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Ärî Gaôgâdasa Paòàita

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Ärî Gaôgâdasa Paòàita

My obeisances to Ärî Gaôgâdasa Paòàita, who is the disciple of the husband of Sarasvati, the master of the Vedas. (C.B.M 1.283)

After the ceremony in which Ärî Gaurasundara was invested with the sacred thread, He took up his studies at home, under the tutorship of his father. When Ärî Jagannâtha Misra saw that his son was very eager to be admitted to an academic institution, his father took him to the house of Ärî Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita, to get Him admitted into Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita's tol. In Kèëòa-lila Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita was the teacher of Balarama and Kèëòa, Sandipani Muni.

When he saw Jagannâtha Misra had come to his house, Gaôgâ dâsa got up to respectfully receive him and after embracing him, he very affectionately requested him to take his seat. Jagannâtha Misra addressed him, "I have brought my son to you. Please become his teacher and instruct him how to read and write." Ärî Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita replied, "Only unless one is greatly fortunate does he get the chance to instruct a child who is endowed with the symptoms of such a high-souled saintly person. I will teach him to the best of my ability."

Thus Ärî Jagannâtha Misra presented his son Nimai into the hands of Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita and then returned home.

While looking at his new disciple, Gaôgâdas became immersed in great happiness and kept Nimai with him just as if he was his own son. (C.B. Adi 8.32)

Gaôgâ dâsa could undestand by the divine appearance and nature of this boy that he was not ordinary, and so he began to carefully instruct him while treating him just like his own son. The boy Nimai had such a miraculous intellect that after hearing the sutras only once, he had completely committed them to the memory. Within a few days he came to occupy the seat at the head of the class. Gradually it came to pass that sometimes Nimai would explain the sutras even better than his teacher. Not one amongst hundreds and hundreds of students in the tol could rival him. Gaôgâ dâsa undestood very quickly that Nimai was his best student. Whatever pastimes the Lord enacts He does so to the penultimate degree.

Amongst the better students of the Pandit was Ärî Kamalakanta, Murari Gupta, Ärî Kèëòananda and others, to whom Nimai would pose many tricky questions. Their discussions would usually end up at the bathing ghat at the Gaôgâ with loud arguments and eventually pushing and mud slinging . Nimai would establish one conclusion, then defeat that by establishing another, and then establish the original conclusion again with better arguments. Seeing his genius the other students were simply struck with wonder and Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita was in total ecstasy. After practising logic and rhetoric for some days under the tutelage of Gaôgâ das Pandit, Ärî Nimai then opened his own grammar tol by the order of His guru. His tol was held at the house of Mukunda Sanjoy in the pavilion where they conducted Durga Puja. Day by day his students increased and even at such a young age he attained such proficiency in scholarship that everyone including even Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita was simply amazed.

While He engaged in His pastimes of learning His mother Saci Mata was very happy. Eventually the time came for Him to go to Gaya under the plea of offering rites for His deceased father. After being initiated by Ärî Isvara Puri He returned from there a changed person. Now he explained all the sutras in relationship to Ärî Kèëòa. Besides that, he knew nothing else. Finally his students went to Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita to inform him of the new developments. That afternoon when Nimai came to offer his respects to his guru, Gaôgâ dâsa Paòàita very affectionately blessed him saying, "Bap Visvambhara (Bap is an affectionate term which literally means father, but which is used loosely even by mothers to address their sons), now hear my words. The scholarship of brahmanas is not a matter of small fortune. On both sides of your family Nilambara Cakravarti, your maternal grandfather, and your father Jagannâtha Miära weren't uneducated fools. You are also very qualified to explain ins and outs of logic. If by giving up teaching one attains devotion, then why didn't your father and grandfather give it up? Were they not devotees? Considering all this, please continue your studies. By study one becomes a Vaisnava brahmana. If a brahmana becomes a fool then how will he distinguish between good and bad. Reflecting on these matters you should pursue your studies and continue to teach your students nicely. On my honor I am stating this, that you might not explain things in a contrary fashion."

