sábado, 10 de julio de 2010

Mahábharata



Mahábharata

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

El Mahābhārata (la gran narración de la guerra de los Bharatas) es la gran epopeya mitológica de la India.

Una de las 134 ilustraciones del Razmnama (Libro de las guerras, 1761-1763), traducción persa del Mahābhārata. El rey Akbar (1556-1605) ordenó a Naqib Khan que tradujera el texto hindú para mejorar las relaciones entre las dos culturas. En esta escena, el abuelo Bhishmá —todavía vivo semanas después del fin de la batalla de Kurukshetra— imparte sus últimas enseñanzas mientras agoniza (sobre el «lecho de flechas» con que su sobrino nieto Áryuna lo acribilló), rodeado por los cinco Pándavas (con ropas musulmanas) y Krishná (de piel azul). Abajo se ve un manantial de la madre Ganges, que Áryuna invocó para saciar la sed de Bhishmá.

En la actualidad la mayoría de los hindúes creen que narra hechos reales sucedidos entre el 3200 y el 3100 a. C. Dataciones más conservadoras lo ubican en el siglo VI a. C. (durante o poco después de la aparición del budismo).

Es un texto escrito en idioma sánscrito que se considera clave del hinduismo. Es el segundo trabajo literario más extenso del mundo (después de los Cuentos tibetanos de Gesar). El título puede ser traducido como ‘la gran India’, ya que bhārata es un patronímico que significa ‘lo que pertenece a Bharatá’, el rey que se cree habría fundado el reino de Bhárata-varsha (varshá: ‘país’); Bhārat es también el nombre oficial de la India en idioma hindi).

Dentro de la categorización de textos hindúes, el Mahābhārata forma parte de los Itijasa (iti-ja-āsa: ‘así-realmente-fue’, historias), que es el nombre que reciben los textos sánscritos no directamente filosóficos, junto con los Puraná (‘historias antiguas’) y el Rāmāiana.

La versión completa contiene más de 100 000 versos, siendo cuatro veces más extenso que la Biblia y ocho veces más largo que la Ilíada y la Odisea.

Contenido

[ocultar]

[editar] Significado primario

Con su enorme profundidad filosófica y grandeza pura, una consumada encarnación de la cultura de la India y la tradición védica, el alcance del Mahābhārata se resume mejor en una cita al principio de su primer parva (libro): «Lo que se encuentra aquí se puede encontrar en otros lugares. Pero lo que no se encuentra aquí, no se encontrará en ningún otro lugar».

El Mahābhārata es una historia de reyes, sabios, dioses y demonios. A través de él su mítico autor, Krishná Dwaipāiana Viāsa, apunta a instruir acerca de los cuatro objetivos de la vida: dharma (‘deber religioso’), artha (‘riqueza’), kāma (‘placer’) y mokṣa (‘salvación’, considerado por los hindúes como el objetivo último del alma). La mítica ley del karma (literalmente 'actividad': la ley de acción y reacción, y la consecuente reencarnación) desempeña un papel integral en la comprensión del Mahābhārata.

[editar] Historia del texto

[editar] El autor

No se conoce el autor del Mahábharata.

Según el propio texto, fue contado por Viasadeva, quien es uno de los principales personajes dinásticos dentro de ella (aunque no aparece muchas veces durante la historia). El sabio Viasa era abuelo de las dos dinastías protagonistas de la historia: los Kauravas y los Pándavas. Este parentesco le permitió conocer mucho acerca de los sucesos dentro de la familia real. Además él vivía en Kurukshetra, en un bosque muy cercano al campo de batalla (el centro de la historia), lo que le permitió conocer algunos detalles de la guerra que tuvo lugar ante sus ojos y finalmente componer la historia.

[editar] Viasa y Ganapati

El gran Señor Brahmā (el creador del universo) descendió y le dijo a Viasa que obtuviera ayuda de Ganapati (Ganeṣa) para su tarea [de poner por escrito el discurso]. Ganapati escribió los himnos recitados por Viasa de memoria y así el Bhārata fue inscrito. Ganapati no podía escribir a la velocidad de Viasa, por lo que varias palabras, o incluso versos enteros se perdieron.

Durante la época de Viasa, la escritura era desconocida o al menos un medio no convencional, o una tecnología demasiado nueva. Los sabios no sabrían escribir, porque consideraban que la escritura era apropiada para los mortales de la era de Kali, que tendrían poca memoria para recordar varios miles de versos.

Mapa con los lugares mencionados en el Mahābhārata. Los nombres amarillos representan los reinos, los anaranjados son reinos extranjeros (de ubicación especulada), los rosados son tribus exóticas, los ríos aparecen en azul, las montañas en violeta y los bosques en verde.

Los primeros textos que se preservaron son aproximadamente del año 500 de nuestra era, en letra indu y brahmi (los primeros tipos de letra con que se escribió el idioma sánscrito).

Al cotejar las historias contadas por diferentes recitadores profesionales, se notaban diferencias, que explicaban como fallas de Ganapati al poner el texto por escrito. De todos modos se cree que sufrió un mínimo de pérdida de información durante su existencia como recitación oral, debido a las excelentes técnicas de preservación empleadas por los antiguos hindúes. Los Vedas fueron los textos más preservados por tradición oral, incluso aunque son más antiguos que el Mahābhārata.

[editar] Otro mito de cómo se escribió

La primera sección del Mahābhārata afirma que el dios Ganesh (el dios con cabeza de elefante, hijo del dios Shivá) aceptó escribir el manuscrito bajo el dictado de Viasadev, sólo a condición de que éste nunca hiciera una pausa en su recitación. Viasa entonces puso otra condición: que antes de escribir Ganesh asimilara lo que Viasa recitaba. Entonces Viasa decía un verso difícil de entender para tener algún respiro en su continuo dictado. Cada verso sánscrito se puede leer en dos segundos aproximadamente, por lo que los 100.000 versos se pueden terminar en unas 56 horas.

Este mito también sirve como una explicación popular acerca de por qué la imagen de Ganesh tiene roto el colmillo izquierdo: en la prisa por escribir, falló la pluma del dios, entonces él rompió la punta de su colmillo y la usó como pluma (usando su sangre como tinta) a fin de que el dictado no se interrumpiese.

La dificultad que enfrentó Ganapati al escribir el Mahābhārata, como describe el mito, podría haber sido real, y podría haber sido el problema de las personas que trataban de poner por escrito las historias que recitaban los recitadores profesionales. Estos podrían no haber sido capaces de frenar el recitado y volver a empezar, ya que las líneas aprendidas de memoria como un recitado continuo.

Mapa escrito en sánscrito, con los lugares mencionados en el Mahābhārata.

El nombre Ganapati era usado para designar el líder de una república. En la antigua India había reinos (pequeñas zonas o provincias), dirigidos por rajas, y también había una especie de repúblicas dirigidas por líderes elegidos, o ganapatis. Por ejemplo, se cree que Kamboja y Dwaraka eran repúblicas.

El Ganapati que puso por escrito el Mahābhārata, probablemente era el líder de una de estas repúblicas, bien educado en el arte de la escritura. El uso del nombre Ganapati y Ganesha para el dios elefante de los hindúes, pudo haber sido un fenómeno posterior..

[editar] Yaia, de Viasa

Se cree que todas las historias del Mahábharata fueron compuestas a partir de varias historias transmitidas oralmente que generaron un trabajo —originalmente mucho más corto— llamado Yaia (Jaya: ‘victoria’).

Viasa habría compuesto solamente el corazón del Mahābhārata, de 25 000 versos. Tituló a su historia Yaia (‘victoria’).

