha offerings.

Haryashvas: (sáns. hindú). Five thousand sons of the patriarch Daksha, begotten by him for the purpose of peopling the earth. The sage Narada dissuaded them from producing offspring, and they "dispersed themselves through the regions and have not returned."

Haryashva: (sáns. hindú). A grandson of the Kuvalayashva who killed the demon Dhundhu. The country of Panchala is said to have been named from his five (pancha) sons. There were several others of this name.

Haryashva: (sáns. hindú). Lord of Bay steeds, Indra.

Hasta: (sáns. hindú). Lunar asterism, represented by a hand containing five stars, identified by some with part of the constellation corvus.

Hastikarna: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the large-leafed castor-oil plant.

Hastinapura: (sáns. hindú). The capital city of the Kauravas, for which the great war of the Mahabharata was waged. It was founded by Hastin, son of the first Bharata, and hence, as some say, its name; but the Mahabharata and the Vishnupurana call it the "elephant city" from hastin, an elephant. The ruins are traceable near an old bed of the Ganges, about 57 miles northeast of Delhi, and local tradition has preserved the name. It is said to have been washed away by the Ganges.

Hasyarnava: (sáns. hindú). Ocean of laughter. A modern comic piece in two acts, by a Pandit named Jagadisha. Wilson reported: "It is a severe but grossly indelicate satire upon the licentiousness of Brahmans assuming the character of religious mendicants."

Havan: (sáns. hindú). An oblation; a burnt offering.

Havirbhuj: (sáns. hindú). Pitris or Manes of the Kshatriyas, and inhabitants of the solar sphere. See Pitris.

Havirdhanas: (sáns. hindú). Carts, usually two in number, on which Soma and other offerings are put, and which are supposed to represent Heaven and Earth.

Haviryajña: (sáns. hindú). oblation of clarified butter (ghi).

Havishmata: (sáns. hindú). See Havirbhuj.

Havya: (sáns. hindú). Anything to be offered as an oblation, sacrificial gift, or food.

Hayagriva: (sáns. hindú). Horse-necked. According to one legend, a Daitya who stole the Veda as it slipped out of the mouth of Brahma while he was sleeping at the end of a kalpa, and was killed by Vishnu in the Fish Avatara. According to another, Vishnu himself, who assumed this form to recover the Veda, which had been carried off by two Daityas.

Hayashiras or Hayashirsha: (sáns. hindú). Horse-head. In the Mahabharata it is recorded that the sage Aurva "cast the fire of his anger into the sea," and that it there ''became the great Hayashiras known to those acquainted with the Veda, which vomits forth that fire and drinks up the waters." A form of Vishnu. In the Bhagavatapurana Brahma is represented as saying, "In my sacrifice Bhagavat himself was Hayashirsha, the male of the sacrifice, whose color is that of gold, of whom the Vedas and the sacrifices are the substance and the gods the soul, when he respired, charming words came forth from his nostrils."

Hemadri: (sáns. hindú). The golden mountain. A name for Mt. Meru.

Hemakuta: (sáns. hindú). Golden peak. A chain of mountains represented as lying north of the Himalayas, between them and Mount Meru.

Hetvabhasa: (sáns. hindú). A fallacy.

Hidimba: (sáns. hindú). (the word is feminine if the terminal "a" is long.) A powerful Asura, who had yellow eyes and a horrible aspect. He was a cannibal, and lived in the forest to which the Pandavas retired after their house was burned. He had a sister named Hidimba, whom he sent to lure the Pandavas to him; but on meeting with Bhima, she fell in love with him, and offered to carry him away to safety on her back. Bhima refused, and while they were parleying, Hidimba came up and a terrible fight ensued, in which Bhima killed the monster. Hidimba was at first much terrified and fled, but she returned and claimed Bhima for her husband. By his mother's desire Bhima married her, and by her had a son named Ghatotkacha.

Himachala or Himadri: (sáns. hindú). The Himalaya mountains.

Himavat: (sáns. hindú). The personification of the Himalaya mountains, husband of Mena or Menaka and father of Uma and Ganga.

Hingu: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Ferula nartex, which is commonly known as asafetida..

Hinsa: (sáns. hindú). Violence

Hinva: (sáns. hindú). Benefactor. A title of Indra.

Hiranyagarbha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Gold-germ. 2. Sun God. 3. Golden egg or golden womb. In the Rigveda Hiranyagarbha "is said to have arisen in the beginning, the one lord of all beings, who upholds heaven and earth, who gives life and breath, whose command even the gods obey, who is the god over all gods, and the one animating principle of their being." According to Manu, Hiranyagarbha was Brahma, the first male, formed by the undiscernible eternal First Cause in a golden egg, resplendent as the sun. "Having continued a year in the egg, Brahma divided it into two parts by his mere thought, and with these two shells he formed the heavens and the earth; and in the middle he placed the sky, the eight regions, and the eternal abode of the waters." See Brahma.