Nimai replied, "By your mercy, there is not a soul in Navadwipa who can defeat me in philosophical debate. Let me see which of these great Paòàitas can refute the explanations of the sutras that I will now give. I am going to the tol to begin instructing these points just now." Hearing these words of Ärî Gaurasundara, Gaôgâ dâsa was pleased. Thus Mahâprabhu took the dust of his lotus feet and went of to the tol. (Then what happened?)

"What is left for Gaôgâ dâsa to accomplish, who has most worshipable person in the fourteen worlds as his disciple?"


  1. Ärî Abhirama Gopala Ùhâkura - jun 15
  2. Ärî Acyutananda - jun 15
  3. Sri Advaita Acarya - jun 15
  4. Ananta Âcârya - jun 15
  5. Ärî Anupama - jun 15
  6. Ärîla Baladeva Vidyâbhûëana - jun 15
  7. Ärî Bhâgavata Âcârya - jun 15
  8. Ärî Bhûgarbha Gosvâmî - jun 15
  9. Candraäekara Âcâryaratna - jun 15
  10. Ärî Devânanda Paòàita - jun 15
  11. Ärî Dhanañjaya Paòàita - jun 15
  12. Ärî Gadâdhara dâsa Ùhâkura - jun 15
  13. Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita Gosvâmî - jun 15

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Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita Gosvâmî

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Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita Gosvâmî

Ärî Gadâdhara was the constant companion of Mahâprabhu from the time of their childhood. His father's name was Ärî Madhva Misra and his mother's name Ärî Ratnavati-devi. They lived very near the house of Ärî Jagannâtha Misra in Mayapura. Ratnavati-devi thought of Saci-devi as her own sister, and always used to visit her.

During their childhood, Ärî Gaura Hari and Gadâdhara would play together, sometimes at Mahâprabhu's house and sometimes at Gadâdhara's house. They both studied together at the same school. Gadâdhara was a few years younger then Nimai. Nimai couldn't remain without Gadâdhara even for a moment and Gadâdhara likewise couldn't stand to be separated from Nimai.

In the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, it is described that that person who in Vraja was the daughter of Ärî Vrsabhanu Raja, namely Ärîmati Radharani, is now celebrated as Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita. Svarupa Damodara has written in his diary: avani sura bavah sri Paòàitakhyo jatindrah / sa khalo bhavati Radha Ärîla Gauravataro.

Ärî Vasudeva Ghosa Ùhâkura has written:

Agam agocar gora akhil brahma-par, veda upar, najane pasandi mati bhora Nitya-nityananda Caitanya Govinda Pandit Gadadhar Radhe Caitanya yugala-rupa kebol raser kup avatar sadsiva sadhe Antare nave-ghana bahire gaura tanu yugalrupa parkase Kahe Vasudeva Ghose yugal bhajan base janame janame rahu asa

"Lord Gaurasundara, who is beyond the perview of the scriptures, beyond the entire Brahman, and above even the Vedas, can never be known by the atheists whose intelligence is dull. Lord Nityananda is His eternal self. Lord Caitanya is Lord Govinda Himself and Paòàita Gadâdhara is none other than Ärî Radha. The divine couple, who are present in Ärî Caitanya, are a well of rasa. Advaita Âcârya (Sadasiva) has prayed for His descent. Within He is blackish but of a golden hue without, the manifestation of the divine couple. Thus Vasudeva Ghosa sings of the beauty of this divine couple - Ärî Gaura-Gadâdhara - in whose worship he has been completely subjugated. He prays that he will desire to serve them birth after birth."

In Ärî Caitanya-caritamrta (Antya 7.163) we likewise find:

panditer bhav mudre kahan na jay gadadhar pran nath nam hoila jay panditer krpa prasad lehan na jay gadai gauranga kari sarvaloke gay

"The emotions and expressions of Paòàita Gadâdhara are not possible to describe. Another name of Lord Gauranga is the 'Lord of the life of Gadâdhara.' Who can understand what mercy has been bestowed upon him? Their glories are sung by everyone as Gadai-Gauranga."

During the time when Ärî Isvara Puri was present for a few months in Navadwipa at the house of Ärî Gopinath Âcârya, he taught Gadâdhara from the book he had composed, Ärî Kèëòa Lilamrta.

