viernes, 2 de julio de 2010

Prajapati - Saha - The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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9.Prajapati - Saha

Prajapati: (sáns. hindú). (praja "creatures" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord of creatures. 2. A name of Kashyapa. 3. Vishnu's 69th and 197th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. A name of Shiva. 5. In the Veda the term is applied to Indra, Savitri, Soma, Hiranyagarbha, and other deities. In Manu the term is applied to Brahma as the active creator and supporter of the universe; so Brahma is the Prajapati. It is also given to Manu Svayambhuva himself, as the son of Brahma and as the secondary creator of the ten Rishis, or "mind-born sons" of Brahma, from whom mankind has descended. It is to these ten sages, as father of the human race, that the name Prajapati most commonly is given. They are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Prachetas or Daksha, Bhrigu, and Narada. According to some authorities the Prajapatis are only seven in number, being identical with the seven great Rishis (See Rishi.) The number and names of the Prajapatis vary in different authorities: the Mahabharata makes twenty-one.

Prajesha: (sáns. hindú). (praja "creatures" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of creatures. 2. A name of Brahma and of His ten mind-born sons, who were the progenitors of all beings. 3. A name of Shiva.

Prajeshvara: (sáns. hindú). (praja "creatures" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord of creatures. 2. A name of Brahma and of His ten mind-born sons, who were the progenitors of all beings. 3. A name of Shiva.

Prajna: (sáns. hindú). 1. The wise, or supremely wise 2. Wisdom, knowledge personified as Sarasvati. 3. The Self associated with the state of deep sleep.

Prajnatmika: (sáns. hindú). She who is wisdom itself. An epithet of Devi. The 261st name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Prakasha: (sáns. hindú). (pra "forth" + kasha "shining") Luminous, shining forth.

Prakashas: (sáns. hindú). Messengers of Vishnu, also called Vishnudutas.

Prakashatman: (sáns. hindú). Of the nature of luster. Shiva's 379th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prakata Pritivardhana: (sáns. hindú). One who increases pleasures manifestly. Shiva's 991st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prakrita: (sáns. hindú). 1. Nature; matter as opposed to spirit. 2. The personified will of the Supreme in the creation. 3, The prototype of the female sex, identified with Maya or illusion. 4. The Shakti or female energy of any deity.

Prakritidakshina: (sáns. hindú). One who is to the right of Prakriti. Shiva's 968th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prakrits: (sáns. hindú). The Prakrits are provincial dialects of the Sanskrit, exhibiting more or less deterioration from the original language; and they occupy an intermediate position between that language and the modern vernaculars of India, very similar to that of the Romance languages between the Latin and the modern languages of Europe. They resemble the European languages also in another respect: they have in them a small proportion of words which have not been affiliated on the original classical language, and are apparently remnants of a different tongue and an older race.

The Prakrits are chiefly known from the dramas in which kings and Brahmans speak Sanskrit, while characters of inferior position speak in different Prakrits. Sometimes these Prakrit passages are so very debased that it hardly seems possible for them to be specimens of actual spoken vernaculars. Such passages may perhaps be comic exaggerations of provincial peculiarities. The Prakrits have received careful study, and the Prakritaprakasha, a Grammar by Vararuchi, was probably written about the beginning of the Christian era. See Katyayana.

Pralamba: (sáns. hindú). An Asura killed by Krishna, according to the Mahabharata. His story as told in the Vishnupurana is, that he was an Asura and a dependant of Kansha. With the object of devouring the boys Krishna and Balarama, he joined them and their playmates in jumping. Pralamba was beaten by his opponent Balarama, and by the rules of the game had to carry the victor back on his shoulders to the starting place. He took up Balarama and then expanded his form, and was making off with his rider when Balarama called upon Krishna for assistance. Krishna made a long speech and ended by telling him to suspend awhile his mortal character and do what was right. Balarama laughed, squeezed Pralamba with his knee, and beat him on the head with his fists until his eyes were knocked out and his brain forced through his skull, so that he fell to the ground and died.

Pralaya: (sáns. hindú). A dissolution of the world at the end of a kalpa.

Pramanabhuta: (sáns. hindú). One who has become an authority. Shiva's 243rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pramanajna: (sáns. hindú). One who is conversant with the means of valid knowledge. Shiva's 401st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pramanam: (sáns. hindú). Means of valid knowledge. Shiva's 310th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pramathas: (sáns. hindú). A class of demi-gods or fiends attendant upon Shiva.

Pramlocha: (sáns. hindú). A celestial nymph sent by Indra to beguile the sage Kandu from his devotion and austerities. She lived with him for some hundreds of years, which were but as a day to the sage. When he awoke from his delusion he drove the nymph from his presence. The child with which she was pregnant by him came forth from her body in drops of perspiration, which he left upon the leaves of the trees. These drops congealed and became eventually the lovely nymph Marisha.

Pramodana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The joyful, delightful. 2. Vishnu's 525th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Pramodini: (sáns. hindú). The joyful, delightful.

Pramshu: (sáns. hindú). Tall. Shiva's 556th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prana: (sáns. hindú). (pra "forth" + ana "breathing") 1. Life or breath. 2. Vishnu's 67th, 320 th and 407th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. In the Atharvaveda it is personified and a hymn is addressed to it.

Pranada: (sáns. hindú). She who gives life. An epithet of Devi. The 783rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Pranarupini: (sáns. hindú). She whose form is life. An epithet of Devi. The 784th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Pranava: (sáns. hindú). 1. Praise or salutation (i.e. the syllable "OM"). 2. Vishnu's 409th and 957 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 524th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pranavatmaka: (sáns. hindú). Of the nature of Pranava. Shiva's 73rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pranaya: (sáns. hindú). (Spiritual) leader.

Pranesha: (sáns. hindú). (prana "vital life-force" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of pranas. 2. A name of Shiva.

Praneshvara: (sáns. hindú). (prana "vital life-force" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord of life. 2. A name for a husband whose wife is as dear to him as his own life. 3. A name of God.

Praneshvari: (sáns. hindú). (prana "vital life-force" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") 1. The sovereign goddess of life. 2. A name for a wife whose husband is as dear to her as her own life.

Prapatti: (sáns. hindú). Surrender of devotion.

Prasada: (sáns. hindú). 1. Purity, serenity, grace. 2. A gift from God. 3. The remnants of food offerings made to the Lord and to the Guru, which represent a form of grace in which their devotees partake.

Prasanna: (sáns. hindú). Pure, serene, gracious.

Prasanna Raghava: (sáns. hindú). A drama by Jayadeva in seven acts.

Prasannatman: (sáns. hindú). One delighted in the mind. Shiva's 896th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prasavitri: (sáns. hindú). The Mother.

Prasena: (sáns. hindú). Son of Nighna and brother of Satrajit or Sattrajita. He was killed by a lion. See Syamantaka.

Prashanta: (sáns. hindú). Calmed.

Prashantabuddhi: (sáns. hindú). One whose intellect is calm. Shiva's 1102nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prashanti: (sáns. hindú). Supreme peace.

Prashna: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Upanishad.

Prasuti: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Manu and wife of Daksha.

Pratapa: (sáns. hindú). Glory; a name of Shiva.

Pratapana: (sáns. hindú). One who scorches. Shiva's 380th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pratapavan: (sáns. hindú). Valorous. Shiva's 336th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pratapta: (sáns. hindú). One who is heated much. Shiva's 670th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pratardana: (sáns. hindú). Son of Divodasa, king of Kashi. The whole family of Divodasa was slain by a king named Vitahavya. The afflicted monarch through a sacrifice performed by Bhrigu obtained a son, Pratardana, who became a mighty warrior, and avenged the family wrongs upon his father's foe. Vitahavya then flew to the sage Bhrigu for protection, and was by him raised to the dignity of a Brahmarshi.

Pratibha: (sáns. hindú). She who is intelligence. An epithet of Sarasvati.

Pratika: (sáns. hindú). The image or symbol of God.

Pratima: (sáns. hindú). The image or symbol of God.

Pratishakhyas: (sáns. hindú). Treatises on the phonetic laws of the language of the Vedas, dealing with the euphonic combination of letters and the peculiarities of their pronunciation as they prevailed in the different Shakhas or Vedic schools. These treatises are very ancient, but they are considerably later than the hymns, for the idiom of the hymns must have become obscure and obsolete before these treatises were necessary. Four such treatises are known: 1) Rigveda; one which is considered to belong to the Shakhalasakha of this Veda, and is ascribed to Shaunaka. 2) Yajurveda; Taittiriyapratishakhya, belonging to the Black Yajurveda. 3) Vajasaneyipratishakhya; belonging to the White Yajurveda. 4) Atharvaveda; the Shaunakiya Chaturadhyayika, i.e., Shaunaka's treatise in four chapters. No Pratishakhya of the Samaveda has been discovered.

Pratishthana: (sáns. hindú). An ancient city, the capital of the early kings of the Lunar race; "it was situated on the eastern side of the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna," opposite to the modern Allahabad. The capital of Shalivahana on the Godavari, supposed to be the same as "Pattan" or "Pyetan."

Pratishthita: (sáns. hindú). Well-established. Shiva's 400 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pratyaya: (sáns. hindú). Confidence. Shiva's 314th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Praudhabrahmana: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight Brahmanas of the Samaveda It contains twenty-five sections, and is therefore also called Panchavinsha.

Pravraj: (sáns. hindú). 1. The wanderer, itinerant. 2. A name for Sannyasins who wander from place to place for eight months of the year.

Prayaga: (sáns. hindú). The modern Allahabad. The place where the Ganges, Jumna, and the fabled subterranean Sarasvati unite, called also Triveni, "the triple braid." It has always been a celebrated place of pilgrimage.

Prema: (sáns. hindú). Selfless love.

Premabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (prema "divine love" + bandhu "friend, relative") 1. The friend of love. 2. The loving friend.

Premadasa: (sáns. hindú). (prema "divine love" + das "servant") 1. The servant of love. 2. The loving servant.

Preman: (sáns. hindú). 1. Divine Love. 2. Supreme Love.

Premarupa: (sáns. hindú). (prema "divine love" + rupa "form, image") 1. The form or embodiment of love. 2. Having a loving form or nature.

Preta: (sáns. hindú). A ghost; an evil spirit animating a dead carcass, and haunting cemeteries and other places.

Pretacarin: (sáns. hindú). One who moves among ghosts. Shiva's 360th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prishadashva: (sáns. hindú). Wind, air. Shiva's 676 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Prishadhra: (sáns. hindú). A son of of Manu Vaivasvata, who, according to the Harivansha and the Puranas, became a Shudra because he killed the cow of his religious preceptor.

Prishata: (sáns. hindú). Drupada's father.

Prishni: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedas and Puranas, the earth, the mother of the Maruts. The name is used in the Vedas also for a cow. There were several females of this name, and one of them is said to have been a new birth of Devaki.

Prita: (sáns. hindú). The delighted or joyful.

Pritha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Kunti.

Prithi: (sáns. hindú). Prithi or Prithivainya, i.e., Prithi, son of Vena, is mentioned in the Rigveda, and he is the declared Rishi or author of one of the hymns. The Atharvaveda says, "She (Viraj) ascended: she came to men. Men called her to them, saying, 'Come, Iravati.' Manu Vaivasvata was her calf, and the earth her vessel. Prithivainya milked her; he milked from her agriculture and grain. Men subsist on agriculture and grain" The Shatapatha Brahmana refers to Prithi as "first of men who was installed as a king." These early allusions receive a consistent form in the Puranas, and we have the following legend: "Prithi was son of Vena, son of Vena. He was called the first king, and from him the earth received her name Prithivi."

The Vishnupurana says that the Rishis "inaugurated Vena monarch of the earth," but he was wicked by nature and prohibited worship and sacrifice. Incensed at the decay of religion, pious sages beat Vena to death with blades of holy grass. In the absence of a king, robbery and anarchy arose, and the Munis, after consultation, proceeded to rub the thigh of the dead king in order to produce a son. There came forth "a man like a charred log, with flat face and extremely short." This man became a Nishada, and with him came out the sins of the departed king. The Brahmans then rubbed the right arm of the corpse, "and from it sprang the majestic Prithu, Vena's son, resplendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni. . . . At his birth all creatures rejoiced, and through the birth of this virtuous son Vena, delivered from the hell called Put, ascended to heaven. "Prithu then became invested with universal dominion. His subjects, who had suffered from famine, besought him for the edible plants which the earth withheld. In anger he seized his bow to compel her to yield the usual supply. She assumed the form of a cow and fled before him. Unable to escape, she implored him to spare her, and promised to restore all the needed fruits if a calf were given to her, through which she might be able to secrete milk.

"He therefore, having made Svayambhuva Manu the calf, milked the earth, and received the milk into his own hand for the benefit of mankind. Thence proceeded all kinds of corn and vegetables upon which people subsist now and perpetually. By granting life to the earth Prithu was as her father, and she thence derived the patronymic appellation Prithivi." This milking the earth has been made the subject of much allegory and symbolism. The Matsyapurana specifies a variety of milkers, gods, men, Naga, Asuras, etc., in the follow style: "The Rishis milked the earth through Brihaspati; their calf was Soma, the Vedas were the vessel, and the milk was devotion." Other Puranas agree with only slight deviations. "These mystifications," says Wilson, "are all, probably, subsequent modifications of the original simple allegory which typified the earth as a cow, who yielded to every class of beings the milk they desired, or the object of their wishes."

