lunes, 25 de enero de 2010

Gita Govinda Tika - 1ª Parte

çré rädha is a mahä bhäva – 'an ecstatic concept about an exquisite beauty...' and she is the cynosure of this mini-epic géta govinda or Gita Govinda of Jayadeva. This work Gita Govindam is a lyrical dance-drama, plussed with the then romantics, poetic aesthetics and what not – with a theme of vipralambha sångära - anguish in separation and joy in uniting of divine couple Rädha and Krishna. The poet sings to the joy of Krishna, wishing him to be always joyous togetherness of Rädha, addressing him variously like – Govinda, Maadhava, Hari, Keshava etc., according to the situation, and hence it is called Gita Govindam, like bhaja govindam i.e., devout yourself unto Govinda. For easy comprehension we have put all the names as Krishna. And Rädha is none else than Krishna, the very fount of his lélä çakti, creative power. She transmutes his glory into prema änanda, the zenith of blissful happiness, in which alone he takes pleasure. This is the idea of géta govinda.

That being the viewpoint of Absolute Theology, taking hold of Applied Theology our poet Jayadeva brings Rädha a little closer to our nature, under the ozone sphere within this Earthly Nature that which is also crafted by that God for our habitation, to depict her romance with Krishna to our viewpoint. Hence, Rädha can be construed as Queen Nature, in a way of interpretation of this mini-epic. The dancing, singing, frolicking and merrymaking of Krishna with this type of unique milkmaids is räsa léla or räsa kréòa. This dancing in a circle, a ronde dance as we call it, in itself is a particular dance, by the singing of many milkmaids to the fluting of one Krishna. This happens only in Brindavan, all- holy woodland with thickets of basil plants, conceived only for the congregation of such milkmaids for their communion with Krishna.

'As heat is to fire, as cold is to ice, as sweetness to honey so are god's qualities to himself, so is Rädha to Krishna. Rädha, or Rädhika, is Krishna's power brought into play so that he may have a partner in his game, who may supersensuously share his love. Her love is the highest possible, and it is when identified with her as the Supreme Lover of God that the soul attains perfection. 'Just as Krishna is essentially god and beyond Nature, so too is Rädha essentially god, immaculate...' Narada pancaraatra. She is the power by which god creates, herself remaining beyond what he creates through her. She remains ever immaculate even while manifesting through Nature's three 'modes' sattva, rajo, tamo, guṇa-s, or subtle elements; she cannot be bound by the laws of their interaction, for she is the source of their activity The Gospel of Narada.

On an autumnal full moon night, the gopi-s or gopika-s, or milkmaids, attracted by the flute of Krishna, went out of their homes and met him in the groves of Brindavan. He first tried to send them back, but failed. Then the raasa began on the beach of Yamuna, and when the gopika-s were besides themselves with ecstasy, Krishna suddenly disappeared from the scene. When they came to know of this, their sorrow knew no bounds. They searched for him in every grove, bewailing all the while. When they came back... he suddenly reappeared in their midst. The dance was resumed... they roamed... played... bathed in Yamuna waters... The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. 4, The Religions The Ramakrishna Mission.

gopika-s or the milkmaids in Brindavan are not mere girlish milkmaids, but they are all saints and sages in their earlier incarnation, or the Veda-s themselves, so says the tradition. And Krishna according his proximity to each one, wants to satisfy every soul. On such an occassion of räsa léla or räsa kréòa KrishnaRädha in this ronde dance, in order to satisfy others. Rädha 's femininity spews fire at Krishna. These are the opening episodes of this drama, and we have to follow through it, rather giving a trailer of it. had to deviate from

These räsa léla or räsa kréòa-s are not just lustful erotic dances, but they have esoteric meaning. We are trying to include esoteric meaning of this ronde dance in appropriate episode, and we are gathering some info about it. All dancing, singing and frolicking of a devotee for a perfect communion with her devoted being, as said by:

In spite of the many kinds of love, which in Greek are designated as philia (friendship), eros (aspiration toward value), and epithymia (desire), in addition to agape, (Theo. Christian love, esp. as distinct from erotic love,) which is the creation of the Spirit, there is one point of identity in all these qualities of love, which justifies the translation of them all by "love"; and that identity is the 'urge toward the reunion of the separated,' which is the inner dynamics of life. Love in this sense is one and indivisible." Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, vol.3, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 137.

The problem of Rädha is almost that of St. Theresa 'for whom ecstasy is betrothal leading up to the spiritual marriage 'in which the soul always remains in its centre with God...' The Interior Castle, Seventh Mansion, Ch. II sec. 2 4., via S. Radhakrishnan's Eastern Religions and Western Thought.

Here also, the poet portrays that spiritual betrothal of Rädha with Krishna in this work. And what lust can be attached to a devotee, if he/she sings this Psalm: ' Sing unto the Lord a new song: sing praises lustily unto him with a good courage...' Psalm 33, v. 3.

If any peripherally casual reader would like to deride or despise such philosophisation of apparently erotic expressions, they are requested to firstly read articles of Christian theologists on Rädha, like Hon'ble David C. Scott, and Adam Clarke et al, whose urls are given at the end of this page.

When there are scores of websites on Jayadeva and his life, it will be unbefitting for this page to re-narrate the same. However, we may dare say that none has given any word for word translation for this work, nor for the complete translation of Gita Govinda, excepting that someone's attempt halted at the song on the eulogy of ten incarnations. There can be no exact translation of this work in any language, including the regional languages of India, because of the wordsmithy of this poet. This is as observed by Prof. T.Koteshvara Rao, Reader, SKD University. He cites, for example, one letter running into the next word, to give a completely different meaning like: vasante vaasantii - va, vaa; kusuma, sukumaaraiH - su, ku; baadhaam, raadhaam - aa, dhaa. The other main feature of Jayadeva is wordplay. Very small words with cadence, pause, tempo etc., as in lalita - lavanga - lataa - parishiilana - only a letter la with extended play. This is art of Jayadeva and there are many such examples to cite.

Tanslations or trashlations: Because Jayadeva's way of writing is so well-knit, it does not mean that others should not translate in regional languages or foreign ones, so says the above professor. But they remain a photocopy with many toner patches. We cannot possibly attain that delicacy or word arrangement in our languages. Hence, if we are translating, or calling them translations, they may please be viewed as 'communicating poet's ideas through other tongue with many redundant words...' and hence we may be doing trashlations.

There are five gurus of Jayadeva peeping into this Gita Govinda, namely 1] Valmiki for designing the work, melodrama, anguish in separation of lead characters. Ramayana is in 24, 000 verses and this work is in 12 chapters. Half of that number 24. But the aSTa padi-s, eight-footed songs are in 24 numbers. Next 2] Bharata Muni - for dance drama. 3] Vaastaayana - for romance. 4] Kalidasa - for word selection, brevity, small words with big meanings, alliterations etc. 5] Jayadeva on his own, as a trendsetter to language, grammar, poetic aesthetics etc.

There are many commentaries on this work, but rasika priya of Kumbha, and rasa manjari of Shankara Misra, shruti ranjani of Tirumala Deva Raaya, are renowned ones in Sanskrit world. There is a commentary called nritya lakshaṇa samhita by Sri K. Vaasudeva Saastry. This is an exhaustive and unique commentary, not commentary but a dance treatise, useful for any form of dancing school, since every word of Jayadeva is interpreted to have dance gestures, abhinaya, mudra-s, bhangima-s. This can be reflected here once in a while, because of that work's excellence, and limitation of this work. This book is available with Tanjavore Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjavore, Tamil Nadu state, India.

On musical side it is sung throughout India and there are many cassettes, CDs. But some of the best renderings can be listened from HMV's cassette SPHOS 3405. A complete dance ballet is recently telecast on sanskar TV channel, India.

An appeal to the readers

All translations are approximations, and this is not just a translation, an elucidation of the words and expressions used by the poet. This may not be a scholarly or highbrow work, but it is full with orthodoxy, circuitous, serpentine, self-coiling presentation in Indian routine, only to explain words used by the poet. Hence, the readers are requested to go by the word-for-word section than gist. If any mistakes, typos and the like are noticed, they may kindly be informed. pramaado api dhiimataam Whatever extra words that appear in the gist of song, than found in word-to-word section, they may please be construed as ellipted words, incorporated to bring out a meaningful paragraph or emphasis. The words arranged in word-to-word meanings are in accordance with anvaya krama, placement of words of Sanskrit to give a prosaic meaning.

This minni-epic is in twelve chapters and each chapter is given a heading as below:


1] 1] The Gospel of Narada, by Duncan Greenlees, M.A., (Oxon.) a - publication of The theosophical Publishing House, Adayar, with branches all over the world. This book referred in here as [GN], is a treasure book of info about Krishna and Rädha , is presently out of print but they are making its photocopies available.

2] Radha in the Erotic Play of the Universe - David C. Scott

3] Bible, Clarke's Commentary - Adam Clarke

Chapter [Sarga] 1

saamoda daamodaram

All-pervasive Exuberant Krishna

Poet Jayadeva wishing to portray the devine love of Raadha and Krishna in his immortal song giita govindam, starts this with a benedictory verse, that indicates the theme of his poetic work, as poets are required to start their poetic works with ashiish, namaskriya, or vastu nirdesha...

Verse Locator

meghairmeduramambaram vanabhuvaH shyaamaastamaaladrumaiH
naktam bhiirurayam tvameva tadimam raadhe gR^iham praapaya |
ittham nandanideshitashchalitayoH pratyadhvaku~njadrumam
raadhaamaadhavayorjayanti yamunaakuule rahaHkelayaH || 1-1

मेघैर्मेदुरमम्बरम् वनभुवः श्यामास्तमालद्रुमैः
नक्तम् भीरुरयम् त्वमेव तदिमम् राधे गृहम् प्रापय।
इत्थम् नन्दनिदेशितश्चलितयोः प्रत्यध्वकुञ्जद्रुमम्
राधामाधवयोर्जयन्ति यमुनाकूले रहःकेलयः॥ १-१
meghairmeduramambaram vanabhuvaḥ śyāmāstamāladrumaiḥ
naktam bhīrurayam tvameva tadimam rādhe gṛham prāpaya |
ittham nandanideśitaścalitayoḥ pratyadhvakuñjadrumam
rādhāmādhavayorjayanti yamunākūle rahaḥkelayaḥ || 1-1

words separated - meghaiH - meduram - a.mbaram - vana bhuvaH - shyaamaaH - tamaala - drumaiH - naktam - bhiiruH - ayam - tvam - eva - tat - imam - raadhe - gR^iham - praapaya - ittham - nanda - nideshitaH - chalitayoH - prati - adhva - ku.nja - drumam - raadhaa - maadhavayoH - jayanti - yamunaa - kuule - rahaH - kelayaH

words separated - meghaiḥ - meduram - aṁbaram - vana bhuvaḥ - śyāmāḥ - tamāla - drumaiḥ - naktam - bhīruḥ - ayam - tvam - eva - tat - imam - rādhe - gṛham - prāpaya - ittham - nanda - nideśitaḥ - calitayoḥ - prati - adhva - kuṁja - drumam - rādhā - mādhavayoḥ - jayanti - yamunā - kūle - rahaḥ - kelayaḥ

1-1. Tiika/word-order/meanings: hè raadhe= hey! Raadha; ambaram+meghaiH+ meduram = sky, with clouds, thick with; vana+bhuvaH= wood, areas [lands]; shyaamaaH= are blackened; tamaala+ drumaiH = with Tamaala, trees; naktam [ca + abhivartate]= night [is also drawing nigh]; bhiiruH+ayam= [naively] timorous, that one [Krishna is]; tat= thereby; tvam + eva= you, alone; imam+gR^iham+praapaya= him, to home, see he reaches [lead him forth]; ittham+nanda+ nideshitaH= this way, by Nanda, she who is instructed [Raadha]; chalitayoH= while both are on the go [to home]; raadhaa+ maadhavayoH = of both Raadha, Maadhava; yamunaa+kuule= on Yamuna, banks of; prati= each, at each and every; adhva= on pathway; kunja+drumam= in arbour, at tree; rahaH+kelayaH= sequestered, [Gr. erös, or epithymia, or philia not just love] plays of passion [that are the happenstances, bechanced events]; jayanti= won over, fructified [transcendentally exquisite.]

"Hè! Raadha, clouds are thickening on the sky, black Tamaala trees blacken the woodlands, and night is also drawing nigh... and that one is naively timorous... thereby, you alone lead him home..." this way when Nanda instructed Raadha, both Raadha and Maadhava are on the go homeward, and then the happenstances of their sequestered plays of passion, on each pathway, at every tree, and in each and every arbour on the banks of River Yamuna, are transcendentally exquisite. [1-1]

Comment: This is the 'worm's-eye-view' of this poetic work, but not the invocation of deity of speech/poetics. The invocation is in next verse.

A parable is said about this verse. As usual with any other poet, Jayadeva was also said to be a twiddler of his thumbs, and seeing this his maternal uncle daunts him for not taking up any job or profession like any other youngster. Jayadeva refuses trivial jobs and declares himself as a poet of par excellence, and he can portray ayam 'that' god in an innovative manner and in off the beaten-track. Then his maternal uncle questions who is 'that' god and what is the theme of 'that' poetry about 'that' god. Then this poem emerged from the depths of heart of Jayadeva about ayam , that god and his sequestered deeds. At the last words of this verse, that uncle sprang up to his feet in ire, and almost said to have stifled Jayadeva to death, for uttering such 'blasphemous poetry' on 'that' god.

Then Jayadeva, to stand by his own self-declaration as an eminent poet, started to compose the rest of this work, and puts the next verse, an invocatory poem, to stylus. Thus, though unconnected, this poem remained at the head of the work as a prologue, preamble etc., in the pattern of aashiirvaada, vastu nirdehsa, mangala aadiini... 'blessings, indicative of the topic of poetry, and for auspicious beginning of the poetic works, which the poets usually employ. Here the love-game of Raadha and Maadhava itself became the auspicious, blessing a priori, and content of this poetic work. That way, without naming him as Krishna, Govinda, or Maadhava etc., the poet puts the pronoun on the tongue of Nanda, the father of Krishna, as ayam, ayam bhiiruH... on the lines of kaalidasa , in his kumaara sambhava - 5 - ayam janaaH prahR^iShTa manaaH tapo dhane However, the poet really starts his work with the next verse.

raadhe said by Nanda has three shades; anunaya vaakya 'please Raadha, you take him home, for he is still a boy...' kopa ukti 'said in anger...' 'Raadha, don't you know that he is boyish and naively timorous... when it is dusking and darkening... what is it you play in nights... you go home, and while going take this fellow also to his home... no night wanderings... ' tattva ukti 'with some subtext... 'Raadha, tvam eva you alone, gR^iham 'house, personified by wife, you on becoming wife...' praapaya 'make him prosperous...' 'On your account Krishna became a householder, hence you alone lead him forth and enrich his prosperity as a his wife...'

Raadha did not get her cherished desire fulfilled in a trice, or at a snap of finger. She had to undergo her historical ordeal, put to test by Krishna. Why should she? When she is willing, when Krishna is at her side, when father Nanda permitted, when her maid encourages her... is she still put to test? These would be the pertinent doubts that arise, though they are not the questions in reality. Yes! She is put to litmus test by this most mischievous Krishna, and she had to shed her tears, sob her sobs, frown her resentments etc. Where all this has happened? On each and every pathway to home, at each and every tree, and in each of the bowers. Krishna seems to be there, but he is actually not there, and he is supposedly unavailable, but his fluting is audible very nearly. So, to depict that a true devotee has to undergo a step-by-step process for the culmination of his/her ardent desire, the poet indicates that there are many a pathway to tread, many are the trees of wisdom, and many are the bowers to contemplate lonely and solitarily, not only for Raadha but to any devotee. All these are godsend gifts of nature and humans.

The clouds spreading on sky will naturally be many. Here the word meghaiH is also in plural, but the commentators limit them to number nine, without the sense of innumerability, and simile them with the nine states, out of the ten states of love-pangs or manmatha avastha-s -

manmatha avasthäù
dåk manas sankalpa jägaräù kåçatä aratiù |
hré tyägo unmäda mürcchä antä iti ananga daçä daça

1] eyeing; 2] heart-loosing; 3] endeavour; 4] sleeplessness; 5] shrivelling; 6] disinterestedness in anything; 7] shamelessness; 8] maddening; 9] swooning; 10] trying to end oneself. The word ambaram sky suggests 'openness, sky is the limit for enjoyment... elate yourselves to sky...' And the word vana bhuva 'woodland areas are like heavens, lonely, secluded... thus a secreted heaven is said to be there on earth, on the banks of River Yamuna...' for Krishna is there. And naktam 'night time' is the proper time for such activity, since it is forbidden from dawn to dusk. And yamunaa kuule 'on the banks of Yamuna, exciting environ of Yamuna, with breezes wafting coolness of Yamuna waters and fragrances of flowers on its banks. The openness, solitude, rivers, waters, flowers, fragrances, all of them made that place heavenly. Above all, ayam, 'that' god is here. Then what more does a devotee require for his/her dedication, in order to commingle in him - physically, in mortal's parlance, and psychically in a devotee's experience.