Gadadhar panditere apnar krt/punthi parayan nam Kèëòa lilamrta (C.B. Adi 11.100)

Gadâdhara was from his very childhood very serene, patient, calm, quiet, fond of solitude and very renounced. Nimai Pandit during the time of His precocious youth would ask his fellow students meaningless, fallacious questions in logic. Gadâdhara however, was not especially fond of this pastime, and therefore he sometimes used to remain at some distance from Nimai. But Nimai wouldn't allow him to get away. He would tell him - "Gadadhar! In a very short time I'll become such a Vaisnava that Lord Brahma and Lord Äiva themselves will come to My door."

Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita was very affectionate towards Mukunda Datta. Whenever any Vaisnava came to Navadwipa, Mukunda would inform Gadâdhara and they would both go to have darsana. One time Pundarika Vidyanidhi came from Cattagram to Navadwipa and Mukunda invited Gadâdhara to come along and meet him. Gadâdhara was very excited to meet such a Vaisnava and thus the two of them happily set out together to take advantage of sadhu-sanga with the famous Pundarika Vidyanidhi.

However, when Gadâdhara saw that Pundarika Vidyanidhi dressed and acted like a wealthy materialist, he lost whatever reverence he had previously felt even before speaking with him. Gadahara thought to himself, "How can a Vaisnava look and act as if he was so addicted to sense enjoyment?"

However, Mukunda knew the real character of Pundarika Vidyanidhi, and he could also sense the doubts in the mind of Gadâdhara Paòàita. Thus he recited some slokas from the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam in a very sweet voice. When Pundarika Vidyanidhi heard his beautiful recitation of these slokas, in a fit of ecstasy he began to cry while calling, "Kèëòa, Kèëòa", and finally fainted dead away on the floor. (C.B. Mad 7.78-79).

Gadâdhara now felt very remorseful in his mind. He thought to himself, "Because I have ignorantly considered this highly advanced soul to be an ordinary materialist, what an offense I have committed! In order that I might be saved from the reaction of this offense, I think the only solution is to accept initiation from him."

Gadâdhara Paòàita submitted his proposal to Mukunda, who presented it to Pundarika Vidyanidhi with a full account of the Paòàita's high qualifications. "Hearing this proposal, Pundarika became very happy. 'Providence has bestowed upon me a great jewel; certainly I will accept him. You shouldn't have any doubt about that. It is the result of many lifetimes of good fortune that one gets a disciple like this.'" (C.B. Madhya 7.117-118). On an auspicious day, Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita received the divine mantra from Pundarika Vidyanidhi.

Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, upon going to Gaya Dham, first began to manifest Kèëòa-prema. There he enacted the pastime of accepting the shelter of Ärî Isvara Puri. After returning to His house He began to exhibit a new life.

Day and night He floated in the ocean of love of Kèëòa. Gadâdhara, upon seeing the Lord showering of tears in love for Kèëòa, also began to cry in ecstatic love. From this time, Gadâdhara Paòàita was always at Mahâprabhu's side.

One day Ärî Gadâdhara brought some pan to Ärî Gauranga, Who, in an exuberance of emotion asked him, "Gadâdhara! Where is that beautiful blackish boy Who is dressed in yellow garments?" After asking this, He began to shed tears.

Gadâdhara couldn't immediately think of what to say. He finally respectfully suggested, "He is in your heart." Hearing this, Mahâprabhu began to tear at his chest with his nails, but Gadâdhara quickly grabbed his hands. Prabhu said to him, "Gadâdhara! Let go of My hands. I cannot remain a moment more not seeing Kèëòa."

Gadâdhara replied, "Just try to be a little patient and calm Yourself. Kèëòa will come any minute now." Hearing this, Mahâprabhu became somewhat composed.

Sacimata heard all this from a distance and then came running there. Being very pleased with Gadâdhara, she declared, "Though He is just a boy, He is very intelligent. I am frightened to go before my son when He is in these moods. But Gadâdhara has very cleverly pacified him."

mui bhoye nahi painu sammukhe noite sisu hoi kemon prabodhila bhalo mate. (C.B. Mad 2/210)

"Sacimata told Gadâdhara, 'Gadâdhara! You must, please, remain with Nimai always. If you stay with Him then I won't have to worry."