Hiranyahasta: (sáns. hindú). The name of a man.

Hiranyakashipu: (sáns. hindú). Golden dress. A Daitya who, according to the Mahabharata and the Purana, obtained from Shiva the sovereignty of the three worlds for a million of years, and persecuted his son Prahlada for worshipping Vishnu. He was slain by Vishnu in the Narasinha, or man-lion incarnation. He and Hiranyaksha were twin-brothers and chiefs of the Daityas.

Hiranyaksha: (sáns. hindú). Golden eye. A Daitya who dragged the earth to the depths of the ocean. He was twin-brother of Hiranyakashipu, and was killed by Vishnu in the Boar incarnation.

Hiranyastupa: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi mentioned in the Rigveda.

Hiranyastupa: (sáns. hindú). The name of a man.

Hitopadesha: (sáns. hindú). Good advice. The well-known collection of ethical tales and fables compiled from the larger and older work called Panchatantra.

Homa: (sáns. hindú). The act of making an oblation to the devas or Gods by casting clarified butter (Ghi) into the fire. In the Yajurveda it is said to produce rain.

Hota, Hotar: (sáns. hindú). An officiating priest, usually one of four, who invokes the Gods or recites the Rigveda in a sacrifice.

Hotra: (sáns. hindú). Invocation personified.

Hotri: (sáns. hindú). A priest who recites the prayers from the Rigveda.

Hradecakshus: (sáns. hindú). The name of an Apsaras.

Hrishikesha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Krishna or Vishnu.

Hrudu: (sáns. hindú). An instrument of torture.

Hunas: (sáns. hindú). According to Wilson, "the White Huns or Indo-Scythians, who were established in the Panjab and along the Indus at the commencement of our era, as we know from Arrian, Strabo, and Ptolemy, confirmed by recent discoveries of their coins," and since still further confirmed by inscriptions and additional coins. Dr. Fitzedward Hall says, "I am not prepared to deny that the ancient Hindus, when they spoke of tho Hunas, intended the Huns. In the Middle Ages, however, it is certain that a race called Huna was understood by the learned of India to form a division of the Kshatriyas."-V. P. ii. 134.

Hundesha: (sáns. hindú). The country around Lake Manasarovara.

Hushka: (sáns. hindú). A Tushkara or Turki king, whose name is mentioned in the Raja Tarangini as Hushka, which has been found in inscriptions as Huvishka, and upon the corrupt Greek coins as Oerki. He is supposed to have reigned just at the commencement of the Christian era. See Kanishka.

Huvishka: (sáns. hindú). Hushka.

Hyphasis: (sáns. hindú). The modern Beas.


Icaca: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for desire.

Idavida: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Trinabindu and the Apsaras Alambusha. There are different statements in the Puranas about her. She is represented to be the wife of Vishravas and mother of Kuvera, or the wife of Pulastya and mother of Vishravas.

Ida: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda, Ida is primarily food, refreshment, or a libation of milk; thence a stream of praise, personified as the goddess of speech. She is called the instructress of Manu, and frequent passages ascribe to her the first institution of the rules of performing sacrifices. According to Sayana, she is the goddess presiding over the earth. A legend in the Shatapatha Brahmana represents her as springing from a sacrifice which Manu performed for the purpose of obtaining offspring. She was claimed by Mitra-Varuna, but remained faithful to him who had produced her. Manu lived with her, and praying and fasting to obtain offspring, he begat upon her the race of Manu. In the Puranas she is daughter of the Manu Vaivasvata, wife of Budha (Mercury), and mother of Pururavas. The Manu Vaivasvata, before he had sons, instituted a sacrifice to Mitra and Varuna for the purpose of obtaining one; but the officiating priest mismanaged the performance, and the result was the birth of a daughter, Ida or Ila.

Through the favour of the two deities her sex was changed, and she became a man, Sudyumna. Under the malediction of Shiva, Sudyumna was again turned into a woman, and, as Ila, married Budha or Mercury. After she had given birth to Pururavas, she, under the favor of Vishnu, once more became Sudyumna, and was the father of three sons. According to another version of the legend, the Manu's oldest son was named Ila. He having trespassed on a grove sacred to Parvati, was changed into a female, Ila. Upon the supplications and prayers of Ila's friends, Shiva and his consort conceded that the offender should be a male one month and a female another. There are other variations in the story. The story is apparently ancient.

Ikshamula (morata, murahari): (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Sanseviera roxburghiana, commonly known as the aristolochia.

Ikshu: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for sugarcane.

Ikshvaku: (sáns. hindú). Son of the Manu Vaivasvat, who was son of Vivasvat, the sun. "He was born from the nostril of the Manu as he happened to sneeze." Ikshvaku was founder of the Solar race of kings, and reigned in Ayodhya at the beginning of the second Yuga or age. He had a hundred sons, of whom the oldest was Vikukshi. Another son, named Nimi, founded the Mithila dynasty.

