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Fotos de Bhaktin Nina - Jay JayAnanda!!!

Perfil de Bhaktin

Añadida el 09 de junio

Añadida el 09 de junio

Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in the third verse of Siksastakam lays down the qualification for offenseless chanting. 'One can chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking himself lower than the straw in the street. One should be more tolerant than the tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige and ready to offer all respects to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly.' Jayananda exemplified this verse. He was so humble that just being in his association would make one feel ashamed of one's pride. He was very special, yet no one paid any special attention to him. That was just the way he liked things.
Añadida el 09 de junio

Añadida el 09 de junio

We can communicate with Prabhupada and Jayananda even now as being invisible they are always with us. We can stray from God how it happened with me but they will always come to help us. They will get us out from a ditch and will bring us back on the way how it happened with me. It is amazing to believe in this and to know this! True love is the most amazing, incomparable treasure as it goes directly from His Devine Grace - Krishna, from our sriritual master Srila Prabhupada and from all the saints as Sriman Jayananda Thakur was.
Añadida el 09 de junio

Añadida el 09 de junio

Añadida el 09 de junio

Fotos de Gauranga Sundara Das

Gauranga Sundara Das

Añadida el 09 de diciembre de 2009 ·

Añadida el 05 de noviembre de 2007


Yuthesvari. Las gopis de Vraja se dividen en muchos diferentes grupos llamados yuthas. La líder de cada grupo es una yuthesvari. Aunque hay muchas yuthesvaris, Las principales son ocho: Sri Radha, Candravali, Visakha, Lalita, Syama, Padma, Saivya y Bhadra.

The five types of sakhis

Fri, 10 Dec 2004 16:00:24 +0530

Can anybody give a description of the qualities of the five types of sakhis in Radha's group?

1. Sakhi
2. Nitya sakhi
3. Prana sakhi
4. Priya sakhi
5. Param-preshta sakhi

Madanmohan das - Fri, 10 Dec 2004 23:34:35 +0530

I'm not sure, but I think you need some names, and then look up the particulars of each. Sri Rupa's Ujjvala Nilamani ,chapter 4.

"Prominent amongst the (1) sakhis are Kusumika, Vindhya and Dhanistha. Among the (2) nitya sakhis are Kasturi and Mani Manjari.(3) prana sakhis are Sasimukhi, Vasanti and Lasika.(4) priya sakhis are Kurangaksi, Sumadhya, Madanalasa, Kamala, Madhuri, Manjukesi, Kandarpa sundari, Madhavi, Malati, Kamalata and Sasikala. And the (5) Parama prestha sakhis are Radha's asta sakhis Lalita, Visakha etc.
Jagat - Sat, 11 Dec 2004 00:22:28 +0530

3.2 The five divisions of sakhi bhava

The above-mentioned general division of sakhi bhava has been further subdivided into five in the Ujjvala-nilamani. There it is said that Radharani, queen of Vrindavan, has five kinds of sakhi, know respectively as sakhi (friends), Priya sakhis (dear friends), Parama prestha sakhis (dearmost friends), Prana sakhis (life-companions) and nitya sakhis (constant companions). In this classification, sakhis are those inclined primarily toward Krishna; they include Dhanishtha and Vindhya. Priya sakhis and parama-preshtha-sakhis are equal in their affections to both the lover and the beloved; Kurangakshi and Sumadhyama belong to the former grouping, while Radha’s closest companions — Lalita, Visakha, Campakalata, Sucitra, Indulekha, Tungavidya, Rangadevi and Sudevi (often known as the eight friends, or ashta-sakhi) belong to the latter. Their title of parama-preshtha-sakhis would indicate that they are the dearest of all to Radha. The last two categories, which include the manjaris, are Radha-snehâdhika, i.e., they have stronger feelings of love for Radha than for Krishna. Kasturi and Mani Manjaris’ names are specifically mentioned in the Ujjvala-nilamani as nitya sakhis, while Sasimukhi, Vasanti and Lasika are the names of some prana sakhis.

3.21 Krishna-snehadhika

Visvanatha has discussed raganuga bhakti and the different categories of sakhi in his Ananda-candrika commentary to Ujjvala-nilamani:

In the opinion of those devoted to the raganuga path, one must follow a specific gopi with a feeling of submission at least equal to the one with which one worships Krishna. Therefore, if one follows with less affection for the devotee, then there is no distinction between the vaidha and raganuga paths, for one cannot attain the desired result of raganuga-bhakti without following in the footsteps of one of the Vrindavan devotees. In this case, though, if one adores a girlfriend of Radha’s whose affections lean proportionately somewhat more towards Krishna, then Radha’s prominence is diminished; she takes a position inferior to that of her own girlfriend. This is a great breach of protocol, for Radharani is the greatest of all the yuthesvaris or nayikas.