Prithivainya: (sáns. hindú). See Prithi.

Prithivi: (sáns. hindú). The broad. The earth or wide world. In the Vedas the earth is personified as the mother of all beings, and is invoked together with the sky. According to the Vedas there are three earths corresponding to the three heavens, and our earth is called Bhumi. Another name of the earth is Urvi, "wide." In the Vishnupurana she is represented as receiving her name from a mythical person named Prithu, who granted her life, and so was to her as a father. See Prithi or Prithu.

Prithu: (sáns. hindú). The first human king, a King of the Solar race, a descendent of Ikshvaku. According to the Mahabharata Prithu levelled the earths mountains and hills to make her fit for agriculture. One of his primary services was to bring fertility to the earth. One of the thoughts about the earth was that it could not be potent and fertile unless it was milked by a heroic, royal figure. On the other hand, a king could not be successful unless he was blessed by the earth's riches. There are many Prithus. See Prithi. See Ikshvaku.

Prithuhara: (sáns. hindú). (prithu "great" + hara "destroyer, ravisher") 1. The great destroyer, ravisher. 2. A name of Shiva.

Priti: (sáns. hindú). Delight or joy.

Pritiman: (sáns. hindú). One who has pleasure. Shiva's 516th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Priya: (sáns. hindú). The beloved (of God).

Priyabhakta: (sáns. hindú). One fond of his devotees. Shiva's 103rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Priyadarshana: (sáns. hindú). One who is pleasing to look at. Shiva's 1063rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Priyadarshi: (sáns. hindú). See Ashoka.

Priyakara: (sáns. hindú). One who does pleasing things. Shiva's 856th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Priyamvada: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Vudyadhara, son of the king of the Gandharvas. 2. One who speaks pleasing words. Shiva's 104 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Priyavrata: (sáns. hindú). (priya "fond of, pleasing" + vrata "vows") 1. Fond of spiritual vows. 2. One whose vows are pleasing. 3. One of the two sons of Brahma and Shatarupa; or, according to other statements a son of Manu Svayambhuva. The Bhagavatapurana tells how the seven continents were formed as "Priyavrata being dissatisfied that only half the earth was illuminated at one time by the solar rays, followed the sun seven times around the earth in his own flaming car of equal velocity, like another celestial orb, resolved to turn night into day." He was stopped by Brahma. "The ruts which were formed by the motion of his chariot wheels were the seven oceans. In this way the seven continents of the earth were made." In the Vishnupurana his wife is stated to be Kamya, daughter of Kardama, by whom he had ten sons and two daughters. Three of the sons adopted a religious life, and Priyavrata divided the seven continents among the others.

Puja: (sáns. hindú). Worship.

Pujaka: (sáns. hindú). The worshipper.

Pujayita: (sáns. hindú). The worshipper.

Pula: (sáns. hindú). 1. The great. 2. The name of an attendant of Shiva.

Pulaha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Name of one of the Prajapatis and great Rishis. His wife was Kshama and he had three sons, Kardama, Arvaravat, and Sahishnu. A Gandharva. 2. Shiva's 636th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pulastya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Smooth-haired. One of the Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma, and one of the great Rishis. He was the medium through which some of the Puranas were communicated to man. He received the Vishnupurana from Brahma and communicated it to Parashara, who made it known to humankind. He was father of Vishravas, the father of Kuvera and Ravana, and all the Rakshasas are supposed to have sprung from him. 2. Shiva's 635th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pulindas: (sáns. hindú). barbarians; barbarous tribes living in the woods and mountains, especially in Central India; however, there were some in the north and on the Indus.

Puloman: (sáns. hindú). A Danava and father of Shachi, wife of Indra. He was killed by Indra when he wished to curse that deity for having ravished his daughter.

Punarvasu: (sáns. hindú). (punah "again" + vasu "dweller") 1. The repeated dweller. 2. Vishnu's 150th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Pundarika: (sáns. hindú). The (white) lotus.

Pundarikaksha: (sáns. hindú). (pundarika "lotus" + aksha "eye") 1. The lotus-eyed. 2. Vishnu's 111th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Pundra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The (white) lotus. 2. Religious marks made on the forehead. 3. A country which Dowson claims corresponds "to Bengal proper, with part of South Bihar and the Jungle Mahals." A fabulous city between the Himavat and Hemakuta.

Punya: (sáns. hindú). Meritorious. Shiva's 852nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Punyabhajin: (sáns. hindú). (punya "virtue" + bhajin "partaking") 1. Partaking of virtue or holiness. 2. Blissful.

Punyabharita: (sáns. hindú). (punya "virtue" + bharita "full, filled with") Filled with virtue or holiness.

Punyakirtana: (sáns. hindú). Glorifying whom is meritorious. Shiva's 495th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Punyakirti: (sáns. hindú). Of meritorious renown. Shiva's 857th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Punyashila: (sáns. hindú). (punya "virtuous" + shila "character") Having a virtuous character.

Punyashloka: (sáns. hindú). Hymned in holy verse. An appellation applied to Krishna, Yudhishthira, and Nala, also to Draupadi and Sita.

Punyashravana: (sáns. hindú). Hearing about whom is meritorious. Shiva's 494th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Punyavan: (sáns. hindú). (punya "virtue" + van "having") The virtuous.

Purala: (sáns. hindú). A name of Durga or Parvati.

Puramdhi: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic goddess that appears to be synonymous with abundance.

Purana: (sáns. hindú). Old. An ancient legend or tale of oldentimes. The Puranas succeed the Itihasas or epic poems, but at a considerable distance of time, and must be distinguished from them. The epics treat of the legendary actions of heroes and mortal men, the Puranas celebrate the powers and works of positive gods, and represent a later and more extravagant development of Hinduism, of which they are in fact the Scriptures. The definition of a Purana by Amara Sinha, an ancient Sanskrit lexicographer, is a work "which has five distinguishing topics: 1) The creation of the universe; 2) Its destruction and renovation; 3) The genealogy of gods and patriarchs; 4) The reigns of the Manus, forming the periods called Manvantaras. 5) The history of the Solar and Lunar races of kings." These are the Panchalakshanas or distinguishing marks, but no one of the Puranas answers exactly to the description; some show a partial conformity with it, others depart from it very widely. The Vishnupurana is the one which best accords with the title.

Wilson wrote, "A very great portion of the contents of many is genuine and old. The sectarian interpolation or embellishment is always sufficiently palpable to be set aside without injury to the more authentic and primitive material; and the Puranas, although they belong especially to that stage of the Hindu religion in which faith in some one divinity was the prevailing principle are also a valuable record of the form of Hindu belief which came next in order to that of the Vedas, which grafted hero-worship upon the simpler ritual of the latter, and which had been adopted, and was extensively, perhaps universally, established in India at the time of the Greek invasion." According to the same authority, Pantheism "is one of their invariable characteristics," and underlies their whole teaching, "although the particular divinity who is all things, from whom all things proceed, and to whom all things return, is diversified according to their individual sectarian bias." The Puranas are all written in verse, and their invariable form is that of a dialogue between an exponent and an inquirer, interspersed with the dialogues and observations of other individuals. Thus Pulastya received the Vishnupurana from Brahma; he made it known to Parashara, and Parashara narrated it to is disciple Maitreya. The Puranas are eighteen in number, and in addition to these there are eighteen Upa Puranas or subordinate works. The Puranas are classified in three categories, according to the prevalence in them of the qualities of purity, gloom, and passion. Those in which the quality of Sattva or purity prevail are: 1) Vishnu, 2) Naradiya, 3) Bhagavata, 4) Garuda, 5) Padma, 5) Varaha.

These are Vaishnava Puranas, in which the god Vishnu holds the pre-eminence. The Puranas in which Tamas, the quality of gloom or ignorance, predominates are: 1) Matsya, 2) Kurma, 3) Linga, 4) Shiva, 5) Skanda, 6) Agni. These are devoted to the god Shiva. Those in which Rajas or passion prevails relate chiefly to the god Brahma. They are: 1) Brahma, 2) Brahmanda, 3) Brahmavaivarta, 4) Markandeya, 5) Bhavishya, 6) Vamana.

The works themselves do not fully justify this classification. None of them are devoted exclusively to one god, but Vishnu and his incarnations fill the largest space. One called the Vayupurana is in some of the Puranas substituted for the Agni, and in others for the Shiva. This Vayu is apparently the oldest of them, and may date as far back as the sixth century, and it is considered that some of the others may be as late as the thirteenth or even the sixteenth century. One fact appears certain: they must all have received a supplementary revision, because each one of them enumerates the whole eighteen. The Markandeya is the least sectarian of the Puranas; and the Bhagavata, which deals at length with the incarnations of Vishnu, and particularly with his form Krishna, is the most popular. The most perfect and the best known is the Vishnu.

The Puranas vary greatly in length. Some of them specify the number of couplets that each of the eighteen contains. According to the Bhagavata, the sum total of couplets in the whole eighteen is 400,000; the Skanda is the longest, with 81,000 the Brahma and the Vamana the shortest, with 10,000 couplets each.The Upa Puranas are named: 1) Sanatkumara, 2) Narasinha or Nrisinha, 3) Naradiya or Vrihan (old) Naradiya, 4) Shiva, 5) Durvasasa, 6) Kapila, 7) Manava, 8) Aushanasa, 9) Varuna, 10) Kalika, 11) Samba, 12) Nandi, 13) Saura, 14) Parasara, 15) Aditya, 16) Maheshvara, 17) Bhagavata, 18) Vasishtha. These works are not common. Other modern works exist to which the term Purana has been applied.

Purandara: (sáns. hindú). (puram "fortified city" + dara "shattering") 1. One who pierces the cities. Shiva's 358 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. A name of Indra. 3. Vishnu's 335th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. The Fire-God Agni.

Puranjana: (sáns. hindú). (puram "full" + jana "creature, person") 1. The embodiment of life. 2. A name of Varuna.

Puranjaya: (sáns. hindú). City-conqueror. A prince of the solar race, son of Vikukshi. His story, as told in the Vishnupurana, is that in the Treta age there was war between the Gods and the Asuras, in which the Gods lost. They asked Vishnu for assistance, and he directed them to obtain the aid of Puranjaya, into whose person he promised to infuse a portion of himself. The prince complied with their wishes, and asked that their chief, Indra, would assume the form of bull and carry him (the prince), upon his hump. This was done, and thus seated Puranjaya destroyed all the enemies of the gods. As he rode on the hump he obtained the cognomen of Kakutstha. In explanation of his title Puranjaya, the Bhagavatapurana says that he took the city of the Daityas situated in the west.

Purari: (sáns. hindú). (puram "fortified city" + ari "enemy") The enemy of (devilish) cities; a name of Shiva, who destroyed the three strongholds or cities built by demons in earth, air, and heaven, representing the gross, subtle, and causal bodies.

Puratana: (sáns. hindú). Ancient one. Shiva's 122 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purayita: (sáns. hindú). 1. The fulfiller. 2. Shiva's 851 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. Vishnu's 686th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Purna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Filled, fullness, fulfilled. 2. Vishnu's 685 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 850 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purnata: (sáns. hindú). (purna "full" + ta "state") Fullness, the state of being full or filled.

Purnima: (sáns. hindú). Pertaining to or similar to the full moon.

Purochana: (sáns. hindú). The emissary of Duryodhana who attempted to burn the Pandavas in their house and was burned in his own house by Bhima. See Mahabharata.

Purtamurtiyashodhara: (sáns. hindú). One whose form is purta i.e., good social services and one who is famous. Shiva's 999th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Puru: (sáns. hindú). The sixth king of the Lunar race, youngest son of Yayati and Sarmishtha. He and his brother Yadu were founders of two great branches of the Lunar race. The descendants of Puru were called Pauravas, and of this race came the Kauravas and Pandavas. Among the Yadavas or descendants of Yadu was Krishna. See Yayati.

Puruhuta: (sáns. hindú). One who is frequently invoked. Shiva's 609th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purujit: (sáns. hindú). Conqueror of many. Shiva's 699 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purukutsa: (sáns. hindú). A son of Mandhatri, into whose person Vishnu entered for the purpose of destroying the subterranean Gandharvas, called Mauneyas. He reigned on the banks of the Narmada and that river, personified as one of the Nagas, was his wife. By her he had a son, Trasadasyu. The Vishnupurana is said to have been narrated to him by "Daksha and other venerable sages."

Pururavas: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedas, a mythical personage connected with the sun and the dawn, and existing in the middle region of the universe. According to the Rigveda he was son of Ila, and a beneficent pious prince; but the Mahabharata says, "We have heard that Ila was both his mother and his father. The parentage usually assigned to him is that he was a son of Budha by Ila, daughter of Manu, and grandson of the moon." Through his mother he received the city of Pratishthana. (See Ila). He is the hero of the story and of the drama of Vikrama and Urvashi, or the "Hero and the Nymph."