According to Max Müller the name is mentioned once, and only once, in the Rigveda. Respecting this he adds: I take it, not as the name of a king, but as the name of a people, probably the people who inhabited Bhajeratha, the country washed by the northern Ganga or Bhagirathi" Others place the Ikshvakus in the northwest.

Ilavila: (sáns. hindú). See Idavida.

Ilayachi: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Cardamom.

Ila: (sáns. hindú). See Ida.

Ilvala: (sáns. hindú). See Vatapi.

Indradyumna: (sáns. hindú). Son of Sumati and grandson of Bharata. There were several people with the same name, among them a king of Avanti, by whom the temple of Vishnu was built, and the image of Jagannatha was set up in Orissa.

Indrajit: (sáns. hindú). Meghanada, son of Ravana. When Ravana went against Indra's forces in Svarga, his son Meghanada accompanied him, and fought most valiantly.

Indra himself was obliged to interfere, when Meghanada, availing himself of the magical power of becoming invisible, which he had obtained from Shiva, bound Indra and carried him off to Lanka. The gods, headed by Brahma, went to Lanka to obtain the release of Indra, and Brahma gave to Meghanada the name Indrajit, which means "conqueror of Indra." Still the victor refused to release his prisoner for anything less than the gift of immortality. Brahma refused but Indrajit persisted in his demand and finally achieved his desire. One version of the Ramayana states that Indrajit was killed and had his head cut off by Lakshmana, who surprised him while he was engaged in a sacrifice.

Indrakila: (sáns. hindú). The mountain Mandara.

Indraloka: (sáns. hindú). Indra's heaven, Svarga. (See Loka.).

Indrani: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Indra, and mother of Jayanta and Jayanti. She is also called Shachi and Aindri. She is mentioned a few times in the Rigveda, and is said to be the most fortunate of females, "for her husband shall never die of old age." The Taittiriya Brahmana states that Indra chose her for his wife from a number of competing goddesses, because she surpassed them all in voluptuous attractions. In the Ramayana and Puranas she appears as the daughter of the Daitya Puloman, from whom she has the patronymic Paulomi. She was ravished by Indra, who killed her father to escape his curse. According to the Mahabharata King Nahusha became enamored of her, and she escaped from him with difficulty. Indrani has never been held in very high esteem as a goddess.

Indrapramati: (sáns. hindú). An early teacher of the Rigveda, who received one Sanhita direct from Paila.

Indraprastha: (sáns. hindú). The capital city of the Pandu princes. The name is still known, and is used for a part of the city of Delhi.

Indrasena: (sáns. hindú). (This name is feminine if it has a long terminal "a"). Names of the son and daughter of Nala and Damayanti.

Indrayana (karihari, langalika): (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Gloriosa superba, commonly known as the glory lily.

Indra: (sáns. hindú). The god of the firmament, the personified atmosphere. In the Vedas he stands in the first rank among the gods, but is represented as having a father aud mother: "a vigorous god begot him; a heroic female brought him forth" He is described as being of a ruddy or golden color, and as having arms of enormous length; "but his forms are endless, and he can assume any shape at will." He rides in a bright golden car, drawn by two tawny or ruddy horses with flowing manes and tail. His weapon is the thunderbolt, which he carries in his right hand; he also uses arrows, a great hook, and a net, in which he is said to entangle his foes, The Soma juice is his special delight; he takes enormous draughts of it, and stimulated by its exhilarating qualities, he goes forth to war against his foes, and to perform his other duties. As deity of the atmosphere, he governs the weather and dispenses the rain; he sends forth his lightnings and thunder, and he is continually at war with Vritra or Ahi, the demon of drought and inclement weather, whom he overcomes with his thunderbolts, and compels to pour down the rain. Strabo describes people of India as worshipping Jupiter Pluvius, no doubt meaning Indra, and he has also been compared to Jupiter Tonans. One myth is that of his discovering and rescuing the cows of the priests or of the gods, which had been stolen by an Asura named Pani or Vala, whom he killed, and he is hence called Valabhid. He is frequently represented as destroying the "stone-built cities" of the Asuras or atmospheric demons, and of the Dasyus or aborigines of India.

In his warfare he is sometimes represented as escorted by troops of Maruts, and attended by his comrade Vishnu. In the Vedas, more hymns are addressed to Indra than to any other deity, with the exception of Agni. For he was reverenced in his beneficent character as the giver of rain and the cause of fertility, and he was feared as the awful ruler of the storm and director of the lightning and thunder. In many places of the Rigveda the highest divine functions and attributes are ascribed to him. There was a triad of gods-Agni, Vayu, and Surya-which held preeminence above the rest, and Indra frequently took the place of Vayu. In some parts of the Veda, as Dr. Muir remarks, the ideas expressed of Indra are grand and lofty; at other times he is treated with familiarity, and his devotion to the Soma juice is dilated upon, though nothing debasing is perceived in his sensuality. Indra mentioned ad having a wife, and the name of Indrani or Aindri is invoked among the goddesses. In the Shatapatha Brahmana she is called Indra's beloved wife. In the later mythology Indra has fallen into the second rank. He is subordinate to the triad, but he is the chief of all the other gods. He is the regent of the atmosphere and of the east quarter of the compass, and he reigns over Svarga, the heaven of the gods and of beatified spirits, which is a region of great magnificence and splendor. He retains many of his Vedic characteristics and some of them are intensified.