The use of ultramundane word maa dhava Lakshmi's, husband - Vishnu may be observed, even when Krishna is manifestly a mortal, and available just before the eye. Though KrishnaKrishna's longing for an ephemeral and poetic embodiment called Raadha is more, and it suggests that god is inclined more towards real devotees, rather than for his coequals, like Rukmini or Lakshmi and the like. is Vishnu and though Rukmini, his first consort, is Lakshmi,

Aesthetics info for Sanskrit students: The whole work revolves round the following aesthetics. 1] uddipanaa bhaavaaH excitants of mood: clouds, woodlands, night, arbours and bowers, riverside, cool breezes etc; 2] aalambana bhaavaaH mood for devotement: Raadha, Yamuna banks, arbours and bowers, solitude etc.; 3] anu bhaava indicatives of mood timorousness, prudishness, coyness of all characters; 4] vybhicaara bhaavaaH deviating moods ecstasy, fear, interestedness, embarrassment etc; 5] sthaayii bhaavaaH common mood longing, desperation, jealousy, resentment etc., with these moods, it is sambhoga vipralambha sR^ingaara and the metre of this verse is shaarduula vikriiDitam.

Though the moods are available in each of the foot, they may not be brought here, as they do not mean anything these days. But in a prima donna-ish fashion, some are said here. From meghaiH to praapaya it is vipralmbha sR^ingaara ; iththam to kelayaH it is sambhoga sR^ingaara ; shyaamaa tamaala, radhaamaadhavoH are in anu praasaa aalnnkaara ; first part of verse has samuccaya alankaara while the later part is having ashiir alankaara and on total it is said in samshR^iSTi alankaara. And the first verse itself is indicative of the activities of Krishna, and his playful acts, disporting, or the frolicking that is termed as raasa liila, raasa kriiDa, krishna liila, which will be heart pleasing.

Verse Locator

vaagdevataacharitachitritachittasadmaa padmaavatiicharaNachaaraNachakravartii | shriivaasudevaratikelikathaasametam etam karoti jayadevakaviH prabandham || 1-2

वाग्देवताचरितचित्रितचित्तसद्मा पद्मावतीचरणचारणचक्रवर्ती।
श्रीवासुदेवरतिकेलिकथासमेतम् एतम् करोति जयदेवकविः प्रबन्धम्॥ १-२
vāgdevatācaritacitritacittasadmā padmāvatīcaraṇacāraṇacakravartī |
śrīvāsudevaratikelikathāsametam etam karoti jayadevakaviḥ prabandham || 1-2

words separated - vaak - devataa - charita - chitrita - chitta - sadmaa - padmaavatii - charaNa - chaaraNa - chakravartii - shrii - vaasudeva - rati - keli - kathaa - sametam - etam - karoti - jayadeva - kaviH - prabandham

words separated - vāk - devatā - carita - citrita - citta - sadmā - padmāvatī - caraṇa - cāraṇa - cakravartī - śrī - vāsudeva - rati - keli - kathā - sametam - etam - karoti - jayadeva - kaviḥ - prabandham

1-2. Tiika/word-order/meanings: vaak+devataa= speech, deity of; charita= with legend of; chitrita + chitta+sadmaa= depicted, [painted, with murals, embellished with] heart [soul,] [called] house; caraNa= feet; caaraNa= [which are] massaged by; padmaavatii= Goddess Lakshmi; chakra+vartii= wheel, mover [either His own Sudarshana disc, or the wheel of world, i.e., by the grace of one whose feet are massaged by Goddess Lakshmi, Vishnu, the Prime Mover];padmaavatii= padma= lotus; vatii= on who handles it, [one who is presiding deity of aSTaakshari hymn,] Goddess Lakshmi; charaNa = at feet; chaaraNa= by serving; chakravartii = one who became kingly poet; padmaavatii= Padmaavati - as proper noun, one named as Padmaavati, poet's wife; caraNa+ caaraNa= with feet, by moving, by dancing feet of Padmaavati ; chakra vartii = one who became kingly poet; shrii= epitome of Fortune, Lakshmi, here Raadha; vaasudeva= vasu + deva = earth's, deity of [Krishna]; rati+keli= epithalamic passion [Gr. eros, epithymia, not just love, or lust,] plays; kathaa+ sametam= episodes, along with [comprising of]; etam= this [one that is abiding in the heart like house with murals, poetic work]; prabandham= poetic work; jayadeva+kaviH = Jayadeva [named,] poet; karoti= [he is, or, I am] doing [authoring.]

Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, is embellishing his soul with her legends, like a home ever embellished with murals, and he who has become an emperor among poets by his service at the feet of Goddess Lakshmi, such a poet Jayadeva is now authoring this poetic lore that is so far abiding in such a soul with such murals, called Gita Govindam, which comprises the episodes of plays of passion of Raadha and Krishna. [1-2]


Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, is embellishing his homelike soul, ever embellished with murals-like legends of her literary grace, and he who has become an expert in poetry by the grace of one, whose feet are ever massaged by Goddess Lakshmi, Vishnu or Krishna, who also is the Prime Mover of this world, such a poet Jayadeva is now authoring this poetic lore that is so far abiding in such a soul with such murals, called Gita Govindam, which comprises the episodes of plays of passion of Raadha and Krishna. [1-2]


Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, is embellishing my soul with her legends, like a home ever embellished with murals, and I who became an emperor among poets by my service at the feet of Goddess Lakshmi, and even by the service rendered by my wife Padmaavati, for she tightly fastened my lyrics to tune and rhythm with her dancing feet, such as I am, I the kingly poet Jayadeva, am now authoring this poetic lore that is so far abiding in my soul, called Gita Govindam, which comprises the episodes of plays of passion Raadha and Krishna. [1-2]

Comment: This invocation starts with vaak devataa after Kalidasa's vaak arthaav iva sampR^iktau in his epic Kumaarassambhava. In those days, poetic narration about one's own wife or about her performing arts was a taboo. Jayadeva pooh-poohed this with the above stanza, questioning as to how Satyabhama danced before Krishna, and how Paarvati always dances with always dancing Shiva. Further, devotion does not equate with solitary self-surrender, or by hermetic sainthood, or by murmuring hymns singly. That is for devotees of nirguNa brahma and this ' bhaagavata devotion' culminates only when upacaaraa-s 'devotional offerings' are offered, and the singing and dancing are the end part of any worship. Even today this custom continues, but only as a lip service, Chatram dhaarayaami, caamaram viijayaami, giita vaadya R^ityam pradashayaami 'I hold up an parasol, I fan you, I show dance, sing, play music instruments... oh, god give me what I want...' Instead of worshipping with a dialogue, Jayadeva and Padmaavati danced. It is said the Jayadeva recognised not only a dancer in his wife, but a bhaagavatii pratipatti 'female devotee' in her, and thus both have adored their god jointly.

The analogy between Vaasudeva and Jayadeva is vasubhiH diipyata iti vaasudeva 'one shines forth with his wealth...' If Krishna is resplendent with his charm, Jayadeva is glistening with his wordplay. tasya apatyam vaasudeva 'his son is Vaasudeva...' meaning that one who has come out of his indebtedness towards his father, hence a free bird to take his own wings and to flirt as he may. Jayadeva is equally free to flirt away from the orthodoxy of poetics.

Aesthetics: Heart and house are in simile, hence ruupaka alankaara and at sametametam it is anupraa alankaara - vyanjana vyR^ittena; kaavya guNa - oja; riiti - gaudiiya; vR^itti - bhaarati metre -vasanta tilaka.

Verse Locator

yadi harismaraNe sarasam mano yadi vilaasakalaasu kutuuhalam |
madhurakomalakaantapadaavaliim shR^iNu tadaa jayadevasarasvatiim || 1-3

यदि हरिस्मरणे सरसम् मनो यदि विलासकलासु कुतूहलम्।
मधुरकोमलकान्तपदावलीम् शृणु तदा जयदेवसरस्वतीम्॥ १-३
yadi harismaraṇe sarasam mano yadi vilāsakalāsu kutūhalam |
madhurakomalakāntapadāvalīm śṛṇu tadā jayadevasarasvatīm || 1-3

words separated - yadi - hari - smaraNe - sarasam - manaH - yadi - vilaasa - kalaasu - kutuuhalam - madhura- komala - kaa.nta - pada - aavaliim - shR^iNu - tadaa - jayadeva - sarasvatiim

words separated - yadi - hari - smaraṇe - sarasam - manaḥ - yadi - vilāsa - kalāsu - kutūhalam - madhura- komala - kāṁta - pada - āvalīm - śṛṇu - tadā - jayadeva - sarasvatīm

1-3. he+sat+jana+gaNa [adhyaahR^ita, ellipted word] = oh, graciuous, people, assemblage [rounded off to oh, gracious people]; hari= on Hari, on Krishna; smaraNe= in meditation; manaH= soul; sa+rasam= with, elixir [of devotion]; yadi= if, [should it be filled with, plethoric with]; vilaasa= in flirtaceous [women's]; kalaasu= arts [arts of coaxing]; kutuuhalam+yadi= curiousness, if [should you have]; tadaa= then; madhura = mellowly; komala = deicate [willowy]; kaanta= heart-pleasing [mellifluous]; pada+aavaliim= words, medley of; jaya+deva= [about] glorious, god Krishna [or, poet Jayadeva's]; sarasvatiim= divine speech, praise song; shR^iNu= be listened.

Oh, gracious people, should your hearts be plethoric with the elixir of devotion for meditating on Krishna, and should you be curious enough about the arts of coaxing of flirtaceous womenkind, then listen to the praise song of Jayadeva on that glorious god Krishna, that which is a medly of willowy words, worded mellowly and mellifluously... [1-3]

Comment: This verse will be at 4th place in North Indian versions and in South, it is as above. The word used mathura melodious - mellowly, meaning that the words used have shabda gata, artha gata maadhuryam sound based and meaning based melody. In them sound based melody occurs when harsh sounding consonants like Tha Dha are not used, while the meaning based melody occurs when those words are primarily heat-pleasing, yet a little thinking is necessary to derive their meanings, unlike the words of absolute philosophy, which do not give any satisfaction eve after delving deep into them. Again the komala has the two aspects of meaning. In them, sound based delicacy occurs when too much of combining vowels and consonants is not adopted as in nistriaguNya, tymbaka and the like, which usage is called as cakra bandha - padma bandha way of compounding. And the word kaanta is also the same, in that the poetic work is desirable for it has sound based lissomness, and meaning based litheness. The usefulness of this verse is hari smaraNa, vilaasa vidya sikshaNa meditation on Krishna, and how the coaxing and combing of womenfolk will be delightfully inciting. Thus, this work's subject matter contains cognizable god in Krishna, if it is mulled over by his cognitive devotees smaarya smaaraka bhaava; diipaka- alankaara; paancaalii - riiti; kaishikii vR^itti; vR^ittam - dR^ita vilambita With this invocatory poem the poet is embarking on the usual prologues necessary for a poetic work.

Verse Locator

vaachaH pallavayatyumaapatidharaH sandarbhashuddhim giraam
jaaniite jayadeva eva sharaNaH shlaaghyo duruuhadrute |
spardhii ko.api na vishrutaH shrutidharo dhoyii kavikshmaapatiH || 1-4

वाचः पल्लवयत्युमापतिधरः सन्दर्भशुद्धिम् गिराम्
जानीते जयदेव एव शरणः श्लाघ्यो दुरूहद्रुते।
स्पर्धी कोऽपि न विश्रुतः श्रुतिधरो धोयी कविक्श्मापतिः॥ १-४
vācaḥ pallavayatyumāpatidharaḥ sandarbhaśuddhim girām
jānīte jayadeva eva śaraṇaḥ ślāghyo durūhadrute |
spardhī ko'pi na viśrutaḥ śrutidharo dhoyī kavikśmāpatiḥ || 1-4

words separated - vaachaH - pallavayati - umaapatidharaH - sa.ndarbha - shuddhim - giraam - jaaniite - jayadeva - eva - sharaNaH - shlaaghyaH - dur - uuha - drute - shR^i.ngaara - uttara sat - prameya - rachanaiH - aachaarya - govardhana - spardhii - kaH - api - na - vishrutaH - shrutidharaH - dhoyii - kavi - kshmaa - patiH

words separated - vācaḥ - pallavayati - umāpatidharaḥ - saṁdarbha - śuddhim - girām - jānīte - jayadeva - eva - śaraṇaḥ - ślāghyaḥ - dur - ūha - drute - śṛṁgāra - uttara sat - prameya - racanaiḥ - ācārya - govardhana - spardhī - kaḥ - api - na - viśrutaḥ - śrutidharaḥ - dhoyī - kavi - kśmā - patiḥ

1-4. umaapatidharaH= Umaapatidhara, [a contemporary poet of Jayadeva]; vaachaH+ pallavayati = words, spreads [uses words with prolixity and expansile meanings]; sharaNaH= Sharana poet; dur+uuha+ drute= impossible, to think, in speediness [words are unpronounceably speedy]; shlaaghyaH= praiseworthy [Sharana poet]; shR^ingaara= romance; rachanaiH= with writings; uttara= before [prioritized]; sat= best; prameya= inferable subject of poetic work [or, sat= by scholars, prameya= inferable, knowable; aachaarya+ govardhana= scholar, poet Govardhana; spardhii= antagonist; kaH+api+na= anyone, even, not there; shrutidharaH + vishrutaH= poet Shrutidhara, renowned [for he is a wordsmith]; dhoyii+kavi+ kshmaa+ patiH = Dhoyii, poet, poets, king of; giraam= of words; sandarbha + shuddhim= situational, pureness [properness] jayadeva+eva+ jaaniite= Jayadeva, alone, knows.


umaapatidharaH+ vaachaH +pallavayati= Umaapatidhara, words, spreads [verbose]; sharaNaH= Sharana poet; dur+uuha +drute= impossible, to think, in speediness [words are unpronounceably speedy]; shlaaghyaH= praiseworthy [Sharana poet]; shR^ingaara = romance; uttara= before [prioritized]; sat= by his work called saccarita; prameya= inferable [as a poet by his work called saccitra]; rachanaiH= with writings; aachaarya+govardhana= for [pedagogic] scholar, poet Govardhana; spardhii= antagonist; kaH+ api+ na= anyone, even, not there; dhoyii+kavi+kshmaa+patiH = Dhoyii, poet, poets, king of; shruti+ dharaH + vishrutaH= what he has heard, he retains [parroted poetry,] thus renowned; giraam= of words; sandarbha + shuddhim= situational, pureness [properness] jayadeva+eva+ jaaniite= Jayadeva, alone, knows.