Pururavas is the Vikrama or hero, and Urvashi is an Apsara who came down from Svarga through having incurred the imprecation of Mitra and Varuna. On earth Pururavas and she became enamored of each other, and she agreed to live with him upon certain conditions. "I have two rams," said the nymph, "which I love as children. They must be kept near my bedside, and never suffered to be carried away. You must also take care never to be seen by me undressed; and clarified butter alone must be my food." The inhabitants of Svarga were anxious for the return of Urvashi, and knowing the agreement made with Pururavas, the Gandharvas came by night and stole her rams.

Pururavas was undressed, and so at first refrained from pursuing the robbers, but the cries of Urvashi impelled him to seize his sword and rush after them. The Gandharvas then brought a vivid flash of lightning to the chamber which displayed the naked Pururavas. So the charm was broken and Urvashi disappeared. Pururavas wandered about demented in search of her, and at length found her at Kurnkshetra bathing with four other nymphs of heaven. She declared herself pregnant, and told him to come there again at the end of a year, when she would deliver to him a son and remain with him for one night. Pururavas, thus comforted, returned to his capital. At the end of the year he went to the agreed meeting-place and received from Urvashi his oldest son, Ayua. The annual coitions were repeated until she had borne him five more sons. (Some authorities increase the number to eight, and there is considerable variety in their names.)

She then told him that the Gandharvas had decided to grant him any boon he might desire. His desire was to pass his life with Urvashi. The Gandharvas then brought him a vessel with fire and said, "Take this fire, and, according to the precepts of the Vedas, divide it into three fires; then, fling your mind upon the idea of living with Urvashi, offer oblations, and you shall assuredly obtain your wishes." He did not immediately obey this command, but eventually he fulfilled it in an emblematic way, and "obtained a seat in the sphere of the Gandharvas, and was no more separated from his love." As a son of Ila his metronymic Aila. There is a hymn in the Rigveda which contains an obscure conversation between Pururavas and Urvashi. The above story is first told in the Shatapatha Brahmana, and afterwards reappears in the Puranas. The Bhagavatapurana says, "From Pururavas came the triple Veda in the beginning of the Treta (age)." Some suppose the story to have a mythic origin.

Max Müller considers it "one of the myths of the Vedas which expresses the correlation of the dawn and the sun. The love between the mortal and the immortal, and the identity of the morning dawn and the evening twilight, is the story of Urvashi and Pururavas." The word Urvashi, according to the same writer, "was originally an appellation, and meant dawn." Goldstücker's explanation differs, but seems more logical. According to this, Pururavas is the sun and Urvashi is the morning mist; when Pururavas is visible Urvashi vanishes, as the mist is absorbed when the sun shines forth. Urvashi in the story is an Apsara, and the Apsaras are "personifications of the vapors which are attracted by the sun and form into mists or clouds."

Purusha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Man; the original eternal man, the Supreme Being, and soul of the universe. 2. Vishnu's 14th and 406th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A name of Brahma. 4. Shiva's 5th and 938th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purushanarayana: (sáns. hindú). The original male. The divine creator Brahma.

Purushasukta: (sáns. hindú). A hymn of the Rigveda in which the four castes are first mentioned. It is considered to be one of the latest in date.

Purushendra: (sáns. hindú). (purusha "soul, person, being" + indra "chief") 1. The chief of men. 2. The lord of beings. 3. A title given to kings, which means one who is among men like Indra is among the gods.

Purushottama: (sáns. hindú). (purusha "soul, person, being" + uttama "highest") 1. The highest Soul; the best of men 2. The highest of all beings. 3. The word Purusha is used in its mythic sense of soul of the universe, and so the compound means the "Supreme Soul." It is a title of Vishnu (his 24th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama), and asserts his right to be considered the Supreme God. So the Harivansha says, "Purushottama is whatever is declared to be the highest, Purusha, the sacrifice, and everything else which is known by the name of Purusha."

Purushottamakshetra: (sáns. hindú). The sacred territory around the temple of Jagannatha in Orissa.

Purushtuta: (sáns. hindú). One who is frequently eulogized. Shiva's 610th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purvajapita: (sáns. hindú). Ancestral father. Shiva's 939th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Purvamimansa: (sáns. hindú). A school of philosophy. See Darshana.

Purya: (sáns. hindú). Worthy of fulfilment.

Pushadantahrit: (sáns. hindú). One who took away the tooth of Pusan. Shiva's 839th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Pushan: (sáns. hindú). A deity frequently mentioned in the Vedas, but he is not of a distinctly defined character. Many hymns are addressed to him. The word comes from the root push, and the primary idea is that of "nourisher" or Providence. So the Taittiriya Brahmana says, "When Prajapati formed living creatures Pushan nourished them." The account given by other authorities is as follows: "Pushan is a protector and multiplier of cattle and of human possessions in general. As a cowherd he carries an ox-goad, and he is drawn by goats. In the character of a Solar deity, he beholds the entire universe, and is a guide on roads and journeys and to the other world. He is called the lover of his sister Surya. He aids in the revolution of day and night, and shares with Soma the guardianship of living creatures. He is invoked along with the most various deities, but most frequently with Indra and Bhaga."

He is a patron of conjurors especially of those who discover stolen goods, and he is connected with the marriage ceremony, being besought to take the bride's hand and bless her. In the Nirukta, and in works of later date, Pushan is identified with the sun. He is also called the brother of Indra, and is enumerated among the twelve Adityas. Pushan is toothless, and feeds upon a kind of gruel, and the cooked oblations offered to him are of round materials, hence he is called Karambhad. The cause of his being toothless is variously explained. According to the Taittiriya Sanhita, the deity Rudra, being excluded from a certain sacrifice, shot an arrow at the offering and pierced it. A portion of this sacrifice was presented to Pushan, and it broke his teeth. In the Mahabharata and in the Puranas the legend takes a more definite shape.

"Rudra (Shiva), of dreadful power, ran up to the gods present at Daksha's sacrifice, and in his rage knocked out the eyes of Bhaga with a blow, and in being furious, assaulted Pushan with his foot, and knocked out his teeth as he was eating the purodasha offering." In the Puranas it is not Shiva himself, but his manifestation (the Rudras), who disturbed the sacrifice of the gods and knocked Pushan's teeth down his throat. Pushan is called Aghrini, "splendid"; Dasra, Dasma, and Dasmavarchas, "of wonderful appearance or power," and Kapardin.

Pushkala: (sáns. hindú). 1. The abundant or full. 2. A name of Shiva.

Pushkara: (sáns. hindú). 1. A blue lotus. A celebrated tank about five miles from Ajmir.

One of the seven Dvipas. The name of several persons. Of the brother of Nala to whom Nala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling.

Of a son of Bharata and nephew of Ramacandra, who reigned over the Gandharas.2. A name of Shiva.

Pushkaravati: (sáns. hindú). A city of the Gandharas not far from the Indus. It is the Peukelawtiß of Ptolemy, and the Pousekielofati of Hiouen Thsang.

Pushkari: (sáns. hindú). 1. Like the blue lotus. 2. A name of Parvati.

Pushpa: (sáns. hindú). Flower-like or blossom-like.

Pushpadanta: (sáns. hindú). 1. Flower-teeth. 2. One of the chief attendants of Shiva. He incurred his master's displeasure by listening to his private conversation with Parvati and talking of it afterwards. For this he was condemned to become a man, and so appeared in the form of the great grammarian Katyayana. 3. One of the guardian elephants. See Lokapala.

Pushpaka: (sáns. hindú). A self-moving aerial car of large dimension, which contained within it a palace or city. Kuvera obtained it as gift from Brahma, but it was carried off by Ravana, his half-brother, and constantly used by him.

After Ramacandra had slain Ravana, he made use of this capacious car to convey himself and Sita, with Lakshmana and all his allies, back to Ayodhya; after that he returned it to its owner, Kuvera. It is also called Ratnavarshuka, meaning "that rains jewels."

Pushpakarandini: (sáns. hindú). A name of Ujjayini.

Pushpamitra: (sáns. hindú). The first of the Shunga kings, who succeeded the Mauryas, and reigned at Pataliputra. In his time the grammarian Patanjali is supposed to have lived.

Pushpita: (sáns. hindú). Flowered, blossomed.

Pushpotkata: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasi, the wife of Vishravas and mother of Ravana and Kumbhakarna.

Pushti: (sáns. hindú). She who gives nourishment. An epithet of Devi and her 444th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Puta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The purified, pure. 2. A name of Durga.

Put: (sáns. hindú). A hell to which childless men are said to be condemned. "A name used to explain the word puttra, son (hell-saver)."

Putamati: (sáns. hindú). (puta "purified" + mati "thought") 1. Having purified thought, pureminded. 2. A name of Shiva who is free from rajas and tamas.

Putana: (sáns. hindú). A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. She is described as being hideous in shape and a stalker of the night. Putana became intent upon killing the infant Krishna. She poisoned her breast and turned herself into a beautiful woman and offered herself for suckle. Krishna, being aware of her insidious plot, sucked the life from her. Dowson claims she was a daughter of Bali. For further details see Vinata.


Radha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Wife of Adhiratha and foster-mother of Karna. 2. The favorite mistress and consort of Krishna while he lived as Gopala among the cowherds in Vrindavana. She was wife of Ayanaghosha, a cowherd. Considered by some to be an incarnation of Lakshmi, and worshipped accordingly. Some have discovered a mystical character in Radha, and consider her as the type of human soul drawn to the ineffable god, Krishna, or as that pure divine love to which the fickle lover returns.

Radhakrishna: (sáns. hindú). (radha "beloved of Krishna" + krishna "Incarnation of Vishnu") The Embodiment of Radha and Krishna.

Radhavallabha: (sáns. hindú). (radha "beloved of Krishna" + vallabha "beloved") The beloved of Radha; a name of Krishna.

Radhavallabhins: (sáns. hindú). A movement that arose during the sixteenth century CE in and around Brindaban in North India that placed Radha in a goddess status. The actual devotion of these devotees is placed more on Radha than on Krishna.

Radhesha: (sáns. hindú). (radha "beloved of Krishna" + isha "lord") Lord of Radha; a name of Krishna.

Radheshvara: (sáns. hindú). (radha "beloved of Krishna" + ishvara "lord") Lord of Radha; a name of Krishna.

Radheshyama: (sáns. hindú). (radha "beloved of Krishna" + shyama "dark-blue") The dark-blue Lord of Radha (i.e. Krishna).

Radheya: (sáns. hindú). A metronymic of Karna.

Radhika: (sáns. hindú). A diminutive and endearing form of the name Radha.

Raga: (sáns. hindú). The Ragas are the musical modes or melodies personified, six or more in number, and the Raginis are their consorts.

Raghava: (sáns. hindú). Descendant of Raghu, a name of Rama.

Raghavan: (sáns. hindú). The descendant of Raghu; a name of Rama as descendant of King Raghu, the grandson of Bhagiratha.

Raghavapandaviya: (sáns. hindú). A modern poem by Kavi Raja, which is in high repute. It is an artificial work, which exhibits extraordinary ingenuity in the employment of words. As its name implies, the poem celebrates the actions of Raghava, i.e., Rama, the descendant of Raghu, and also those of the Pandava princes. It thus recounts at once in the same word the story of the Ramayana and that of the Mahabharata; and the composition is so managed that the words may be understood as applying either to Rama or the Pandavas.

Raghavavilasa: (sáns. hindú). A poem on the life of Rama by Vishvanatha, the author of the Sahityadarpana.

Raghavendra: (sáns. hindú). (raghava "descendant of Raghu" + indra "chief") l. The chief or Lord of the Raghavas. 2. A name of Rama as descendant of King Raghu, the grandson of Bhagiratha.

Raghu: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Solar race. According to the Raghuvansha, he was the son of Dilipa and great-grandfather of Rama, who from Raghu got the patronymic Raghava and the title Raghupati, chief of the race of Raghu. The authorities disagree as to the genealogy of Raghu, but all admit him to be an ancestor of Rama. His lineage forms the subject of Kalidasa's great poem entitled Raghuvamsha.

Raghumani: (sáns. hindú). (raghu "name of a great king" + mani "jewel") 1. The jewel of the Raghus. 2. A name of Rama as the most illustrious among the descendants of King Raghu.

Raghunatha: (sáns. hindú). (raghu "name of a great king" + natha lord") 1. The Lord of the Raghus. 2. A name of Rama as the most illustrious among the descendants of King Raghu.

Raghupati: (sáns. hindú). See Raghu.

Raghuvansha: (sáns. hindú). The race of Raghu. The name of a celebrated poem in nineteen cantos by Kalidasa on the ancestry and life of Rama.

Raghuvira: (sáns. hindú). (raghu "name of a great king" + vira "hero, valiant") 1. The hero of the Raghus. 2. A name of Rama as the most illustrious among the descendants of King Raghu.

Ragini: (sáns. hindú). Feminine form of Raga.

Rahu: (sáns. hindú). Rahu and Ketu are in astronomy the ascending and descending nodes.

Rahu is the cause of eclipse, and the term is used to designate the eclipse itself. He is also considered as one of the planets, as king of meteors, and as guardian of the southwest quarter. Mythologically Rahu is a Daitya who is supposed to seize the sun and moon and swallow them, thus obscuring their rays and causing eclipses. He was son of Viprachitti and Sinhika, and is called by his metronymic Sainhikeya. He had four arms, and his lower part ended in a tail. He was a great mischief-maker, and when the gods had produced the Amrita by churning the ocean, he assumed a disguise, and insinuating himself amongst them, drank some of it.