He sends the lightning and hurls the thunderbolt, and the rainbow is his bow. He is frequently at war with the Asuras, of whom he lives in constant dread, and by whom he is often triumphed over. But he slew the demon Vritra who, being regarded as a Brahman, Indra had to conceal himself and make sacrifice until his guilt was purged away. His continued love for the Soma juice is shown by a legend in the Mahabharata, which represents him as being compelled by the sage Chyavana to allow the Ashvins to partake of the Soma libations, and his sensuality has now developed into an extreme lasciviousness. Many instances are recorded of his incontinence and adultery, and his example is frequently referred to as an excuse in cases of gallantry, as by King Nahusha when he tried to seduce Indra's wife while the latter was hiding in fear for having killed the Brahman in the person of the demon Vritra. According to the Mahabharata he seduced, or endeavored to seduce, Ahalya, the wife of the sage Gautama, and the incident brought a curse upon Indra that impressed upon a thousand marks resembling the female organ, so he was called Sayoni; but the marks were afterwards changed to eyes, and he is hence called Netrayoni, and Sahasraksha, meaning "the thousand-eyed." In the Ramayana it is told that Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka, warred against Indra in his own heaven, and that Indra was defeated and carried off to Lanka by Ravana's son Meghanada. For this exploit Meghanada received the title of Indra-jit, which means "conqueror of Indra."

Brahma and the gods had to sue for the release of Indra, and to purchase it with the boon of immortality to the victor. Brahma then told the humiliated Indra that his defeat was a punishment for the seduction of Ahalya. The Taittiriya Brahmana states that he chose Indrani to be his wife in preference to other goddesses because of her voluptuous attractions, and later authorities say that he ravished her, and slew her father, the Daitya Puloman, to escape his curse. Mythologically he was father of Arjuna, and for him he cheated Karna of his divine coat of mail, but gave Karna in recompense a javelin of deadly effect. His libertine character is also shown by his frequently sending celestial nymphs to excite the passions of holy men, and to beguile them from the potent penances which he dreaded. In the Puranas, many stories are told of him, and he appears especially in rivalry with Krishna. He incurred the wrath of the choleric sage Durvasas by slighting a garland of flowers which Durvasas presented to him, and so brought upon himself the curse that his whole dominion should be whelmed in ruin.

He was utterly defeated by the Daityas, or rather by their ally, Raja, son of Ayus, and grandson of Pururavas, and he was reduced to such a forlorn condition that he, "the god of a hundred sacrifices," was compelled to beg for a little sacrificial butter. Puffed up by their victory, his conquerors neglected their duties, and became the easy prey of Indra, who recovered his dominion. The Bhagavatapurana represents him a having killed a Brahman, and of being haunted by that crime, personified as a Chandali.

Indra had been an object of worship among the pastoral people of Vraja, but Krishna persuaded them to cease. Indra was greatly enraged at this, and sent a deluge of rain to overwhelm them; but Krishna lifted up the mountain Govardhana on his finger to shelter them, and so held it for seven days, until Indra was baffled and rendered homage to Krishna. At another time, when Krishna went to visit Svarga, and was about to carry off the Parijata tree, Indra resented its removal, and a fierce fight ensued. Indra lost the battle and the tree was carried off. Among the deeds of Indra recorded in the Puranas is that of the destruction of the offspring of Diti in her womb, and the production therefrom of the Maruts (see Diti); and there is a story of his cutting off the wings of the mountains with his thunderbolts, because they were refractory and troublesome. Indra is represented as a fair man riding on a white horse or an elephant, and bearing the vajra or thunder bolt in his hand. His son is named Jayanta. Indra is not the object of direct worship, but he receives incidental adoration, and there is a festival kept in his honor called Shakradhvajotthana, which means "the raising of the standard of Indra." Indra's names are many, as Mahendra, Shakra, Maghavan, Ribhuksha, Vasava, Arha, Datteya. His epithets or titles are just as numerous. He is Vritrahan, "the destroyer of Vritra"; Vajrapani, "of the thunderbolt hand"; Meghavahana, "borne upon the Clouds"; Pakashasana, "the subduer of Paka"; Shatakratu, "of a hundred sacrifices"; Devapati and Suradhipa, "chief of the gods"; Divaspati, "ruler of the atmosphere"; Marutvan "lord of the wind"; Svargapati, "lord of paradise"; Jishnu, "leader of the celestial host"; Purandara, "destroyer of cities"; Uluka, "the owl"; Ugradhanvan, "of the terrible bow," and many others. The heaven of Indra is Svarga; its capital is Amaravati; his palace, Vaijayanta; his garden, Nandana, Kandasara, or Parushya; his elephant is Airavata; his horse, Uchchaihsravas; his chariot, Vimana; his charioteer, Matali; his bow, the rainbow, Shakradhanus; and his sword, Paranja.