Poet Umaapatidhara uses words with prolixity and with expansile meanings, poet Sharana is praiseworthy for his unpronounceable speedy wordplay, none is an antagonist to the scholarly poet Govardhana, for he inferentially prioritises romance, poet Shrutidhara is renowned as an expert wordsmith, poet Dhoyii is a king among poets, but poet Jayadeva alone knows the situational properness of words and wordplay. [1-4]


Poet Umaapatidhara is verbose with words of prolixity and with expansile meanings, hence he is a poetaster with strident and shrilly words vaagaaDambaram, poet Sharana is praiseworthy for his unpronounceable speedy wordplay, hence he is unintelligible and unexplainable, and none is an antagonist to the scholarly poet Govardhana, for he prioritises romance alone, thus when he is bereft of other aesthetics, he is unfit to be called as a pedagogic scholar, aachaarya, for his treatise on alankaara shaastra named aaryaa sapta shati, and poet Dhoyii, a self-styled king of poets, is renowned for his parroted poetry, thus he is hardly a poet, but poet Jayadeva alone knows the situational properness of words and wordplay, hence he alone is the poet of the day... [1-4]

Comment: The second meaning is not a ridicule thrown at other poets, but it is like 'throwing hat in the ring...' and avowed declaration that he alone is good at poetry. It was a practice to say one or two verses in praise of good poets and in scorn at bad poets su kavi prashamsa, ku kavi ninda . This is in samuccaya alnkaara; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. - VerseLocator#VerseLocatorVerse Locator

aSTa padi -1 dasha avataara kiirti dhavalam

From here on the aSTa padi-s will be coming. These will be in eight-footed stanzas, with a repeatable stanza at their end. Though all the stanzas are a single verse, they are now being divided into separate units for the sake of easy reading and for easy incorporation of comment section. These units are given numbers like a pa1-1, a pa 1-2, where a pa represents aSTa padi eight-footed verse 1, and -1, -2, -3 are its unit.


pralayapayodhijale dhR^itavaanasi vedam | vihitavahitracharitramakhedam || keshavaadhR^itamiinashariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-1

प्रलयपयोधिजले धृतवानसि वेदम्।
केशवाधृतमीनशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-१
pralayapayodhijale dhṛtavānasi vedam |
vihitavahitracaritramakhedam ||
keśavādhṛtamīnaśarīra jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-1

words separated - pralaya - payodhi - jale - dhR^itavaan - asi - vedam - vihita - vahitra - charitram - akhedam - keshava - dhR^ita - miina - shariira - jaya - jagat - iisha - hare

words separated - pralaya - payodhi - jale - dhṛtavān - asi - vedam - vihita - vahitra - caritram - akhedam - keśava - dhṛta - mīna - śarīra - jaya - jagat - īśa - hare

a pa 1-1. keshava= oh, Keshava; jagat+iisha= worlds, the Almighty of; hare= oh, Hari; pra+laya= completely, commingled [deluged]; payodhi= oceans' [all common nouns, jaati eka vacana]; jale= in waters; dhR^ita+miina+shariira= on donning, fish's, body; vihita= make do [improvising]; vahitra= [like a] ship; charitram= legendary; vedam= Veda-s; a+khedam= not, with weariness [indefatigably]; dhR^itavaan+asi= upheld, you are; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, when worlds were under the deluge of all the waters of all seven seas, you on donning the body of a fish, and improvising yourself as a legendary ship, you indefatigably upheld all the four Veda-s, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-1]

Comment: The word Keshava is a formation of ka + iisha + va where kaH is Brahma; iisha is Shiva; va born from Vishnu; ka iti brahmaëo näma éço aham sarva dehinäm aväm ta ange sambhütau tasmät keçavo nämavän - nirukta bhäñyam thus Brahma and Shiva are born from the body of Vishnu. jagadiisha 'you are the controller of all worlds and when they have become uncontrollable you set them in order... that too indefatigably, hence we are reassured of your presence...' Hari 'he who steals away the troubles of his adherents...' sthaayii bhaava - utsaaha; rasa - viira; naayaka lakshaNa - dhiira lalita; alankaara - upama; atishayokti; riiti - artha maagadhi Next, the incarnation of tortoise is taken up, sequentially. Now let us see some of the dance gestures for this stanza from nritya lakshaNa samhita:

pralaya - pataaka upari pari mardita pataakena gagana dR^iShTyaa ca | payodhi jale - adhaH svastikii kR^ita vicyuta uurdhva tala pataakaabhyaam | dhR^itavaan asi - adho deshaat uddhR^ita muShTinaa | vedam - purasthala niku.ncakena | vihita - shanaiH adhara talii kR^ita muShTikena | vahitra - calita a.nguShTa kara prasaarita puSpa vR^iShTena | charitram - prasaarita uurdhva tala pataakena | akhedam - hR^id gata pataakena mukulayaa dR^iSTyyaa ca | keshava - keshava bandhena | dhR^ita - aavar.htanena kR^ita muSTinaa | miina shariira - makara hastakena | jaya - ud.h ddhR^itta hastakena | jagadiisha - lalaaTa sthaana a.njalinaa | hare - viShNava sthaanakena - iti nR^itya lakshaNa sa.mhita

pralaya - patāka upari pari mardita patākena gagana dṛṣṭyā ca | payodhi jale - adhaḥ svastikī kṛta vicyuta ūrdhva tala patākābhyām | dhṛtavān asi - adho deśāt uddhṛta muṣṭinā | vedam - purasthala nikuṁcakena | vihita - śanaiḥ adhara talī kṛta muṣṭikena | vahitra - calita aṁguṣṭa kara prasārita puṣpa vṛṣṭena | caritram - prasārita ūrdhva tala patākena | akhedam - hṛd gata patākena mukulayā dṛṣṭyyā ca | keśava - keśava bandhena | dhṛta - āvartanena kṛta muṣṭinā | mīna śarīra - makara hastakena | jaya - ud ddhṛtta hastakena | jagadīśa - lalāṭa sthāna aṁjalinā | hare - viṣṇava sthānakena - iti nṛtya lakśaṇa saṁhita

kshitirativipulatare tavatiShThatipR^ishhThe | dharaNidharaNakiNachakragariShThe

keshava dhR^itakacChaparuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-2

क्शितिरतिविपुलतरे तवतिष्ठतिपृष्ठे। धरणिधरणकिणचक्रगरिष्ठे
केशव धृतकच्छपरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-२
kśitirativipulatare tavatiṣṭhatipṛṣṭhe | dharaṇidharaṇakiṇacakragariṣṭhe
keśava dhṛtakacchaparūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-2

words separated - kshitiH - ati - vipula - tare - tava - tiShThati - pR^ishhThe - dharaNi - dharaNa - kiNa - chakra - gariShThe - keshava - dhR^ita - kacChapa - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - kśitiḥ - ati - vipula - tare - tava - tiṣṭhati - pṛṣṭhe - dharaṇi - dharaṇa - kiṇa - cakra - gariṣṭhe - keśava - dhṛta - kacchapa - rūpa - jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-2. keshava jagadiisha hare = as above; dhR^ita+kacChapa+ruupa= assumed, tortoise, form; ati+vipula+tare= very, wide, much in degree [widest]; dharaNi+dharaNa= earth, by bearing weight [or by bearing the weight of Mt. Manthara, when Milky Ocean was churned]; kiNa= tumid, puffed up; chakra+ tava= circular shell of tortoise, of yours; gariShThe + pR^iShThe= on its heightened, back; kshitiH+ tiShThati = earth, is abiding; jaya= as above.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on assuming the form of a tortoise and by bearing the weight of very wide earth, and Mt. Manthara as well, on the heightened back of circular shell of tortoise, that shell is puffed up and tumid, even then the earth is abiding on your back, even today... thus, hail to thee... [a pa 1-2]

Comment: The word tiSThati is in the tense of vartamaana nirdesha 'present continuous' so the earth is on the back of that tortoise, even today.

vasati dashanashikhare dharaNiitavalagnaa | shashini kala~Nkakaleva nimagnaa ||
keshava dhR^itasuukararuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-3

वसति दशनशिखरे धरणीतवलग्ना। शशिनि कलङ्ककलेव निमग्ना॥
केशव धृतसूकररूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-३
vasati daśanaśikhare dharaṇītavalagnā | śaśini kalaṅkakaleva nimagnā ||
keśava dhṛtasūkararūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-3

words separated - keshava - dhR^ita - suukara - ruupa - vasati - dashana - shikhare - dharaNii - tava - lagnaa - shashini - kala.nka - kala - iva - nimagnaa - keshava - dhR^ita - suukara - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - keśava - dhṛta - sūkara - rūpa - vasati - daśana - śikhare - dharaṇī - tava - lagnā - śaśini - kalaṁka - kala - iva - nimagnā - keśava - dhṛta - sūkara - rūpa - jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-3. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+suukara+ruupa= on assuming, wild boar's, form; tava+dashana+shikhare= your, fang's, top; lagnaa+dharaNii= became stuck, earth; shashini+ nimagnaa = in moon, embedded; kalaN^ka+kala+iva= blemish's, streak, like; vasati= is lodged; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the form of a wild boar, only to uplift the earth from its sinking to netherworlds you lifted it up, and while uplifting with your snout, the earth is stuck in your crescentic fang, and it is lodged there on that fang, like a streak of blemish in the moon... hail to thee... [a pa 1-3]

Comment: Krishna, earth, and wild boar are black, while boar's fang and crescentic moon like fang is white. While the earth is spinning on the tip of fang, its blackness is appearing as the deer mark in the moon. The earth is, in a way, a blemish to God for he created it, but it separated itself from him, and its inmates always do certain deeds that brings more blemish to him.

tava karakamalavare nakhamadbhutashR^i~Ngam | dalitahiraNyakashiputanubhR^i~Ngam ||
keshava dhR^itanarahariruupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-4

तव करकमलवरे नखमद्भुतशृङ्गम्। दलितहिरण्यकशिपुतनुभृङ्गम्॥
केशव धृतनरहरिरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-४
tava karakamalavare nakhamadbhutaśṛṅgam | dalitahiraṇyakaśiputanubhṛṅgam ||
keśava dhṛtanaraharirūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-4

words separated - tava - kara - kamala - vare - nakham - adbhuta - shR^i.ngam - dalita - hiraNyakashipu - tanu - bhR^i.ngam - keshava - dhR^ita - nara - hari - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - tava - kara - kamala - vare - nakham - adbhuta - śṛṁgam - dalita - hiraṇyakaśipu - tanu - bhṛṁgam - keśava - dhṛta - nara - hari - rūpa - jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-4. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+nara+hari+ruupa= on assuming, man, lion, form of; tava+kara+kamala+vare= in your, hand, [called] lotus, the best; dalita+ hiraNya kashipu + tanu = lacerated, Hiranyakashyapa's, body; bhR^iN^gam= [which is like a] honeybee; adbhuta+shR^iN^gam + nakham+ [bhaati]= wondrous, tip, of nail [thus those nails shine forth]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the form of man-lion, lacerated is the honeybee like body of demon Hiranyakashyapa just with the tips of fingernails of your hands, that are like best lotuses, thus those fingernails shine forth for their elimination of vice on earth, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-4]

Comment: It is usual for a honeybee to sting and lacerate delicate lotuses for nectar. But lotus lacerating thick-skinned honeybee is unusual. Though the palms of god are like delicate petals of lotus, they have very sharp and slashing tips of fingernails, like the claws of lion, only to bisect thick-skinned vice, called monstrosity. Hence those tips of fingernails ever shine forth as goodness against evil. alankaara - ruupaka

Chalayasi vikramaNe balimadbhutavaamana | padanakhaniirajanitajanapaavana ||
keshava dhR^itavaamanaruupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-5

छलयसि विक्रमणे बलिमद्भुतवामन। पदनखनीरजनितजनपावन॥
केशव धृतवामनरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-५
chalayasi vikramaṇe balimadbhutavāmana | padanakhanīrajanitajanapāvana ||
keśava dhṛtavāmanarūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-5

words separated - chhalayasi - vikramaNe - balim - adbhuta - vaamana - pada - nakha - niira - janita - jana - paavana - keshava - dhR^ita - vaamana - ruupa jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - chalayasi - vikramaṇe - balim - adbhuta - vāmana - pada - nakha - nīra - janita - jana - pāvana - keśava - dhṛta - vāmana - rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-5. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+vaamana+ruupa= assuming, dwarf's, mien; adbhuta+vaamana= astounding dwarf; pada+nakha= from foot's toenail; niira+ janita= water, emerged; jana+paavana= [which is] people, santifier; vikramaNe + balim + chhalayasi = by treading [three worlds,] Emperor Bali, is being deluded; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the mien of a dwarfish boy to tread all the three worlds in three steps, you became an astounding dwarf, and then emerged is the water from your foot's toenail, namely River Ganga, which became the sanctifier of people on earth, and you always delude people of anti-establishment like Emperor Bali with such an astounding treading of yours, hence hail to thee... [a pa 1-5]

Comment: When Vishnu incarnated himself as Vamana he seeks donation of a three-foot-space from Emperor Bali, and Bali being a no naysayer, accords it. Then the dwarf covers entire earth with one foot, entire heaven with the second, and asks Bali where to keep the third. Bali shows his head and the boy places his third foot on the head of Bali, subduing BaliBali's head, the sacred water on toenail poured by Brahma, rushed onto earth as River Ganga. Here the poet is saying that Bali is being deluded each time in each cycle of eras, as a present continuous action. to netherworlds. In doing so, when that dwarf boy raises his foot to cover heavens, his toenail goes straight to the presence of Brahma. Observing that toenail as his father Vishnu's toenail, Brahma anoints it with sacred waters. When that dwarf-boy withdraws his foot from heaven to place it on

kshatriyarudhiramaye jagadapagatapaapam | snapayasi payasi shamitabhavataapam |
keshava dhR^itabhR^ighupatiruupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-6

क्शत्रियरुधिरमये जगदपगतपापम्। स्नपयसि पयसि शमितभवतापम्।
केशव धृतभृघुपतिरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-६
kśatriyarudhiramaye jagadapagatapāpam | snapayasi payasi śamitabhavatāpam |
keśava dhṛtabhṛghupatirūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-6

words separated- kshatriya - rudhiramaye - jagat - apagata - paapam - snapayasi - payasi - shamita - bhava - taapam - keshava - dhR^ita - bhR^ighu - pati - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated- kśatriya - rudhiramaye - jagat - apagata - pāpam - snapayasi - payasi - śamita - bhava - tāpam - keśava - dhṛta - bhṛghu - pati - rūpa - jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-6. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+bhR^ighu+pati+ruupa= on assuming, sage Bhrigu's legatee [Parashu Rama,] saver, saviour's, mien; kshatriya+ rudhira+ maye= Kshatriya, blood of, filled with; payasi= in waters [pools of blood waters]; jagat= world [people]; shamita+bhava+taapam= ceased, worldly, torridity; apagata+paapam= swerved off, sin is; snapayasi= you make them to bathe [in blood pools of kings]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the mien of Parashu Rama, the saviour of the world, you have filled five pools with the blood of atrocious Kshatriya kings, thus ceased is the torridity of the worlds, and swerved are the sins of people, as you make them to bathe in those five pools of blood waters, called shamanta pancaka, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-6]

Comment: In this rasa - bhiibhasta; naayaka - dhiiroddhata; alankaara - svabhaavoktii are its aesthetics. (rasa - bhībhasta nāyaka - dhīroddhata alankāra - svabhāvoktī)

vitarasi dikshu raNe dikpatikamaniiyam | dashamukhamaulibalim ramaNiiyam ||
keshava dhR^itaraamashariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-7

वितरसि दिक्शु रणे दिक्पतिकमनीयम्। दशमुखमौलिबलिम् रमणीयम्॥
केशव धृतरामशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-७
vitarasi dikśu raṇe dikpatikamanīyam | daśamukhamaulibalim ramaṇīyam ||
keśava dhṛtarāmaśarīra jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-7

words separated - vitarasi - dikshu - raNe - dik - pati - kamaniiyam - dasha - mukha - mauli - balim - ramaNiiyam - keshava - dhR^ita - raama - shariira - jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - vitarasi - dikśu - raṇe - dik - pati - kamanīyam - daśa - mukha - mauli - balim - ramaṇīyam - keśava - dhṛta - rāma - śarīra - jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-7. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+raama+shariira= on assuming, Rama's, body; dikshu= in all directions, ten of them; dik+pati= direction, presiding deity of; kamaniiyam= desired by [those deities]; ramaNiiyam= heart-pleasing [act of]; dasha+mukha= ten, faced demon, octahedron Ravana's; mauli= heads; balim= sacrifice; raNe= in war; vitarasi = generously giving; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of the worlds, on your assuming the body of Rama, an act desired by each of the ten presiding deities of each direction of compass in all the ten directions, namely the sacrifice of ten heads of octahedron Ravana in war, and that heart-pleasing sacrifice you are offering in war ever and anon, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-7]

Comment: The act is heart pleasing because there are ten presiding deities of quarters and Ravana has ten heads, and the sacrifice is symmetrical; hence, heart pleasing to us, and even to those ten deities like Air-god, Fire-god, and Rain-god et al. Ravana was a terror to these ten gods. When Ravana comes out Air fears to be gusty, Fire become coolant, not a drop of Rain falls on his body - so says Ramayana. naayaka - dhirodaata; alankara - jaatyalankaara Next, though the incarnation of Krishna is to be eulogised as per rule raamo raamaH ca kR^iSNaH ca , but Bala Rama's incarnation is taken up, according to another flex of this rule vanjau vanjau kharvaH tri raamii sa tapo.atapaH And even non-Vedic Buddha is also narrated in here. Thus, the devotional scripts do not care for isms.

vahasi vapuSivishadevasanam jaladaabham | halahatibhiitimilitayamunaabham ||
keshava dhR^itahaladhararuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-8

वहसि वपुषिविशदेवसनम् जलदाभम्। हलहतिभीतिमिलितयमुनाभम्॥
केशव धृतहलधररूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-८
vahasi vapuṣiviśadevasanam jaladābham | halahatibhītimilitayamunābham ||
keśava dhṛtahaladhararūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-8

words separated - vahasi - vapuShi - vishade - vasanam - jalada - abham - hala - hati - bhiiti - milita - yamuna - aabham - keshava - dhR^ita - hala - dhara - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - vahasi - vapuṣi - viśade - vasanam - jalada - abham - hala - hati - bhīti - milita - yamuna - ābham - keśava - dhṛta - hala - dhara - rūpa - jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-8. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita= on assuming; hala+dhara+ ruupa = plough, wielder, form of; vishade+vapuShi= on whitish, body; jala+da+abham= water, giver [cloud,] in shine with; hala+hati+bhiiti+milita= by plough, hit, fear, blent with; yamuna + aabham = River Yamuna, in shine; vasanam+vahasi= raiemnt, you bear [you are clad in]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the body of Bala Rama, the wielder of plough, you are clad in blackish cloudlike raiment on your whitish body, and it is rippling like the ripples of River Yamuna, for she is hit by your plough and that fear is blent in her ripples, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-8]

Comment: Once Bala Rama laid hold of River Yamuna to gratify his desire and when she did not yield he beleaguers her. This is according to mythology. According to water management, he changed the course of her flow by digging a mammoth tunnel with his forceful plough for irrigation purposes. Thus, Yamuna is always fearful of Bala Rama, as she is unaware as to how many more tunnels he is going to dig and alter her course.