The sun and the moon detected him and informed Vishnu, who cut of his head and two of his arms, but, as he had secured immortality, his body was placed in the stellar sphere, the upper parts, represented by a dragon's head, being the ascending node, and the lover parts, represented by a dragon's tail, being Ketu the descending node. Rahu wreaks his vengence on the sun and moon by occasionally swallowing them. The Vishnupurana says, "Eight black horses draws the dark chariot of Rahu, and once harnessed are attached to it for ever. On the Parvans [nodes, or lunar and solar eclipses] Rahu directs his course from the sun to the moon, and back again from the moon to the sun.

The eight horses of the chariot of Ketu, swift as the wind, are of the dusk red color of lac, or of the smoke of burning straw." Rahu is called Abhrapishacha, "the demon of the sky"; Bharanibhu, "born from the asterism Bharani"; Graha, "the seizer"; Kabandha, "the headless."

Raibhya: (sáns. hindú). A sage who was the friend of Bharadvaja. He had two sons, Arvavasu and Paravasu. The latter, under the curse of Bharadvaja, killed his father, mistaking him for an antelope, as he was walking about at night covered with an antelope's skin. Arvavasu retired into the forest to obtain by devotion a remission of his brother's guilt. When he returned, Paravasu charged him with the crime, and he again retired to his devotions. These so pleased the gods that they drove away Paravasu and restored Raibha to life. See Yavakrita.

Raivata: (sáns. hindú). 1) son of Reva or Revata. Also called Kakudmin. He had a very lovely daughter named Revati, and not deeming any mortal worthy of her, he went to Brahma to consult him. At the command of that god he bestowed her upon Balarama. He was king of Anarta, and built the city of Kushasthali or Dvaraka in Gujarat, which he made his capital. 2) One of the Manus (the fifth).

Raivataka: (sáns. hindú). The range that branches off from the western portion of the Vindhya towards the north extending nearly to the Jumna.

Raja: (sáns. hindú). The radiant (i.e. king or sovereign).

Rajagriha: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Magadha. Its site is still traceable in the hills between Patna and Gaya.

Rajani: (sáns. hindú). 1. The dark. 2. A name of Durga.

Rajanya: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic designation of the Kshatriya caste.

Rajarajeshvara: (sáns. hindú). (raja-raja "king of kings, emperor" + ishvara "lord, ruler") The Ruler of emperors; a name of Shiva.

Rajarajeshvari: (sáns. hindú). (raja-raja "king of kings, emperor" + ishvari "ruling goddess") The Ruler of emperors; a name of Durga.

Rajarshi: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi or saint of the regal caste; a Kshatriya who, through a pure and holy life on earth, has been raised as a saint or demigod to Indra's heaven, as Vishvamitra, Pururavas, etc.

Raja Shekhara: (sáns. hindú). A dramatist who was the author of the dramas Viddha-Salabhanjika and Prachandapandava. He was also the writer of Karpura-Manjari, a drama entirely in Prakrit. Another play, Bala-Ramayana, is attributed to him. He appears to have been the minister of some Rajput, and to have lived about the beginning of the twelfth century.

Rajasuya: (sáns. hindú). A royal sacrifice. A great sacrifice performed at the installation of a king. The Rajasuya was religious in its nature but political in its operation because it implied that the person who was instituting the sacrifice was a supreme lord, a king over kings. The tributary princes were required to be present at the rite.

Rajatarangini: (sáns. hindú). A Sanskrit metrical history of Kashmir by Kalhana Pandit. It commences with the days of fable and comes down to the year 1027 CE. The author probably lived about 1148 CE. Dowson claimed that this is the only known work in Sanskrit which deserves being called "history."

Rajesha: (sáns. hindú). (raja "king" + isha "lord, ruler") The ruler of kings, emperor.

Rajeshvara: (sáns. hindú). (raja king" + ishvara "lord, ruler") The ruler of kings, emperor.

Rajeshvari: (sáns. hindú). (raja "king" + ishvari "ruling goddess") The ruler of kings, empress.

Raji: (sáns. hindú). A son of Ayus and father of 500 sons of great valor. In one of the chronic wars between the gods and the Asuras it was declared by Brahma that the victory should be gained by that side which Raji joined. The Asuras first sought him, and he undertook to aid them if they promised to make him their king when their victory was secured. They declined. The heavenly hosts visited him and undertook to make him their Indra. After the Asuras were defeated he became king of the gods, and Indra paid him homage. When he returned to his own city, he left Indra as his deputy in heaven. On Raji's death Indra refused to acknowledge the succession of his sons, and by the help of Brihaspati, who led them astray and effected their ruin, Indra recovered his sovereignty.

Rajivaksha: (sáns. hindú). (rajiva "blue lotus" + aksha "eye") 1. Lotus-eyed. 2. A name of Rama. 3. A name of Krishna.

Rajni: (sáns. hindú). The radiant queen.

Raka: (sáns. hindú). 1. Rakshasi, wife of Vishravas and mother of Khara and Surpanakha. 2. A Vedic goddess synonymous with abundance.

Rakesha: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the moonlight, i.e., the moon. Shiva's 591st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Raksasi: (sáns. hindú). A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. For further details see Vinata.

Rakshakari: (sáns. hindú). (raksha "protection" + kari "doer") The protectress; a name of Annaparna occurring in Shankara's "Annaparna Stotram."

Rakshana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The protector. 2. Vishnu's 928th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Rakshasa: (sáns. hindú). An Apsaras or nymph produced at the churning of the ocean, and popularly the type of female beauty. She was sent by Indra to seduce Vishvamitra, but was cursed by Vishvamitra to become a stone, and remain so for a thousand years. According to the Ramayana, she was seen by Ravana when he went to Kailasa, and he was so smitten by her charms that he ravished her, although she told him that she was the wife of Nalakuvara, son of his brother Kuvera.

Rakshasas: (sáns. hindú). Goblins or evil spirits. They are not all equally bad, but have been classified as of three sorts-One as a set of beings like the Yakshas, another as a sort of Titans or enemies of the gods, and lastly, in the common acceptation of the term, demons and fiends who haunt cemeteries, disturb sacrifices, harass devout men, animate dead bodies, devour human beings, and vex and afflict mankind in all sorts of ways. The last are the Rakshasas of whom Ravana was chief, and according to some authorities, they are descended, like Ravana himself, from the sage Pulastya. According to other authorities, they sprang from Brahma's foot. The Vishnupurana also makes them descendants of Kashyapa and Khasha, a daughter of Daksha, through their son Rakshas; and the Ramayana states that when Brahma created the waters, he formed certain beings to guard them who were called Rakshasas (from the root raksh, "to guard," but the derivation from this root may have suggested the explanation), and the Vishnupurana gives a somewhat similar derivation.

It is thought that the Rakshasas of the epic poems were the rude barbarian races of India who were subdued by the Aryans. According to the Ramayana, when Hanuman entered the city of Lanka to reconnoiter in the form of a cat, he saw that "the Rakshasas sleeping in the houses were of every shape and form. Some of them disgusted the eye, while some were beautiful to look upon. Some had long arms and frightful shapes; some were very fat and some were very lean: some were mere dwarfs and some were prodigiously tall. Some had only one eye and others only one ear. Some had monstrous bellies, hanging breasts, long projecting teeth, and crooked thighs; while others were exceedingly beautiful to behold and clothed in great splendor.

Some had two legs, some three legs, and some four legs. Some had the heads of serpents, some the heads of donkeys, some the heads of horses, and some the heads of elephants." The Rakshasas have a great many epithets descriptive of their characters and actions. They are called Anusharas, Asharas, and Hanushas, "killers or hurters"; Ishtipachas, "stealers of offerings"; Sandhyabalas, "strong in twilight"; Kshapatas, Naktancharas, Ratricharas, and Shamamshadas, "night-walkers"; Nrijagdhas or Nrichakshas, "cannibals"; Palalas, Paladas, Palankashas, Kravyads, "carnivorous"; Asrapas, Asrikpas, Kaunapas, Kilalapas, and Raktapas, "blood-drinkers"; Dandashukas, "biters"; Praghasas, "gluttons"; Malinamukhas, "black-faced"; Karburas, etc. Many of these epithets are not reserved exclusively for Rakshasas.

Rakshasaghni: (sáns. hindú). She who slays demons. An epithet of Devi. The 318th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Rakshasaloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.

Raktabija: (sáns. hindú). A demon in the Devimahatmya. In this story of Durga and Kali the demon Raktabija has the ability to reproduce himself instantly from a drop of his blood when it hits the ground. The demon is wounded several times by Durga and the battlefield is swarming with replicas of Raktabija. To keep from being overwhelmed, Durga summons Kali to the battle and Kali relinquishes the problem by sucking all the blood from the demon and throwing his replicas into her gaping mouth.

Raktavija: (sáns. hindú). An Asura whose combat with Chamunda (Devi) is celebrated in the Devimahatmya. Each drop of his blood as it fell on the ground produced a new Asura, but Chamunda put an end to this by drinking his blood and devouring his flesh.

Rakti: (sáns. hindú). The lovely or devoted.

Rama: (sáns. hindú). 1. The blissful or delightful. 2. The name of Vishnu's seventh incarnation born to King Dasharatha and his queen, Kausalya. As an ideal king and husband, Rama, is Dharma incarnate (i.e. righteousness personified). His story is told by the sage Valmiki in the 24,000 verses of the Ramayana. In the Mahabharata Shiva extols the greatness of Rama's name.

This Rama, the eldest son of Dasharatha, a king of the Solar race, reigning at Ayodhya.made his appearance in the world at the end of the Treta or second age. His story is briefly told in the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, but it is given in full length as the grand subject of the Ramayana. The story goes that King Dasharatha was childless, and performed the ashvamedha sacrifice with scrupulous care, in the hope of obtaining offspring. His devotion was accepted by the gods, and he received the promise of four sons. At the same time that King Dasharatha was asking for children, the gods were in great terror and alarm at the deeds and menaces of Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka. Ravana had obtained extraordinary power, in virtue of severe penances and austere devotion to Brahma. In their terror, the gods appealed to Vishnu for deliverance, and he resolved to become manifest in the world with Dasharatha as his human father. Dasharatha was performing a sacrifice when Vishnu appeared to him as a glorious being from out of the sacrificial fire, and gave to him a pot of nectar for his wives to drink.

Dasharatha gave half of the nectar to Kaushalya, who brought forth Rama with a half of the divine essence, a quarter to Kaikeyi, whose son Bharata was endowed with a quarter of the deity, and the fourth part to Sumitra, who brought forth two sons, Lakshmana and Shatrughna, each having an eighth part of the divine essence. The brothers were all attached to each other, but Lakshmana was more especially devoted to Rama and Shatrughna to Bharata. [The two sons of Sumitra and the pairing off of the brothers have not passed without notice. In a different version of the Ramayana (Wheeler) the writer endeavors to account for these circumstances. It says that Dasharatha divided the divine nectar between his senior wives, Kaushalya and Kaikeyi, and that when the younger, Sumitra, asked for some, Dasharatha desired them to share their portions with her. Each gave her half, so Sumitra received two quarters and gave birth to two sons: "from the quarter which she received from Kaushalya, she gave birth to Lakshmana, who became the ever-faithful friend of Rama, and from the quarter she received from Kaikeyi she gave birth to Shatrughna, who became the ever-faithful friend of Bharata." This account is silent as to the superior divinity of Rama, and according to it all four brothers must have been equals as manifestations of the deity.] The four brothers grew up together at Ayodhya, but while they were yet very young, the sage Vishvamitra sought the aid of Rama to protect him from the Rakshasas. Dasharatha, though very unwilling, was constrained to consent to the sage's request. Rama and Lakshmana then went to the hermitage of Vishvamitra, and there Rama killed the female demon Taraka, but it required a good deal of persuasion from the sage before he was induced to kill a female. In gratitude for the good deed done for Vishvamitra, the sage supplied Rama with celestial arms, and exercised a considerable influence over his actions. Vishvamitra afterwards took Rama and his brothers to Mithila to the court of Janaka king of Videha. Janaka had a lovely daughter named Sita, whom he offered in marriage to anyone who could bend the wonderful bow which had once belonged to Shiva. Rama not only bent the bow but broke it, and thus won the hand of the beautiful princess, who became a most virtuous and devoted wife. Rama's three brothers were married to a sister and two cousins of Sita. This breaking of the bow of Shiva brought about a very curious incident, which is probably an interpolation of a later date, introduced for a sectarian purpose. Parashurama, the sixth incarnation of Vishnu, the Brahman exterminator of the Kshatriyas, was still living upon earth. He was a follower of Shiva and was offended by Rama's breaking of Shiva's bow.

Notwithstanding that he and Rama were both incarnations of Vishnu, he challenged Rama to a trial of strength and was defeated, but Rama spared his life because he was a Brahman.Preparations were made at Ayodhya for the inauguration of Rama as successor to the throne. Kaikeyi, the second wife of Dasharatha, and mother of Bharat, was her husband's favorite. She was kind to Rama in childhood and youth, but she had a spiteful humpbacked female slave named Manthara. This woman worked on the maternal affection of her mistress until she aroused a strong feeling of jealousy against Rama.