Indumani: (sáns. hindú). The moon gem. (See Chandrakanta.).

Indumati: (sáns. hindú). Sister of Bhoja, king of Vidarbha, who chose Prince Aja for her husband at her svayamvara. She was killed by Narada's garland falling upon her while asleep in an arbor.

Indu: (sáns. hindú). The moon. (See Soma.).

Iravati: (sáns. hindú). The river Ravi or Hydraotes.

Iravat: (sáns. hindú). Son of Arjuna by his Naga wife Ulupi.

Irka mula: (sáns. hindú). See Ikshanula.

Ishana: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva or Rudra, or of one of his manifestations. (See Rudra.) He is guardian of the northeast quarter.

Isha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Lord. 2. A title of Shiva.

Isha Upanishad: (sáns. hindú). See Upanishad

Ishtipashas: (sáns. hindú). Stealers of offerings. Rakshasas and other enemies of the gods, who steal the oblations.

Ishvara Krishna: (sáns. hindú). Author of the philosophical treatise called Sankhya Karika.

Ishvara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Lord. 2. A title given to Shiva.

Itihasas: (sáns. hindú). Legendary poems. Heroic history. "Stories like those of Urvashi and Pururavas." The term is especially applied to the Mahabharata.


Jagat Mithya: (sáns. hindú). A famous utterance of the teaching of Advaita Vedanta proclaims that brahman alone is real and the world is illusory, a superimposition.

Jaati: (sáns. hindú). A self-contradictory answer based on mere similarity or dissimilarity.

Jabali or Javali: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman who was priest of King Dasaratha, and held sceptical philosophical opinions. He is represented in the Ramayana as enforcing his views upon Rama, who decidedly repudiated them. Thereupon he asserted that his atheistical arguments had been used only for a purpose, and that he was really imbued with sentiments of piety and religion. He is said to have been a logician, so he probably belonged to the Nyaya school.

Jagaddhatri (Dhata) : (sáns. hindú). Sustainer of the world. An epithet given to both Sarasvati and Durga.

Jaganmatri (Mata) : (sáns. hindú). Mother of the world. One of the names of Shiva's wife. See Devi.

Jagannatha: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the world. A particular form of Vishnu, or rather of Krishna. He is worshipped in Bengal and other parts of India, but Puri, near the town of Cuttack, in Orissa, is the great seat of his worship, and multitudes of pilgrims journey there from all over India, especially to the two great festivals of the Snanayatra and Rathayatra, in the months of Jyaishtha and Ashadha. The first of these is when the image is bathed, and in the second, or car festival, the image is brought out upon a car with the images of his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra, and is drawn by the devotees. The legend of the origin of Jagannatha is peculiar. Krishna was killed by a hunter, and his body was left to rot under a tree, but some pious persons found the bones and placed them in a box. A devout king named Indradyumna was directed by Vishnu to form an image of Jagannatha and to place the bones of Krishna inside it. Vishvakarma, the architect of the gods, undertook to make the image, on condition of being left quite undisturbed until the work was complete. After fifteen days the king was impatient and went to Vishvakarma, who was angry, and left off work before he had made either hands or feet, so that the image has only stumps.

Indradyumna prayed to Brahma, who promised to make the image famous, and he did so by giving to it eyes and a soul, and by acting as high priest at its consecration.

Jagati: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic meter of forty-eight syllables.

Jaghana: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the anus or vagina.

Jagrit: (sáns. hindú). Wakeful state. There are three stages of the soul: the first state is the wakeful state, jagrat; the second is the dreamy, sluggish state, svapna; and the third is the deep profound state, the sushupti. Some scholars translate the words as meaning thought, word, and action.

Jahnavi: (sáns. hindú). The Ganges. See Jahnu.

Jahnu: (sáns. hindú). A sage descended from Pururavas. He was disturbed in his devotions by the passage of the river Ganga, and consequently drank up its waters. He afterwards relented, and allowed the stream to issue from his ear, hence Ganga is called Jahnavi, daughter of Jahnu. See Ganga.

Jahusha: (sáns. hindú). A protege of the Ashvins.

Jaiminiyanyayamalavistara: (sáns. hindú). A work on philosophy by Madhava.

Jaimini: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated sage, a disciple of Vyasa. He is said to have received the Samaveda from his master, and to have been its publisher or teacher. He was also the founder of the Purvamimansa philosophy.

Jajali: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman mentioned in the Mahabharata as having practiced asceticism and through its practice he acquired a supernatural power of locomotion of which he was so proud that he deemed himself perfect in virtue and superior to all men. A voice from the sky told him that he was inferior to Tuladhara, a Vaishya and a trader. He went to Tuladhara who taught him wisdom.