Más tarde la historia creció a 100 000 versos, probablemente debido a la contribución de varios autores (incluidos varios discípulos de Viasa, como Vaisampaiana, Yaimini, Paila y Śuka. Ese texto se conoce como Bhārata.

En la fase final, el texto épico creció hasta más de 150 000 versos. Esto se debió a unas pocas generaciones de escritores como Ugrasrava Sauti, que contribuyeron anónimamente, atribuyendo sus contribuciones a Viasa. Es a esta fase final a la que se denomina Mahābhārata.

El texto Yaia de Viasa, el corazón del Mahābhārata, está estructurado en la forma de un diálogo entre Dhritarashtra (el rey Kuru padre de los Kauravas), quien se opuso a los Pándavas— hijos de su fallecido hermano Pandú— en la batalla de Kuru Kshetra) y su secretario y bienqueriente Sañyaia. Sañyaia narra cada incidente de la batalla de 18 días a medida que van sucediendo. Dhritarashtra a veces hace preguntas y a veces se lamenta, cuando se va enterando de la destrucción de cada uno de sus hijos, amigos y parientes. También se siente culpable debido a que su codicia fue la causante de la destrucción de todos los reinos del subcontinente indio.

Al principio Sanyaia da una descripción (100% mitológica) de los distintos continentes de la Tierra, de los distintos océanos (de agua salada, agua dulce, leche, mantequilla, sucesivamente) de otros planetas y sus habitantes, y luego se enfoca en Bhárata Varsha (la India) y da una elaborada lista de cientos de reinos, tribus, provincias, ciudades, pueblos, aldeas, ríos, montañas y bosques.

Intrincado bajorrelieve el templo Hoysaleśwara (en Halebid, India) que muestra la leyenda del Mahābhārata, donde el guerrero Abhimaniu (hijo de Áryuna) entra en el chakra-viuja.

También explica acerca de las formaciones militares (vyuha, pronunciado en español /viuja/) que cada día adopta cada uno de los dos ejércitos. Como en el juego piedra, papel y tijera, el ejército que adopta la formación adecuada, gana esa batalla: el ejército con forma de águila mata al que tiene forma de serpiente, etc.

Dieciocho capítulos de este texto Yaia de Viasa, forman el texto religioso Bhagavad-gītā.

[editar] Bhārata, de Vaisampayana

El desarrollo del texto Yaia hasta formar el Bhārata, probablemente fue obra de un discípulo de Viasa, Vaisampayana, junto con varios autores desconocidos. Es una narración de la historia de los reyes de la dinastía Bhārata, contada por Vaisampayana a Janameyaia, el biznieto de Áryuna, uno de los cinco hermanos Pāndava.

[editar] Mahābhārata, de UgraSravá Sauti

La fase final del trabajo de Viasa culmina en el Mahābhārata, que es una narración de Ugrasrava Sauti (un historiador profesional, ante la asamblea de sabios reunidos en el bosque Naimisha, dirigidos por Sháunaka Rishi. Dentro de la historia estaba el Bhārata original, y dentro de éste, el Yaia de Viasa.

[editar] Cronología del Mahābhārata

Las fechas de origen de estos libros nunca se describen en los mismos textos (en general los arios no tenían cronología ni historia en el sentido que la conocemos actualmente). Los investigadores han estudiado los contradictorios datos astronómicos: según las conjunciones planetarias y los eclipses descritos en el Mahābhārata las historias orales originales podrían haberse generado en el siglo VI a. C. (durante la aparición del budismo en India, o muy poco después), aunque hay otras teorías.

En la actualidad los hindúes respetan una tradición que dice que los dieciocho días de la batalla de Kuru-kshetra (literalmente 'el campo de los Kuru') sucedieron en febrero de 3102 a. C.

Como muchas de las principales literaturas del mundo, estas historias fueron transmitidas y transformadas por medios orales a través de las generaciones. Esto hizo fácil la aparición de episodios adicionales e historias interpoladas en el texto original. Esto también causó el desarrollo de variaciones regionales.

[editar] El Mahābhārata, la historia épica

La historia principal de este trabajo es de una lucha dinástica por el trono de la capital Hastināpura, el reino del clan Kuru. Hastinapura y los reinos inmediatamente circundantes estaban asentados en el Doab, la región del Ganges superior y el río Yamuna, al norte de la actual Nueva Delhi. Las dos ramas primas de la familia que participan en la lucha son los Kauravas (los hijos de Kuru, la rama mayor de la familia), y los Pāndavas (la rama más joven, formada por los hijos del rey Pandú (‘pálido’) quien era hermano de Dhrita-rāshtra e hijo de Viasa con la esposa de Vichitra-viria).

La lucha culmina en la gran batalla en Kurukshetra, de 18 días, que los Pāndavas ganan al final. El Mahābhārata termina con la muerte del dios Krishná, y el final de su dinastía, y el ascenso de los hermanos Pāndavas a un planeta celestial junto con los dioses Ese momento también marca el principio de la era de Kali (Kali yuga). Esta es la cuarta y última edad de la humanidad, donde los grandes valores y las ideas nobles que la humanidad representadas están desmoronadas, y los hombre se dirigen rápidamente hacia la disolución completa de la moralidad y la virtud en general.

[editar] Historias

Descripción corta de algunas personalidades e historias:

El rey Śantanu (padre de Bhishmá) se enamora de la virgen pescadora Satyavati (que ya había sido madre de Viasa).
  • Algunas de las figuras más nobles y reverenciadas de la historia terminan por luchar del lado de los Kurus, debido a lealtades formadas antes del conflicto.
  • Iudishtira es el mayor de los cinco hermanos Pāndavas, hijo de la reina Kuntí (esposa de Pandú) con Dharma-rāsh (el ‘rey de la religión’, también conocido como Iama rāsh, el ‘rey de la prohibición’). Iudishtira es comúnmente conocido en India como un modelo de integridad, ya que nunca había dicho una mentira en su vida y así había obtenido poderes místicos. Participó en una estratagema ideada para matar a Drona, el maestro de armas de los cinco Pāndavas. Mataron a un elefante con el mismo nombre que el hijo del maestro Drona. Entonces Iudishtira se acercó a su maestro y dijo: «Ashwattama (el elefante) ha muerto». Drona dejó caer sus armas y fue asesinado por los hermanos Pāndavas. En ese momento la cuadriga de Iudishtira —que debido a su virtud hasta ese momento había flotado a unos centímetros del piso (lo que llenaba de espanto al ejército enemigo)—, inmediatamente tocó tierra.
  • Bhima es uno de los cinco hermanos Pāndavas cuya fuerza, tamaño, y lealtad son legendarios.
  • Áryuna (cognado del latín argentum: ‘plateado’), hijo de Kuntí con el dios Indra, el mejor amigo del dios Krishná (quien finalmente le hace ganar la guerra de Kurukshetra por medios non-sanctos).
  • Nakula y Sahadeva son los hijos gemelos de Mādrī (la segunda esposa del rey Pandú) con los Ashwini-kumaras (los médicos de los dioses, Cástor y Pólux en la mitología griega)
  • Una de las historias más conmovedoras es la de Karna (‘oreja’), hijo de la reina Kuntí con Suria (el dios del sol), era un noble guerrero de quien nadie sabía que era el hermano mayor de los cinco Pāndavas. Sus inmensos poderes le fallaron durante la batalla porque él había mentido, algunos años antes, a su guru sobre quién era él.
  • El «abuelo» Bhishmá, el nobilísimo tío abuelo de todos los guerreros principales (que eran primos entre ellos). Él había renunciado a su reino y se había hecho célibe por el amor de su padre hacia una pescadora (Ella quiso que su hijo con el rey fuera el príncipe heredero, por lo que Bhisma tuvo que jurar no tener hijos toda su vida.) Por este acto de renuncia obtuvo la bendición de los dioses para elegir el momento de su muerte. Él terminó por morir sobre una cama de flechas puestas por Áryuna, su nieto más amado (quien le había preguntado la noche anterior cómo podía hacer para matarlo, ya que nunca podrían ganar la guerra en presencia del abuelo).
Simhika aparece en el texto (atta katha) malayo de la obra de teatro kathakali llamada Kirmira Vadham, de Kottayam Tampuran (siglo XVII). Presenta dos personajes que no aparecían en el Mahābhārata: un rakshasa llamado Sārddūla y su esposa la monstrua Simhika. Áryuna mata a Saardduula. Para vengarse, Simhika se transforma en una joven (lalita) —de vestido negro en este cuadro— y le quiere mostrar a Draupadi un templo de Durga en el bosque (para raptarla y llevársela a su hermano Kirmira). Draupadi sospecha la trampa y se niega. Simhika adopta su forma original y arrastra a Draupadi. Al escuchar sus gritos, Sahadeva viene y le corta la nariz y los pechos a la demonia. Kirmira y Bhima llegan a la escena y Bhima mata a Kirmira.