Kaikeya had a quarrel and a long struggle with her husband, but the king at length consented to install Bharata and to send Rama into exile for fourteen years. Rama departed with his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana, and travelling southward, he took up his abode at Chitrakuta, in the Dandaka forest, between the Yamuna and Godavari. Soon after the departure of Rama, his father Dasharatha died, and Bharata was called upon to ascend the throne. He declined, and set out for the forest with an army to bring Rama back. When the brothers met, there was a long contention. Rama refused to return until the term of his father's sentence was completed, and Bharata declined to ascend to the throne. At length it was arranged that Bharata should return and act as his brother's vice-regent. As a sign of Rama's supremacy, Bharata carried back with him a pair of Rama's shoes, and these were always brought out ceremoniously when business had to be transacted.Rama passed ten years of his banishment moving from one hermitage to another, and went at length to the hermitage of the sage Agastya, near the Vindhya mountains. This holy man recommended Rama to take up his abode at Panchavati, on the river Godavari, and the party accordingly proceeded there. This district was infested with Rakshasas, and one of them named Surpanakha, a sister of Ravana, saw Rama and fell in love with him. He repelled her advances, and in her jealousy she attacked Sita.

This so enraged Lakshmana that he cut off her ears and nose. She brought her brothers Khara and Dushana with an army of Rakshasas to avenge her wrongs, but they were all destroyed. Smarting under her mutilation and with spretœ injuria formœ she repaired to her brother Ravana in Lanka, and inspired him, by her description, with a fierce passion for Sita. Ravana proceeded to Rama's residence in an aerial car, and his accomplice Maricha having lured Rama from home, Ravana assumed the form of a religious mendicant and lulled Sita's apprehensions until he found an opportunity to declare himself and carry her off by force to Lanka. Rama's despair and rage at the loss of his faithful wife were terrible. He and Lakshmana went in pursuit and tracked the ravisher. On their way they killed Kabandha, a headless monster, whose disembodied spirit counselled Rama to seek the aid of Sugriva, king of the monkeys. The two brothers accordingly went on their way to Sugriva and after overcoming some obstacles and assisting Sugriva in recovering Kishkindhya, his capital, from his usurping brother Balin, they entered into a firm alliance with him. Through this connection Rama got the appellations of Kapiprabhu and Kapiratha. He received not only the support of all the forces of Sugriva and his allies, but the active aid of Hanuman, son of the wind, minister and general of Sugriva. Hanuman's extraordinary powers of leaping and flying enabled him to do all the work of gathering intelligence (spying).

By superhuman efforts their armies were transported to Lanka by "Rama's bridge," and after many fiercely contested battles the city of Lanka was taken, Ravana was killed and Sita rescued. The recovery of his wife filled Rama with joy, but he was suspect of her honor, received her coldly, and refused to take her back. She asserted her purity in touching and dignified language, and determined, she decided to prove her innocence by the ordeal of fire. She entered the flames in the presence of men and gods, and Agni, god of fire, led her forth and placed her in Rama's arms unhurt. Rama then returned, taking with him his chief allies to Ayodhya. Reunited with his three brothers, he was solemnly crowned and began a glorious reign with Lakshmana being associated with him in the government.The sixth section of the Ramayana here concludes; the remainder of the story is told in the Uttarakanda, a subsequent addition. The treatment which Sita received in captivity was better than might have been expected at the hands of a Rakshasa. She had asserted and proved her purity, and Rama believed her; but, as claimed by some, jealous thoughts would cross his sensitive mind, and when his subjects blamed him for taking back his wife.

Eventually he resolved, although she was pregnant, to send her to spend the rest of her life at the hermitage of Valmiki. There she was delivered of her twin sons Kusha and Lava, who bore upon their persons the marks of their high paternity.When Kusha and Lava were about fifteen years old they wandered accidentally to Ayodhya and were recognized by their father, who acknowledged them, and recalled Sita to attest her innocence. She returned, and in a public assembly declared her purity, and called upon the earth to verify her words. It did so. The ground opened and received "the daughter of the furrow," and Rama lost his beloved and only wife. Unable to endure life without her, he resolved to follow, and the gods favored his determination. Time appeared to him in the form of an ascetic and told him that he must stay on earth or ascend to heaven and rule over the gods. Lakshmana, with devoted fraternal affection, endeavored to save his brother from what he thought to be a hateful visit of Time.

Lakshmana's interference incurred a sentence of death, and he was conveyed bodily to Indra's heaven. Rama with great pomp and ceremony went to the river Sharayu, and walking into the water was hailed by Brahma's voice of welcome from heaven, and entered "into the glory of Vishnu." The conclusion of the story as told in the version of the Ramayana used by others (Dr. Wheeler for instance), differs materially. It represents that Sita remained in exile until her sons were fifteen or sixteen years of age. Rama had resolved upon performing the aAshvamedha sacrifice; the horse was turned loose, and Shatrughna followed it with an army. Kusha and Lava took the horse and defeated and wounded Shatrughna. Rama then sent Lakshmana to recover the horse, but he was defeated and left for dead. Next Bharata was sent with Hanuman, but they were also defeated. Rama then went himself to repair his misfortunes. When the father and sons came into each other's presence, nature spoke out, and Rama acknowledged his sons. Sita also, after receiving an admonition from Valmiki, agreed to forgive her husband.

They returned to Ayodhya. Rama performed the Ashvamedha, and they passed the remainder of their lives in peace and joy. The incidents of the first six kandas of the Ramayana supply the plot of Bhavabhuti's drama Mahaviracharita. The Uttarakanda is the basis of his Uttararamacharita.

This describes Rama's rejection of Sita, her banishment, and the birth of her sons; but the subsequent action is more human and affecting than in the poem. Rama repents of his unjust treatment of his wife, and goes forth to seek her. The course of his wanderings is depicted with great poetic beauty, and his meeting with his sons and his reconciliation with Sita are described with exquisite pathos and tenderness. The drama closes when: "All conspires to make their happiness complete." The worship of Rama still holds its ground, particularly in Oude and Bihar, and he has numerous worshippers.

"It is noteworthy," Williams, "that the Rama legend have always retained their purity, and, unlike those of Brahma, Krishna, Shiva, and Durga, have never been mixed up with indecencies and licentiousness. In fact, the worship of Rama has never degenerated to the same extent as that of some of these other deities." This is true; but it may be observed that Rama and his wife were pure; there was nothing in their characters suggestive of license; and if "the husband of one wife" and the devoted and affectionate wife had come to be associated with impure ideas, they must have lost all that gave them a title to veneration. The name of Rama as "Ram! Ram!" is a common form of salutation. 3. Vishnu's 394th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. When in the feminine gender (with a long terminal a), the consort of Rama, a name of Sita. 5. The rejoicing. 6. A name of Lakshmi. 7. There are three Ramas: Parashurama, Ramacandra, and Balarama; but it is to the second of these that the name is specially applied.

Ramabhadra: (sáns. hindú). (rama "blissful, delightful" + bhadra "blessed, auspicious") The blessed Rama; a name of Rama.

Ramacandra: (sáns. hindú). (rama "blissful, delightful" + candra "moon") The moon-like Rama; a name of Rama that distinguishes Him from Parashurama and Balarama.

Ramadasa: (sáns. hindú). (rama "an incarnation of Vishnu" + dasa "servant") 1. The servant of Rama. 2. The name of a great saint who lived from 1884 to 1963 and whose main spiritual practice was the repetition of a thirteen-syllabled mantra from the Rama-Rahasya Upanishad.

Ramadeva: (sáns. hindú). (rama "an incarnation of Vishnu" + deva "divine") The divine Rama; a name of Rama.

Ramagiri: (sáns. hindú). The hill of Rama It stands a short distance north of Nagpur.

Ramakrishna: (sáns. hindú). (rama "blissful, delightful" + krishna "name of an incarnation of Vishnu") 1. The name of a great saint and renunciate of the 19th century known as Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. 2. Rama and Krishna joined together. The great invocation taught to Narada by Brahma in the Kalisantarana Upanishad is as follows: Hare Rama Hare Rama; Rama Rama Hare Hare; Hare Krishna Hare Krishna; Krishna Krishna Hare Hare!

Ramana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The delighting. 2. The name of a great Jnani and Jivanmukta (1879-1950). Ramana Maharshi taught Atmavicara (self-inquiry) to seekers approaching him.

Ramani: (sáns. hindú). The delighting or joyful.

Ramapriya: (sáns. hindú). (rama "an incarnation of Vishnu" + priya "beloved") 1. The beloved of Rama, 2. A name of Sita.

Ramasetu: (sáns. hindú). Rama's bridge, constructed for him by his general, Nala, son of Vishvakarma, at the time of his invasion of Lanka. This name is given to the line of rocks in the channel between the continent and Lanka, called (in maps) "Adam's bridge."

Ramatapaniyopanishad: (sáns. hindú). A Upanishad of the Atharvaveda, in which Rama is worshipped as the supreme god and the sage Yajnavalkya is his glorifier.

Ramayana: (sáns. hindú). "The Adventures of Rama" is the oldest of the Sanskrit epic poems written by the sage Valmiki. It is supposed to have been composed about five centuries BCE, and to have received its present form a century or two later. The manuscripts of the Ramayana vary greatly. There are two well-known distinct recensions, the Northern and the Bengal. The Northern is surmised to be the older and the purer. Dowson claimed "the additions and alterations in that of Bengal are so numerous that it is not trustworthy, and has even been called 'spurious.'" Later researches have shown that the variations in manuscripts found in different parts of India are so diverse that the versions can hardly be classed in a certain number of different recensions. Unfortunately the inferior edition is the one best known to Europeans. Besides the ancient Ramayana, there is another popular work of comparative modern times called the Adhyatma Ramayana. The authorship of it is ascribed to Vyasa, but it is generally considered to be a part of the Brahmandapurana. It is a sort of spiritualized version of the poem, in which Rama is depicted as a savior and deliverer, as a god rather than a man.

It is divided into seven books, which bear the same names as those of the original poem, but it is not so long. The Ramayana celebrates the life and exploits of Rama (Ramacandra), the loves of Rama and his wife Sita, the rape of the latter by Ravana, the demon king of Lanka, the war carried on by Rama and his monkey allies against Ravana, ending in the destruction of the demon and the rescue of Sita, the restoration of Rama to the throne of Ayodhya, his suspicion and banishment of Sita, her residence at the hermitage of Valmiki, the birth of her twin sons Kusha and Lava, the father's discovery and recognition of his children, the recall of Sita, the attestation of her innocence, her death, Rama's resolution to follow her, and his translation to heaven. The Ramayana is divided into seven kandas or sections, and contains about 50,000 lines. The last of the seven sections is probably of later date than the rest of the work. 1. Bala-Kanda. The boyhood of Rama. 2. Ayodhya-Kanda. The scenes at Ayodhya, and the banishment of Rama by his father, King Dasharatha. 3. Aranya-Kanda. "Forest section." Rama's life in the forest, and the rape of Sita by Ravana.

4. Kishkindhya-Kanda. Rama's residence at Kishkindhya, the capital of his monkey ally, King Sugriva. 5. Sundara-Kanda. "Beautiful Section." The marvellous passage of the straits by Rama and his allies and their arrival in Lanka. 6. Yuddha-Kanda. "War section." The war with Ravana, his defeat and death, the recovery of Sita, the return to Ayodhya and the coronation of Rama. This is sometimes called the Lanka or Lanka-Kanda.

7. Uttara-Kanda. "Later section." Rama's life in Ayodhya, his banishment of Sita, the birth of his two sons, his recognition of them and of the innocence of his wife, their reunion, her death, and his translation to heaven. The writer or the compilers of the Ramayana had a high estimate of its value, and it is still held in great veneration. A verse in the introduction says, "He who reads and repeats this holy life-giving Ramayana is liberated from all his sins and exalted with all his posterity to the highest heaven"; and in the second chapter Brahma is made to say, "As long as the mountains and rivers shall continue on the surface of the earth, so long shall the story of the Ramayana be current in the world." The follosing is an introduction to the Ramayana by Lin Yutang:

My Love and True Respect for India were born when I first read the Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, in the present translation, in my college days. In these two masterpieces we are brought closer to the atmosphere, ideals and customs of ancient Hindu life than by a hundred volumes of commentary on the Upanishads; and through them Hindu ideals, as well as Hindu men and women, become real to us. And the fact that Hindu imagination produced such masterpieces of literature, closely rivalling Homer in antiquity and in beauty and power of portraying human passions, is a definite pledge of the worth and richness of the Hindu civilization.

It is more than a figure of speech to say that the Mahabharata must be compared, if compared at all, with Homer's Iliad, and the Ramayana, with the Odyssey. To take the Mahabharata, the subject of the epic was the same, dealing with a long-drawn-out war between the Kurus and the Panchalas, as Homer dealt with the Trojan War. The treatment was the same: the delineation of the character of the warriors, the "tiger-waisted" Bhima, the "helmet-wearing" Arjuna (the Achilles of the epic), the royal and dignified Yudhishthir (suggesting Agamemnon), the vengeance of Arjuna for the death of his boy, the fierce contests and rounds of combats between heroes of the opposing camps, the Homeric speeches before the combats, the Councils of War, and the presence of gods and celestial spirits all reproduce the epic impression.

