lunes, 5 de diciembre de 2011

Sanatana Goswami (1488-1558 A.D.) by Anoop Singh Kiledar



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  1. Sri Sri Radha-Madan Mohana by Anoop Singh Kiledar - lunes 5 de diciembre de 2011


Sanatana Goswami (1488-1558 A.D.)

de Anoop Singh Kiledar, el jueves, 3 de noviembre de 2011 a las 21:05

Anoop Singh Kiledar

Sanatana Goswami  was a principal disciple of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Sanatana Goswami wrote a number of important works in the bhakti tradition of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and was the senior most of the influential Six Goswamis of Vrindavan, among whom was his brother Rupa Goswami.

 

Birth and early years

 

Sanatana Goswami, or Santosha as he was named at birth, was born in Jessore in East Bengal (present-day Bangladesh) in 1488 as the son of Mukunda, the private secretary of the Sultan of Bengal, Jalaluddin Fateh Shah (ruled 1481-1487 A.D.). Sanatana Goswami was the eldest son of Mukunda, and his younger brothers were Amara (Rupa Goswami) and Srivallabha (Anupama).

 

Sanatana and his brothers studied Nyaya (rhetortic) and Vedanta from the famous logician Vasudeva Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya. They also studied under Sarvabhauma's brother, Madhusudana Vidyavachaspati, from whom Sanatana Goswami took initiation in his childhood.

 

On the death of his father, Sanatana Goswami was forced to take up the post of Sakara Mallika (treasurer) to the new ruler of Bengal, Alauddin Hussein Shah (ruled 1493-1519 A.D.), while his brother Rupa Goswami was given the post of Dabir-i-khas (private secretary).

 

 

First meeting with Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

 

Sanatana Goswami and Rupa Goswami received land from the government for their personal use in Fatehbad, where they built a huge palace. They also built several beautiful mansions at Ramakeli. It was at Ramakeli in 1510 that Sanatana Goswami and his two brothers met Chaitanya Mahaprabhu for the first time. After meeting them, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu gave them the names Rupa, Sanatana and Anupama. Due to this meeting, the brothers decided to renounce the world and join Sri Chaitanya and his entourage. Rupa Goswami resigned from his post, but Sanatana Goswami’s resignation was refused by the Sultan. Sanatana Goswami stopped coming to court and feigned sickness. But when the Sultan sent his personal physicians to treat Sanatana they returned and reported that Sanatana Goswami was in perfectly good health. The Sultan personally visited Sanatana Goswami and tried to convince him to continue to render his governmental duties and accompany him on a military campaign against the neighboring state of Orissa. Upon Sanatana Goswami’s refusal, Hussein Shah had him thrown into prison.

 

 

While in prison, Sanatana received a letter from his brother Rupa Goswami telling him that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had left Puri to go to Vrindavana and that Rupa Goswami and Anupama had decided to meet Him there. Sanatana Goswami managed to bribe the jailer with money Rupa Goswami had sent him for emergencies. Sanatana Goswami then crossed the Ganges River and made his way towards Vrindavana.

 

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Banaras

 

As Sanatana Goswami made his way to Vrindavana he learned that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had already left Vrindavana and was then residing in Banaras. There Sanatana Goswami met Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who imparted to him instructions pertaining to sambandha-jnana (knowledge of the self and one's relationship with God). Chaitanya Mahaprabhu taught that the constitutional identity of each soul is to be an eternal servant of Krishna. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explained His teachings to Sanatana Goswami by summarizing them in three categories: sambandha (one's relationship with Godhead), abhidheya (the method for reviving that relationship), and prayojana (the ultimate attainment of the supreme goal of life). After instructing Sanatana Goswami in the sambandha aspect of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu instructed him to go to Vrindavana, where Sanatana Goswami visited the sites connected to Krishna’s pastimes.

 

When Sanatana later went to Puri and met Sri Chaitanya once more, Sri Chaitanya gave him four direct instructions:

 

 

1) To write books teaching Bhakti yoga, the process of devotion to Krishna

 

2) To discover and excavate the places in Vrindavana where Krishna had His pastimes

 

3) To establish the service of the deity (murthis/vigrahas) of Krishna in Vrindavana

 

 

4) To compile a book establishing the proper behavior for devotees of Krishna in order to create the foundations of a Vaishnava society.

 

Sanatana Goswami returned to Vrindavana, where he located various lost holy places. He also established the worship of the deity of Madana-mohana. Soon after Sanatana Goswami discovered the deity, a rich officer in the Moghul army named Krishna Dasa Kapura built a temple for Madana-mohan. This later became one of the seven principal temples of Vrindavana.

 

Sanatana Goswami left his body in the year 1558 A.D. His samadhi (tomb) is located behind the Madana-mohana temple at the foot hill of the old Madana Mohana Mandir.

 

 

Literary works

 

Sanatana Goswami wrote four important books in Sanskrit on Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy:

 

Brihat-bhagavtamrita ("The Great Nectar of the Lord’s Devotees")

 

This work of 2,500 verses is divided into two parts. The first section explains the ontological hierarchy of the devotees of Krishna. The second section deals with the soul's journey to the eternal realm of Krishna. Narrated as stories, both sections explain many aspects of Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy. Sanatana also wrote for this book his own commentary, called the Dig-darshini.

 

Hari-bhakti-vilasa ("Performance of Devotion to Hari")

 

This book was a joint work between Sanatana Goswami and Gopala Bhatta Goswami. Compiled on the order of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the book deals with the rituals and conduct of Gaudiya Vaisnavas. Sanatana also wrote an auto-commentary on Hari-bhakti Vilasa.

 

Krishna-lila-stava ("Glorification of the Pastimes of Krishna")

 

Krishna-lila-stava consists of 432 verses tracing Krishna’s pastimes as told in the Bhagavata Purana, from the beginning of the 10th Canto up through the vanquishing of Kamsa. Krishna-lila-stava is also sometimes referred to as the Dasama-charita.

 

Brihad Vaishnava Toshani ("That which brings Great Joy to the Devotees of Krishna")

 

The Brihad Vaishnava Toshani is Sanatana’s extensive commentary on the Tenth Canto of the Bhagavata Purana. This commentary is also known as the Dasama-tipanni.

 

 

Bhajan kutir of Sanatana Goswami

 

Adjacent to Ter-kadamb tree, to the west, is the bhajan-kuti of Shri Rup Goswami. He often performed bhajan here at this secluded place, remembering Krishna's sweet pastimes. He also composed many of his treasured books here. Whenever the sentiments of deep separation from Srimati Radharani, who is comprised of mahabhava, manifested in his heart, werses of separation would emanate from his mouth. At that time, all the leaves of the kadamb tree here would dry up in the fire of separation, and fall to the ground. And when the meeting of the Divine Couple manifested in his heart, he recited verses of Their meeting, and the kadamb tree would sprout new leaves.

 

 

Sri Sanatana Goswami is described in the Gaura-gandodesa-dipika (181). He was formerly known as Rati-manjari or sometimes as Lavanga-manjari. Manjaris are small girls - intimate maidservants of Srimati Radharani. Next to his bhajan-kutir, there is also sweet water well here that Sanatana Goswami used.

 

 

Samadhi of Sanatana Goswami

 

There are several places throughout the Vraja area where Srila Sanatana Goswami performed his bhajans, but the last days of his life he spent at Govardhan Hill. He departed from this world on Guru Purnima, while residing at Govardhan.His transcendental body was brought to Vrindavan and placed in samadhi behind the Radha Madana Mohan Mandir.

 








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