Véase también: Draupadī.

[editar] Estructura

El Mahābhārata está escrito en dieciocho parvas (libros) que son:

  1. Ādi-parva (ādi: 'primero'): historias introductorias del libro, nacimiento y educación de los cinco príncipes Pāndavas.
  2. Sabha-parva: la vida en la casa de los Pāndavas, el juego de dados con su malvado primo Duriódhana (el hijo de Dhrita-rāshtra), que provoca el exilio de los Pāndavas al desierto. El dios Indra (padre de Áryuna) crea y les regala una ciudad vergel, Indraprastha, donde el dánava Maia (uno de los 40 hijos demonios de Dana y el sabio Kashiapa) erige el palacio y el tribunal (sabha) de los Pāndavas.
  3. Aranyaka-parva (también Aranya-parva o Vana-parva, siendo aranya o vana: ‘bosque’): los doce años en exilio en el bosque.
  4. Virata-parva: el año de exilio en el reino de Virata (Áryuna se transforma en eunuco).
  5. Udyoga-parva: Preparativos para la guerra.
  6. Bhishma-parva: la primera parte de la gran batalla, con el «abuelo virgen» Bhishma como comandante de los Kauravas.
  7. Drona-parva: sigue la batalla, con Drona como comandante.
  8. Karna-parva: la batalla otra vez, con Karna como comandante.
  9. Salya-parva: la última parte de la batalla, con Śalya como comandante.
  10. Sauptika-parva: cómo el ejército Pāndava es destruido durante el sueño (suapná-hipnós) por Ashwattama (el vengativo hijo del maestro Drona) y los pocos Kauravas sobrevivientes.
  11. Stri-parva (stri: ‘mujer’): Gandhari y las otras mujeres lamentan los muertos.
  12. Shanti-parva (śanti: ‘paz’): la coronación de Iudishtira, y las instrucciones de Bhishma.
  13. Anushasana-parva (anushasana: ‘instrucción’): las instrucciones finales de Bhishma.
  14. Ashvamedhika-parva: la ceremonia imperial o ashwa-medha (‘el sacrificio de un caballo o ashua’) conducida por Iudishtira.
  15. Áshrama-vásika-parva: Dhritarashtra (el senescal del rey Pandú), su esposa Gandhari y la reina Kuntí (madre de los Pāndavas y de Karna) se aíslan en un áshram en el bosque hasta morir.
  16. Mausala-parva: la matanza cuerpo a cuerpo con mazas (mausala) entre los Yádavas (los 16.100 hijos del rey-dios Krishná) embriagados en una fiesta a orillas del mar.
  17. Majā-prasthānika-parva: Iudishtira y sus hermanos caminan hacia los Himalayas hasta morir (mahā-prasthāna: ‘el gran viaje’, eufemismo de la muerte).
  18. Svarga-arohana-parva (swarga: ‘cielo’): los Pāndavas ascienden al paraíso material.

También existe un apéndice de 16.375 versos, el Hari-vamsa (‘la familia de Harí’ [otro nombre del dios Krishná]).

Entre el principal trabajo y las historias que son parte del Mahābhārata están las siguientes. A menudo se las aísla y se presentan como trabajos completos en sí mismos.

Ilustración manuscrita de la batalla de Kurukshetra, en la que se ve al dios Krishná manejando la cuadriga del arquero pándava Áryuna, que dispara sus flechas contra los malvados Kauravas.

Durante el siglo XX, los eruditos han usado las copias existentes más antiguas de este trabajo en sus variaciones regionales, para desarrollar un trabajo de referencia conocido como la Edición crítica del Mahābhārata. Este proyecto fue completado en 1966 en el Instituto de Investigación Oriental Bhandarkar (Pune, India).

[editar] Mahābhārata moderno

El Mahābhārata afirma contener la esencia y la suma de todo el Vedas y otras escrituras hindúes. Esto incluye realmente grandes cantidades de la mitología hindú, historias cosmológicas de dioses y diosas, y parábolas filosóficas apuntadas a estudiantes de la filosofía hindú. Las historias son comúnmente contadas a niños, en funciones religiosas, o alrededor del hogar. A aquellos que no lo leen, el Mahābhārata los amenaza con que nunca cumplirán sus búsquedas espirituales y de yoga.

A finales de los años ochenta, el Mahābhārata fue televisado y mostrado por la TV nacional de India (Doordarshan). Era enormemente popular, tanto que las calles quedaron vacías cuando se hizo la transmisión y hasta las reuniones de gabinete fueron cambiadas de horario para que los ministros pudieran mirarlo.

[editar] Véase también

[editar] Bibliografía

[editar] Enlaces externos


Mahabharata

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Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
Krishna, Arjuna at Kurukshetra, 18-19th century painting.

The Mahabharata (Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. The epic is part of the Hindu itihāsa (or "history").

Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161). The latter are enumerated as dharma (right action), artha (purpose), kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation). Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.

Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The earliest parts of the text are not appreciably older than around 400 BCE.[1] The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. 4th c. CE).[2] The title may be translated as "the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty". According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata.[3]

With about one hundred thousand verses, long prose passages, or about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa.[4][5]

Contents

[hide]

Textual history and structure

Vyasa narrating the Mahabharata to Ganesha, his scribe, Angkor Wat.

The epic is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, who is also a major character in the epic. The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who, at the request of Vyasa, wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation. Vyasa agreed, provided Ganesha took the time to understand what was said before writing it down.

The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and secular works. It is recited to the King Janamejaya who is the great-grandson of Arjuna, by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa. The recitation of Vaisampayana to Janamejaya is then recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugrasrava Sauti, many years later, to an assemblage of sages performing the 12 year long sacrifice for King Saunaka Kulapati in the Naimisha forest.

Accretion and redaction

Research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating various layers within the text. The background to the Mahabharata suggests a time "after the very early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian 'empire' was to rise in the third century B.C.," so "a date not too far removed from the eighth or ninth century B.C."[6] It is generally agreed, however, that "Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would inevitably conform to changes in language and style."[6] The earliest surviving components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest external references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini's fourth century BCE grammar (Ashtādhyāyī 4:2:56).[1][6] It is estimated that the Sanskrit text probably reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period (about the 4th century CE).[6] Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahabharata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a literally original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum. What then is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available."[7] That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is very extensive.