One day, Ärî Gadâdhara, having heard that Mahâprabhu will speak Kèëòa-katha at Suklambara Brahmacari's house, went there and sat down inside. Meanwhile, Mahâprabhu arrived outside on the verandah and began to speak about Kèëòa to an audience of devotees there; Gadâdhara Prabhu listened from within the house. Soon Mahâprabhu became totally absorbed in the ecstacy of Kèëòa-prema, which quickly spread to the assembly of devotees. For some time they continued to taste the mellows of love of Kèëòa together and then becalmed themselves.

Gadâdhara, however, couldn't restrain his ecstacy. With his head bowed down, he continued to cry very loudly. Hearing his pitiful sobbing, Mahâprabhu inquired, "Who is crying within the room?" Suklambara Brahmacari replied, "Your Gadâdhara."

Mahâprabhu exclaimed, "Gadâdhara! You are so pious and virtuous. Since your very childhood you were so devoted to Kèëòa. My life has been wasted. Due to my previous evil activities I cannot get the association of the Lord of my life, Ärî Kèëòa."

Saying this, Prabhu embraced Gadâdhara in great love.

When Mahâprabhu began His pastimes in Navadvipa, Gadâdhara was his chief companion. Radha Kèëòa of Vraja are now sporting on the banks of the Gaôgâ as Gadai-Gauranga, and the cowherd boyfriends of Vraja are assisting in His pastimes of kirtana.

One day after roaming throughout the town of Navadwipa, Mahâprabhu came to a forest and seated Himself there. Then He began to remember His pastimes in Vraja. Mukunda began to sing the purva-vag (courtship) songs in a very sweet voice while Gadâdhara collected some flowers from that forest and after stringing a garland placed it on Prabhu's neck. Previously, in the way that Ärî Radha used to decorate Ärî Kèëòa, Gadâdhara began to dress Prabhu in that exact same manner. Some were singing beautiful songs, while others began to dance in a very graceful style. Then Ärî Gaurasundara taking Gadâdhara by His side seated Himself on a dias at the base of one tree, while Advaita Âcârya began to offer arati. Nityananda seated Himself on Prabhu's right side and Ärîvasa Paòàita began to decorate everyone with flower garlands. Narahari was fanning that Divine couple with a whisk made from the tail hairs of forest cows. Suklambar decorated them all with sandalwood paste while Murari Gupta recited the premadhvani. Madhava, Vasudeva, Purusottama, Vijaya, and Mukunda began to sing songs in the various ragas.

Then Prabhu closed his pastimes in Nadiya and as per his mother's request he took up his residence at Nilacala. Gadâdhara also went there to live at this time. He engaged himself in the service of Ärî Tota Gopinatha. Mahâprabhu would very often visit His dear friend Gadâdhara and lose Himself in discussions on the topics of Ärî Kèëòa. The temple of Ärî Tota Gopinathji is located near the ocean at Yameshvar.

When Lord Caitanya traveled to Ärî Vrindavana, Gadâdhara, not being able to bear separation from Him, wanted to go also but Mahâprabhu reminded him of his vow of ksetra-sannyasa (by which he was to remain constantly in Ärî Ksetra in the service of Ärî Gopinatha) and sent him back.

Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita would regularly recite Ärîmad Bhâgavatam. Ärî Gaurasundara, along with His associates, would listen.

gadadhar pandit prabhu age bosi pare bhagavat - sudha dhale rasi rasi (B.R. 3/107)

After enacting His pastimes on this planet for forty-eight years, Ärî Gaurasundara merged into the body of Ärî Gopinathji, who was served by Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita.

nyasi siromani cesta bujhe sadya kar? akasmat prithini karila andhakar

pravesila ei gopinatha mandire hoila adarsan, punah na aila bahire

(B.R. 8.356-357)

In the diary of one Orissan devotee, Mahâprabhu is said to have first went missing inside the Gundica Mandira. Then the devotees began to comb the four directions in search of their Beloved Lord. Finally, outside of Tota Gopinatha Mandira, at Yameswar, the outer garment of Mahâprabhu was found lying on the ground. A slight crack which is still to be found near the right knee of Ärî Gopinathji is the spot where Mahâprabhu is said to have entered the Deity.