nindati yaGYavidherahaha shrutijaatam | sadayahR^idayadarshitapashughaatam ||
keshava dhR^itabuddhashariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-9

निन्दति यज्ञविधेरहह श्रुतिजातम्। सदयहृदयदर्शितपशुघातम्॥
केशव धृतबुद्धशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-९
nindati yajñavidherahaha śrutijātam | sadayahṛdayadarśitapaśughātam ||
keśava dhṛtabuddhaśarīra jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-9

words separated - nindati yaj~na vidheH - a ha ha - shruti jaatam sadaya hR^idaya darshita pashu ghaatam keshava dhR^ita buddha shariira jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - nindati yajña vidheḥ - a ha ha - śruti jātam sadaya hṛdaya darśita paśu ghātam keśava dhṛta buddha śarīra jaya jagadīśa hare

A1-9. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+buddha+shariira= on assuming, Buddha's, body; sa+daya+hR^idaya= with, kindness, in heart; darshita= shown [taught by scriptures]; pashu+ghaatam= animal, killing; yaj~na+vidheH= in Vedic-rituals, methods of; shruti+jaatam= scriptural words, collection of; nindati= fault-finding; a ha ha= aha, aha, aha [expression of surprise]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the body of kind-hearted Buddha, you are finding fault with the animal sacrifices in the methods of Vedic-rituals, taught by scriptures, and even with the collection of those scriptural words themselves, what a revamp in religious methods... aha, aha, aha, hail to thee... [A1-9]

mlecChanivahanidhane kalayasikaravaalam | dhuumaketumiva kimapikaraalam ||
keshava dhR^itakalkishariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-10

म्लेच्छनिवहनिधने कलयसिकरवालम्। धूमकेतुमिव किमपिकरालम्॥
केशव धृतकल्किशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-१०
mlecchanivahanidhane kalayasikaravālam | dhūmaketumiva kimapikarālam ||
keśava dhṛtakalkiśarīra jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-10

words separated - mlecCha nivaha nidhane kalayasi karavaalam dhuuma ketum iva kim api karaalam keshava dhR^ita kalki shariira jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated - mleccha nivaha nidhane kalayasi karavālam dhūma ketum iva kim api karālam keśava dhṛta kalki śarīra jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-10. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+kalki+shariira= on assuming, Kalki, body of; mlecCha+nivaha+nidhane= fractious, groups of race, in eliminating; dhuumaketum+iva= as with a comet, as with [or, dhuuma+ketu= smoke, as symbol; Kalki wields a sword and its golden handle is compared to burning fire, and bloodstained blade with red smoke]; karavaalam+ kalayasi= sword, you are brandishing; karaalam+kim+api= dreadful [deeds of yours,] why, even [tell about them, unimaginable to detail them]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the body of Kalki at the end of Kali-yuga, you are brandishing a sword like a comet to eliminate the groups of fractious races, and unimaginable are your horrendous deeds to detail, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-10]

Comment: The appearance of a comet in the sky is a bad omen and when that comet hits the earth it is still worse. And when Kalki brandishes his sword as gods brandish coments, it is unimaginable and that suggests the end of that era. naayaka - dhiirodaatta; rasa - bhayaanaka Next, the poet is mingling all of these incarnations into Krishna's incarnation, along with an appeal to listen to his poetry in his glory.

shriijayadevakaveridamuditamudaaram | shR^iNu sukhadam shubhadam bhavasaaram | keshava dhR^itadashavidharuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-11

श्रीजयदेवकवेरिदमुदितमुदारम्। शृणु सुखदम् शुभदम् भवसारम्।
केशव धृतदशविधरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-११
śrījayadevakaveridamuditamudāram | śṛṇu sukhadam śubhadam bhavasāram |
keśava dhṛtadaśavidharūpa jayajagadīśahare || a pa 1-11

words separated shrii jayadeva kaveH idam uditam udaaram shR^iNu sukha dam shubha dam bhava saaram keshava dhR^ita dasha vidha ruupa jaya jagadiisha hare

words separated śrī jayadeva kaveḥ idam uditam udāram śṛṇu sukha dam śubha dam bhava sāram keśava dhṛta daśa vidha rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare

a pa 1-11. shrii= deferential prefix to god, or, one who is with her, shrri - Goddess Lakshmi; keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+dasha+vidha+ruupa= one who can assume, ten, kinds, of forms; udaaram = excellent one; bhava+saaram= wordly life, having pith [to get release from it]; shubha+dam= wellbeing, giver [blissful]; sukha+dam= comfort, giver [blithesome]; idam= this; jayadeva+kaveH= Jayadeva, by poet; uditam= articulated by; shR^iNu= listen; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, shrii Keshava, the Almighty of worlds, as you can assume ten kinds of forms for the sake of humanity, pray, listen to this articulation of poet Jayadeva, which has an excellent pith and kernel of worldly living, and will be blissful and blithesome in getting a release from it, hail to thee... [a pa 1-11]

Comment: With this stanza the poet is dedicating his work in his god and asking him to bear testimony for his work. And if Krishna endorses his work, this will be as good as canonised by him, so that this work will become a valid devotional song. rasa - shaanta; alankaara - paryaayokti The poet is summarising all these incarnations that are so far said separately. This can be sung in maalava raaga; ruupaka taala. - Verse6#Verse6Verse Locator

vedaanuddharate jagannivahate bhuugolamudbibhrate
daityam daarayate balim chhalayate kshatrakshayam kur.hvate |
paulastyam jayate halam kalayate kaaruNyamaatanvate
mlechchhaanmuurchchhayate dashaakR^itikR^ite kR^ishhNaaya tubhyam namaH || 1-5

वेदानुद्धरते जगन्निवहते भूगोलमुद्बिभ्रते
दैत्यम् दारयते बलिम् छलयते क्शत्रक्शयम् कुर्‌वते।
पौलस्त्यम् जयते हलम् कलयते कारुण्यमातन्वते
म्लेच्छान्मूर्च्छयते दशाकृतिकृते कृष्णाय तुभ्यम् नमः॥ १-५
vedānuddharate jagannivahate bhūgolamudbibhrate
daityam dārayate balim chalayate kśatrakśayam kurvate |
paulastyam jayate halam kalayate kāruṇyamātanvate
mlecchānmūrcchayate daśākṛtikṛte kṛṣṇāya tubhyam namaḥ || 1-5

words separated - vedaan ud dharate jagat nivahate bhuu golam ud bibhrate daityam daarayate balim cChalayate kshatra kshayam kur.hvate paulastyam jayate halam kalayate kaaruNyam aatanvate mlecChaan muurcChayate dasha akR^iti kR^ite kR^iShNaaya tubhyam namaH

words separated - vedān ud dharate jagat nivahate bhū golam ud bibhrate daityam dārayate balim cchalayate kśatra kśayam kurvate paulastyam jayate halam kalayate kāruṇyam ātanvate mlecchān mūrcchayate daśa akṛti kṛte kṛṣṇāya tubhyam namaḥ

1-5. vedaan+uddharate= Veda-s, one who revives; jagat+nivahate= world, one who bears up; bhuu+golam+ut+bibhrate= eath, globe of, up, lifted to support; daityam+daarayate= demon [Hiranya kashyapa,] one who slashed; balim+cChalayate= Bali, one who deluded; kshatra+kshayam+kurvate= Kshatriya-s, annihilation, one who does; paulastyam+jayate= Pulasya's legatee, Ravana, one who conquers; halam+kalayate= plough, one who wields; kaaruNyam+ aatanvate= pity [non-violence,] one who fosters; mlecChaan+muurcChayate= fractious races, one makes them to swoon [mangler of]; dasha+akR^iti+ kR^ite= ten, semblances, one who puts on; kR^iShNaaya+tubhyam+namaH= [such as he is] Krishna, for you, my reverence.

The reviver of Veda-s as a fish, bearer of this earth as tortoise, uplifter and supporter of earth as wild boar, slasher of Hiranyakashyapa as lion-man, deluder of Bali as dwarf-boy, annihilator of Kshatriya-s as Parashu Rama, conqueror of Ravana, the legatee of Paulastya, as Rama, wielder of plough as Bala Rama, fosterer of non-violence as Buddha, mangler of fractious races as Kalki, and as you alone can put on ten semblances, thus oh, Krishna, my reverences are unto you... [1-5]

Comment: In all the incarnations Vishnu has not taken a selfsame physique excepting in Krishna incarnation. Vishnu will be in his milky abode and Krishna is brought up in a milky environ. Vishnu comfortably reclines on Thousand-hooded serpent, while Krishna has never been in any uncomfortable position like Rama, Parashu Rama, and Vishnu has three wives whereas Krishna is having eight of them, so on and so forth. Hence, the poet is focussing his attention on Krishna alone. alankaara - diipaka; cChandam - kiiti dhavala; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. With this, the auspicious beginning of the poetic work is over and he is entering into the subject matter of this work. In the next verse, the poet is extolling his lead character Krishna's attributes and endowments. At times some biblical usage of words is adopted, as expressions like 'you, your, you will always be doing...' are somehow dissatisfactory.

Verse Locator

aSTa padi 2 - hari vijaya mangalaa caraNa

aṣṭa padi 2 - hari vijaya mangalā caraṇa

shritakamalaakuchamaNDala dhR^itakuNDala e |
kalitalalitavanamaala jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-1

श्रितकमलाकुचमण्डल धृतकुण्डल ए।
कलितललितवनमाल जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-१
śritakamalākucamaṇḍala dhṛtakuṇḍala e |
kalitalalitavanamāla jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-1

words separated - shrita kamalaa kucha maNDala dhR^ita kuNDala e kalita lalita vanamaala jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - śrita kamalā kuca maṇḍala dhṛta kuṇḍala e kalita lalita vanamāla jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-1. jaya= hail; shrita= sheltered [whorled, embraced]; kamalaa= Goddess Lakshmi’s [where kamalam is lotus, one who abides in lotus]; kucha+maNDala= bosomy, roundlets, bust; dhR^ita= bedecked; kuNDala= ear-knobs; e= this is aalaapana and can be taken as a an addressing, or as ye = he who is wearing; this is musicians delight and dropped in dance treatises]; kalita= adorned with; lalita= exquisite; vanamaala = garland knotted with Tulasi, Ocimum sanctum, basil, leaves and other flowers; deva= one who accords felicity; hare= Hari, viz., one who steals sins of adherers, here, Krishna; jaya= hail to thee.

Hail thee… for thine chest is ever whorled and embraced by Goddess Lakshmi with her bosomy bust, and which chest is ever adorned with an unfading garland of basil leaves and flowers that dangles unto thy knee, and thine ears ever bedecked with golden knobby ear-hangings, studded with nine jewels, thus to thee, the felicitous sin remover, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-1]

Comment: At the very start of extolling his hero of his poetic work, the poet has gone straight to the bosomy busts of hero’s consort, and to hear this, it primarily appears to be an erotic word, and if the hearer happens to be an Oedipus, he will be excited even by his mother’s mammaries. But here Goddess Lakshmi is the Supreme Mother and she has Divine mammae, and let millions and millions take birth, she can feed them, indefatigably. Similar is the word used for Lalita in Lalita sahasra naamaavali - kaThina sthana maNDalaa… as one among many of her motherly attributes.

Here she is abiding in the lotus-like heart of Vishnu, say Krishna, thus undifferentiated are the chests, either as that of a male or as the bust of a female. She is said to be shrita - whorled around him like a climbing plant onto a tree. So, the poet attempts to distinguish which is which, and says that he is wearing a garland of basil leaves and flowers, which he alone wears, hence recognise him as Krishna. Because he is so tightly embraced by the personified fortune, he is not becoming a pauper and he is even capable of endowing shelter under that absolute fortune to his devotees, called aashraya - Niiyatvam. So, anyone can seek for his shelter, and he is called shrayaH patiH - Omni-shelterer, again under the aegis of Goddess Lakshmi. And vanamaala indicates hale and healthiness, thus ready to spring to his feet in the period of crisis, i.e., Omnipotent. Ear-knobs indicate learnedness, for they were accorded according to one’s own scholarliness, called makara kuNDala, candra kuNDala, like the present day graduate gowns and headgears. Hence, this is indicative of his Omniscience.

Envisioning Krishna from top to toe indicates his supreme and auspicious physique divya mangala vigraha - besides deified fortune is in his heart. Hence he alone is adorable.

dinamaNiimaNdalamaNDana bhavakhaNDana e |
munijanamaanasaha.nsa jaya jayadeva hare || a pa 2-2

दिनमणीमण्दलमण्डन भवखण्डन ए।
मुनिजनमानसहंस जय जयदेव हरे॥ अ प २-२
dinamaṇīmaṇdalamaṇḍana bhavakhaṇḍana e |
munijanamānasahaṁsa jaya jayadeva hare || a pa 2-2

words separated - dina maNi maNdala maNDana bhava khaNDana muni jana maanasa hamsa jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - dina maṇi maṇdala maṇḍana bhava khaṇḍana muni jana mānasa hamsa jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-2. jaya= hail; dina+maNi+maNdala= day’s, jewel, namely sun, his sphere [in solar system]; maNDana= an embellisher; bhava+khaNDana= present world [karmic cycle,] one who whittles; muni+jana= for saintly, people; maanasa= mind [called, maanasa sarovar]; hansa= a swan; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… though yond and yonder, thou art functional from within the solar system, where that sun is just a gem of solar system, while thou art an embellisher of that system in its entirety, and as a swan swims in maanasa sarovar, a blissful lake in Himalayas, thou swimmest in the minds of saintly people, thus whittle, whittle the karmic cycles of thy saintly devotees, thus to thee, the felicitous sin remover, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-2]

Comment: This connotes Vedic import in saying that Supreme Person, who is far beyond the solar orbit, but functional through solar system. In iishaavaasyopanishad, at hymn 15, we hear the following mantra, hymn.

` ihr{Myye paÇSyaipiht muom!, tt! Tvm! pU;n! Apa

AUM hiraNmyaye paatrasyaapihita mukham |
tat tvam puuSan apaa.nvR^iNu satya dharmaaya dR^iSTaye ||

इह्र्ंय्ये पष्यैपिह्त् मुम् त्त् ट्व्म् पून् आप
ihrṁyye paṣyaipiht muom tt ṭvm pūn āpa

ॐ हिरण्म्यये पात्रस्यापिहित मुखम्।
तत् त्वम् पूषन् अपांवृणु सत्य धर्माय दृष्टये॥
om hiraṇmyaye pātrasyāpihita mukham |
tat tvam pūṣan apāṁvṛṇu satya dharmāya dṛṣṭaye ||

hiraNmayeNa+paatreNa= by golden, disc like lid; satyasya= of truth; apihitam= covered; mukham= face of; tat+tvat= that, your; apaavR^iNu= slide aside; satya+dharmaaya= I as truthful, righteous one; dR^iSTaye= to visualise, [that which is beyond you.]

On looking at the rising red sun, the devotee is asking "Oh! Pooshan! God Sun, nourisher of the universe, the trueness of the Supreme Person is covered by your golden disk like lid, i.e., your Solar disk, slide it aside, for as a truthful and righteous devotee, I aspire to visualise that which is beyond your golden Solar disc…

The jewel of the day etc., indicate while sun is a friendly entity to humans, Krishna is far more friendlier to them, as he has sthira sakhitvam - ever friendly like sun; saamarthyam - capability to alleviate from the troubles of karmic cycles; sat sahavaasam - amiable fraternity.

Extolling him in this way indicates that he alone has accorded release to many a saintly soul. Hence, he alone is to be venerated for he not only accords deliverance, but also becomes a blissful partner during lifetime.

kaaliyavishhadharaga~njana janaraJNjana e |
yadukulanalinadinesha jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-3

कालियविषधरगञ्जन जनरञ्जन ए।
यदुकुलनलिनदिनेश जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-३
kāliyaviṣadharagañjana janarañjana e |
yadukulanalinadineśa jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-3

words separated - kaaliya viSha dhara ga.njana jana ra.njana yadu kula nalina dina iisha jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - kāliya viṣa dhara gaṁjana jana raṁjana yadu kula nalina dina īśa jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-3. jaya= hail; kaaliya= one called Kaaliiya, multi-hooded serpent; viSha+dhara= venom, bearer of; ganjana = abominator of; jana+ranjana= people, fascinator of; yadu+kula= Yadu, lineage; nalina= [called] lotus; dina+iisha= day, ruler of; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the abominator of venomous multi-hooded serpent, called Kaaliiya, thus thou fascinate people, and as the sun makest a lotus abloom, thus to thee, the bloomer of lotus called Yadu’s lineage, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-3]

Comment: His capability in abominating and eradicating enemies, thereby his gladdening the panicked friends, his impeccable lineage are extolled, thus the attributes of hero of the poetic are sublime, as they are uttama naayaka lakshaNa.