The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses, the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are commonly recognized: Jaya (Victory) with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyasa, Bharata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaisampayana, and finally the Mahabharata as recited by Ugrasrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses.[8][9] However, some scholars such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, and ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Adiparvan (1.1.81).[10] The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18[11] and 12. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anushasana-parva and "Virat-parva" from MS Spitzer, the oldest surviving Sanskrit philosophical manuscript dated to Kushan Period (200 CE),[12] that contains among other things a list of the books in the Mahabharata. From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the first century. An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time. The division into 100 sub-parvas (mentioned in Mbh. 1.2.70) is older, and most parvas are named after one of their constituent sub-parvas. The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix (khila) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.[citation needed]

According to what one character says at Mbh. 1.1.50, there were three versions of the epic, beginning with Manu (1.1.27), Astika (1.3, sub-parva 5) or Vasu (1.57), respectively. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues. The Vasu version would omit the frame settings and begin with the account of the birth of Vyasa. The astika version would add the sarpasattra and ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, introduce the name Mahabharata, and identify Vyasa as the work's author. The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction. Mention of the Huna in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century[citation needed].

The snake sacrifice of Janamejaya

The Adi-parva includes the snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence. This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have a particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana) literature. The Panchavimsha Brahmana (at 25.15.3) enumerates the officiant priests of a sarpasattra among whom the names Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, as well as Takshaka, the name of a snake in the Mahabharata, occur.[13]

The state of the text has been described by some early 20th century Indologists as unstructured and chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force", but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos."[14] The judgement of other early 20th century Indologists was even less favourable. Moritz Winternitz (Geschichte der indischen Literatur 1909) considered that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the various parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole.

Historical references

The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date back to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl. 4th century BCE), and in the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4). This may suggest that the core 24,000 verses, known as the Bharata, as well as an early version of the extended Mahabharata, were composed by the 4th century BCE.

A report by the Greek writer Dio Chrysostom (ca. 40-ca. 120 CE) about Homer's poetry being sung even in India[15] seems to imply that the Iliad had been translated into Sanskrit. However, scholars have, in general, taken this as evidence for the existence of a Mahabharata at this date, whose episodes Dio or his sources syncretistically identify with the story of the Iliad.[16]

Mahabharata has enjoyed references on a continuous basis both in literary and popular culture of India, since ancient times. Several stories within the Mahabharata have been debated so intensely that they have taken separate identities of their own. For instance, Abhijñānashākuntala by the renowned Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa (ca. 400 CE), believed to have lived in the era of the Gupta dynasty, is based on a story that is the precursor to the Mahabharata. Urubhanga, a Sanskrit play written by Bhāsa who is believed to have lived before Kālidāsa, is based on the slaying of Duryodhana by the splitting of his thighs by Bhima.

Later, the copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533-534 CE) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) describes the Mahabharata as a "collection of 100,000 verses" (shatasahasri samhita).

The 18 parvas

The division into 18 parvas is as follows:

Parva title sub-parvas contents
1 Adi Parva (The Book of the Beginning) 1-19 How the Mahabharata came to be narrated by Sauti to the assembled rishis at Naimisharanya. The recital of the Mahabharata at the sarpasattra of Janamejaya by Vaishampayana at Takṣaśilā. The history of the Bharata race is told in detail and the parva also traces history of the Bhrigu race. The birth and early life of the Kuru princes. (adi means first)
2 Sabha Parva (The Book of the Assembly Hall) 20-28 Maya Danava erects the palace and court (sabha), at Indraprastha. Life at the court, Yudhishthira's Rajasuya Yajna, the game of dice, and the eventual exile of the Pandavas.
3 Vana Parva also Aranyaka-parva, Aranya-parva (The Book of the Forest) 29-44 The twelve years of exile in the forest (aranya).
4 Virata Parva (The Book of Virata) 45-48 The year in incognito spent at the court of Virata.
5 Udyoga Parva (The Book of the Effort) 49-59 Preparations for war and efforts to bring about peace between the Kurus and the Pandavas which eventually fail (udyoga means effort or work).
6 Bhishma Parva (The Book of Bhishma) 60-64 The first part of the great battle, with Bhishma as commander for the Kauravas and his fall on the bed of arrows.
7 Drona Parva (The Book of Drona) 65-72 The battle continues, with Drona as commander. This is the major book of the war. Most of the great warriors on both sides are dead by the end of this book.
8 Karna Parva (The Book of Karna) 73 The battle again, with Karna as commander.
9 Shalya Parva (The Book of Shalya) 74-77 The last day of the battle, with Shalya as commander. Also told in detail is the pilgrimage of Balarama to the fords of the river Saraswati and the mace fight between Bhima and Duryodhana which ends the war, since Bhima kills Duryodhana by smashing him on the thighs with a mace.
10 Sauptika Parva (The Book of the Sleeping Warriors) 78-80 Ashvattama, Kripa and Kritavarma kill the remaining Pandava army in their sleep. Only 7 warriors remain on the Pandava side and 3 on the Kaurava side.
11 Stri Parva (The Book of the Women) 81-85 Gandhari, Kunti and the women (stri) of the Kurus and Pandavas lament the dead.
12 Shanti Parva (The Book of Peace) 86-88 The crowning of Yudhisthira as king of Hastinapura, and instructions from Bhishma for the newly anointed king on society, economics and politics. This is the longest book of the Mahabharata (shanti means peace).
13 Anushasana Parva (The Book of the Instructions) 89-90 The final instructions (anushasana) from Bhishma.
14 Ashvamedhika Parva (The Book of the Horse Sacrifice)[17] 91-92 The royal ceremony of the Ashvamedha (Horse sacrifice) conducted by Yudhisthira. The world conquest by Arjuna. The Anugita is told by Krishna to Arjuna.
15 Ashramavasika Parva (The Book of the Hermitage) 93-95 The eventual deaths of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a forest fire when they are living in a hermitage in the Himalayas. Vidura predeceases them and Sanjaya on Dhritarashtra's bidding goes to live in the higher Himalayas.
16 Mausala Parva (The Book of the Clubs) 96 The infighting between the Yadavas with maces (mausala) and the eventual destruction of the Yadavas.
17 Mahaprasthanika Parva (The Book of the Great Journey) 97 The great journey of Yudhisthira and his brothers across the whole country and finally their ascent of the great Himalayas where each Pandava falls except for Yudhisthira.
18 Svargarohana Parva (The Book of the Ascent to Heaven) 98 Yudhisthira's final test and the return of the Pandavas to the spiritual world (svarga).
khila Harivamsa Parva (The Book of the Genealogy of Hari) 99-100 Life of Krishna which is not covered in the 18 parvas of the Mahabharata.

Historical context

English language map of "Bharatvarsha" (Kingdom of India) during the era of the Mahabharata and Ramayana.

The historicity of the Kurukshetra War is unclear. Some historians like A L Basham estimate the date of the Kurukshetra war to Iron Age India of the 10th century BCE.[18]

Other historians like M Witzel have corroborated that the general setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Iron Age (Vedic) India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power during roughly 1200 to 800 BCE.[19] A dynastic conflict of the period could have been the inspiration for the Jaya, the foundation on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, with a climactic battle eventually coming to be viewed as an epochal event.