The Hindu epic abounds more in episodic developments and discourses (such as the long discourse between Yudhishthir and Bhishma on the art of government) and has a wider canvas, with descriptions of forest life and later interpolations of discussions on questions of spiritual truth (such as the Bhagavad-Gita, which is merely a reported conversation between the god Krishna and Arjuna before the battle, now accepted as a separate book). In magnitude, the Mahabharata comprises 100,000 couplets, which is the result of successive accretions in the easy sloka verse-form, while the Ramayana comprises 24,000 couplets, and is more the unified work of one writer. In so far as the Ramayana deals with the story of wanderings of Rama and his wife Sita, it may be said to resemble the Odyssey. Beyond that, the resemblance ceases, for while the story of Sita is that of the test of a woman's loyalty, like that of Penelope, the main theme is not that of Ulyssean adventures, but of domestic human passions, comprising such tragic material as is found in King Lear, Macbeth and Othello. It is also extremely important to note the tragic ending of Sita, where a happy ending would have been easy.

In modern terms, the Mahabharata may be said to be realistic, and the Ramayana, idealistic, in their respective handling of human characters.

Sita in Ramayana is all that a woman could or should be, and is impressive by her sweetness and devotion. Draupadi in Mahabharata, on the other hand, may be any of the high-spirited modern women who live off one of New York's avenues, with her anger and her brooding for revenge-and for that reason more human. There is greater "realistic" truth in the full-blooded characters of the Mahabharata, higher passion and nobler resolve, fiercer jealousy and more biting scorn, and greater grandeur in many of its scenes.

Yet it is undeniable there is greater spiritual beauty, greater softness and tenderness of emotion in Ramayana. The subject of Mahabharata is men and war; the subject of Ramayana is women and the home, If I judge human nature correctly, by the preference of fathers for daughters and mothers for sons, then it is inevitable that Mahabharata is the women's epic, while Ramayana is the men's. As it is impossible to include both epics, and highly desirable to reproduce one of them complete, therefore, as a man, I have chosen the Ramayana.

Truly, as the translator says, "The two together comprise the whole of the epic literature of the ancient Hindus; and the two together present us with the most graphic and lifelike picture that exists of the civilization and culture, the political and social life, the religion and thought of ancient India." And "to know the Indian epics is to understand the Indian people better." For it must be remembered, also, that these are not dead literature of long ago; they have influenced and molded Indian life for thousands of years and are still a living factor today in the innermost depths of Indian consciousness.

Eventually, I am convinced India must win her freedom, not by fighting, because they will not resort to violence, and not by politics, for the English are superb at politics, but by Englishmen falling in love with Sita. Whether English stockholders will ever read Indian literature and poetry is doubtful, and it is not implied that the prospect is bright, for the great age of English appreciation of Hindu thought has declined. But anyone can see that one who loves Phidias would not like to bomb the Acropolis, and no one in his senses could believe that a people that could produce such epics ought to be ruled by others. It does not make sense.

Having said so much, I believe I am not in a position to improve upon an introduction to the Ramayana, which Romesh Dutt has so ably written in his "Epilogue." The following abstracts from the "Epilogue" will make the contents of this epic and its significance to the Indian people clear. The translation, reproduced here complete, is a condensation of the original. I have therefore kept the separate introductions to the different Books, which supply the outline of the epic stop.

"It would appear that the original work ended with the sixth Book, which describes the return of the hero to his country and to his loving subjects.

The seventh Book is called Uttara or Supplemental, and in it we are told something of the dimensions of the poem, apparently after the fatal process of additions and interpolations had gone on for centuries. We are informed that the poem consists of six Books and a Supplemental Book; and that it comprises goo cantos and 24,000 couplets. And we are also told in this Supplemental Book that the descendants of Rama and his brothers founded some of the great towns and states which, we know from other sources, flourished in the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ. It is probable therefore that the Epic, commenced after 1000 b.c., had assumed something like its present shape a few centuries before the Christian Era.

"The Mahabharata grew out of the legends and traditions of a great historical war between the Kurus and the Panchalas; the Ramayana grew out of the recollections of the golden age of the Kosalas and the Videhas. The characters of the Mahabharata are characters of flesh and blood, with the virtues and crimes of great actors in the historic world; the characters of the Ramayana are more often the ideals. of manly devotion to truth, and of womanly faithfulness and love in domestic life. . . . As an heroic poem the Mahabharata stands on a higher level; as a poem delineating the softer emotions of our everyday life the Ramayana sends its roots deeper into the hearts and minds of the millions in India. . . . Without rivalling the heroic grandeur of the Mahabharata, the Ramayana is immeasurably superior in its delineation of those softer and perhaps deeper emotions which enter into our everyday life and hold the world together. And these descriptions, essentially of Hindu life, are yet so true to nature that they apply to all races and nations.

"There is something indescribably touching and tender in the description of the love of Rama for his subjects and the loyalty of his people towards Rama,- that loyalty which has ever been a part of the Hindu character in every age -

'As a father to his children to his loving men he came,
Blessed our homes and maids and matrons till our infants lisped
his name,
For our humble woes and troubles Rama hath the ready tear,
To our humble tales of suffering Rama lends his willing ear!'

"Deeper than this was Rama's duty towards his father and his father's fondness for Rama; and the portion of the Epic which narrates the dark scheme by which the prince was at last torn from the heart and home of his dying father is one of the most powerful and pathetic passages in Indian literature. The stepmother of Rama, won by the virtues and the kindliness of the prince, regards his proposed coronation with pride and pleasure, but her old nurse creeps into her confidence like a creeping serpent, and envenoms her heart with the poison of her own wickedness. She arouses the slumbering jealousy of a woman and awakens the alarms of a mother, till -

'Like a slow but deadly poison worked the ancient
nurse's tears,
And a wife's undying impulse mingled with a
mother's fears!'

"The nurse's dark insinuations work on the mind of the queen till she becomes a desperate woman, resolved to maintain her own influence on her husband, and to see her own son on the throne. The determination of the young queen tells with terrible effect on the weakness and vacillation of the feeble old monarch, and Rama is banished at last. And the scene closes with a pathetic story in which the monarch recounts his misdeed of past years, accepts his present suffering as the fruit of that misdeed, and dies in agony for his banished son. The inner workings of the human heart and of human motives, the dark intrigue of a scheming dependant, the awakening jealousy and alarm of a wife and a mother, the determination of a woman and an imperious queen, and the feebleness and despair and death of a fond old father and husband. have never been more vividly described. . . .

"It is truth and power in the depicting of such scenes, and not in the delineation of warriors and warlike incidents, that the Ramayana excels. It is in the delineation of domestic incidents, domestic affections, and domestic jealousies, which are appreciated by the prince and the peasant alike, that the Ramayana bases its appeal to the hearts of the millions in India. And beyond all this, the righteous devotion of Rama, and the faithfulness and womanly love of Sita, run like two threads of gold through the whole fabric of the Epic, and ennoble and sanctify the work in the eyes of Hindus.

"Sita holds a place in the hearts of women in India which no other creation of a poet's imagination holds among any other nation on earth. There is not a Hindu woman whose earliest and tenderest recollections do not cling round the story of Sita's sufferings and Sita's faithfulness, told in the nursery, taught in the family circle, remembered and cherished through life. Sita's adventures in a desolate forest and in a hostile prison only represent in an exaggerated form the humbler trials of a woman's life; and Sita's endurance and faithfulness teach her devotion to duty in all trials and troubles of life. 'For,' said Sita:

'For my mother often taught me and my father often
That her home the wedded woman doth beside her
husband make,
As the shadow to the substance, to her lord is
faithful wife,
And she parts not from her consort till she parts
with fleeting life!
Therefore bid me seek the jungle and in pathless
forests roam,
Where the wild deer freely ranges and the tiger
makes his home,
Happier than in father's mansions in the woods
will Sita rove,
Waste no thought on home or kindred, nestling in
her husband's love!'

"The ideal of life was joy and beauty and gladness in ancient Greece; the ideal of life was piety and endurance and devotion in ancient India. The tale of Helen was a tale of womanly beauty and loveliness which charmed the western world. The tale of Sita was a tale of womanly faith and self-abnegation which charmed and fascinated the Hindu world. Repeated trials bring out in brighter relief the unfaltering truth of Sita's character; she goes to a second banishment in the woods with the same trust and devotion to her lord as before, and she returns once more, and sinks into the bosom of her Mother Earth, true in death as she had been true in life. The creative imagination of the Hindus has conceived no loftier and holier character than Sita; the literature of the world has not produced a higher ideal of womanly love, womanly truth, and womanly devotion."

Ramcaritmanas: (sáns. hindú). A work by Tulsi Das. A sixteenth-century North India writer.

Rasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. Taste. 2. Essence. 3. Nectar. 4. Bliss. 5. The literal meaning of rasa is plant sap or juice, i.e., resin is the rasa of a pine tree.

However. aesthetic pleasure from a work or art is usually called rasa.

There was an aesthetic theorist in the 14 th century named Vishvanatha who described the essence of poetry as being its rasa. He wrote, "Poetry is the sentence, the soul of which is rasa." Many people when speaking of love describe its essence as being rasa. There are certain feelings that one gets when listening to music, reading a poem, or looking at a sculpture or painting. These feelings are intended by composers or artisans to communicate their feelings (rasa) to the world.

Artists think on a much different level than nonartists. Researchers on the subject claim that the structure of an artist's brain is different from that of a nonartist's; claiming that the artist's corpus callosum, the link connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain, is larger. Artists, at times, have difficulty communicating their feelings in the spoken language, and instead, express themselves by the symbolism of their art. The feeling of fear or celebration, as demonstrated in the fortissimos of Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain, or Tschaikovsky's 1812 Overture, is an attempt to communicate the composer's feelings to the audience. The fortissimo of the music, and the corresponding emotion of the listener, are created by the music's "corpus callosum," i.e., the rasa. A sage named Bharata expounded on the art of India in the first part of the first millennium of this era (CE) in the Natyashastra. Bharata described the various emotions that can be brought about in the viewer (rasika) by the rasa of the work. Bharata identified eight rasas (a ninth was added later).

The nine rasas are: the erotic (shingara); the comic (hasya); the pathetic (karuna); the furious (raudra); the heroic (vira); the terrible (bhayanaka); the odious (bibhatsa); the marvellous (adbhuta); and the quiescent (shanta). The mood or emotional state of a rasa is called its bhava, and it is produced by the proper combination of: 1) determinants (vibhavas), 2) consequents (anubhavas), and 3) complementary moods (vyabhicharibhavas). A mathematical equation would be vibhavas + anubhavas + vyabhicharibhavas = bhava. The bhava of Tschaikovsky's 1812 Overture, a vira rasa, is energy (utsaha). The determinants of the War of 1812 were the infringements on the rights of free people by those who would dominate them; the consequents of the war was the heroic men coming to arms and bearing them against the enemy; the complementary moods of the war were the patriotism, valor, and pride of winning the war. When a person knows about the War of 1812, and hears the sound of the blasting canons, they can feel the energy produced by the rasa of Tschaikovsky's work. 6. Vedic name of a mythical river. 7. Shiva's 1113th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Rasajna: (sáns. hindú). Knower of the taste. Shiva's 1114 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Rati: (sáns. hindú). Love, desire, coitus. The Venus of the Hindus, the goddess of sexual pleasures, wife of Kama the god of love, and daughter of Daksha. She is also called Reva, Kami, Priti, Kamapatni, "wife of Kama"; Kamakala, "part of Kama"; Kamapriya, "beloved of Kama"; Ragalata, "vine of love"; Mayavati, "deceiver"; Kelikila, "wanton"; Shubhangi, "fair-limbed."

Ratirupa: (sáns. hindú). She whose form is Rati (coitus). An epithet of Devi. The 315th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Ratna: (sáns. hindú). The jewel-like.

Ratnavali: (sáns. hindú). The necklace. A drama ascribed to a king of Kashmir named Harsha Deva. The subject of the play is the loves of Udayana or Vatsa, prince of Kaushambi, and Vasavadatta, princess of Ujjayini. It was written between 1113 and 1125 CE.

Ratnini: (sáns. hindú). The jeweled.

Ratri: (sáns. hindú). Ratri is almost always identified with night. She is petitioned by people to protect and comfort them while they wait for dawn. Her description is difficult to discern; however, she is sometimes described as being a beautiful maiden as is her sister Ushas (dawn). At other times, Ratri is has attributes that are not even close to her sister's. In the Rigveda she is said to be both barren and gloomy. She was chased away by both Agni and Ushas. Nonetheless, in the majority of references to her in the Rigveda she is linked with Ushas and they are said to be two beautiful maidens and even twins. They are called powerful mothers, the weavers of time, and mothers of eternal law. They demonstrate the orderliness of creation.

Rauchya: (sáns. hindú). The thirteenth Manu. See Manu.

Raudra: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Rudra. A name of Karttikeya, the god of war.