His appearance is on the amavasya (new moon) of the month of Vaisakha.

smara gaura-gadâdhara keli kalam

bhava gaura-gadâdhara paksa caram

srnu gaura-gadâdhara caru katham

bhaja godruma-kanon kunja-vidhum

(Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura)

"Remember Gaura-Gadâdhara during the time of Their pastimes, meditate on Gaura-Gadâdhara, the Divine couple, the par-excellence of beauty. Hear beautiful discussions on the topics of Gaura-Gadâdhara, and worship Them in the forest grove of Godruma, bathed in the light of the moon."

Gadâdhara Paòàita (also known as Paòàita Prabhu and Gadai) was included amongst the Pancatattva. He was born of Madhava Misra and Ratnavati-devi in 1486 AD., on the new moon day of Vaisaka (Apr-May), in the village Beliti. However, according to JayaKèëòa dasa's article "Ärî Caitanya-Parisada-Janmasthana-Nirnaya", published in the Sahitya Parisat Patrika 4, 1377 BS, Gadâdhara hailed from Ärîhatta. Whereas Premavilasa 24, records his birth place at Chittagong. His younger brother was Vaninatha. In past incarnations Gadâdhara was Radhika and Lalita.

A brahmana of the Varendra clan and Kasyapa gotra, Gadâdhara, at the age of thirteen, migrated with his parents to Navadvipa to stay at his maternal uncle's house, nearby the residence of Jagannâtha Misra. Some say that a wealthy person of Kandipura, named Suraraja, was instrumental in bringing Gadâdhara from Beliti to Navadvipa. Gadâdhara remained a bachelor throughout his life. He received mantra from Pundarika Vidyanidhi.

Gadâdhara was a constant companion of Lord Gauranga and always read the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam to Him. After the Lord took sannyasa and went to Nilacala, Gadâdhara also went with Him. Gadâdhara passed away in Puri on the new moon day in the month of Jaistha (May-June) in 1534 AD. at the age of forty-seven, eleven months after the disappearance of Lord Caitanya.

Lord Caitanya wrote a sloka in His own handwriting on the personal copy of Gadâdhara's Gita. According to Sadhanadipika 9, Gadâdhara composed Premamrtastotra.

In the biographies of Lord Caitanya, Gadâdhara has been referred to in the following places:

1. Gadâdhara Paòàita as Isa-sakti, Cc. 1.1.41, 1.4.227, 1.6.48.

2. Meeting with Isvarapuri and others at Navadvipa, and study of Isvarapuri's book entitled Kèëòalilamrta, CBh. 1.11.99-100.

3. Gadâdhara faints to hear the kirtana sung by Lord Gauranga at the house of Suklamvara, CBh. 2.1.56-108.

4. Arguments with Lord Gauranga on Nyaya, CBh. 1.12.20-27.

5. Gadâdhara's counsel to Advaita Prabhu to abstain from witnessing the worship performed by Lord Gauranga, CBh. 1.12.126-142.

6. Viraha-stricken Lord Gauranga comforts Gadâdhara, CBh. 2.2.202-209.

7. Betel-leaf offered to Lord Gauranga, CBh. 2.6.65, 2.20.27, 2.22.19.

8. Doubts creeping into Gadâdhara's mind when seeing Pundarika in the attire of an aristocrat, and Mukunda's explanation to clear these doubts, then Gadâdhara receiving diksa, CBh. 2.7.44-112.

9. Gadâdhara' s reaction upon seeing Nityananda Prabhu without garments, CBh. 2.11.23, 2.13.159.

10. Water sports with Lord Gauranga after the conversion of Jagai and Madhai, CBh. 2.13.341.

11. Gadâdhara dancing as a gopika in the drama staged at the house of Candrasekhar, CBh. 2.18.101-116.

12. Gadâdhara stands on the left of Lord Gauranga at the dance-recital celebrating the conversion of the Kazi, CBh. 2.23.211, 491.