Jalaka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for armor or an artificial sex organ.

Jalarupa: (sáns. hindú). The fish or the Makara on the banner of Kama.

Jalashayin: (sáns. hindú). Sleeping on the waters. An appellation of Vishnu, as he is supposed to sleep upon his serpent couch on the waters during the rainy season, or during the submersion of the world.

Jalashuka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for watermelon.

Jalpa: (sáns. hindú). Discourse.

Jamadagni: (sáns. hindú). According to Griffith and others Jamadagni was a famous ancient Rishi. Jamadagni was son of Bhargava Rishi and father of Parasurama.

Jamadagni is often named together with Vishvamitra as an adversary of Vasistha. According to Chand, there is no history of this in the Vedas and claims that the translation is unacceptable. Vidyalankara translates the word as God, who controls all luminous and fiery objects like the sun. Swami Tulsi Ram, using the authority of Shatapath translates the word as "eye."

Jamadagni: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman and a descendant of Bhrigu. He was the son of Richika and Satyavati and was the father of five sons, the youngest and most renowned of whom was Parashurama. Jamadagni's mother, Satyavati, was daughter of King Gadhi, a Kshatriya. The Vishnupurana relates that when Satyavati was pregnant, her Brahman husband, Richika, prepared a meal for her to eat for the purpose of securing that her son should be born with the qualities of a Brahman. He also gave another meal to her mother that she might bear a son with the character of a warrior. The women changed the meals, and so Jamadagni, the son of Richika, was born as a warrior-Brahman, and Vishvamitra, son of the Kshatriya Gadhi, was born as a priest. The Mahabharata relates that Jamadagni plunged himself into deep study and "obtained entire possession of the Vedas." He went to King Renu or Prasenajit of the Solar race and demanded of him his daughter Renuka. The king gave her to him, and he retired with her to his hermitage, where the princess shared in his ascetic life. She bore him five sons Rumanvat, Sushena, Vasu, Vishvavasu, and Parashurama, and she was exact in the performance of all her duties, One day she went out to bathe and observed a loving pair sporting and dallying in the water. Their pleasure made her feel envious, so she was "defiled by unworthy thoughts, and returned wetted but not purified by the stream." Her husband beheld her "fallen from perfection and shorn of the luster of her sanctity." So he rebuked her and was exceeding wroth. His sons came into the hermitage in the order of their birth, and he commanded each of them in succession to kill his mother.

Influenced by natural affection, four of them held their peace and did nothing. Their father cursed them and they became idiots deprived of all understanding. When Parashurama entered, he obeyed his father's order and struck off his mother's head with his axe. The deed appeased the father's anger, and he desired his son to make a request. Parashurama begged that his mother might be restored to life in purity, and that his brothers might regain their natural condition. All this the father granted. The mighty Karta-kriya, king of the Haihayas, who had a thousand arms, paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamadagni. The sage and his sons were out, but his wife treated her guest with all proper respect. Unmindful of the hospitality he had received, Kartavirya threw down the trees around the hermitage, and carried of the calf of the sacred cow, Surabhi, which Jamadagni had acquired by penance. Parashurama returned and discovered what had happened, he then pursued Kartavirya, cut off his thousand arms with arrows, and killed him. The sons of Kartavirya went in revenge to the hermitage of Jamadagni, and in the absence of Parashurama slew the pious sage without pity. When Parashurama found the lifeless body of his father, he laid it on a funeral pile, and vowed that he would totally destroy the entire Kshatriya race. He slew all the sons of Kartavirya, and "thrice seven times" he cleared the earth of the Kshatriya caste.

Jamadagnya: (sáns. hindú). A patronymic of Parashurama.

Jambavati: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Jambavat, king of the bears, wife of Krishna, and mother of Shamba.

Jambavat: (sáns. hindú). King of the bears. A celebrated gem called Syamantaka had been given by the Sun to Satrajit. He, fearing that Krishna would take it from him, gave it to his brother, Prasena. One property of this jewel was to protect its wearer when good, to ruin him when bad. Prasena was wicked and was killed by a lion, which was carrying off the gem in its mouth, when he was encountered and slain by Jambavat. After Prasena's disappearance, Krishna was suspected of having killed him for the sake of the jewel.

Krishna, with a large party, tracked the steps of Prasena, until it was ascertained that he had been killed by a lion, and that the lion had been killed by a bear. Krishna then tracked the bear, Jambavat, into his cavern, and a great fight ensued between them. After waiting outside seven or eight days, Krishna's followers went home and performed his funeral ceremonies.

On the twenty-first day of the fight, Jambavat submitted to his adversary, gave up the gem, and presented to him his daughter, Jambavati, as an offering suitable to a guest. Jambavat with his army of bears aided Rama in his invasion of Lanka, and always acted the part of a sage counsellor.