The conclusion is that Dhanishtha and other sakhis of her category are not to be followed by one who wishes perfection on the raganuga path and attainment of spiritual handmaidenhood.

3.22 Sama-sneha

Priya sakhis have exactly the same measure of love for Krishna as they do for their dear friend, the yuthesvari. That love is simultaneously, inexplicably great and yet always clearly expressed. Their numbers are greater than the other types of girlfriend. Rupa gives the following example of the actions of a sakhi of this type:

One day, when Srimati Radharani and Krishna were separated as a result of some misdeed of his, Syama’s friend Bakulamali came and revealed her mind to Campakalata, “Dear friend, when Radha is separated from Krishna, then to see her gives me a pain in the heart. And when I see Krishna without Radha, I truly feel great suffering. What misery! O beautiful one, I pray therefore that I shall never take any birth in which I shall not be able to drink with my eyes the beauty of Radha and Krishna’s moon-like faces, creating a joyful festival, together.”

The parama-preshtha-sakhis like Lalita and Visakha are also sama-sneha like the priya sakhis, with the distinction that, although they love both Radha and Krishna equally, they definitely feel themselves to be Radha’s. These eight sakhis (Lalita, Visakha, Sudevi, Rangadevi, Champakalata, Chitra, Tungavidya and Indulekha) have reached such heights of love for both members of the Divine Couple that they sometimes appear to feel more affection for either the one or the other, but this distinction is slight and manifests only briefly. For example, when Radharani is in one of her sulking moods, then their sympathies might sway toward Krishna, the spurned and forlorn lover. On the other hand, when Krishna breaks his promise or fails to appear for an assignation, they will take Radha’s side.

3.23 Radha-snehadhika

The prana sakhis and nitya sakhis are more affectionate toward Radha. Of these two groups of sakhis, the first category is more prominent. In his Ujjvala-nilamani-kirana, Visvanatha states that the Prana sakhis are chief amongst the nitya sakhis who include all those who are Radha-snehadhika. In his commentary on Ujjvala-nilamani 8.129 already partially quoted above, Visvanatha makes the following further distinction between these two types of manjari:

Those devotees who are to be followed for the attainment of spiritual perfection should be nitya-siddha or eternally perfected souls. Those who are labdha-siddha, having become perfected either through grace or long practice, are seen in a slightly lesser light. This difference has existed since time immemorial and is here expressed in this verse by making a division between the prana sakhis and the nitya sakhis, the latter being followers of the former.

The example given of these sakhis is found in Ujjvala-nilamani. One day an outspoken girlfriend of Radha’s who belongs to the Prana sakhis category tried to stop Radha from going to a pre-arranged tryst with Krishna. She said to Vrinda Devi, the go-between,

“Vrinde! Stop making all these clever arrangements for a liaison. Just go and tell the son of the cowherd king that it is the rainy season. There are so many poisonous snakes slithering about in the dark forests, how can he expect this timid girl, Radha, to find her way to the mountain cave? Tell him that he should take the trouble to come here in secret himself.”

3.3 The superiority of the Radha-snehadhika sakhis

In the Ananda-chandrika commentary on Ujjvala-nilamani 2.15, Visvanatha writes that although all sakhis find their own happiness by arranging for the pleasure of the nayika in union with her Lord, still a general division can be made of two categories from amongst them. They are (1) those whose bodies are extremely attractive to Krishna due to their having salient qualities of love, beauty and coquettishness, etc., and (2) others who are somewhat inferior in these respects and so are not so attractive to the Lord’s romantic aspirations. Thus, girls of the former category may occasionally, at the behest of their friend and mistress (yuthesvari), desire for erotic dalliance with Krishna, for his pleasure. These sakhis include Lalita and the other parama-preshtha-sakhis. The second category of sakhi, however, never entertain such aspirations. They are Kasturi and the other nitya sakhis.

For an example, we can look to the Vrindavana-mahimamrita by Prabodhananda Sarasvati:

One day one of Srimati Radharani’s handmaidens whose exclusive desire is to relish the flavour of serving her lotus feet and who never thinks for a moment, not even in dreams, that she would have any kind of intercourse with Krishna, was accosted by him who shocked her by tearing away at her blouse and uncovering her bosom. She started crying, “No, no, what are you doing?” while Srimati Radharani, my very life and soul, stood by and watched, laughing.