Puranic literature presents genealogical lists associated with the Mahabharata narrative. The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds. Of the first kind, there is the direct statement that there were 1015 (or 1050) years between the birth of Parikshit (Arjuna's grandson) and the accession of Mahapadma Nanda, commonly dated to 382 BCE, which would yield an estimate of about 1400 BCE for the Bharata battle.[20] However, this would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies.[21] Of the second kind are analyses of parallel genealogies in the Puranas between the times of Adhisimakrishna (Parikshit's great-grandson) and Mahapadma Nanda. Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging 10 different dynastic lists and, assuming 18 years for the average duration of a reign, arrived at an estimate of 850 BCE for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 BCE for the Bharata battle.[22]

B. B. Lal used the same approach with a more conservative assumption of the average reign to estimate a date of 836 BCE, and correlated this with archaeological evidence from Painted Grey Ware sites, the association being strong between PGW artifacts and places mentioned in the epic.[23]

Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid 2nd millennium BCE.[24] The late 4th millennium date has a precedent in the calculation of the Kaliyuga epoch, based on planetary conjunctions, by Aryabhata (6th century). His date of February 18 3102 BCE has become widespread in Indian tradition (for example, the Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 CE, claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle.[25]) Another traditional school of astronomers and historians, represented by Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira (author of the Brhatsamhita) and Kalhana (author of the Rajatarangini), place the Bharata war 653 years after the Kaliyuga epoch, corresponding to 2449 BCE.[26]

Synopsis

The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava and the Pandava. Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family, Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, is younger than Yudhisthira, the eldest Pandava. Both Duryodhana and Yudhisthira claim to be first in line to inherit the throne.

The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship, instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right, as well as the converse.

The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali (Kali Yuga), the fourth and final age of mankind, in which great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue.

Arshia Sattar states that the central theme of the Mahabharata, as well as the Ramayana, is respectively Krishna's and Rama's hidden divinity and its progressive revelation.[27]

The older generations

Shantanu woos Satyavati, the fisherwoman. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma.
Bhishma's Oath, a painting
by Raja Ravi Varma

Janamejaya's ancestor Shantanu, the king of Hastinapura, has a short-lived marriage with the goddess Ganga and has a son, Devavrata (later to be called Bhishma), who becomes the heir apparent. Many years later, when King Shantanu goes hunting, he sees Satyavati, the daughter of a fisherman, and asks her father for her hand. Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death. To resolve his father's dilemma, Devavrata agrees to relinquish his right to the throne. As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise.

Shantanu has two sons by Satyavati, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king. He lives a very short uneventful life and dies. Vichitravirya, the younger son, rules Hastinapura. Meanwhile, the King of Kāśī arranges a swayamvara for his three daughters, neglecting to invite the royal family of Hastinapur. In order to arrange the marriage of young Vichitravirya, Bhishma attends the swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika, uninvited, and proceeds to abduct them. Ambika and Ambalika consent to be married to Vichtravirya.

The oldest princess Amba, however, informs Bhishma that she wishes to marry Shalvaraj (king of Shalva) whom Bhishma defeated at their swayamvar. Bhishma lets her leave to marry Shalvaraj, but Shalvaraj refuses to marry her, still smarting at his humiliation at the hands of Bhishma. Amba then returns to marry Bhishma but he refuses due to his vow of celibacy. Amba becomes enraged and becomes Bhishma's bitter enemy, holding him responsible for her plight. Later she is reborn to King Drupada as Shikhandi (or Shikhandini) and causes Bhishma's fall, with the help of Arjuna, in the battle of Kurukshetra.

The Pandava and Kaurava princes

When Vichitravirya dies young without any heirs, Satyavati asks her first son Vyasa to father children with the widows. The eldest, Ambika, shuts her eyes when she sees him, and so her son Dhritarashtra is born blind. Ambalika turns pale and bloodless upon seeing him, and thus her son Pandu is born pale and unhealthy (the term Pandu may also mean 'jaundiced'[28]). Due to the physical challenges of the first two children, Satyavati asks Vyasa to try once again. However, Ambika and Ambalika send their maid instead, to Vyasa's room. Vyasa fathers a third son, Vidura, by the maid. He is born healthy and grows up to be one of the wisest characters in the Mahabharata. He serves as Prime Minister (Mahamantri or Mahatma) to King Pandu and King Dhritarashtra.

When the princes grow up, Dhritarashtra is about to be crowned king by Bhishma when Vidura intervenes and uses his knowledge of politics to assert that a blind person cannot be king. This is because a blind man cannot control and protect his subjects. The throne is then given to Pandu because of Dhritarashtra's blindness. Pandu marries twice, to Kunti and Madri. Dhritarashtra marries Gandhari, a princess from Gandhara, who blindfolds herself so that she may feel the pain that her husband feels. Her brother Shakuni is enraged by this and vows to take revenge on the Kuru family. One day, when Pandu is relaxing in the forest, he hears the sound of a wild animal. He shoots an arrow in the direction of the sound. However the arrow hits the sage Kindama, who curses him that if he engages in a sexual act, he will die. Pandu then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother Dhritarashtra rules thereafter, despite his blindness.

The central figure is Yudhishthira; the two to his left are Bhima and Arjuna. Nakula and Sahadeva, the twins, are to his right. Their wife, at far right, is Draupadi. Deogarh, Dasavatar temple.

Pandu's older queen Kunti, however, had been given a boon by Sage Durvasa that she could invoke any god using a special mantra. Kunti uses this boon to ask Dharma the god of justice, Vayu the god of the wind, and Indra the lord of the heavens for sons. She gives birth to three sons, Yudhisthira, Bhima, and Arjuna, through these gods. Kunti shares her mantra with the younger queen Madri, who bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva through the Ashwini twins. However, Pandu and Madri indulge in sex, and Pandu dies. Madri dies on his funeral pyre out of remorse. Kunti raises the five brothers, who are from then on usually referred to as the Pandava brothers.

Dhritarashtra has a hundred sons through Gandhari, all born after the birth of Yudhishtira. These are the Kaurava brothers, the eldest being Duryodhana, and the second Dushasana. Other Kaurava brothers were Vikarna and Sukarna. The rivalry and enmity between them and the Pandava brothers, from their youth and into manhood, leads to the Kurukshetra war.

Lākṣagṛha (The House of Lac)

After the deaths of their mother (Madri) and father (Pandu), the Pandavas and their mother Kunti return to the palace of Hastinapur. Yudhisthira is made Crown Prince by Dhritarashtra, under considerable pressure from his kingdom. Dhritarashtra wanted his own son Duryodhana to become king and lets his ambition get in the way of preserving justice.

Shakuni, Duryodhana and Dusasana plot to get rid of the Pandavas. Shakuni calls the architect Purvanchan to build a palace out of flammable materials like lac and ghee. He then arranges for the Pandavas and the Queen Mother Kunti to stay there, with the intention of setting it alight. However, the Pandavas are warned by their wise uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel. They are able to escape to safety and go into hiding. Back at Hastinapur, the Pandavas and Kunti are presumed dead.[29]

Marriage to Draupadi

Arjuna piercing the eye of the fish

During the course of their hiding the Pandavas learn of a swayamvara which is taking place for the hand of the Pāñcāla princess Draupadī. The Pandavas enter the competition in disguise as Brahmins. The task is to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a target on the ceiling, which is the eye of a moving artificial fish, while looking at its reflection in oil below. Most of the princes fail, many being unable to lift the bow. Arjuna succeeds however. The Pandavas return home and inform their mother that Arjuna has won a competition and to look at what they have brought back. Without looking, Kunti asks them to share whatever it is Arjuna has won among themselves. Thus Draupadi ends up being the wife of all five brothers.