Jambha: (sáns. hindú). The name of several demons. One demon by this name fought against the gods and was slain by Indra. For this deed Indra was called Jambhabhedin. Another demon by this name fought against Arjuna and was killed by Krishna.

Jambudvipa: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven islands or continents of which the world is made up. The great mountain, Meru, stands in its center, and Bharatavarsha (India) is its best part. Its varshas or divisions are nine in number: 1) Bharata, south of the Himalayas and southernmost of all; 2) Kimpurusha; 3) Harivarsha; 4) Ilavrita, containing Meru; 5) Ramyaka; 6) Hiranmaya; 7) Uttarakuru, each to the north of the preceding one. 8) Bhadrashva and 9) Ketumala lie respectively to the east and west of Ilavrita, the central region.

Jambumali: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa general of Ravana. He was killed by Hanuman.

Jambu: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Eugenia jambolana, commonly known as the rose apple.

Janaka: (sáns. hindú). King of Mithila, of the Solar race. When Nimi, his predecessor, died without leaving a successor, the sages subjected the body of Nimi to attrition, and produced from it a prince "who was called Janaka, from being born without a progenitor." He was the first Janaka, and twenty generations earlier than Janaka the father of Sita. 2. King of Videha and father of Sita, remarkable for his great knowledge and good works and sanctity. He is called Shiradhvaja, "he of the plow banner," because his daughter Sita sprang up, completely formed, from a furrow when he was plowing the ground and preparing for a sacrifice to obtain offspring. The sage Yajnavalkya was his priest and adviser. The Brahmanas relate that he "refused to submit to the hierarchical pretensions of the Brahmans, and asserted his right of performing sacrifices without the intervention of priests." He succeeded in his contention, for it is said that through his pure and righteous life he became a Brahman and one of the Rajarshis. He and his priest Yajnavalkya are thought to have prepared the way for Buddha.

Janakhapana: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for homosexuality.

Janaki: (sáns. hindú). A patronymic of Sita.

Janaloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.

Janamejaya: (sáns. hindú). A great king, who was son of Parikshit, and great-grandson of Arjuna. It was to this king that the Mahabharata was recited by Vaishampayana, and the king listened to it in expiation of the sin of killing a Brahman. His father, Parikshit, died from the bite of a serpent, and Janamejaya is said to have performed a great sacrifice of serpents (Nagas) and to have conquered the Naga people of Takshashila. Hence he is called Sarpasattrin, "serpent-sacrificer." There were several others of the same name.

Janarddana: (sáns. hindú). The adored of humankind. A name of Krishna, but other derivations are offered, as "extirpator of the wicked," by Sankaracharya.

Janasthana: (sáns. hindú). A place in the Dandaka forest where Rama sojourned for a while in his exile.

Jangeda: (sáns. hindú). The name of a plant worn as an amulet.

Janita: (sáns. hindú). The father mentioned in the Rigveda (1,129.11). The Latin genitor; the Supreme God, the Maker and Father of the Universe.

Japagulma: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for China rose.

Jarasandha: (sáns. hindú). Son of Brihadratha, aud king of Magadha. Brihadratha had two wives, who after being long barren brought forth two halves of a boy. These abortions were regarded with horror and thrown away. A female man-eating demon named Jara picked them up and put them together to carry them off. When the two halves came in contact with one another, a boy was formed, who cried out so lustily that he brought out the king and his two queens. The Rakshasi explained what had happened, handed over the child, and retired.

The father gave the boy the name of Jarasandha because he had been put together by Jara. Future greatness was prophesied for the boy, and he became an ardent worshipper of Shiva. Through the favor of this Shiva, Jarasandha prevailed over many kings, and he especially fought against Krishna, who had killed Kansa, the husband of two of Jarasandha's daughters. He besieged Mathura and attacked Krishna eighteen times, and was as often defeated; but Krishna was so weakened that he retired to Dvaraka.

Jarasandha had many kings in captivity, and when Krishna returned from Dvaraka, he, with Bhima and Arjuna, went to Jarasandha's capital for the purpose of slaying their enemy and liberating the kings. Jarasandha refused to release the kings, and accepted the alternative of a combat, in which he was killed by Bhima.

Jaras: (sáns. hindú). Old age. The hunter who unwittingly killed Krishna.

Jaratkaru: (sáns. hindú). An ancient sage who married a sister of the great serpent Vasuki, and was father of the sage Astika.

Jarita: (sáns. hindú). A certain female bird of the species called Sharngika, whose story is told in the Mahabharata. The saint Mandapala, who returned from obscurity because he had no son, assumed the form of a male bird, and by her had four sons. He then abandoned her. In the conflagration of the Khandava forest she showed great devotion in the protection of her children, and they were eventually saved through the influence of Mandapala over the god of fire. Their names were Jaritari, Sarisrikta, Stambamitra, and Drona. They were "interpreters of the Vedas." There are hymns of the Rigveda bearing the names of the second and third.