The nitya sakhis have a certain reward for their unique spirit of abnegation, something which is withheld even from Radharani’s dearest comrades like Lalita and Visakha. That reward is described for us by Raghunatha Dasa Gosvamin in Vraja-vilasa-stava:

I take shelter of the handmaidens of the Queen of Vrindavan,
who are led by Sri Rupa Manjari
and who lovingly satisfy her
by offering hazelnuts and other condiments,
massaging her feet, bringing fragrant water
and arranging trysts with her gallant
and have thus become most dear to her.
They are thus allowed to enter the scene
of the Divine Couple’s most intimate affairs
without the slightest discomfiture
a reward not given even to her dearest friends.

This is the area where the manjaris are unique and distinctive.

Ranganamala and her friends, though they are themselves loving friends, either on their own initiative or at the behest of Visakha and her friends, sometimes behave towards the Ever-youthful Couple of Vraja just as if they were maidservants. Behaving shyly, they do this in order to obtain the highest ecstasy by listening to their extremely funny conversations as well as to gain their most cherished service.

Similarly, in the Krishna-bhavanamrita, it is said,

Rupa Manjari and the other handmaidens of Radharani, one sparkle of whose toenails is brighter than a flash of lightning, are certainly qualified in all respects, whether in talents or in coquettishness, to become yuthesvaris or nayikas themselves, and yet they are completely devoid of any attraction for such glories. They would much rather bathe constantly in the nectarean ocean of Radha’s service.

A further special feature of the nitya sakhis or manjaris is that just as Srimati Radharani and the other yuthesvaris are spontaneously and instinctively filled with an intense thirst to relish the flavour of Krishna’s form, taste, fragrance, touch and sound, so similarly the manjaris are spontaneously and instinctively attracted to both Radha’s and Krishna’s qualities. To what extent and how they are so attracted can be explained as follows. The nature of madhura-rasa is clear: the gopis want to please Krishna by offering their own bodies. Even Brahma prays to be able to drink “again and again from the cup of his senses the honey-like nectar of Krishna’s lotus feet.” According to Caitanya-caritamrita, “the nectar of Krishna’s lotus feet” means his direct bodily contact. From this we can understand that the nayikas serve Krishna by directly relinquishing their bodies to him — that is their qualification for being in the madhura rasa. The manjaris, on the other hand, are unenthusiastic about such type of service. They never contemplate such a possibility, even in their dreams. Yet, the question may be asked, if there is no possibility of madhura rasa or romance without physical intimacy, how can the platonic spirit of the manjaris be graced with the name of samartha rati or kama-rupa bhakti?

In answer to this question, it should be said that the object of the manjaris’ affection is the Holy Couple of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna together. Therefore, the perfection of the manjaris’ power of sight and the thirst of their eyes is to see that couple locked in embrace. The craving of their ears is to hear the Holy Couple’s sweet murmuring conversations and that is the fulfillment of their sense of hearing. The desire of their tongues is to relish the flavour of the condiments touched by the Holy Couple’s lips, and in that way their sense of taste attains perfection. Similarly, the sweet fragrance that arises at the Holy Couple’s union is the object craved for by their nostrils and its experience is the fulfillment of their sense of smell. The tactile sense finds plenitude in massaging the Holy Couple’s feet and bodies, and this is the only object of their sense of touch.

In this way, it may be said that of the four types of sambhoga (sexual union) mentioned by Jiva Gosvamin (i.e., by sight, conversation, touch and intercourse) the first three are present in the manjaris to some extent. The question is, how do they experience samprayoga, or intercourse? We get some light on this point from the following passage from the Govinda-lilamrita:

Just as the moon enlivens the lilies, so Krishna is the bright moon who enlivens the lily-like hearts of the residents of Vrindavan. His pleasure-giving potency is personified in Radha, who is like a creeper whose fruits are prema. Her girlfriends are like the unlimited branches, leaves and flowers which expand out from her self and are thus equal to her. For this reason, when that winding creeper of love is watered with the heavenly potion of Krishna’s sporting activities, then the leaves and flowers (the sakhis) find hundreds of times more pleasure than if they were themselves to be sprinkledthis seems quite normal.

Just as the all-pervading, omnipotent Supreme God Almighty needs his majestic spiritual potencies to become fulfilled, similarly, the love of Radha and Krishna, though very elevated, self-manifest and joyful by nature, does not find fulfillment for even a moment without the presence of her girlfriends, the sakhis and manjaris. What person, genuinely learned in the science of sacred rapture, would not therefore take shelter of them?