Indraprastha

After the wedding, the Pandava brothers are invited back to Hastinapura. The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory. Yudhishtira has a new capital built for this territory at Indraprastha. Neither the Pandava nor Kaurava sides are happy with the arrangement however.

Shortly after this, Arjuna elopes with and then marries Krishna's sister, Subhadra. Yudhishtira wishes to establish his position as king; he seeks Krishna's advice. Krishna advises him, and after due preparation and the elimination of some opposition, Yudhishthira carries out the rājasūya yagna ceremony; he is thus recognised as pre-eminent among kings.

The Pandavas have a new palace built for them, by Maya the Danava.[30] They invite their Kaurava cousins to Indraprastha. Duryodhana walks round the palace, and mistakes a glossy floor for water, and will not step in. After being told of his error, he then sees a pond, and assumes it is not water and falls in. Draupadi laughs at him and ridicules him by saying that this is because of his blind father Dhritrashtra. He then decides to avenge his humiliation.

The dice game

Draupadi humiliated. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma.

Shakuni, Duryodhana's uncle, now arranges a dice game, playing against Yudhishtira with loaded dice. Yudhishtira loses all his wealth, then his kingdom. He then even gambles his brothers, himself, and finally his wife into servitude. The jubilant Kauravas insult the Pandavas in their helpless state and even try to disrobe Draupadi in front of the entire court, but her honour is saved by Krishna who miraculously creates lengths of cloth to replace the ones being removed.

Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and the other elders are aghast at the situation, but Duryodhana is adamant that there is no place for two crown princes in Hastinapura. Against his wishes Dhritarashtra orders for another dice game. The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 12 years, and in the 13th year must remain hidden. If discovered by the Kauravas, they will be forced into exile for another 12 years.

Exile and return

The Pandavas spend thirteen years in exile; many adventures occur during this time. They also prepare alliances for a possible future conflict. They spend their final year in disguise in the court of Virata, and are discovered just after the end of the year.

At the end of their exile, they try to negotiate a return to Indraprastha. However, this fails, as Duryodhana objects that they were discovered while in hiding, and that no return of their kingdom was agreed. War becomes inevitable.

The battle at Kurukshetra

Bhishma on his death-bed of arrows with the Pandavas and Krishna. Folio from the Razmnama (1761 - 1763), Persian translation of the Mahabharata, commissioned by Mughal emperor Akbar. The Pandavas are dressed in Persian armour and robes.[31]

The two sides summon vast armies to their help, and line up at Kurukshetra for a war. The Kingdoms of Panchala, Dwaraka, Kasi, Kekaya, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandya, Telinga, and the Yadus of Mathura and some other clans like the Parama Kambojas were allied with the Pandavas. The allies of the Kauravas included the kings of Pragjyotisha, Anga, Kekaya, Sindhudesa (including Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis), Mahishmati, Avanti in Madhyadesa, Madra, Gandhara, Bahlikas, Kambojas and many others. Prior to war being declared, Balarama, had expressed his unhappiness at the developing conflict, and left to go on pilgrimage, thus he does not take part in the battle itself. Krishna takes part in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna.

Before the battle, Arjuna, seeing himself facing his great grandfather Bhishma and his teacher Drona on the other side, has doubts about the battle and he fails to lift his Gāndeeva bow. Krishna wakes him up to his call of duty in the famous Bhagavad Gita section of the epic.

Though initially sticking to chivalrous notions of warfare, both sides soon adopt dishonourable tactics. At the end of the 18-day battle, only the Pandavas, Satyaki, Kripa, Ashwathama, Kritavarma, Yuyutsu and Krishna survive.

The end of the Pandavas

After "seeing" the carnage, Gandhari who had lost all her sons, curses Krishna to be a witness to a similar annihilation of his family, for though divine and capable of stopping the war, he had not done so. Krishna accepts the curse, which bears fruit 36 years later.

The Pandavas who had ruled their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything. Clad in skins and rags they retire to the Himalaya and climb towards heaven in their bodily form. A stray dog travels with them. One by one the brothers and Draupadi fall on their way. As each one stumbles, Yudhishitra gives the rest the reason for their fall (Draupadi was partial to Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva were vain and proud of their looks, Bhima and Arjuna were proud of their strength and archery skills, respectively). Only the virtuous Yudhisthira, who had tried everything to prevent the carnage, and the dog remain. The dog reveals himself to be the god Yama (also known as Yama Dharmaraja), and then takes him to the underworld where he sees his siblings and wife. After explaining the nature of the test, Yama takes Yudhishthira back to heaven and explains that it was necessary to expose him to the underworld because (Rajyante narakam dhruvam) any ruler has to visit the underworld at least once. Yama then assures him that his siblings and wife would join him in heaven after they had been exposed to the underworld for measures of time according to their vices.

Arjuna's grandson Parikshit rules after them and dies bitten by a snake. His furious son, Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) in order to destroy the snakes. It is at this sacrifice that the tale of his ancestors is narrated to him.

Versions, translations, and derivative works

Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. These include some versions from outside the Indian subcontinent, such as the Kakawin Bharatayuddha from Java. The plays of the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu, use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata, focusing on Draupadi.[32]

Critical Edition

Between 1919 and 1966, scholars at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared the various manuscripts of the epic from India and abroad and produced the Critical Edition of the Mahabharata, on 13,000 pages in 19 volumes, followed by the Harivamsha in another two volumes and six index volumes. This is the text that is usually used in current Mahabharata studies for reference.[33] This work is sometimes called the 'Pune' or 'Poona' edition of the Mahabharata.

Modern interpretations

Krishna as depicted in Yakshagana from Karnataka which is based largely on stories of Mahabharata

The Tamil writer S. Ramakrishnan has written a critically acclaimed book based on the Mahabharata called "Uba Paandavam". It discusses the story in a non-linear manner from a traveller's point of view.

The Kannada novelist S.L. Bhyrappa wrote a novel in Kannada (now translated into most Indian languages and English) titled Parva, giving a new interpretation to the story of Mahabharata. He tried to understand the social and ethical practices in these regions and correlate them with the story of Mahabharata.

Malayalam writer M. T. Vasudevan Nair's novel Randamoozham (English: Second Turn) tells the Mahabharata from Bhima's point of view. Mrityunjay (English: Triumph Over Death) written by Shivaji Sawant is a novel with Karna as the central character of Mahabharata.

In Indian cinema, several film versions of the epic exist, dating back to 1920.[34] The internationally acclaimed parallel Bengali film director Satyajit Ray also intended to direct a theatrical adaptation of the epic, but the project was never realized.[35]

In the late 1980s, the Mahabharat TV series, directed by Ravi Chopra,[36] was televised and shown on India's national television (Doordarshan). In the Western world, a well-known presentation of the epic is Peter Brook's nine-hour play, which premiered in Avignon in 1985, and its five-hour movie version The Mahabharata (1989).[37]

Among literary reinterpretations of the Mahabharata is Shashi Tharoor's major work entitled The Great Indian Novel, an involved literary, philosophical, and political novel which superimposes the major moments of post-independence India in the 20th century onto the driving events of the Mahabharata epic.

Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by Shyam Benegal in Kalyug. Kalyug is a modern-day replaying of the Mahabharata.[38]

Western interpretations of the Mahabharata include William Buck's Mahabharata and Elizabeth Seeger's Five Sons of King Pandu.