Jarutha: (sáns. hindú). The name of a fiend or savage.

Jatasura: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa who disguised himself as a Brahman and carried off Yudhishthira, Sahadeva, Nakula, and Draupadi. He was overtaken and killed by Bhima Jatavedas: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic epithet for fire. According to Williams, "The meaning is explained in five ways: 1) Knowing all created beings; 2) Possessing all creatures or everything existent; 3) Known by created beings; 4) Possessing vedas, riches; 5) Possessing vedas, wisdom. Other derivations and explanations are found in the Brahmanas, but the exact sense of the word seems to have been lost very early on, and of the five explanations given, only the first two would seem to be admissible for the Vedic texts. In one passage a form, Jataveda, seems to occur." This form of the term, and the statement of Manu that the Vedas were milked out from fire, air, and the sun, may perhaps justify the definition, "producer of the Vedas."

Jatayu: (sáns. hindú). According to the Ramayana, a bird who was son of Vishnu's bird Garuda, and king of the vultures. Other say he was a son of Aruna. He became an ally of Rama's, and he fought furiously against Ravana to prevent him from carrying Sita away. Ravana overpowered him and left him mortally wounded. Rama found him in time to hear his dying words, and to learn what had happened to Sita. Rama and Lakshmana performed his funeral rites to "secure his soul in the enjoyments of heaven;" Jatayu then ascended to heaven in a chariot of fire. In the Puranas he is the friend of Dasharatha. When that king went to the ecliptic to recover Sita from Shani (Saturn) his carriage was consumed by a glance from the eye of the latter, but Jatayu caught the falling king and saved him. The Padmapurana says Dasharatha assaulted Saturn because of a dearth, and when he and his car were hurled from heaven, Jatayu caught him.

Jathara: (sáns. hindú). A word found in the Rigveda (1.112.17) that has a doubtful meaning. Some scholars translate the word to mean, "violence of the rain-clouds."

Jatila: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Gotama, who is mentioned in the Mahabharata as a virtuous woman and the wife of seven husbands.

Jati: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Jasminum grandiflorum, commonly known as jasmine.

Jatushthira: (sáns. hindú). A character in the Rigveda.

Jau: (sáns. hindú). See Kalinja.

Javali: (sáns. hindú). See Jabali.

Jayadeva: (sáns. hindú). A poet, author of the Gitagovinda.

Jayadratha: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the Lunar race, son of Brihanmanas. He was king of Sindhu, and was "indifferently termed Raja of the Sindhus or Saindhavas, and Raja of the Sauviras, or sometimes in concert Sindhu-sauviras," the Saindhavas and Sauviras both being tribes living along the Indus.

Jayadratha married Dudshala, daughter of Dhrita-rashtra, and was an ally of the Kauravas. When the Pandavas were in exile he called at their forest abode while they were out hunting and Draupadi was at home alone. He had with him six brothers and a large retinue, but the resources of the Pandavas were equal to the occasion, and Draupadi was able to supply five hundred deer with accompaniments for breakfast. This is explained by the statement that Yudhishthira, having worshipped the sun, obtained an inexhaustible cauldron which was to supply all and every food provision that might be required by the Pandavas in their exile. Jayadratha was captivated by the charms of Draupadi, and tried to induce her to elope with him. When he was indignantly repulsed, he carried her off by force. When the Pandavas returned they pursued the ravisher, defeated his forces, and made him prisoner. His life was spared by command of Yudhishthira, but Bhima kicked and beat him terribly, cut of his hair, and made him go before the assembled Pandavas and acknowledge himself to be their slave. At the intercession of Draupadi, he was allowed to depart. He was killed, after a desperate conflict, by Arjuna on the fourteenth day of the great battle.

Jayanta: (sáns. hindú). Son of Indra, also called Jaya.

Jayanti: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Indra. She is called also Jayani, Devasena and Tavishi.

Jayestha: (sáns. hindú). Mid May to mid June.

Jetar: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi.

Jhelum: (sáns. hindú). A river. This river is probably the river referred to in the Rigveda (10.75.5) as the river Vitasta. Jhelum is probably the Hydaspes of the Greeks.

Jihvika, Jivaka, Jivasa or Upajihvika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Terminalia tomentosa, commonly known as the yellow amaranth.

Jimutavahana: (sáns. hindú). Whose vehicle is the clouds. A title of Indra. A name borne by several persons, and among them by the author of the Dayabhaga.

Jimuta: (sáns. hindú). A great wrestler, who was overcome and killed by Bhima at the court of Virata.

Jiraka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Cuminum cyminum, commonly known as cumin.

Jishnu: (sáns. hindú). A name of Arjuna.

Jiva: (sáns. hindú). Soul.

Jivaka: (sáns. hindú). See Jihvika.

Jivasa: (sáns. hindú). See Jihvika.

Jivbarhiyajna: (sáns. hindú). A sacrifice for awakening spiritual forces.

  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation

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