Prabodhananda Sarasvati also states in the Vrindavana-mahimamrita,

The pleasure felt by the eyes of the sakhi alone in seeing Radha merged in the ocean of love for Krishna makes all the Supreme Lord’s festive arrangements for his own happiness seem insignificant.

Another quote from the Govinda-lilamrita (11.137) of Krishnadasa Kaviraja illustrates the power of the vicarious pleasure of the manjaris:

If Krishna should touch Srimati Radharani,
then lo and behold! her sakhis start to tremble
they sweat and their body hairs stand on end
and tears well in their eyes.
And if Krishna should carefully sip
the spirituous liquor of Radha’s lips,
it is they who become intoxicated!
This is truly something wonderful.

In his commentary on this verse, Vrindavana Cakravartin observes that this verse contains the rhetorical embellishment (alaàkara) known as asangati or “non sequitur.” Asangati is defined as arising when causes are described as being inflicted on one entity have their effects reproduced in a completely distinct one. Here, the Lord is touching and kissing Radha, but the effects of trembling and intoxication are described taking place in the bodies of the sakhis.

Another verse can be quoted here from the Ahnika-kaumudi of Kavi Karnapura where Krishna says:

O doe-eyed beauties!
When your girlfriends are absent,
you may have to look at a mirror
before you can say whether you are happy or sad.
They reflect every mood of yours
they perform all the services of a looking glass!
When tears fall from your eyes they also cry;
when you are excited, their hairs stand on end;
when you laugh they also do so;
and when you become depressed,
they also look down-hearted.

In the Krishna-bhavanamrita, there is another verse which illustrates the point:

Radha’s handmaids are unable to maintain their lives if they cannot see the pastimes of the beautiful Divine Couple; with great eagerness they had gathered about the window of the forest cottage in which Radha and Krishna were locked in embrace and one of them said, “Friends, what an amazing and wonderful situation is this they have gotten themselves into.”

If the sakhis can feel intoxicated when Krishna kisses Radharani, then it is not altogether surprising if they get an even greater pleasure by watching the intimate activities of the Lord and his mistress than they would from their own. The reason for this is that they are not lovers in the mundane sense, but are supreme, the transcendental Lord and his celestial mistress.

Krishna is romantic love personified. He has appeared in his form as the king of sacred rapture (rasa-raja) and thus he attracts all the minds of everyone in the universe, including his very self. Srimati Radharani is the supremely worshipable personification of maha-bhava, the ultimate achievement in the domain of prema. Verily she is the embodiment of prema herself, for her entire body is vibrant with pure devotional love for Krishna.

Not only are Radha and Krishna transcendental, but so also are the sakhis and manjaris. In the Krishna-bhavanamrita they are described in the following way:

These handmaidens of Radharani are unexcelled in this universe for their beauty is without bounds. The rays coming from the nails of their toes defeats the glory of the lightning bolt. Each one of them is an incarnation of Radharani’s expertise in loving dalliance and thus competent to herself become a competitor for Krishna’s affections. Yet such desires do not enter their minds for even a moment because they are completely desireless. In this way, they are eligible to eternally dive into the ambrosial sea of service to her.

Without bhava or feeling, the ecstasies of sacred rapture cannot be experienced. Without feeling, the ecstasies of love cannot be appreciated. To relish Krishna’s sweetness, one must become similar to him in quality, otherwise it will not be possible. Just as Radharani’s competent affection is not separable from her identity, eternal and self-manifest, so too the sakhis and manjaris have love for the Divine Couple which is similarly uncaused, self-manifest and directly produced from their own identities. This is beyond normal experience and thus inconceivable. “Those things which are inconceivable are not accessible by mental speculation.” The actions of the Lord are supra-mundane, its ways and means are all transcendental; thus the unfortunate hear about them and even so develop no faith in him.

Sometimes the manjaris even faint from the ecstasies they feel when they watch the intimate pastimes of the Divine Duo through the spaces between the forest vines. Rupa Gosvamin has described such an instance in the Nikunja-rahasya-stava (“Praises of the secrets of the forest-bower”):

O mind! remember Radha and Krishna,
shining in the groves of Vrindavana.
Their sakhis, saturated with love,
fasten their eyes on them
through the branches of the forest grove
where they are expanding their work of love
in wondrous variety; and overwhelmed
with ecstasy, they fall to the ground in a swoon.