Ravana: (sáns. hindú). The demon king of Lanka, from which he expelled his half-brother Kuvera. He was son of Vishravas by his wife Nikasha, daughter of the Rakshasa Sumali He was half-brother of Kuvera, and grandson of the Rishi Pulastya; and as Kuvera is king of the Yakshas, Ravana is king of the demons called Rakshasas. Pulastya is said to be the progenitor, not only of Ravana, but of the whole race of Rakshasas. By penance and devotion to Brahma, Ravana was made invulnerable against gods and demons, but he was doomed to die through a woman. He was also enabled to assume any form he pleased. All Rakshasas are malignant and terrible, but Ravana as their chief attained the utmost degree of wickedness, and was the very incarnation of evil. He is described in the Ramayana as having "ten heads (hence his names Dashanana, Dashakantha, and Panktigriva), twenty arms, and copper-colored eyes, and bright teeth like the young moon. His form was a thick cloud or a mountain, or the god of death with open mouth.

He had all the marks of royalty, but his body bore the imprint of wounds inflicted by all the divine arms in his warfare with the gods. He was scarred by the thunderbolt of Indra, by the tusks of Indra's elephant Airavata, and by the discus of Vishnu. His strength was so great that he could agitate the seas and split the tops of mountains. He was a breaker of all laws and a ravisher of other men's wives . . . Tall as a mountain peak, he stopped with his arms the sun and moon in their course, and prevented their rising." The terror he inspires is such that where he is "the sun does not give out its heat, the winds do not blow, and the ocean becomes motionless." His evil deeds cried aloud for vengeance, and the cry reached heaven. Vishnu declared that, as Ravana had been too proud to seek protection against men and beast, he should fall under their attacks, so Vishnu became incarnate as Ramacandra for the express purpose of destroying Ravana, and vast numbers of monkeys and hears were created to aid in the enterprise. Rama's wars against the Rakshasas inflicted such losses upon them as greatly to enrage Ravana.

Burning with rage, and excited by a passion for Sita, the wife of Rama, he left his island abode, repaired to Rama's dwelling, assumed the appearance of a religious mendicant, and carried off Sita to Lanka. Ravana urged Sita to become his wife, and threatened to kill and eat her if she refused. Sita persistently resisted and was saved from death by the interposition of one of Ravana's wives.

Rama called to his assistance his allies Sugriva and Hanuman, with their hosts of monkeys ann bears. They built Rama's bridge, by which they passed over into Lanka, and after many battles and wholesale slaughter, Ravana was brought to bay at the city of Lanka. Rama and Ravana fought together on equal terms for a long while, victory sometimes inclining to one and sometimes to the other. Rama, with a sharp arrow, cut off one of Ravana's heads, "but no sooner did the head fall on the ground than another sprang up in its room." Rama then took an arrow which had been made by Brahma, and discharged it at his opponent. It entered his breast, came out of his back, went to the ocean, and then returned clean to the quiver of Rama. "Ravana fell to the ground and expired, and the gods sounded celestial music in the heavens, and assembled in the sky and praised Rama as Vishnu, in that he had slain that Ravana who would otherwise have caused their destruction."

Ravana, though he was chief among Rakshasas, was a Brahman on his father's side; he was well versed in Sanskrit, used the Vedic ritual, and his body was burned with Brahmanical rites. There is a story that Ravana made each of the gods perform some menial office in his household: thus Agni was his cook, Varuna supplied water, Kuvera furnished money, Vayu swept the house, etc. The Vishnupurana relates that Ravana, "elevated with wine, came on his tour of triumph to the city of Mahishmati, but there he was taken prisoner by King Kartavirya, and confined like a beast in a corner of his capital."

The same authority states that, in another birth, Ravana was Shisupala.

Ravana's chief wife was Mandodari, but he had many others, and they were burned at his funeral. His sons were Meghanada, also called Indrajit, Ravani, and Aksha, Trishikha or Trishiras, Devantaka, Narantaka and Atikaya. See Nandisha.

Ravi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The absorber. 2. According to the Vishnudharmottara, a name of the Sun-God, Surya. 3. Vishnu's 881st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. Shiva's 474 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ravilocana: (sáns. hindú). Having sun as the eye. Shiva's 487th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Renuka: (sáns. hindú). daughter of King Prasenajit or Renu, wife of Jamadagni, and mother of Parashurama. Seeing King Chitraratha making love to his wife inspired her with impure thoughts, and her husband, perceiving that she had "fallen from perfection," desired her sons to kill her. Rumanvat, Sushena, and Vasu, the three seniors, declined, and their father cursed them so that they became idiots. Parashurama, the fourth son, cut off her head, which act so gratified his father that Jamadagni promised him whatever blessings he desired. Among other things, Parashurama asked that his mother be brought back to life in with no remembrance of her death and in perfect purity. He also desired that his brothers be restored to their senses.

Jamadagni granted all of the wishes. Renuka was also called Konkana.

Reva: (sáns. hindú). The Narmada river. 2) wife of Karna. 3) a name of Rati.

Revanta: (sáns. hindú). A son of Surya and Sanjna. He is chief of the Guhyakas, and is also called Hayavahana.

Revati: (sáns. hindú). 1. Daughter of King Raivata and wife of Balarama. She was so beautiful that her father, thinking no one upon earth worthy of her, prayed to the god Brahma to consult him about a husband. Brahma delivered a long discourse on the glories of Vishnu, and directed Raivata to proceed to Dvaraka, where a portion of Vishnu was incarnate in the person of Balarama.

Ages elapsed while Raivata was in heaven, but he was not aware of the time.

When he returned to earth, "he found the race of men dwindled in stature, reduced in vigor, and enfeebled in intellect." He went to Balarama and gave him Revati. Balarama, seeing Revati as a damsel of excessively lofty height, shortened her with the end of his plowshare, and she became his wife. She had two sons. Revati is said to have joined with her husband in his drinking sprees. 2. A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. For further details see Vinata.

Ribhavas: (sáns. hindú). See Ribhus.

Ribhu: (sáns. hindú). 1. Clever, skillful. 2. An epithet used for Indra, Agni, and the Adityas In the Puranic mythology, Ribhu is a "son of the supreme Brahma, who, from his innate disposition, was of a holy character and acquainted with true wisdom." His pupil was Nidagha, a son of Pulastya. Ribhue took special interest in Nidagha's instruction, returning to him after two intervals of a thousand years "to instruct him further in true wisdom." The Vishnupurana, "originally composed by the Rishi (Narayana), was communicated by Brahma to Ribhu." He was one of the four Kumaras. 3. The name of a semi-divine being who is associated with the Sun-God Surya and works in iron for the Gods.

Ribhuksha: (sáns. hindú). Clever; a name of Indra.

Ribhukshan: (sáns. hindú). The first of the three Ribhus. In the plural, the three Ribhus.

Ribhus: (sáns. hindú). Three sons of Sudhanvan, a descendant of Angiras, who were named Ribhu, Vibhu, and Vaja. Through their assiduous performance of good works they obtained divinity, exercised superhuman powers, and became entitled to receive praise and adoration. They are supposed to dwell in the solar sphere and there is an indistinct identification of them with the rays of the sun. Wilson stated that whether typical or not, early on they proved the admission of the doctrine that men might become divinities. The Ribhus are celebrated in the Rigveda as skilful workmen, who fashioned Indra's chariot and horses, and made their parents young again. By command of the gods, and with a promise of exaltation to divine honors, they made a single new sacrificial cup into four. They are also spoken of as supporters of the sky.

Ribhvan: (sáns. hindú). 1. Clever or wise. 2. A name of Indra. 3. A name of the Fire-God Agni. 4. A name of the cosmic architect Tvashta.

Richika: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi descended from Bhrigu and husband of Satyavati, son of Urva and father of Jamadagni. (See Vishvamitra.) In the Mahabharata and Vishnupurana it is related that Richika was an old man when he demanded in marriage Satyavati the daughter of Gadhi, king of Kanyakubja. Unwilling to give her to so old a man, Gadhi demanded of him 1000 white horses, each of them having one black ear. Richika obtained these from the god Varuna, and so gained his wife. According to the Ramayana, he sold his son Shunahsephas to be a sacrifice.

Riddha: (sáns. hindú). The wealthy, expanded. Vishnu's 278 th and 351st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Riddhi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Wealth or good fortune personified. 2. A name of Parvati. 3. A name of Lakshmi. 4. Name of the wife of Kuvera, god of wealth.

Rigveda: (sáns. hindú). The Rigveda is the original Veda from which the Yajur and Sama are almost exclusively derived. The Rigveda consists of 1,017 Suktas or hymns, or with eleven additional hymns called Valakhilyas of an apocryphal character, 1,028. These are arranged in eight Ashtakas, "octaves," or Khandas, "sections," which are again subdivided into as many Adhyayas, "chapters," 2,006 Vargas or "classes," 10,417 Riks or "verses," and 153,826 Padas or "words." There is another division, which runs on concurrently with this division, in ten Mandalas, "circles" or "classes," and 85 Anuvakas or "sections." The total number of hymns is the same in both arrangements.

It is a generally received opinion that the hymns of the tenth Mandala are later in date than the others. A few hymns of the Rigveda, more specially some of the later hymns in the tenth Mandala, appear to contain some vague, hazy conception of one Supreme Being; but as a whole they are addressed directly to certain personifications of the powers of nature, which personifications were worshipped as deities having those physical powers under their control. From these powers the Vedic poets invoked prosperity on themselves and their flocks; they extolled the prowess of these elemental powers in the struggles between light and darkness, warmth and cold, and they offered up joyous praise and thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth and personal protection. Chief among the deities so praised and worshipped were Agni, Indra, and Surya.

More hymns are addressed to Agni (Ignis), "fire," than to any other deity, and chiefly in its sacrificial character, though it receives honor also for its domestic uses. Indra was honored as the god of the atmosphere, who controlled the rains and the dew, so all-important to an agricultural people. Surya, "the sun," was "the source of heat," but he shared this honor with Agni, the sun being considered a celestial fire. Among the most ancient of the myths was that of Dyauspitar, "heavenly father," "the investing sky," afterwards god of the waters; Ushas, "the dawn," daughter of the sky: the two Ashvins, "twin sons of the sun," ever young and handsome, and riding in a golden car precursors of the dawn. Prithivi, "the broad one," as the earth was called, received honor as the mother of all beings. There were also the Maruts or storm-gods, personification of the wind, the special foes of Vritra, the spirit of drought and inclement weather, who was in constant conflict with Indra; Rudra, the howling, furious god, who ruled the tempest and the storm; Yama, the god of the dead and judge of departed spirits, also received his share of reverence; last, though apparently not least in the estimation of the Aryan worshippers, was Soma, the personification of the fermented juice of the plant so named.

This exhilarating liquid was alike acceptable to the gods and their worshippers, and many hymns are addressed to it as a deity. To each hymn of the Rigveda there is prefixed the name of the Rishi to whom it was revealed, as Vasishtha, Vishvamitra, Bharadvaja, and many others; and these sages are frequently spoken of as authors of the hymns bearing their names.

It is quite unknown when the hymns were first committed to writing. They were transmitted orally from generation to generation, and continued to be so handed down even after they had been collected and arranged by Krishna Dvaipayana, "the arranger." The oral teaching of the Vedas produced what are called the Shakhas or "schools" of the Vedas. Different learned men, or bodies of men, became famous for their particular versions of the text, and taught these versions to their respective pupils. These different versions constitute the Shakhas; they present, as might be expected, many verbal variations; but no very material discrepancies.

Rigvidhana: (sáns. hindú). Writings about the mystic and magic efficacy of the recitation of hymns of the Rigveda, or even of single verses. Weber claimed that some of them are attributed to Shaunaka, but probably belong only to the time of the Puranas.

Rijudasa: (sáns. hindú). (riju "honest, right, sincere" + dasa "servant" ) 1. The honest servant. 2. The name of a son of Vasudeva.

Rijukratu: (sáns. hindú). (riju "honest, right, sincere"+ kratu "power, sacrifice, intelligence") 1. Performing right sacrifices or works. 2. A name of Indra who is famous for His unrivalled hundred sacrifices which entitle Him to Indrahood. 3. Sincere-minded.

Rijumati: (sáns. hindú). (riju "honest, right, sincere" + mati "minded") The honest-minded or sincere-minded.

Rishabha: (sáns. hindú). son of Nabhi and Meru, and father of a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Bharata. He gave his kingdom to his son and retired to hermitage, where he led a life of such severe austerity and abstinence, that he became a mere "collection of skin and fibers, and went the way of all flesh." The Bhagavatapurana speaks of his wanderings in the western part of the Peninsula, and connects him with the establishment of the Jain religion in those parts. The name of the first Jain Tirthakara or saint was Rishabha.