English translations

The first complete English translation was the Victorian prose version by Kisari Mohan Ganguli,[39] published between 1883 and 1896 (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) and by M. N. Dutt (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers). Most critics consider the translation by Ganguli to be faithful to the original text. The complete text of Ganguli's translation is in the public domain and is available online.[40]

Another English prose translation of the full epic, based on the Critical Edition, is also in progress, published by University Of Chicago Press, initiated by Chicago Indologist J. A. B. van Buitenen (books 1-5) and, following a 20-year hiatus caused by the death of van Buitenen, is being continued by D. Gitomer of DePaul University (book 6), J. L. Fitzgerald of Brown University (books 11-13) and Wendy Doniger of the University of Chicago (books 14-18).

A poetic "transcreation" (author's own description) of the full epic into English, done by the poet P. Lal is complete, and in 2005 began being published by Writers Workshop, Calcutta. The P. Lal translation is a non-rhyming verse-by-verse rendering, and is the only edition in any language to include all slokas in all recensions of the work (not just those in the Critical Edition). The completion of the publishing project is scheduled for 2010. Sixteen of the eighteen volumes are now available.

A project to translate the full epic into English prose, translated by various hands, began to appear in 2005 from the Clay Sanskrit Library, published by New York University Press. The translation is based not on the Critical Edition but on the version known to the commentator Nīlakaṇṭha. Currently available are 15 volumes of the projected 32-volume edition.

Indian economist Bibek Debroy has also begun an unabridged English translation in ten volumes. Volume 1: Adi Parva was published in March 2010.

Abridged versions

Many condensed versions, abridgements and novelistic prose retellings of the complete epic have been published in English, including work by William Buck, R.K. Narayan, C. Rajagopalachari, Krishna Dharma, Romesh C. Dutt, and Bharadvaja Sarma.

A Kawi version is found on the Indonesian island of Bali and was translated by Dr. I. Gusti Putu Phalgunadi. Of the eighteen parvas, only eight Kawi manuscripts remain.

Jain version

Depiction of wedding procession of Lord Neminatha. The enclosure shows the animals that are to be slaughtered for food for weddings. Overcome with Compassion for animals, Neminatha refused to marry and renounced his kingdom to become a Shramana

Jain version of Mahabharata can be found in the various Jain texts like Harivamsapurana (the story of Harivamsa) Trisastisalakapurusa Caritra (Hagiography of 63 Illustrious persons), Pandavacaritra (lives of Pandavas) and Pandavapurana (stories of Pandavas).[41] From the earlier canonical literature, Antakrddaaśāh (8th cannon) and Vrisnidasa (upangagama or secondary canon) contain the stories of Neminatha (22nd Tirthankara), Krishna and Balarama.[42] Prof. Padmanabh Jaini notes that, unlike in the Hindu Puranas, the names Baladeva and Vasudeva are not restricted to Balarama and Krishna in Jain puranas. Instead they serve as names of two distinct class of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half of time cycles of the Jain cosmology and rule the half the earth as half-chakravartins. Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the Jinacharitra by Bhadrabahu swami (3-4 century BCE).[43] According to Jain cosmology Balarama, Krishna and Jarasandha are the ninth and the last set of Baladeva, Vasudeva, and Partivasudeva.[44] The main battle is not the Mahabharata, but the fight between Krishna and Jarasandha who is killed by Krishna. Ultimately, the Pandavas and Balarama take renunciation as Jain monks and are reborn in heavens, while on the other hand Krishna and Jarasandha are reborn in hell.[45] In keeping with the law of karma, Krishna is reborn in hell for his exploits (sexual and violent) while Jarasandha for his evil ways. Jaini admits a possibility that perhaps because of his popularity, the Jain authors were keen to rehabilitate Krishna. The Jain texts predict that after his karmic term in hell is over sometime during the next half time-cycle, Krishna will be reborn as a Jain Tirthankara and attain liberation.[46] Krishna and Balrama are shown as contemporaries and cousins of 22nd Tirthankara, Neminatha.[47] According to this story, Krishna arranged young Neminath’s marriage with Rajamati, the daughter of Ugrasena, but Neminatha, empathizing with the animals which were to be slaughtered for the marriage feast, left the procession suddenly and renounced the world.[48]

Kuru family tree


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_aeFcQ2Gana0/TH-AXoFqSpI/AAAAAAAAGgA/SBhKoVLpv0Y/s1600/Kuru+Family+Tree.JPG

Key to Symbols

Notes

The birth order of siblings is correctly shown in the family tree (from left to right), except for Vyasa and Bhishma whose birth order is not described, and Vichitravirya who was born after them. The fact that Ambika and Ambalika are sisters is not shown in the family tree. The birth of Duryodhana took place after the birth of Karna, Yudhishtira and Bhima, but before the birth of the remaining Pandava brothers.

Some siblings of the characters shown here have been left out for clarity; these include Chitrangada, the eldest brother of Vichitravirya. Vidura, half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu.