Sometimes Radharani makes arrangements for the manjaris to meet Krishna to be enjoyed by him; but even this intercession on her part does not shake their indifference to such direct erotic union with the Lord. Srila Rupa Gosvamin gives an example in the Ujjvala-nilamani, which Visvanatha expands upon as follows:

One day, Srimati Radharani arranged through another of her friends for Mani Manjari to have a rendez-vous with the Lord in some forest glen. That friend, after trying persuasively to convince the reluctant manjari finally returned to Srimati’s side in failure. She then said to her, “Dear friend, you told me to try and I did. I went to Mani Manjari and tried to tempt her in many ways. I said,’My friend, I don't believe there is any thrill in this entire universe that can compare with the ecstasy of Krishna’s embrace; you really should try it one time. Lalita and the other sakhis sometimes have trysts with him, why shouldn't you, just this once? They can act as both friends and, occasionally, independently as Krishna’s mistresses too. There’s nothing wrong with it, why don't you be like that too? Otherwise, you become too insignificant!’

“Radhe, after hearing these arguments of mine, Mani answered me by saying,’Friend, when Radharani enjoys the pleasure of Krishna’s company, then I find the happiness I feel is greater than that which I could gain by doing anything for myself at all.’ Therefore, dear Radhe, I am completely convinced that her heart is entirely pure because despite all temptations and clever tricks on my part, she showed not the slightest urge for going for a meeting with Krishna.”

Sometimes Krishna also personally tries to seduce the manjaris and meets with similar failure. One day one of Radharani’s girlfriends was picking flowers for the purpose of making a garland. Sri Krishna chanced upon her at that time and immediately proposed to her, “O beautiful one, why not perfect your life by passing a few moments with me in this forest grove?' as well as saying many other sweet and enticing words. The bewildered girl put aside all her feminine tactics and arguments and very simply said to the Lord,

Govinda, I have only one desire:
to have the ever-greater intelligence
to be able to serve you and Radha
on the field of your ever-expanding, ecstatic romance
so that you experience newer and newer bliss;
for by such service, unlimited gopis have attained
the very limit of the fulfillment of their desires.
Therefore, oh Lord of Gokula, my mind
never becomes eager for your direct embrace;
it does not crave for such enjoyments,
please just engage me in that service.

Direct erotic union with the Lord is thought by many to be the ultimate object of the fulfillment of the gopis’ desires but the manjaris have no attraction for it. Visvanatha glosses the above-quoted gopis’ words: “Secretly watching your activities with Radharani in the forest groves seems to me to be hundreds of times more rapturous than direct intercourse with you.” When a higher happiness can be found in other ways, then what intelligent person will take up inferior ways of pleasure-seeking?

Everyone seeks happiness and naturally they most intensely crave those things which give them the most happiness. So therefore, the spontaneous craving of the manjaris is to be witness to the varieties of Radharani’s loving sports with Krishna. This craving is called manjari-bhava.

Srila Jiva Gosvamin has written a nice verse in his poetical work Madhava-mahotsava (“The spring festival”):

O sakhi! Kasturi has achieved, along with her associates, the fruit of her vow: she is completely averse to being personally embraced by Krishna himself and totally dedicated to the happiness of her friend Radha. Now today, here in the best of Hari’s forests, she sprinkles her with water (to celebrate the occasion of her coronation as Queen of Vrindavana.)

The manjaris are dedicated to the service of the Divine Couple, that service is their life and soul and such service performed after their union in exhausted intimacy is the highest object of their desires. Radha Mohan Das, the grandson of Srinivasa Acarya, has written a song which is appropriate to this situation:

When the lover and beloved
are exhausted after their erotic war,
they bring them condiments of betelnut;
sandalwood and saffron, musk and camphor,
they mix and smear upon their bodies;

How incomparably beautiful the love of these priya sakhis!
Radha is worth ten million lives to them;
Not equalled in purity by gold smelted thousands of times,
they offer her the lamps of their lives.

They place enchanting garlands around their necks;
they fan to give a cooling breeze;
they offer water, cold and fragrant,
drinking which the lovers’ thirst is pacified.

They massage their feet gently
and rid them of their fatigue.
The lovers signal them to take rest, and they all do so,
feeling that their every desire has been fulfilled.

Radha and Krishna close their eyes in slumber on the flower bed,
the manjaris, seeing them do so, feel the happiness
resulting from service executed well.
Radha Mohan Das, seeing all these things
is liberated from all mental pain.

Tomado de: Las Tipos de Sakhis

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