Rishi: (sáns. hindú). 1. An inspired poet or sage. 2. The inspired persons to whom the hymns of the Vedas were revealed, and under whose names they stand. "The seven Rishis" (saptarshi), or the Prajapatis, "the mind-born sons" of Brahma, are often referred to. In the Shatapatha Brahmana their names are given as Gotama, Bharadvaja, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Vasishtha, Kashyapa, and Atri. The Mahabharata gives them as Marichi, Atri, Angiras Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vasishtha. The Vayupurana adds Bhrigu to this list, making eight, although it still calls them "seven." The Vishnupurana, more consistently, add Bhrigu and Daksha, and calls them the nine Brahmarshis (Brahmarishis). The names of Gautama, Kanva, Valmiki, Vyasa, Manu, and Vibhandaka are also enumerated among the great Rishis by different authorities. Besides these great Rishis there are many other Rishis. The seven Rishis are represented in the the seven stars of the Great Bear (Big Dipper), and as such are called Riksha and Chitrasikhandinas, meaning "having bright crests." 3. A name for the Sannyasis who have a right or integral vision of the truth. 4. Shiva's 534th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Rishibrahmana: (sáns. hindú). An old Anukramani, or Index of the Samaveda.

Rishyamuka: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in the Dakhin, near the source of the Pampa river and the lake Pampa. Rama lived there for a time with the monkeys.

Rishyasringa: (sáns. hindú). The deer-horned. A hermit who was the son of Vibhandaka and descended from Kashyapa. According to the Ramayana and Mahabharata he was born of a doe and had a small horn on his forehead. He was brought up in the forest by his father, and saw no other human being until he was verging upon manhood. There was great drought in the country of Ana, and the king, Lomapada, was advised by his Brahmans to send for the youth Rishyasringa, who should marry his daughter Shanta and be the means of obtaining rain. A number of fair damsels were sent to bring him. He accompanied them hack to their city, the desired rain fell, and he married Shanta. This Shanti was the adopted daughter of Lomapada; her real father was Dasharatha, and it was Rishyasringa who performed that sacrifice for Dasharatha which brought about the birth of Rama.

Rita: (sáns. hindú). The true or righteous. This name occurs in the Shanti Mantra and also occurs in the Aghamarshana Sukta or Sin-effacing hymn.

Ritadhaman: (sáns. hindú). (rita "truth" + dhaman "abode") 1. The abode of truth. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Ritaparna: (sáns. hindú). (rita "truth" + parna "wing, feather, leaf") Truth-winged.

Ritayin: (sáns. hindú). The truthful.

Ritayu: (sáns. hindú). Follower of the sacred law (i.e. the Vedas).

Ritayus: (sáns. hindú). (rita "true, righteous" + ayus "life") Having true life.

Ritunatha: (sáns. hindú). (ritu "season, fixed time, order" + natha "lord") 1. The lord of the seasons. 2. A name of spring personified.

Rituparna: (sáns. hindú). (ritu "season, fixed time, order" + parna "wing, feather, leaf") A king of Ayodhya, and son of Sarvakama, into whose service Nala entered after he had lost his kingdom. He was "skilled profoundly in dice"

Ritusanhara: (sáns. hindú). "The round of the seasons." A poem attributed to Kalidasa. This poem was published by Sir W. Jones, and was the first Sanskrit work ever printed.

Rocana: (sáns. hindú). Glowing, radiant.

Rocishnu: (sáns. hindú). Shining. Shiva's 658th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Rohini: (sáns. hindú). 1. Red or reddish. 2. Daughter of Kashyapa and Surabhi, and mother of horned cattle, including Kamadhenu, the cow which grants desires. 3. Daughter of Daksha and fourth of the lunar asterisms, the favorite wife of the moon 4. One of the wives of Vasudeva, the father of Krishna and mother of Balarama. She was burned with her husband's corpse at Dvaraka. 5. Krishna himself also had a wife so called, and the name is common.

Rohita: (sáns. hindú). Red. A red horse; a horse of the sun or of fire. 1) a deity celebrated in the Atharvaveda, probably a form of fire or the sun. 2) son of King Harishchandra; he is also called Rohitashva. The fort of Rohtas is said to derive its name from him. See Harishchandra Romaharshana: (sáns. hindú). See Lomaharshana.

Romapada: (sáns. hindú). See Lomapada.

Ruci: (sáns. hindú). 1. Light, beauty. 2. Taste. Shiva's 469th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Rucirangada: (sáns. hindú). Having a beautiful shoulderlet. Shiva's 513th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Rudra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The remover of pain. 2. Shiva's Vedic and 4 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.. 3. Vishnu's 114 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. A howler or roarer; terrible. In the Vedas Rudra has many attributes and many names. He is the howling terrible god, the god of storms, the father of the Rudras or Maruts, and is sometimes identified with the god of fire. On the one hand he is a destructive deity who brings diseases Upon men and cattle, and upon the other he is a beneficent deity supposed to have a healing influence.

These are the germs which afterwards developed into the god Shiva. It is worthy of note that Rudra is first called Mahadeva in the White Yajurveda.

As applied to the god Shiva, the name of Rudra generally designates him in his destructive character. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad the Rudras are "ten vital breaths (prana) with the heart (manas) as eleventh." In the Vishnupurana the god Rudra is said to have sprung from the forehead of Brahma, and at his command to have separated his nature into male and female, then to have multiplied each of these into eleven persons, some of which were white and gentle, others black and furious. Elsewhere it is said that the eleven Rudras were sons of Kashyapa and Surabhi, and in another chapter of the same purana it is represented that Brahma desired to create a son, and that Rudra came into existence as a youth. He wept and asked for a name. Brahma gave him the name of Rudra; but he wept seven times more, and so he obtained seven other names: Bhava, Sharva, Isana, Pashupati, Bhima. Ugra, and Mahadeva. Other of the Puranas agree in this nomenclature.

These names are sometimes used for Rudra or Shiva himself, and at others for the seven manifestations of him, sometimes called his sons. The names of the seven Rudras vary considerably in different books.

Rudrani: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic goddess who was the wife of Rudra. 2. A name of Durga.

Rudrasavarna: (sáns. hindú). The twelfth Manu. See Manu.

Rukmin: (sáns. hindú). A son of King Bhishmaka and king of Vidarbha, who offered his services to the Pandavas and Kauravas in turn, but was rejected by both on account of his extravagant boastings and pretensions. He was brother of Rukmini, with whom Krishna eloped. Rukmin pursued the fugitives and overtook them, but his army was defeated by Krishna, and he owed his life to the entreaties of his sister. He founded the city of Bhojakata, and was eventually killed by Balarama.

Rukmini: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Bhishmaka, king of Vidarbha. According to the Harivansha she was sought in marriage by Krishna, with whom she fell in love. But her brother Rukmin was a friend of Kansha, whom Krishna had killed. He therefore opposed him and thwarted the match. Rukmini was then betrothed to Shishupala, king of Chedi, but on her wedding day, as she was going to the temple, "Krishna saw her, took her by the hand, and carried her away in his chariot." They were pursued by her intended husband and by her brother Rukmin, but Krishna defeated them both, and took her safe to Dvaraka, where he married her. She was his principal wife and bore him a son, Pradyumna. By him also she had nine other sons and one daughter.

"These other sons were Charudeshna, Sudeshna, Charudeha, Sushena, Charugupta, Bhadracharu, Charuvinda, Sucharu, and the very mighty Charu; also one daughter, Charumati." At Krishna's death she and seven other of his wives immolated themselves on his funeral pyre.

Ruma: (sáns. hindú). Wife of the monkey king Sugriva.


Sabala: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + bala "strength") The powerful or mighty.

Sadacara: (sáns. hindú). One having good conduct. Shiva's 8th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadagati: (sáns. hindú). (sada "eternal" + gati "goal") The eternal goal.

Sadasambhava: (sáns. hindú). The unborn and existing being. Shiva's 589th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadashiva: (sáns. hindú). (sada "eternally, ever" + Shiva "name of God, auspicious") l. The Ever-Auspicious 2. Shiva's 191st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama.

See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A name of the Self as taught to Ashvalayana by the Brahma who expounds in the Kaivalya Upanishad the nonduality of Jiva and Ishvara. The three abodes are the three states of waking, dream, and deep sleep, and Sadashivah or "everauspicious" means Nitya Kalyana Kaivalyam, "the everblissful Aloneness."

Sadasvastikrit: (sáns. hindú). Continuous creator of welfare and prosperity. Shiva's 149th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadatana: (sáns. hindú). (sada "eternally" + tana "lasting") l. The everlasting. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Sadbhuti: (sáns. hindú). Having good prosperity. Shiva's 875th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadgati: (sáns. hindú). The goal of the good. Shiva's 867 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadguna: (sáns. hindú). (sat "good" + guna "quality of nature, virtue") Having good or holy qualities, virtuous.

Sadhaka: (sáns. hindú). 1. Skillful, efficient. 2. A spiritual aspirant.

Sadhana: (sáns. hindú). 1. (Spiritual) practice or means. 2. The name of a Rishi, who was one of the seers of the Rigveda.

Sadhishthana: (sáns. hindú). Having a foundation. Shiva's 592nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadhu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The righteous or holy. 2. Vishnu's 243rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Sadhvi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The virtuous. 2. A name of Lalita.

Sadhya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The attainable. 2. A name of Lalita. 3. Shiva's 998 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sadhyas: (sáns. hindú). A Gana or class of lesser deities; the personified rites and prayers of the Vedas who dwell with the gods or in the intermediate region between heaven and earth. Their number is twelve according to one authority, and seventeen according to another, and the Puranas make them sons of Dharma and Sadhya, daughter of Daksha.

Sadratna: (sáns. hindú). (sat "true" + ratna "pearl, gem") Pure gem or pearl.

Sadyogi: (sáns. hindú). Good yogin. Shiva's 588th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sagana: (sáns. hindú). One accompanied by his Gana. Shiva's 176th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Sagara: (sáns. hindú). A king of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and son of King Bahu, who was driven out of his dominions by the Haihayas. Bahu took refuge in the forest with his wives. Sagara's mother was then pregnant, and a rival wife, being jealous, gave her a drug to prevent her delivery. This poison confined the child in the womb for seven years, and in the interim Bahu died. The pregnant wife wished to ascend his pyre, but the sage Aurva forbad her, predicting that she would give birth to a valiant universal monarch. When the child was born, Aurva gave him the name of Sagara (sa, "with," and gara, "poison"). The child grew up, and having heard his father's history, he vowed that he would exterminate the Haihayas and the other barbarians, and recover his ancestral kingdom. He obtained from Aurva the Agneyastra or fire weapon, and, armed with this, he put nearly the whole of the Haihayas to death and regained his throne.

He would also "have destroyed the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, and Pahlavas," but they appealed to Vasishtha, Sagara's family priest, and he persuaded Sagara to spare them, but "he made the Yavanas shave their heads entirely; the Sakas he compelled to shave (the upper) half of their heads; the Paradas wore their hair long; and the Pahlavas let their beards grow in obedience to his command." Sagara married two wives, Sumati, the daughter of Kashyapa, and Keshini, the daughter of Raja Vidarbha, but having no children, he besought the sage Aurva for this boon. Aurva promised that one wife should have one son; the other, sixty thousand. Keshini chose the one, and her son was Asamanjas, through whom the royal line was continued. Sumati had sixty thousand sons. Asamanjas was a wild immoral youth, and his father abandoned him.

The other sixty thousand sons followed the courses of their brother, and their impiety was such that the gods complained about them to the sage Kapila and the god Vishnu. Sagara engaged in the performance of an Ashvamedha or sacrifice of a horse, but although the animal was guarded by his sixty thousand sons, it was carried off to Patala. Sagara directed his sons to recover it. They dug their way to the infernal regions, and there they found the horse grazing and the sage Kapila seated close by engaged in meditation. Thinking Kapila was the thief, they menaced him with their weapons. Disturbed from his devotions, "he looked upon them for an instant and they were reduced to ashes by the sacred [flame] that darted from his person." Their remains were discovered by Anshumat, the son of Asamanjas, who prayed to Kapila that the victims of his wrath might be raised through his favour to heaven.

Kapila promised that the grandson of Anshumat should be the means of accomplishing this by bringing down the river of heaven. Anshumat then returned to Sagara, who completed his sacrifice, and he gave the name of Sagara to the chasm which his sons had dug, and Sagara means "ocean." The son of Anshumat was Dilipa and his son was Bhagiratha. The devotion of Bhagiratha brought down from heaven the holy Ganges, which flows from the toe of Vishnu, and its waters having washed the ashes of the sons of Sagara, cleansed them from all impurity. Their Manes were thus made fit for the exequial ceremonies and for admission into Svarga. The Ganges received the name of Sagara in honor of Sagara, and Bhagirathi from the name of the devout king whose prayers brought her down to earth. (See Bhagirathi.) The Harivansha adds another marvel to the story.

Sagara's wife Sumati was delivered of a gourd containing sixty thousand seeds which became embryos and grew. Sagara at first placed them in vessels of milk, but afterwards each one had a separate nurse, and at ten months they all ran about. The name of Sagara is frequently cited in deeds conveying grants of land in honor of his generosity in respect of such gifts.

Saguna: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + guna "quality of nature, virtue") l. The qualified, she who is with attributes. 2. Lalita's 239 th name as listed in the Lalita Trishati in the Brahmandapurana.

Saha: (sáns. hindú). l. The enduring or mighty. 2. Vishnu's 368th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. The EarthGoddess, famous for Her forbearance.

Enciclopedia Hindu, Manurishi Fundación

  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  5. Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  6. Jñanam - Kurantika - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  7. Kurira - Nagaharadhrik - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  8. Nagakesara - Prajapala - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation

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