13. In constant association with Lord Gauranga, CBh. 2.24.31.

14. Receiving the command in the house of Lord Gauranga to offer Viëòu puja, CBh. 2.25.91.

15. Gadâdhara with reference to sannyasa, CBh. 2.28.44.

16. Gadâdhara residing in the same house with Lord Gauranga on the night before the Lord took sannyasa, CBh. 2.26.166-171.

17. Gadâdhara as a companion of Lord Caitanya after sannyasa, CBh. 2.28.104, 3.1.52.

18. Gadâdhara accompanies Lord Caitanya to Nilacala, CBh. 3.2.35.

19. Gadâdhara staying with Lord Caitanya at Nilacala, CBh. 3.3.228-231.

20. Ksetra sannyasa, CC. 2.1.252.

21. Meeting with Nityananda Prabhu at Tota Gopinatha and Lord Caitanya, Nityananda Prabhu, and Gadâdhara enjoying their meals, CBh. 3.7.112-164.

22. Water sports in Narendra-sarovara, CBh. 3.8.122.

23. Reference to the subject of siksa from Lord Caitanya, CBh. 3.10.22-27.

24. Gadâdhara's recital of Ärîmad Bhâgavatam on the bank of the Narendra-sarovara, CBh. 3.10.22-26.

25. Gadâdhara's refusal to give diksa when Vallabha Bhatta attempts to coax him, CC. 3.7.86-148.

26. "The life and soul of Gadâdhara Paòàita" and "The Lord Gauranga of Gadâdhara Paòàita," CC. 3.7.163-164.

27. Gadâdhara argues with Lord Caitanya upholding the view that service to Lord Caitanya is the supreme duty, CC. 2.16.130-143.

28. Gadâdhara's reaction in separation of Lord Caitanya, Bhaktiratnakara 3.135-143.

29. Meeting with Ärînivâsa Âcârya, Bhaktiratnakara 3.147-152.

Also see Dhyanacandra Gosvâmî's Ärî Gauragovindarcana Paddhati for details regarding Ärî Gadâdhara Mantra, Dhyana, Gayatri, and Ärî Gaura Gadâdhara Mantra. Texts 37-44 of the above text notes the existence of Gadâdhara image on the left of Lord Gauranga at Yogapitha as extracted from Caitanyarcana-candrika.

The following are the `astakas' composed on Gadâdhara Paòàita:

1. By Sanatana Gosvâmî

2. By Rupa Gosvâmî

3. By Svarupa Gosvâmî

4. By Lokanatha Gosvâmî

5. By Bhugarbha Gosvâmî

6. By Paramananda Gosvâmî

7. By Äivananda Cakravarti

Other writings on Gadâdhara Paòàita are as follows:

1. Ärî Ärî GauraGadâdharastaka, a) by Acyutananda, b) Nayanananda Misra.

2. Rati-janaka-dvadasa-namastotra, by Sarvabhauma

3. Astottarasatanama stotra, by Sarvabhauma

4. Sakhanirnayamrta, by Jadunatha

5. Premamrtastotra, by Gadâdhara Paòàita

Further references from CC:

Adi 10.15,p.; 10.40p.; 12.90; 12.91; 17.301,p.;

Madhya 3.6,p.; 15.183,p.; 16sum.; 16.130; 16.131; 16.132; 16.136; 16.137, p.; 16.138; 16.142; 16.143; 16.147; 16.255; 16.278; 16.279; 16.280; 16.282; 16.284; 16.286; 16.287;

Antya 7.144; 7.145,p.; 7.146; 7.149; 7.150; 7.153-154; 7.155; 7.157; 7.159; 7.163; 7.164; 7.166; 7.170,p.; 7.171; 8.90-91.


Ärî Abhirama Gopala Ùhâkura - jun 15
Ärî Acyutananda - jun 15
Sri Advaita Acarya - jun 15
Ananta Âcârya - jun 15
Ärî Anupama - jun 15
Ärîla Baladeva Vidyâbhûëana - jun 15
Ärî Bhâgavata Âcârya - jun 15
Ärî Bhûgarbha Gosvâmî - jun 15
Candraäekara Âcâryaratna - jun 15
Ärî Devânanda Paòàita - jun 15
Ärî Dhanañjaya Paòàita - jun 15
Ärî Gadâdhara dâsa Ùhâkura - jun 15

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