This serpent is eliminated in his incarnation of Krishna, thus he incarnates himself n earth to save people from the torture imposed by certain negative forces. Therefore he alone is worship-worthy, for he incarnates himself.

madhumuranarakavinaashana garuDaasana e |
surakulakelinidaana jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-4

मधुमुरनरकविनाशन गरुडासन ए।
सुरकुलकेलिनिदान जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-४
madhumuranarakavināśana garuḍāsana e |
surakulakelinidāna jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-4

words separated - madhu mura naraka vinaashana garuDa aasana sura kula keli nidaana jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - madhu mura naraka vināśana garuḍa āsana sura kula keli nidāna jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-4. jaya= hail; madhu+mura+naraka= Madhu, Mura, Naraka demons; vinaashana = annihilator of; garuDa+ aasana= Garuda, the Divine Eagle, as your seat [ as vehicle]; sura+ kula= gods, stock of; keli= disporting; nidaana= prime cause; jaya jayadeva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the annihilator of endangering demons like Madhu, Mura, and Naraka, and thou art fleetest while sitting on thine fleetly Divine Eagle Garuda, thus to thee, the prime causer of unhindered disporting for the stock of devout divinities, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-4]

Comment: Even if he does not incarnate manifestly, he is kind enough to eliminate evildoers like these demons, hence he is dependable for unforeseen calamities.

amalakamaladalalochana bhavamochan e |
tribhuvanabhavananidhaana jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-5

अमलकमलदललोचन भवमोचन् ए।
त्रिभुवनभवननिधान जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-५
amalakamaladalalocana bhavamocan e |
tribhuvanabhavananidhāna jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-5

words separated - amala kamala dala lochana bhava mochana tri bhuvana bhavana nidhaana jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - amala kamala dala locana bhava mocana tri bhuvana bhavana nidhāna jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-5. jaya= hail; a+mala= not, blemished [dispassionate, unbigoted]; kamala+dala= white-lotus, petal [like]; lochana= eyed one; bhava+mochan= mundane life, releaser; tri+ bhuvana = triad, of worlds; bhavana= becoming, [manifestation]; nidhaana= prime cause [or, as in other mms: tri+bhuvana = triad of worlds]; bhavana= called a housing; nidhaana= in-dweller, or a treasure trove; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the prime cause for the manifestation of a housing for the triad of worlds, thus to thee, the releaser of devotees from their mundane existence with thine eyes, that are like petals of white-lotus, unbigoted, and impartial, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-5]

Comment: Because the hero is said to be the releaser or saviour his attribute is parama aananda lakshaNa, everlasting blissfulness.

janakasutaakR^itabhuuShaNa jitaduushhaNa e |
samarashamitadashakhaNTha jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-6

जनकसुताकृतभूषण जितदूषण ए।
समरशमितदशखण्ठ जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-६
janakasutākṛtabhūṣaṇa jitadūṣaṇa e |
samaraśamitadaśakhaṇṭha jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-6

words separated - janaka sutaa kR^ita bhuuShaNa jita duushhaNa samara shamita dasha khaNTha jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - janaka sutā kṛta bhūṣaṇa jita dūṣaṇa samara śamita daśa khaṇṭha jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-6. jaya= hail; janaka+sutaa= Janaka’s, daughter, Seetha; kR^ita+bhuuShaNa= made you, as an ornament; jita+ duuShANa= conquered [mitigated,] Dushana is; samara+ shamita = in war, mollified; dasha+khaNTha= ten, throated one, octahedron Ravana; jaya jayadeva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for Janaka’s daughter Seetha made thee as her pendant ornament, for thou repose on her bust, thus to thee, the mitigator of demon Dushana and the mollifier of octahedral Ravana, hail to thee… [a pa 2-6]

Comment: There is another shade for ‘an ornament to Seetha…’ Rama decorates and paints foliate designs on the body of Seetha, with an erasable tattooing. When Seetha was ill at ease to wear sari of an anchoress, when given by Kaikeyi, Rama demonstrates the folding, tying, and wearing of that dress. Thus by these two, the hero is qualified not only as a romantic hero, but a knower of all arts sarva kalaa vishaarada, and even as a brave and bold enemy subjugator, by way of releasing Dushana from mortality kaaruNya bhaava, and by mollifying the self-conceit of Ravana, taaruNya bhaava are indicated.

abhinavajaladharasundara dhR^itamandara e |
shriimukhachandrachakora jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-7

अभिनवजलधरसुन्दर धृतमन्दर ए।
श्रीमुखचन्द्रचकोर जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-७
abhinavajaladharasundara dhṛtamandara e |
śrīmukhacandracakora jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-7

words separated - abhinava jala dhara sundara dhR^ita mandara shrii mukha chandra chakora jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - abhinava jala dhara sundara dhṛta mandara śrī mukha candra cakora jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-7. jaya= hail; abhinava= freshly new; jala+dhara= water, bearer [black cloud]; sundara= handsome; dhR^ita + mandara= sustainer, of Mt. Mandara, or Manthara; shrii+mukha= Goddess Lakshmi’s, face; chandra+ chakora= moon, chakora bird; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art handsome like a fresh and new vapourish blue-black cloud, yet thou sustained voluminous Mt. Mandara when Milky Ocean was churned, and yet thou art like a small chakora bird that gazes at the moon to swill its shine, thus to thee, who gazes at the moonlike face of Goddess Lakshmi, to swill her sheen, hail to thee… a pa [2-7]

Comment: So far the personality of Supreme Person is portrayed with his attributes and endowments svaruupa ruupa guNa vibhuuti and now the poet is appealing on his own, and on behalf of fellow devotees to bestow beneficence.

tavacaraNe praNataavayamiti bhaavaya e |
kurukushalam praNateShu jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-8

तवचरणे प्रणतावयमिति भावय ए।
कुरुकुशलम् प्रणतेषु जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-८
tavacaraṇe praṇatāvayamiti bhāvaya e |
kurukuśalam praṇateṣu jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-8

words separated - tava caraNe praNataa vayam iti bhaavaya kuru kushalam praNateShu jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - tava caraṇe praṇatā vayam iti bhāvaya kuru kuśalam praṇateṣu jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2- 8. jaya= hail; hare= oh, Krishna; tava+caraNe+praNataa= at your, feet, adoring; vayam= we are; iti+ bhaavaya= thus, you deem; kuru+kushalam= make happen, blessing; praNateShu= among adorers; jaya deva= as above.

Hail to thee, oh, Krishna, deem that we are adoring your own feet and none else, thus let your adorers be blest by your blessing, and thus, oh, felicitous sin remover, hail to thee… [a pa 2-8]

Comment: This verse may not be found in other mms. Next the poet is taking up the closing verse of this eight-foot verse - aSTa padi.

shriijayadevakaveridam kurute mudam e |
ma~Ngalamujjvalagiitam jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-9

श्रीजयदेवकवेरिदम् कुरुते मुदम् ए।
मङ्गलमुज्ज्वलगीतम् जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २-९
śrījayadevakaveridam kurute mudam e |
maṅgalamujjvalagītam jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-9

words separated - shrii jayadeva kaveH idam kurute mudam ma.ngalam ujjvala giitam jaya jaya deva hare

words separated - śrī jayadeva kaveḥ idam kurute mudam maṁgalam ujjvala gītam jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-9. shrii+hare= oh, Shri Krishna; ujjvala= brilliant; giitam [or, giiti]= song; idam+jayadeva+ kaveH= this one, by Jayadeva, poet; maN^galam= auspicious [te= to you]; mudam+kurute= rejoice, making; jaya jaya deva= hail, hail, oh, god. Or idam+mangalm+ giitam= this, auspicious, song; jayadeva + kaveH+mudam+kurute= to Jayadeva, poet, rejoice, causing; Or te+mangala+giitam= on you, auspicious, song; jayadeva+kaveH= of Jayadeva, poet; mangalam+ kurute = auspiciousness, causing [to singers and listeners]

Oh, Shri Krishna, let this brilliant song on you, rendered by poet Jayadeva, be auspicious and rejoicing to you, hail, hail to thee, oh, god…

Oh, Shri Krishna, this brilliant and auspicious song rendered on you, is rejoicing the poet Jayadeva, hail, hail to thee, oh, god…

Oh, Shri Krishna, let this brilliant and auspicious song on you, rendered by poet Jayadeva, be auspicious and rejoicing to the singers and listeners as well, hail, hail to thee, oh, god… [a pa 2-9]

Comment: This is sung in bhairavi raaga - tripuTa taala; chandas - mangala; naayaka lakshaNa - dhiira lalita, shR^ingaari; taala - lalita; aalaapana - e is available at the end o each foot. (bhairavi rāga - tripuṭa tāla candas - mangala nāyaka lakśaṇa - dhīra lalita śṛngāri tāla - lalita ālāpana)

Verse Locator

padmaapayodharataTiiparirambhalagna kaashmiiramudritamuro madhusuudanasya | vyaktaanuraagamiva kheladana~Ngakheda svedaa.mbupuuramanupuurayatu priyam vaH || 1-6

पद्मापयोधरतटीपरिरम्भलग्न काश्मीरमुद्रितमुरो मधुसूदनस्य।
व्यक्तानुरागमिव खेलदनङ्गखेद स्वेदांबुपूरमनुपूरयतु प्रियम् वः॥ १-६
padmāpayodharataṭīparirambhalagna kāśmīramudritamuro madhusūdanasya |
vyaktānurāgamiva kheladanaṅgakheda svedāṁbupūramanupūrayatu priyam vaḥ || 1-6

words separated - padmaa payo dhara taTii pari ra.mbha lagna kaashmiira mudritam uraH madhu suudanasya vyakta anuraagam iva khelat ana.nga kheda sveda a.mbu puuram anupuurayatu priyam vaH

words separated - padmā payo dhara taṭī pari raṁbha lagna kāśmīra mudritam uraḥ madhu sūdanasya vyakta anurāgam iva khelat anaṁga kheda sveda aṁbu pūram anupūrayatu priyam vaḥ

1-6. padmaa= Goddess Lakshmi's; payaH+dhara= milk, bearers - bosoms; taTii= perimeter; parirambha= on embracing [pari= in overarching manner; rabh= embracing;] lagna= touched [speckled]; kaashmiira= saffron [vermilion mark on forehead]; mudritam= imprinted; vyakta+anuraagam+iva= manifest, fondness, like [heartily fondness]; khelat= pulsating [twinkling]; ananga+kheda= by plays of passion, strained; sveda+ambu+puuram = sweat, water [drops,] filled with [pour forth, hR^idaya anuraagam iva= heartily fondness like]; madhu suudanasya= demon Madhu, eliminator of [Krishna's]; uraH= chest; vaH= you all [naH= us also]; anupuurayatu= will accord fulfilment; priyam [a + priyam]= likes [and dislikes.]

On tightly embracing the perimeter of Lakshmi's bosom, speckled is her forehead's vermilion mark on his chest, and it is twinkling like an imprint for his heartily fondness that is about to manifest, but sealed by this mark, and he is strained by the plays of passion, thus his chest is pouring forth sweat, as though it is his heartily fondness for her and for all us, hence let that chest of Krishna accord fulfilment to our likes and dislikes... [1-6]

Comment: Why his heart should bless us when he has four hands, of which one is said to be a blessing hand? There will be three items of annihilation, namely disc, mace, and conch in three hands and the fourth is said to be abhaya hasta blessing hand. Is it withdrawn or what? Not so, that blessing hand is symbolic one when he alone functions. Here his chest is now under the auspices of Lakshmi, and thus both of them are blessing - a double blessing. She knows that his heart feels fondness for anyone, but she is unbothered if that fondness is for some devotee. It will be bothersome if this god brings in another ladylove, apart from those that are already available. So, a seal is sealed, mudritam on his heart with her vermilion mark, kumkuma, tilaka. By her doubting, we must infer that he has 'such a fondness' for not only for Rukmini and Satyabhama and the like, but even more for Raadha.

This is for establishing the poetics about the hero. naayika - mugdha; naayaka - kushala; rasa - srinngaara; alankaara - utpreksha, aashiis, anupraasa; vasanta tilaka is its metre. Next, Raadha's disposition is being narrated according to poetics, as she is the leading lady of this work.

Verse Locator

vasante vaasantiikusumasukumaarairavayavaiH
bhramantiim kaantaare bahuvihitakR^iSNaanusaraNaam |
amandam kandarpajvarajanitachintaakulatayaa
valadbaadhaam raadhaam sarasamidamuche sahacharii || 1-7

वसन्ते वासन्तीकुसुमसुकुमारैरवयवैः
भ्रमन्तीम् कान्तारे बहुविहितकृष्णानुसरणाम्।
अमन्दम् कन्दर्पज्वरजनितचिन्ताकुलतया
वलद्बाधाम् राधाम् सरसमिदमुचे सहचरी॥ १-७
vasante vāsantīkusumasukumārairavayavaiḥ
bhramantīm kāntāre bahuvihitakṛṣṇānusaraṇām |
amandam kandarpajvarajanitacintākulatayā
valadbādhām rādhām sarasamidamuce sahacarī || 1-7

words separated - vasante vaasantii kusuma sukumaaraiH avayavaiH bhramantiim kaantaare bahu vihita kR^iSNa anusaraNaam amandam kandarpa jvara janita chinta aakulatayaa valad baadhaam raadhaam sa rasam idam uche saha charii

words separated - vasante vāsantī kusuma sukumāraiḥ avayavaiḥ bhramantīm kāntāre bahu vihita kṛṣṇa anusaraṇām amandam kandarpa jvara janita cinta ākulatayā valad bādhām rādhām sa rasam idam uce saha carī

1-7. vasante= in spring season; kandarpa+jvara+janita= by Love-god's, fever, caused by [caused by spring fever]; chinta+aakulatayaa= by anguish, disquieted; valat [calat]+ baadhaam = recurrently, distraught [Raadha]; vaasantii+kusuma= [delicate] vernal, flower [like]; sukumaaraiH+avayavaiH= with dainty, limbed [physique]; bhramantiim+kaantaare= meandering, in woodlands; bahu+vihita= in many [ways,] make happen [the search]; kR^iShaNa + anu saraNaam = Krishna's, one who is following [searching]; raadhaam= to Raadha; sahacharii= girlfriend; sa+rasam = with, romanticism [romantically]; a+mandam= not, slowly [quickly]; idam+uuche= this, said.

In spring season Krishna is playing truant with her, thus she is disquieted by the anguish caused by the spring fever, that which is ignited by Love-god, and thus she is recurrently distraught, and thus she is meandering in woodlands with her daintily limbed physique, similar to a delicate reddish vernal flower, and thus as a searcher for Krishna she searched for him in many a way, but in vain, and to such a Raadha, her girlfriend said this quickly, yet romantically... [1-7]

Comment: Because the hero has not come to her, in spite of her earnest longing, hence the heroine is viraha utkaNThita. A hero having uniform interest in all of his women is dakshiNa naayaka; sringaaram - vipralambha; riiti - vaidarbhi; alankaara - vR^itti anupraasa lupta upama; vR^ittam - sikhiriNi - is the metre of this verse. (dakśiṇa nāyaka sringāram - vipralambha rīti - vaidarbhi alankāra - vṛtti anuprāsa lupta upama vṛttam - sikhiriṇi)

Verse Locator

aSTa padi -3 maadhava utsava kamalaakaram

aṣṭa padi -3 mādhava utsava kamalākaram

lalitalava~Ngalataaparishiilanakomalamalayasamiire | madhukaranikarakarambitakokilakuujitaku~njakuTiire |

viharati haririha sarasavasante | nR^ityati yuvatijanena samam sakhi
- virahijanasya durante - dhR^ivam || a pa 3-1

विहरति हरिरिह सरसवसन्ते। नृत्यति युवतिजनेन समम् सखि
- विरहिजनस्य दुरन्ते - धृवम्॥ अ प ३-१
lalitalavaṅgalatāpariśīlanakomalamalayasamīre |
madhukaranikarakarambitakokilakūjitakuñjakuṭīre |
viharati haririha sarasavasante | nṛtyati yuvatijanena samam sakhi
- virahijanasya durante - dhṛvam || a pa 3-1

words separated - lalita lava.nga lataa parishiilana komala malaya samiire madhukara nikara karambita kokila kuujita ku.nja kuTiire viharati hariH iha sa rasa vasante nR^ityati yuvatii janena samam sakhi virahi janasya durante

words separated - lalita lavaṁga latā pariśīlana komala malaya samīre madhukara nikara karambita kokila kūjita kuṁja kuṭīre viharati hariḥ iha sa rasa vasante nṛtyati yuvatī janena samam sakhi virahi janasya durante

a pa 3-1. lalita+lavanga+lataa= slimly, clove gillyflower plants, tendrils of; parishiilana= [lexically] on examining, [interwoven with their fragrance]; komala= gentle; malaya+samiire= Mt. Malaya [with sandalwood trees] breezes; madhu+kara+nikara= honey, makers [honey bees] swarms of; karambita= intermingled with; kokila+kuujita= by Kokila [black singing bird] crooned; kunja+kuTiire= bowery, in cabins;

vi+rahi= without, having [their lovers, estranged couples]; janasya= of people; dur+ ante = non, stop endless, incessant [unrequited]; [ellipted] vasante= in springtime; - unrequited are lovelorn people in vernal season; or, dur+ante+vasante= for adverse, end, to spring fever = terminable is spring fever; in spring alone the unrequitedness of lovelorn people is terminable; lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise; hariH - iha - 1 sa - ra - 2 sa - vasante

saH= he, [for whom you are searching; where the second sa became saH; saH vasante viharati nR^ityati ca]; hariH= Hari, Krishna; vasante= in spring season; yuvatii+janena= with girls of age, folks; samam= even as [at the very moment]; viharati+nR^ityati= frolicking, dancing; sakhi = oh, dear; sara= come on [when the first sa with ra became sara = move on, come on]

sa+mam= with, glory [gloriously]; yuvati+jane+nR^ityati= with girls of age, folks of, dances; sa+rasa+vante [vasante] = with sapful bliss, inclusive of [spring season that which contains the sapful bliss]; na= isn't he [phatic expression minus ? mark]; virahati= frolicking.