Cultural influence

In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic[49] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu philosophy and a practical, self-contained guide to life.[50] In modern times, Swami Vivekananda, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi and many others used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement.[51][52]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Brockington (1998, p. 26)
  2. ^ Van Buitenen; The Mahabharata - 1; The Book of the Beginning. Introduction (Authorship and Date)
  3. ^ bhārata means the progeny of Bharata, the legendary king who is claimed to have founded the Bhāratavarsha kingdom.
  4. ^ Spodek, Howard. Richard Mason. The World's History. Pearson Education: 2006, New Jersey. 224, 0-13-177318-6
  5. ^ Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian. Writings on Indian Culture, History and Identity, London: Penguin Books, 2005.
  6. ^ a b c d Buitenen (1973) pp. xxiv-xxv
  7. ^ Sukthankar (1933) "Prolegomena" p. lxxxvi. Emphasis is original.
  8. ^ Gupta & Ramachandran (1976), citing Mahabharata, Critical Edition, I, 56, 33
  9. ^ SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4, citing Vaidya (1967), p.11
  10. ^ Brockington, J. L. (1998). The Sanskrit epics, Part 2. Volume 12. BRILL. p. 21. ISBN 9004102604. http://books.google.com/?id=HR-_LK5kl18C&pg=PA21.
  11. ^ 18 books, 18 chapters of the Bhagavadgita and the Narayaniya each, corresponding to the 18 days of the battle and the 18 armies (Mbh. 5.152.23)
  12. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/596517
  13. ^ J.A.B. van Buitenen, Mahābhārata, Volume 1, p.445, citing W. Caland, The Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, p.640-2
  14. ^ Hermann Oldenberg, Das Mahabharata: seine Entstehung, sein Inhalt, seine Form, Göttingen, 1922,[page needed]
  15. ^ Dio Chrysostom, 53.6-7, trans. H. Lamar Crosby, Loeb Classical Library, 1946, vol. 4, p. 363.
  16. ^ Christian Lassen, in his Indische Alterthumskunde, supposed that the reference is ultimately to Dhritarashtra's sorrows, the laments of Gandhari and Draupadi, and the valor of Arjuna and Suyodhana or Karna (cited approvingly in Max Duncker, The History of Antiquity (trans. Evelyn Abbott, London 1880), vol. 4, p. 81). This interpretation is endorsed in such standard references as Albrecht Weber's History of Indian Literature but has sometimes been repeated as fact instead of as interpretation.
  17. ^ The Ashvamedhika-parva is also preserved in a separate version, the Jaimini-Bharata (Jaiminiya-ashvamedha) where the frame dialogue is replaced, the narration being attributed to Jaimini, another disciple of Vyasa. This version contains far more devotional material (related to Krishna) than the standard epic and probably dates to the 12th century. It has some regional versions, the most popular being the Kannada one by Devapurada Annama Lakshmisha (16th century).The Mahabharata[citation needed]
  18. ^ In discussing the dating question, historian A. L. Basham says: "According to the most popular later tradition the Mahabharata War took place in 3102 BCE, which in the light of all evidence, is quite impossible. More reasonable is another tradition, placing it in the 15th century BCE, but this is also several centuries too early in the light of our archaeological knowledge. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century BCE; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brahmana literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier." Basham, p. 40, citing HC Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, pp.27ff.
  19. ^ M Witzel, Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state, EJVS vol.1 no.4 (1995); also in B. Kölver (ed.), Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. The state, the Law, and Administration in Classical India, München, R. Oldenbourg, 1997, p.27-52
  20. ^ A.D. Pusalker, History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I, Chapter XIV, p.273
  21. ^ FE Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, p.180. He shows estimates of the average as 47, 50, 31 and 35 for various versions of the lists.
  22. ^ Pargiter, op.cit. p.180-182
  23. ^ B. B. Lal, Mahabharata and Archaeology in Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.57-58
  24. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.246, who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century BCE as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century BCE. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." (p.254)
  25. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.55; AD Pusalker, HCIP, Vol I, p.272
  26. ^ AD Pusalker, op.cit. p.272
  27. ^ Sattar 1996, pp. lvi-lvii
  28. ^ "Sanskrit, Tamil and Pahlavi Dictionaries" (in (German)). Webapps.uni-koeln.de. 2003-02-11. http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  29. ^ "Book 1: Adi Parva: Jatugriha Parva". Sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m01/m01144.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  30. ^ "Book 2: Sabha Parva: Sabhakriya Parva". Sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m02/m02001.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  31. ^ "picture details". Plant Cultures. http://www.plantcultures.org/pccms/action/showItem?id=340. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  32. ^ Srinivas, Smriti (2004) [2001]. Landscapes of Urban Memory. Orient Longman. p. 23. ISBN 8125022546. OCLC 46353272.
  33. ^ Bhandarkar Institute, Pune—Virtual Pune
  34. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1920 film)
  35. ^ C. J. Wallia (1996). "IndiaStar book review: Satyajit Ray by Surabhi Banerjee". http://www.indiastar.com/satyajitray.html. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  36. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1988-1990 TV series)
  37. ^ The Mahabharata at the Internet Movie Database (1989 mini-series)
  38. ^ "What makes Shyam special". Hinduonnet.com. 2003-01-17. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/fr/2003/01/17/stories/2003011700990100.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  39. ^ Several editions of the Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation of the Mahabharata incorrectly cite Pratap Chandra Roy as translator and this error has been perpetuated into secondary citations. See the publishers preface to the current Munshiram Manoharlal edition for an explanation.
  40. ^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli at the Internet Sacred Text Archive
  41. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. ISBN 81-208-1691-9. p. 351-52
  42. ^ Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Volume I and II. Sussex: Sussex Academy Press. ISBN 1898723303. vol 1 pp. 14-15
  43. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. ISBN 81-208-1691-9. p. 377
  44. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5. p.305
  45. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. ISBN 81-208-1691-9. p. 351
  46. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5. p.305
  47. ^ Roy, Ashim Kumar (1984). A history of the Jainas. New Delhi: Gitanjali Pub. House. ISBN 11604851. p. 20)
  48. ^ Helen, Johnson (2009) [1931]. Muni Samvegayashvijay Maharaj. ed (in English. Trans. From Prakrit). Trisastiśalākāpurusacaritra of Hemacandra: The Jain Saga. Part II. Baroda: Oriental Institute. ISBN 978-81-908157-0-3. refer story of Neminatha
  49. ^ "Introduction to the Bhagavad Gita". Yoga.about.com. http://yoga.about.com/od/bhagavadgita/a/thegita.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  50. ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; On The Bhagavad Gita; A New Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6, Preface p.9
  51. ^ Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44.
  52. ^ Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88.

References

  • Chaturvedi Badrinath, The Mahabharata : An Inquiry in the Human Condition, New Delhi, Orient Longman (2006)
  • Bandyopadhyaya, Jayantanuja (2008). Class and Religion in Ancient India. Anthem Press.
  • Basham, A. L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before The Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press.
  • J. Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics, Leiden (1998).
  • Buitenen, Johannes Adrianus Bernardus (1978). The Mahābhārata. 3 volumes. University of Chicago Press.
  • Hiltebeitel, Alf. The Ritual of Battle, Krishna in the Mahabharata, SUNY Press, New York 1990.
  • E. W. Hopkins, The Great Epic of India, New York (1901).
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
  • H. Oldenberg, Zur Geschichte der Altindischen Prosa, Berlin (1917)
  • Jyotirmayananda Swami, Mysticism of the Mahabharata, Yoga Research Foundation, Miami 1993.
  • Pāṇini. Ashtādhyāyī. Book 4. Translated by Chandra Vasu. Benares, 1896. (Sanskrit)(English)
  • Paule Lerner, Astrological Key in Mahabharata, David White (trans.) Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1988.
  • Ruth Cecily Katz, Arjuna in the Mahabharata, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia 1989.
  • R.V.Bhasin, "Mahabharata" published by National Publications, India, 2007.
  • Majumdar, R. C. (general editor) (1951). The History and Culture of the Indian People: (Volume 1) The Vedic Age. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd..
  • Krishna Chaitanya (K.K. Nair), The Mahabharata, A Literary Study, Clarion Books, New Delhi 1985.
  • Th. Oberlies, 'Ritual an und unter der Oberfläche des Mahabharata', in: Neue Methoden der Epenforschung (ed. H. L. C. Tristram), Freiburg (1998).
  • H. Oldenberg, Das Mahabharata, Göttingen (1922).
  • Mallory, J. P (2005). In Search of the Indo-Europeans. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1
  • M. Mehta, The problem of the double introduction to the Mahabharata, JAOS 93 (1973), 547-550.
  • C. Z. Minkowski, Janamehayas Sattra and Ritual Structure, JAOS 109 (1989), 410-420.
  • C. Z. Minkowski, 'Snakes, Sattras and the Mahabharata', in: Essays on the Mahabharata, ed. A. Sharma, Leiden (1991), 384-400.
  • Sattar, Arshia (transl.) (1996). The Rāmāyaṇa by Vālmīki. Viking. p. 696. ISBN 9780140298666.
  • Sukthankar, Vishnu S. and Shrimant Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi (1933). The Mahabharata: for the first time critically edited. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.
  • Bruce M. Sullivan, Seer of the Fifth Veda, Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1999.
  • Nicholas Sutton, Religious Doctrines in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 2000.
  • N. B. Utgikar, The mention of the Mahabharata in the Ashvalayana Grhya Sutra, Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, Poona (1919), vol. 2, Poona (1922), 46-61.
  • M. Witzel, Epics, Khilas and Puranas: Continuities and Ruptures, Proceedings of the Third Dubrovnik International Conference on the Sanskrit Epics and Puranas, ed. P. Koskiallio, Zagreb (2005), 21-80.
  • Gupta, S.P. and K.S. Ramachandran (ed.), Mahabharata: myth and reality. Agam Prakashan, New Delhi 1976.
  • Pargiter, F.E., Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, London 1922. Repr. Motilal Banarsidass 1997.
  • Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I. "The Vedic Age", Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951.
  • Vaidya, R.V., A Study of Mahabharat; A Research, Poona, A.V.G. Prakashan, 1967

External links

Original text online (Sanskrit)
Textual resources
Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation (English)
Articles on the Mahabharata


This page was last modified on 1 September 2010 at 11:21.


Mahabharata 1989 (Peter Brook) - Dharma questions Yudhishthira





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