Now the gentle breezes with scents of sandalwood from Mt. Malaya, the abode of sandalwood trees, on swivelling round the tendrils of clove gillyflower plants, they are gently breezing, interwoven with both the fragrances... bowery cabins are intermingled with the buzzes of swarms of honeybees and with the croons of Kokila-s... and he for whom you are searching, that Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring, isn't it... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-1]

Comment: Here the heroine compared to clove plant and hero to breeze, hence - uddipana vibhaava - an idea escalated.

unmadamadanamanorathapathikavadhuujanajanitavilaape | alikulasa.nkulakusumasamuuhaniraakulabakulakalaape || a pa 3-2

अलिकुलसंकुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे॥ अ प ३-२
unmadamadanamanorathapathikavadhūjanajanitavilāpe |
alikulasaṁkulakusumasamūhanirākulabakulakalāpe || a pa 3-2

words separated - ut mada madana manoratha pathika vadhuu jana janita vilaape ali kula sa.nkula kusuma samuuha niraakula bakula kalaape

words separated - ut mada madana manoratha pathika vadhū jana janita vilāpe ali kula saṁkula kusuma samūha nirākula bakula kalāpe

3-2. ut+mada= heightened, rejoice; madana+manoratha= lust, longings [lustfulness]; pathika= of itinerants; vadhuu+jana= women, folks of; janita+vilaape= caused, ruefulness; ali+kula= by honeybee, stock of [swarms of]; sankula= hurley-burley; kusuma+samuuha= flowers, groups of [bunches of]; niraakula= full of; vakula= Mimusops elengi, any of various acacia plants with showy yellow flowers; kalaape= in thickets; annexable - hariH iha viharati ... durante.

Now the swarms of honeybees are hurley-burley on the bunches of flowers, and the thickets of spring are full with showy yellow flowers, thereby heightened will be the rejoice and longings of womenfolk of itinerants, but this paraphernalia of spring alone causes ruefulness and spring fever in them, but Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-2]

mR^igamadasaurabharabhasavasha.nvadanavadalamaalatamaale | yuvajanahR^idayavidaaraNamanasijanakharuchiki.nshukajaale || a pa 3-3

युवजनहृदयविदारणमनसिजनखरुचिकिंशुकजाले॥ अ प ३-३
mṛgamadasaurabharabhasavaśaṁvadanavadalamālatamāle |
yuvajanahṛdayavidāraṇamanasijanakharucikiṁśukajāle || a pa 3-3

words separated - mR^iga mada saurabha rabhasa vasha.nvada nava dala maala tamaale yuva jana hR^idaya vidaaraNa manasija nakha ruchi ki.nshuka jaale

words separated - mṛga mada saurabha rabhasa vaśaṁvada nava dala māla tamāle yuva jana hṛdaya vidāraṇa manasija nakha ruci kiṁśuka jāle

a pa 3-3. mR^iga= deer; mada= fat [musk]; saurabha= of fragrance; rabhasa= speediness [instantaneous]; vashanvada= self-surrendered [one's own]; nava+dala= new, tender leaves having; maala= enwreathing [the environ]; tamaale= having Tamaala trees; yuva+jana= young, people's; hR^idaya+vidaaraNa= heart, rending; manasi+ja= of mind, born one, [Love-god, for he takes birth in one's own mind]; nakha= of nails; ruchi= in shine with; kinshuka= Butea frondosa, with blood red flowers; jaale= bunches of; annexable - hariH iha viharati...durante.

Now the black Tamaala trees are enwreathing the environs with their new tender leaves that have their own fragrance, like that of the instantaneous fragrance of deer's musk, and those blackish Tamaala trees have bunches of reddish flowers, that are like the tender and roseate nails of Love-god, that rend the hearts of youngsters of age, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-3]

madanamahiipatikanakadaNDaruchikesarakusumavikaase | militashiliimukhapaaTalipaTalakR^itasmaratuuNavilaase || a pa 3-4

मिलितशिलीमुखपाटलिपटलकृतस्मरतूणविलासे॥ अ प ३-४
madanamahīpatikanakadaṇḍarucikesarakusumavikāse |
militaśilīmukhapāṭalipaṭalakṛtasmaratūṇavilāse || a pa 3-4

words separated - madana mahii pati kanaka daNDa ruchi kesara kusuma vikaase milita shilii mukha paaTali paTala kR^ita smara tuuNa vilaase

words separated - madana mahī pati kanaka daṇḍa ruci kesara kusuma vikāse milita śilī mukha pāṭali paṭala kṛta smara tūṇa vilāse

a pa 3-4. madana= Love-god; mahii+pati= land, lord [king]; kanaka= golden; daNDa= sceptre; ruchi= in shine with; keshara+kusuma= Kesara [Mimisops elangi] flowers; vikaase= bloomed; milita = commingled; shilii+mukha= iron, faced = arrow / honeybee [bees are metaphorical to the arrows of Love-god, shliSTa ruupaka]; paaTali+paTala= cup like daffodil flowers, bunches of; kR^ita= made as [rendered as]; smara = Love-god's; tuuNa+vilaase= quiver, in fashion of.

Now the bloomed golden flowers of Kesara are in shine with the sheen of the sceptre of kingly Love-god, the ruler of spring, and the bunches of cup like daffodils are in the fashion with his quivers, and the bees swarming on flowers are rendered as the arrows of that Love-god, bolted on unrequited love pairs in this season, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-4]

Comment: The Love-god, Manmatha, has only one quiver and one bow, and only five flower arrows - aravindam, ashokam, cuutam, nava mallika, niilotpala - but here they get multiplied as the love-pairs are many.

vigalitalajjitajagadavalokanataruNakaruNakR^itahaase | virahinikR^intanakuntamukhaakR^itiketakadanturitaashe || a pa 3-5

विरहिनिकृन्तनकुन्तमुखाकृतिकेतकदन्तुरिताशे॥ अ प ३-५
vigalitalajjitajagadavalokanataruṇakaruṇakṛtahāse |
virahinikṛntanakuntamukhākṛtiketakadanturitāśe || a pa 3-5

padacChjeda - vigalita lajjita jagat avalokana taruNa karuNa kR^ita haase virahi nikR^intana kunta mukha aakR^iti ketaka danturita ashe

padacchjeda - vigalita lajjita jagat avalokana taruṇa karuṇa kṛta hāse virahi nikṛntana kunta mukha ākṛti ketaka danturita aśe

a pa 3-5. virahi= lovelorn ones; vi+galita= completely, tumbled [utterly bereft of]; lajjita= having prudishness; jagat= world [lovelorn people]; avalokana= on espying; taruNa+ karuNa= tender, whitish Karuna flowers; kR^ita+haase= made, laugh at; [or, jagat vigalita lajjita = at people, who are utterly bereft of prudishness; avalokana= on espying; taruNa= youngsters of age [who are with their ladyloves]; karuNa= piteously; kR^ita+haase= making, saddish grins = [youngsters who are with their ladyloves are grinning sadly at those that are behaving oddly as they are bereft of their prudishness]; virahi= lovelorn ones; nikR^intana= [as though] to lunge, tear asunder; kunta+mukha+akR^iti= spear, faced, in shape; ketaka= Ketaka, Mogra flowers; danturita+ashe= full with, directions of compass.

Now the tender whitish flowers of Karuna are in full bloom, and they on espying the lovelorn people, who are utterly bereft of their prudishness in their lovesick behaviour, appear to be laughing at them, and the long and spear-faced Mogra flowers are in full bloom in all directions, as though ready to lunge and tear asunder the hearts of lovelorn people, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-5]

maadhavikaaparimalalalite navamaalikajaatisugandhau |
munimanasaamapi mohanakaariNi taruNaakaaraNabandhau || a pa 3-6

माधविकापरिमलललिते नवमालिकजातिसुगन्धौ।
मुनिमनसामपि मोहनकारिणि तरुणाकारणबन्धौ॥ अ प ३-६
mādhavikāparimalalalite navamālikajātisugandhau |
munimanasāmapi mohanakāriṇi taruṇākāraṇabandhau || a pa 3-6

words separated - maadhavikaa parimala lalite nava maalika jaati sugandhau muni manasaam api mohana kaariNi taruNa a-kaaraNa bandhau

words separated - mādhavikā parimala lalite nava mālika jāti sugandhau muni manasām api mohana kāriṇi taruṇa a-kāraṇa bandhau

a pa 3-6. maadhavikaa= of Maadhavai flower plant - Gaertnera racemosa; parimala= fragrance; lalite= gentleness; nava maalika= double jasmine; jaati= jasmines, Jasminum grandiflorum; sugandhau= with pleasant fragrances; [or, as in other mms: nava maalika jaati sugandhau= double jasmines, jasmines', with the fragrances of ]; muni+manasaam+api= saints, hearts, even; mohana+kaariNi = baffle, causers of [bafflers of]; taruNa= for youngsters of age; a+kaaraNa+bandhau [iva] = without, reason [unexpected,] kinsman, [like.]

Now the springtime is fragrant with the gentle fragrance of Maadhavi flowers, even with the pleasant fragrance of double jasmine and jasmines, and such a season can cause bafflement even to the hearts of saintly saints, not to say of youngsters, but springtime is like an unexpected kinsman of those youngsters, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-6]

sphuradatimuktalataaparirambhaNamukulitapulakitachuute |
bR^indaavanavipine parisaraparigatayamunaajalapuute || a pa 3-7

बृन्दावनविपिने परिसरपरिगतयमुनाजलपूते॥ अ प ३-७
sphuradatimuktalatāparirambhaṇamukulitapulakitacūte |
bṛndāvanavipine parisaraparigatayamunājalapūte || a pa 3-7

words separated - sphurat atimukta lataa pari ra.mbhaNa mukulita pulakita chuute bR^i.ndaavana vipine pari sara pari gata yamunaa jala puute

words separated - sphurat atimukta latā pari raṁbhaṇa mukulita pulakita cūte bṛṁdāvana vipine pari sara pari gata yamunā jala pūte

a pa 3-7. [vasante= in spring season]; sphurat= vibrate, titillating; ati mukta+lataa= Maadhavi, tendrils; pari+rambhaNa= by overarched, whorled; mukulita= having buds; pulakita = ticklish; chuute= mango trees; pari+sara= around, surging; pari+gata= around, going [flowing in an enwreathing and surging manner]; yamunaa+jala+puute= by River Yamuna, waters, sanctified; bR^indaavana+vipine= in Brindavan named, forest; [or, bR^inda= group of yearners, yearning for love of god; avane= that which can alleviate, accord release, moksha; vipine= wilderness, solitude.]

In this spring season, whereat the titillating tendrils of Maadhavi climber plants are whorled around the budding mango trees in an overarching manner, tickling those mango trees, and whereat River Yamuna is flowing in an enwreathing and surging manner, with whose waters that place is sanctified, and in which sanctified place obtainable is the final release, moksha, namely Brindavan, and in which solitude a group of yearners are yearning for the love of Krishna, hence Krishna is frolicking and dancing with groups of girls of age, at this very moment... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-7]

Comment: The climber plants are feminine and the mango trees are masculine. According to the saying vanita, kavita, lata, na aashrayam vinaa shobhate - a maid, a poetry, or a tendril cannot possibly outshine themselves, with not a leg to stand on. Thus, when sessile beings are thrilling and tickling in spring, how about other living beings.

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamudayati haricharaNasmR^itisAram | sarasavasantasamayavanavarNanamanugatamadanavikaaram || a pa 3-8

श्रीजयदेवभणितमिदमुदयति हरिचरणस्मृतिसारम्।
सरसवसन्तसमयवनवर्णनमनुगतमदनविकारम्॥ अ प ३-८
śrījayadevabhaṇitamidamudayati haricaraṇasmṛtisāram |
sarasavasantasamayavanavarṇanamanugatamadanavikāram || a pa 3-8

words separated - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam udayati hari charaNa smR^iti saaram sarasa vasanta samaya vana varNanam anu gata madana vikaaram

words separated - śrī jayadeva bhaṇitam idam udayati hari caraṇa smṛti sāram sarasa vasanta samaya vana varṇanam anu gata madana vikāram

a pa 3-8. shrii+hari= Shri Krishna's; charaNa= feet; smR^iti= remembrancer of; saaram= having sapful bliss, [or, smR^iti+saaram= for meditating; saaram= the best; sa+rasa= plays of passion, sapful bliss, one having such ingredients; or, sarasa= congenial poetry]; vasanta+ samaya= spring, time; vana= woodlands [or, about gregariously reclusive Brindavan]; varNanam= having depictation; anugata= ingoing, imbibed; madana+vikaaram= with passional, immoderations; idam+jayadeva+bhaNitam= this, Jayadeva, uttered by [poetry]; udayati= dawning, emerging, coming up.

This poem can be a remembrancer of Krishna's feet, for it has all the ingredients to obtain a sapful bliss from it, and this is even a best and congenial poem to meditate upon them, as this has a sapid depictation about the gregariously reclusive Brindavan, and even imbibed are the passional immoderations of springtime fevers, and such a poem is now coming up, as uttered by Jayadeva, on the feet of Shri Krishna... [a pa 3-8]

Comment: In this aSTa padi: alankaara - jaati; naayika -madhya; naayaka - dakshiNa; rasa - vipra lambha sringaara; chanda - laya; raaga - vasanta; taala - jhampa. Thus, this aSTa padi named maadhavotsava kamalaakaram concludes here. (aṣṭa padi alankāra - jāti nāyika -madhya nāyaka - dakśiṇa rasa - vipra lambha sringāra canda - laya rāga - vasanta tāla - jhampa). - VerseLocator#VerseLocatorVerse Locator

prakaTitapaTavaasairvaasayan kaananaani |
iha hi dahati chetaH ketakiigandhabandhuH
prasaradasamabaaNapraaNavadgandhavaahaH || 1-8

प्रकटितपटवासैर्वासयन् काननानि।
इह हि दहति चेतः केतकीगन्धबन्धुः
प्रसरदसमबाणप्राणवद्गन्धवाहः॥ १-८
prakaṭitapaṭavāsairvāsayan kānanāni |
iha hi dahati cetaḥ ketakīgandhabandhuḥ
prasaradasamabāṇaprāṇavadgandhavāhaḥ || 1-8

words separated - dara vidalita mallii valli cha.nchat paraaga prakaTita paTavaasaiH vaasayan kaananaani iha hi dahati chetaH ketakii gandha bandhuH prasarat asama baaNa praaNa vat gandha vaahaH

words separated - dara vidalita mallī valli caṁcat parāga prakaṭita paṭavāsaiḥ vāsayan kānanāni iha hi dahati cetaḥ ketakī gandha bandhuḥ prasarat asama bāṇa prāṇa vat gandha vāhaḥ

8. dara= a little, just; vi+dalita= unfolded, blooming; mallii+valli= jasmine, intertwines of tendrils; chanchat= on jiggling; paraaga= by pollen; prakaTita= made known, disseminating; paTavaasaiH= with perfumed powder-sprays [as in playing Holi festival]; kaananaani+ vaasayan= woodlands, on making fragrant; ketakii+gandha+bandhuH= of Ketaki flowers, fragrance of, a relative like [in league with]; prasarat = rambling; asama= unequalled one [Love-god's]; baaNa= bow, [Love-god's bow]; praaNa+vat= his lives, as if [or, forcefully by Love-god]; gandha+vaahaH= perfume, carrier - breeze; iha= now; chetaH+ dahati+hi= hearts, burning, indeed.

The springtime breeze, on jiggling the intertwines of jasmine tendrils, that are with their just bloomed jasmines, is disseminating their pollen, like the sprays of perfumed powder, thus this breeze is ramblingly disseminating even the fragrance of Ketaki flowers, in league with that of jasmines, thus this breeze is rendering the woodlands fragrant, moreover this breeze, though a coolant fragrance-carrier, it has become as if the life-breath of Love-god, and now it is forcefully burning the hearts of estranged couples, indeed... [1-8]

Comment: This verse has: alankaara - samaasokti, vrittyanupraasa, upama; sringaara - vipralambha; riiti - paancaali; metre - maalini.

alankāra - samāsokti vrittyanuprāsa upama sringāra - vipralambha rīti - pāncāli metre - mālini|

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unmiilanmadhugandhalubdhamadhupavyaadhuutachuutaa~Nkura kriiDatkokilakaakaliikalakalairudgiirNakarNajvaraaH |

niiyante pathikaiH katha.nkathamapi dhyaanaanudhaanakshaNa praaptapraaNasamaasamaagamarasollaasairamii vaasaraaH || 1-9

उन्मीलन्मधुगन्धलुब्धमधुपव्याधूतचूताङ्कुर क्रीडत्कोकिलकाकलीकलकलैरुद्गीर्णकर्णज्वराः।
नीयन्ते पथिकैः कथंकथमपि ध्यानानुधानक्शण प्राप्तप्राणसमासमागमरसोल्लासैरमी वासराः॥ १-९
unmīlanmadhugandhalubdhamadhupavyādhūtacūtāṅkura krīḍatkokilakākalīkalakalairudgīrṇakarṇajvarāḥ |

nīyante pathikaiḥ kathaṁkathamapi dhyānānudhānakśaṇa prāptaprāṇasamāsamāgamarasollāsairamī vāsarāḥ || 1-9

words separated - unmiilat madhu gandha lubdha madhupa vyaadhuuta chuuta a.nkura kriiDat kokila kaakalii kala kalaiH udgiirNa karNa jvaraaH niiyante pathikaiH katham katham api dhyaana anudhaana [avadhaana] kshaNa praapta praaNa samaa samaagama rasa ullaasaiH amii vaasaraaH

words separated - unmīlat madhu gandha lubdha madhupa vyādhūta cūta aṁkura krīḍat kokila kākalī kala kalaiḥ udgīrṇa karṇa jvarāḥ nīyante pathikaiḥ katham katham api dhyāna anudhāna avadhāna kśaṇa prāpta prāṇa samā samāgama rasa ullāsaiḥ amī vāsarāḥ

9. madhu+gandha+lubdha= honey, fragrance, greedy of; madhupa= by honeybees; vyaadhuuta [vi+aa+dhuuta]= up heaved; unmiilat= unfolding, just sprouted [tender leaves]; chuuta+ankura +kriiDat= in mango, tender leaves, playing; kokila= Kokila, singing birds; kaakalii= pleasant; kala+kalaiH= with singsong coo-cooing [kila, kila-s onomatopoeic words]; udgiirNa+karNa+ jvaraaH= heightened, ear, fever [frenzy]; amii+vaasaraaH= these, days; dhyaana= rumination; anudhaana [avadhaana]= interested in [daydreaming]; kshaNa= for a moment; praaNa+samaa= lives, coequal [alter ego]; praapta+samaagama= bechanced [came to mind,] togetherness; rasa+ullaasaiH= in mouth-watering [in ravishing,] felicity; katham+katham+api= somehow, somehow, even so; pathikaiH = by itinerants; niiyante= led away.

The honeybees greedy for the fragrance of nectar of mango flowers are up heaving the just sprouted leaflets of mango trees, thus the singing birds Kokila-s, which are equally greedy to nibble the new tender leaves of mango trees are in those leaves, but disturbed when swarmed by bees, and they are taking to their wings with their pleasant sing-song coo-cooing, and on listening these clarion calls of Kokila-s heightened is the frenzy of ears of itinerants, for their ladyloves, who are their alter egos, came to their mind for a moment, and these days of springtime are somehow led away by them, by dreamy rumination on their dreamy ravishing felicity together with their ladyloves, as in daydreaming. [1-9]

Comment: This springtime is more bothersome than the bother of separation from their ladyloves, and hence time has predominance on earthlings, may it be humans or others. But humans can quench their desires in drams, and when they can dream about embracing their ladyloves, they can even dream about the all-embracing Krishna. Here Raadha is not advised to be dreamy, but to quickly reach her goal, namely Krishna. Spring is the only season for pastoral poetry and hence it is extolled thus far. alankaara - kaavya linga; riiti -gauDi; shringaara - vipralambha; metre - shaarduula vikrriDitam. (alankāra - kāvya linga rīti -gauḍi śringāra - vipralambha metre - śārdūla vikrriḍitam)

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anekanaariiparirambhasambhrama sphuranmanohaarivilaasalaalasam | muraarimaaraadupadarshayantyasau sakhii samaksham punaraaha raadhikaam || 1-10

अनेकनारीपरिरम्भसम्भ्रम स्फुरन्मनोहारिविलासलालसम्।
मुरारिमारादुपदर्शयन्त्यसौ सखी समक्शम् पुनराह राधिकाम्॥ १-१०
anekanārīparirambhasambhrama sphuranmanohārivilāsalālasam |
murārimārādupadarśayantyasau sakhī samakśam punarāha rādhikām || 1-10

words separated - aneka naarii pari ra.mbha sa.mbhrama sphurat manohaari vilaasa laalasam mura arim aaraat upa darshayanti asau sakhii samaksham punaH aaha raadhikaam

words separated - aneka nārī pari raṁbha saṁbhrama sphurat manohāri vilāsa lālasam mura arim ārāt upa darśayanti asau sakhī samakśam punaḥ āha rādhikām

10. asau+sakhii= this, girlfriend [of Raadha]; aneka+naarii= not one [many,] women of age; pari rambha = in embracing; sambhrama= anxious of; sphurat= erratic [scintillating one]; manaH+haari= heart stealing one; vilaasa+laalasam= in frolicking, interested; mura+arim= demon Mura's, enemy; aaraat= in vicinity; samaksham= within eyeshot; upadarshayanti= she is showing him; raadhikaam+punaH+aaha= to Raadha, again, telling.

This girlfriend of Raadha is telling her again by showing him, who is in the vicinity and within eyeshot, who is scintillatingly anxious to embrace not one, but many women, one who is a heart-stealer and an interested one in frolicking, more so an enemy of Mura, namely Krishna. [1-10]

Comment: This verse has sringaara - sambhoga; naayaka - dakshiNa; alankaara - anupraas; metre - vamshastha. (sringāra - sambhoga nāyaka - dakśiṇa alankāra - anuprās)

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sringāra - sambhoga nāyaka - dakśiṇa alankāra - anuprās

sringara - sambhoga nayaka - daksia alankara - anupras

chandanacharchitaniilakalevarapiitavasanavanamaalii | kelichalanmaNikuNDalamaNDitagaNDayugasmitashaalii |

haririhamugdhavadhuunikare vilaasini vilasati kelipare | dhR^ivam | a pa 4-1

हरिरिहमुग्धवधूनिकरे विलासिनि विलसति केलिपरे। धृवम्। अ प ४-१
candanacarcitanīlakalevarapītavasanavanamālī |
kelicalanmaṇikuṇḍalamaṇḍitagaṇḍayugasmitaśālī |
haririhamugdhavadhūnikare vilāsini vilasati kelipare | dhṛvam | a pa 4-1

words separated - chandana charchita niila kalevara piita vasana vanamaalii keli chalat maNi kuNDala maNDita gaNDa yuga smita shaalii hariH iha mugdha vadhuu nikare vilaasini vilasati keli pare

words separated - candana carcita nīla kalevara pīta vasana vanamālī keli calat maṇi kuṇḍala maṇḍita gaṇḍa yuga smita śālī hariḥ iha mugdha vadhū nikare vilāsini vilasati keli pare

a pa 4-1. chandana= with sandal paste; charchita= bedaubed; niila+kalevara= on bluish, body; piita= [pale brownish yellow] ochry; vasana= silk cloths [clad in]; vanamaalii= one who wears a garland of basil leaves and flowers; keli+chalat= while playing [while romping,] moving [swaying]; maNi+kuNDala= gems [gem studded,] knobby ear-hangings; maNDita= by [ear-knobs] embellished; gaNDa+yuga= cheeks, pair; smita+shaalii= of smiling on with such disposition [gleeful one]; hariH+iha= Krishna, now; vilaasini= ravishing [damsels]; mugdha= coyly; vadhuu+nikare= damsels, in group [amidst coterie]; vilasati= frolicking; keli+pare= in game [here - in ronde; Fr. ronde = n. a dance in which the dancers move in a circle, raasa liila, raasa kriiDa] rapturous [game.]

He, whose sapphirine-bluish body is bedaubed with sandal paste, clad in ochry silks, and garlanded with a garland of basil leaves and flowers, and whose both cheeks are embellished by the sways of his gem-studded knobby ear-hangings, while he is romping, he that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde…

Comment: All these stanzas are girlfriend’s dialogue with Raadha, but the addressing ‘oh, Raadha…’ is omitted. With this she has also said, ‘when you are here, an expert in romantic amusement, leaving you Krishna’s frolicking with coyly, simplistic and naïve girls is unbefitting for him… hence, you go at once…’ naayika - utkaNThita.

Many take the word niila kalevara - as an absolute black colour of body, while it is sky-blue-black, on par with ‘sky-blue pink’ n. & adj. n. an imaginary colour, or somewhat semi-sapphirine-blue and similes with the sky itself, as sky is the Absolute - kham brahma. Hence, some hex value is to be derived for this hue of sky-blue-black at least now, or said as somewhat sapphirine-bluish colour. And piita ambara and vanmaala are not just rustling ochry silks and garland of wild leaves, but those basil leaves and silken garments are also the removers of sins.

piinapayodharabhaarabhareNa harim pariramya saraagam |
gopavadhuuranugaayati kaachiduda~nchitapa~nchamaraagam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-2

पीनपयोधरभारभरेण हरिम् परिरम्य सरागम्।
गोपवधूरनुगायति काचिदुदञ्चितपञ्चमरागम्।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-२
pīnapayodharabhārabhareṇa harim pariramya sarāgam |
gopavadhūranugāyati kācidudañcitapañcamarāgam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-2

words separated - piina payodhara bhaara bhareNa harim pari rabhya - ramya - saraagam gopa vadhuuH anu gaayyati kaachit uda.nchita pa.nchama raagam

words separated - pīna payodhara bhāra bhareṇa harim pari rabhya - ramya - sarāgam gopa vadhūḥ anu gāyyati kācit udaṁcita paṁcama rāgam

a pa 4-2. kaachit= someone; gopa+vadhuuH= milker’s, damsel [milkmaid]; piina+ payo dhara= bosomy, bust; bhaara+bhareNa= weight, carrying [weightiness]; sa+raagam= with, longing; harim= Krishna; pari+rabhya [ramya]= in over [arching manner,] hugging [cleaving to]; udanchita= in a heightened; panchama= fifth [note, octave]; raagam= melodiously; anu= in tune with his fluting]; gaayati= singing; annex: haririha…kelipare = as above.

Someone, a milkmaid, eager to ease the weightiness of her bosomy bust is cleaving to Krishna in a overarching manner, and then in a heightened octave she is singing melodiously, in tune with his fluting, hence, he that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-2]

Comment: The damsel is hugging even before the hero tries to embrace her; hence, she is in eagerness as her naayika lakshaNa is mugdha, a meekish heroine. Some scholars translate this word mugdha as a foolish girl. This translates as - innocent, ignorant, artless rhetorical naayika, artless insofar as romantic advances are concerned. If this black boy and white girl combination is set aside for a while, it is the twosome of devotee-god, trying to achieve oneness, in which the devotee has to make his/her first move to embrace the god, as in markaTa nyaaya - mother monkey and child monkey syndrome, that contrasts with maarjaala nyaaya - cat-kitten syndrome. Swelling bosoms suggests swelling milky devotion, where both emerge from bosom alone, contrary to a lip service.

kaapi vilaasavilolavilochanakhelanajanitamanojam |
dhyaayati mugdhavadhuuradhikam madhusuudanavadanasarojam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-3

कापि विलासविलोलविलोचनखेलनजनितमनोजम्।
ध्यायति मुग्धवधूरधिकम् मधुसूदनवदनसरोजम्।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-३
kāpi vilāsavilolavilocanakhelanajanitamanojam |
dhyāyati mugdhavadhūradhikam madhusūdanavadanasarojam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-3

words separated - kaa api vilaasa vilola vilochana khelana janita manojam dhyaayati mugdha vadhuuH adhikam madhu suudana vadana sarojam

words separated - kā api vilāsa vilola vilocana khelana janita manojam dhyāyati mugdha vadhūḥ adhikam madhu sūdana vadana sarojam

a pa 4-3. kaa+api= someone, even; mugdha+vadhuuH= meekish, damsel [one who is an inexpert in romancing, sringaara ceSTaaH abhaava ]; vilaasa= by romantic gesticulations [haava bhaava ceSTaaH shuunyata of Krishna, or of that milkmaid]; vi+lola= verily, flustered; vi+lochana= wide, eyes; khelana= by their play [of eyes, slanting, siding glances]; janita= caused; manaH+jam= mind, causer of [one who can give rise to Love-god, Krishna, personified passion]; madhu+suudana= demon Madhu’s, eliminator [Krishna’s]; vadana= face; saraH+ jam = lake, born [lotus, beautiful lotus like beautiful face]; adhikam+ dhyaayati= highly [fixatedly,] contemplating.

Even someone, a meekish damsel, for being an inexpert in romancing she is helpless, but caused is the passion in her mind, by the romantic gesticulations of Krishna and even by his slanting and sliding glances of his verily flustered wide eyes, thus she at once started gazing at the beautiful lotus like face of the eliminator of demon Madhu, namely Krishna, and fixatedly contemplating on that face, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-3]


Even someone, a meekish damsel, is impassioned for she is there, and by her inexpert gesticulations of romance, like her slanting and sliding glances with her flustered wide eyes, she caught a sight of the beautiful face of Krishna, beautiful like a lotus, from then on she fixatedly contemplated on that face, for she is an expert in contemplation, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-3]

Comment: All may not be expert danseuses or songsters, but lovingness is common in all. Some girl came there, but she became a third row ballerina, or fourth row chorus girl, even then that environ enkindles a kind of belongingness in her, and she longed for him in her way - prekSya - prekSaka riiti. Usually contempplations come in when the object to contemplate is not before the eyes. But he is very much there, even then, she is contemplating. Again, she is mugdha, somewhat artless, meekish heroine. Reaching him is the goal, whether it is a bodily reaching, or reaching through contemplation. Some derive the word madhu suudana vadana sarojam basing on the root Suuda ksharaNe as madhu= honey, nectar; suudana= spilling; that lotus like face is pouring forth potable nectar of grace.

kaapi kapolatale militaa lapitum kimapi shrutimuule |
chaaru nita.mbavatii dayitam pulakairanukuule |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-4

कापि कपोलतले मिलिता लपितुम् किमपि श्रुतिमूले।
चारु चुचुंब नितंबवती दयितम् पुलकैरनुकूले।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-४
kāpi kapolatale militā lapitum kimapi śrutimūle |
cāru cucuṁba nitaṁbavatī dayitam pulakairanukūle |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-4

words separated - kaa api kapola tale militaa lapitum kim api shruti muule chaaru nita.mbavatii dayitam pulakaiH anukuule

words separated - kā api kapola tale militā lapitum kim api śruti mūle cāru cucuṁba nitaṁbavatī dayitam pulakaiḥ anukūle

a pa 4-4. kaa+api= someone, even; nitambavatii= one with big buttocks; shruti+muule= ear, base of [at earhole]; kim+api= something, even; lapitum= to say; militaa+dayitam= on reaching, her lover [Krishna]; pulakaiH+anukuule= by tickles, made convenient [when Krishna’s face is tickly, his cheek is bent for her convenience to kiss it]; kapola+tale= on cheek’s, surface; chaaru+chuchumba= goodly [amusingly,] kissed.

Even someone with her big buttocks neared him as though to say something in his ear, and on reaching her lover Krishna, his tickly face conveniently turned sideways in all ears for her, thus she kissed his cheek conveniently and amusingly, thus that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-4]

Comment: pulakita - tickly, when ladylove touched his ears, his body became tickly and thus he had to move his cheeks sideways; nitambavati - because her buttocks are heavy she could not run a race with Krishna, hence she paused him in his dance saying ‘listen this…’ and then carried off her wish; naayika - prauDha [somewhat artful one]; naayaka - anukuula [acquiescent one.]

kelikalaakutukena cha kaachidamum yamunaajalakuule |
maJNjulavaJNjulakuJNjagatam vichakarshha kareNa dukuule |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-5

केलिकलाकुतुकेन च काचिदमुम् यमुनाजलकूले।
मञ्जुलवञ्जुलकुञ्जगतम् विचकर्ष करेण दुकूले।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-५
kelikalākutukena ca kācidamum yamunājalakūle |
mañjulavañjulakuñjagatam vicakarṣa kareṇa dukūle |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-5

words separated - keli kalaa kutukena ca kaachit amum yamunaa jala kuule ma.njula va.njula ku.nja gatam vichakarSa kareNa dukuule

words separated - keli kalā kutukena ca kācit amum yamunā jala kūle maṁjula vaṁjula kuṁja gatam vicakarṣa kareṇa dukūle

a pa 4-5. kaachit= someone; keli = [manmatha keli] plays of passions; kalaa= artistry; kutukena+ ca= with enthusiasm, also; [parihaasena+ca= with glee, also]; yamunaa+ jala+ kuule = River Yamuna, waters, in bank; manjula= beautiful; vanjula+kunja= Ashoka tree, bower; gatam = one who has gone there, frolicking in there; amum= him; dkuule= by his dress; kareNa= with her hand; vichakarSa= lugging along.

Someone, another milkmaid, enthusiastic in the artistry of plays of passion, and passionate to play in the waters of river Yamuna with Krishna, found him frolicking in a beautiful bower at that Ashoka tree, and she is gleefully lugging him along by his dress with her hand, thus that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-5]

Comment: Krishna is otherwise busy anyaasakta so she had to lug him along by catching his silk upper coth. Thus naayika - adhiira. It should have said ass yamunaa kuule - for Yamuna riverbank. But it is said a river called Yamuna that contains water and banks… a river naturally contains water, then why that redundant usage of water… will be the exclamation. It has two purposes - she is interested in sporting in water with Krishna, and the other is to indicate that water’s cooling effect and sanctification - shaityatva, paavanatva and hence the word waters is used emphatically.

karatalataalataralavalayaavalikalitakalasva.mava.nshe |
raasarase sahanR^ityaparaa hariNaa yuvatiH prashasha.nse |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-6

रासरसे सहनृत्यपरा हरिणा युवतिः प्रशशंसे।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-६
karatalatālataralavalayāvalikalitakalasvaṁavaṁśe |
rāsarase sahanṛtyaparā hariṇā yuvatiḥ praśaśaṁse |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-6

words separated - kara tala taala tarala valaya aavali kalita kala svana va.mshe raasa rase saha nR^itya paraa hariNaa yuvatiH prashasha.nse

words separated - kara tala tāla tarala valaya āvali kalita kala svana vaṁśe rāsa rase saha nṛtya parā hariṇā yuvatiḥ praśaśaṁse

a pa 4-6. yuvatiH= a maiden; kara+tala= hand, surface - with palms; taala= by clapping rhythmically ; tarala= moving; valaya= [valaya angada]= heavy wrist metal roundlets; avali= a group of, a set of; kalita= intermingling [touching one to one, clanking, clanks mingling with fluting]; kala+svana= avyakta madura svana = undefinable dulcet clanks; vamshe= one who has a flute - va.msha = bamboo - mohana vamshii = name of Krishna’s bamboo flute; raasa= raasa kriiDa = in plays of passion, in ronde; rase= zealous [Krishna]; saha= along with; nR^itya+ paraa= in dancing, engrossed; hariNaa= by Hari, Krishna; prashashanse= [that maiden is] commended.

While a maiden is engrossed in ronde dancing, along with zealously dancing Krishna, she is clapping her palms in rhythm to his fluting, while doing so the sets of her heavy wrist metal roundlets are clanking in undefinable dulcet clanks, and those rhythmic clanks are intermingling with that fluting, and that flautist of mohana vamshi, the Divine Flute, namely Krishna, is singing the praises unto her, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-6]

Comment: By employing the word rasa raase it is said, though this girl is an inexpert in superfine singing and dancing, she is expert in her rustic, moorish, and boorish dances, hence she is aware of beat and rhythm - laya taala j~naana, thereby she is praiseworthy.

shlishhyati kaamapi chumbati kaamapi kaamapi ramayati raamaam |
pashyati sasmitacaaruparaamaparaamanugacChati vaamaam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-7

श्लिष्यति कामपि चुम्बति कामपि कामपि रमयति रामाम्।
पश्यति सस्मितचारुपरामपरामनुगच्छति वामाम्।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-७
śliṣyati kāmapi cumbati kāmapi kāmapi ramayati rāmām |
paśyati sasmitacāruparāmaparāmanugacchati vāmām |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-7

words separated - shlishhyati kaam api chu.mbati kaam api kaam api ramayati raamaam pashyati saH smita caaru taraam aparaam anu gacChati vaamaam

words separated - śliṣyati kām api cuṁbati kām api kām api ramayati rāmām paśyati saḥ smita cāru tarām aparām anu gacchati vāmām

a pa 4-7. saH= such as he is, he that Krishna; kaam+api= someone, even; shliSyati= cleaves to; kaam+api+chumbati= someone, even, kisses; kaam+api= someone, even; raamaam = delightful damsel; ramayati= delights [her]; smita= beaming; caaru+taraam= beauty, in high degree [most beautiful lass]; aparaam= another one; pashyati= sees to her, pay attention to; vaamaam= leftist, querulous one; anu= in tow; gacChati= goes after.

Such frolicsome Krishna is even cleaving to someone, and even kissing someone, and even delighting someone, a delightful damsel, and paying his attention to another beaming and most beautiful damsel, and he is going in tow after one with her slanting glances, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-7]

Comment: Here the word raamaam is generative from root ramu - ramu kriiDaayaam - one who gives and takes delight in which she is delighted. This word is on the analogy of the name of Rama in Ramayana. When the syllable ‘a’ is prolonged to ‘aa’ - ‘raa maa’ - it becomes feminine delighter and the delighted. And smita caaru taraam or, smita caaru paraam - ‘beamingly smiling’ indicates her readiness for intimacy, expressed in a smile itself. Hence, this piece of poem is floridly smiley. The word vaamaam - is displeased, irritated, peeved, vexeed, querulous girl. Even if she were to be so, he can tame her shrewdness and bring her round by going after her. nayaka - catura [artful.]

All these acts are performed sequentially or at a time? At a time only - is the answer. How can one Krishna become many at a time, is its sequel. That is what raasa kriida or raasa liila is, and unimaginable are his acts, deeds, or plays of passion. Thus this poetry, though expressed in mundane parlance, attains a supramundane eros [aspiration toward value] - a divine lusting. The poet says in the next foot ‘that is why this is an amazing act of Krishna - adbhutam.

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamadbhutakeshavakelirahasyam |
vR^indaavanavipine lalitam vitanotu shubhaani yashasyam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-8

वृन्दावनविपिने ललितम् वितनोतु शुभानि यशस्यम्।
हरिरिह - - - - केलिपरे॥ अ प ४-८
śrījayadevabhaṇitamidamadbhutakeśavakelirahasyam |
vṛndāvanavipine lalitam vitanotu śubhāni yaśasyam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-8

words separated - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam adbhuta keshava keli rahasyam vR^indaavana vipine lalitam vitanotu shubhaani yashasyam

words separated - śrī jayadeva bhaṇitam idam adbhuta keśava keli rahasyam vṛndāvana vipine lalitam vitanotu śubhāni yaśasyam

a pa 4-8. yashasyam= endowing gloriousness [if sung or danced to its tunes]; vR^indaavana + vipine= in Brindavan, woodlands [what that happens]; lalitam= exquisite [pleasure giver]; adbhuta= admirable; keshava= Krishna’s; keli+rahasyam= plays of passion, arcaneness of; idam= this; jayadeva+ bhaNitam= by Jayadeva, articulated; shrii - shrii suukti = felicitous, saying, lyric, libretto, [with double entendre = n. a word or phrase open to two interpretations, one usu. risqué or indecent, here the whole poem]; shubhaani+ vitanotu= prosperities, let it radiate [ tr. transmit or demonstrate - life, love, joy, etc. ‘radiates happiness’.]

This song, which endows gloriousness to the devotees of Krishna, if sung or danced to its tunes, and which contains the arcaneness about the exquisite plays of passion of Krishna in equally arcanus Vrindavan, is articulated by Jayadeva, thus let it radiate prosperities to one and all… [a pa 4-8]

Comment: With this the poet concludes this lyric. Here Krishna is adbhuta, because he is manifest separately to each of the milkmaid, in a trice, though remaining himself as one entity. In this lyric the words keli rahasyam are usually translated as secrets sports, or secret love-games etc., taking them to be rahasya keli kalaapam, but the word rahasyam qualifies the word keli. Then they are the secrets about those plays, of which the poet wishes to tell, but not how secretly the plays are played, and Krishna is no covert player, either in these dance dramas of Bhaagavata or in the politics of Maha Bhaarata. chandas - laya.

Verse Locator

vishveShaamanura.njanena janayannaanaana.ndamindiivara shreNiishyaamalakomalairupanayanna~Ngairana~Ngotsavam |

svacCha.ndam vrajasundariibhirabhitaH pratya~Ngamaali~NgitaH
shR^i~NgaaraH sakhi muurtimaaniva madhau mugdho hariH kriiDati || 1-11

विश्वेषामनुरंजनेन जनयन्नानानंदमिन्दीवर श्रेणीश्यामलकोमलैरुपनयन्नङ्गैरनङ्गोत्सवम्।
स्वच्छंदम् व्रजसुन्दरीभिरभितः प्रत्यङ्गमालिङ्गितः
शृङ्गारः सखि मूर्तिमानिव मधौ मुग्धो हरिः क्रीडति॥ १-११

viśveṣāmanuraṁjanena janayannānānaṁdamindīvara śreṇīśyāmalakomalairupanayannaṅgairanaṅgotsavam |

svacchaṁdam vrajasundarībhirabhitaḥ pratyaṅgamāliṅgitaḥ
śṛṅgāraḥ sakhi mūrtimāniva madhau mugdho hariḥ krīḍati || 1-11

words separated - vishveShaam anura.njanena janayan aanaana.ndam indiivara shreNii shyaamala komalaiH upanayan angaiH ana.nga utsavam svacCha.ndam vraja sundariibhiH abhitaH prati a.ngam aali.ngitaH shR^i.ngaaraH sakhi muurtimaan iva madhau mugdho hariH kriiDati

words separated - viśveṣām anuraṁjanena janayan ānānaṁdam indīvara śreṇī śyāmala komalaiḥ upanayan angaiḥ anaṁga utsavam svacchaṁdam vraja sundarībhiḥ abhitaḥ prati aṁgam āliṁgitaḥ śṛṁgāraḥ sakhi mūrtimān iva madhau mugdho hariḥ krīḍati

1-11. sakhi= oh, friend, Raadha; mugdhaH= charming [not meekish]; hariH= Krishna; vishveShaam = for all in the world; anuranjanena= to cause mutual intimacy; aanaanandam+ janayan= happiness, to cause; indiivara= blue-black lotuses; shreNii= rows of; shyaamala= blue-blackish; komalaiH= daintily; angaiH= with limbs; ana.nga+utsavam= Love-god's, festival [vasanta utsavam, carnivalesque excitation]; upa+nayan= to near, draw [to draw nigh]; abhitaH= by all [external limbs and internal heartfelt feelings]; svacChandam= unreservedly; prati+a.ngam= each, limb; vraja= county called Vraja province; sundariibhiH = by beautiful damsels [of Vraja county]; aali.ngitaH= embraced [Krishna is embraced]; shR^i.ngaaraH+ iva +muurtimaan= romance, like, embodiment of; madhau= in springtime; kriiDati= playing [titillating.]

sakhi= oh, friend; hariH= Krishna [with his personage, that is] mugdhaH= with heart-stealing; vishveShaam= for all in the world; anuranjane= to accord delight; aanaanandam +janayan= rejoice, to cause; angaiH= with parts [romanticised factors that are apt to cause happiness, like]; indiivara+shreNii= blue- black lotuses, clusters; shyaamala= darker [ambience with black Tamaala trees, nightfall, nightly Yamuna river etc.]; komalaiH= softish [flower beds, greensward, sand dunes]; ana.nga+utsavam= Love-god's, festivity [vasantosavam carnivalesque excitation]; upanayan= bringing off; abhitaH= all over; sva cChandam = unreservedly; prati+a.ngam= every, limb; vraja+sundariibhiH= by going, beauties [beauties who are passing by him]; aali.ngitaH= embraceable; muurtimaan= one having such a body, bodily presence; shR^i.ngaaraH+iva= [personified] romance, as though; madhau+kriiDati= in springtime, frolicking.

Oh, friend Raadha, charming Krishna is titillating in Brindavan in this springtime, causing happiness and mutual intimacy among all the worldly beings, and by the presence of his sapphirine-bluish and daintily limbed body, that simile with the sprayey rows of blue-black lotuses, he appears to be fetching the annual vasantotsava, the carnivalesque excitation, hence such limbs are unreservedly embraced by the beautiful damsels of Vraja county, either with their bodily limbs or by their heartfelt feelings, thus he is appearing like an embodiment of romance... [1-11]


Oh, friend Raadha, Krishna in Brindavan is with a delighting personage that is heart-stealing for all people, and it is apt to cause rejoice in one and all, added are the romanticised factors of Brindavan, like darkish ambience with black Tamaala trees, nightfall, nightly Yamuna river, and softish flower beds, greensward, and riparian sand dunes, and his very bodily presence is as though the personified romance, bringing off the annual vasantotsava, carnivalesque excitation, and the beauties of Vraja, moving past him are deeming that personality as an unreservedly dependable and embraceable embodiment, hence Krishna is frolicking with them in this springtime, as he reckons them as dependents and embraced devotees... [1-11]

Comment: When it is said - viSveSaam anuranjanena - Krishna being capable to delight whole world in his own nature, here he became a mugdha personality - charmingly graceful youngster, not a foolish boy, and delighted them and got delight from them, though they are nowhere near his Omniscience.

vasantotsava includes many festivals like snaana yaatra - ablution-festival, hindola yaatra - swing- festival, raasa yaatra - festival of circular dance, ratha yaatra - chariot-festival, dolaa yatra or holi festival, in which people come out as in carnivals and colour sprays water and powder sprinkled for amusement. It is annual and takes it root in Krishna liila-s of Brindavan.

alankara - shleSa, diipaka; riiti - vaidarbhi; rasa -sringaaara; sharduula vikriiditam - its metre; and this one verse is replete with incommunicable reflections from bhaaratiiya sringaara shaastra - treatises on aesthetics of romanticism, but they are left out for the present.

Verse Locator

praaleyaplavanechchhayaanusarati shriikhaNDashailaanilaH |
kim cha snigdharasaalamaulimukulaanyaalokya harshhodayaat
unmiilanti kuhuuH kuhuuriti kalottalaaH pikaanaam giraH || 1-12

प्रालेयप्लवनेच्छयानुसरति श्रीखण्डशैलानिलः।
किम् च स्निग्धरसालमौलिमुकुलान्यालोक्य हर्षोदयात्
उन्मीलन्ति कुहूः कुहूरिति कलोत्तलाः पिकानाम् गिरः॥ १-१२
prāleyaplavanecchayānusarati śrīkhaṇḍaśailānilaḥ |
kim ca snigdharasālamaulimukulānyālokya harṣodayāt
unmīlanti kuhūḥ kuhūriti kalottalāḥ pikānām giraḥ || 1-12

words separated - nitya utsa.nga vasat bhuja.nga kavala kleshaat iva iisha achalam praaleya plavana icChayaa anusarati shrii khaNDa shaila anilaH kim cha snigdha rasaala mauli mukulaani aalokya harSha udayaat unmiilanti kuhuuH kuhuuH iti kala uttalaaH pikaanaam giraH

words separated - nitya utsaṁga vasat bhujaṁga kavala kleśāt iva īśa acalam prāleya plavana icchayā anusarati śrī khaṇḍa śaila anilaḥ kim ca snigdha rasāla mauli mukulāni ālokya harṣa udayāt unmīlanti kuhūḥ kuhūḥ iti kala uttalāḥ pikānām giraḥ

1-12. shrii khaNDa= Malaya; shaila+anilaH= mountain's, breezes; nitya= always; utsa.nga= in close proximity; vasat= living, inhabitation; bhuja.nga= by serpents; kavala= gluttonised; kleshaat= by agony [from their fangs]; iva= as though; praaleya= in snow water; plavana= to plunge down; icChayaa= desirous of; iisha+achalam= god's, mountain [iishaH+a+calam= Shiva's, not, mobile mountain, or, iishaa guruH acalaH = Paarvati, father of= Himalaya - madhyama pada lopa samaasa]; anusarati= following, coursing to; ki.m+cha= why, even [further]; rasaala+mauli= mango trees, at tops; snigdha+ mukulaani = tender [eatable,] sprouted buds; aalokya= on seeing; harSha+ udayaat= rejoice, on dawning, burgeoned; kala+ uttalaaH = inexplicably melodious, heightened in tone; kuhuuH+ kuhuuH+ iti = coo, coo [onomatopoeic words,] thus; pikaanaam+giraH= Kokila-s, words, voicing; unmiilanti= unfolding [sallying forth.]

The gentle breezes of Mt. Malaya will always inhabit in close proximity with venomous serpents, only to be gluttonised by serpents, and when repeatedly stricken by their fangs the breezes are in the agony of feverishness, and as though desirous of taking a plunge in the snow waters, to cool of that feverishness, they are coursing to Himalayan mountains... why breezes, even high rejoice is burgeoning in Kokila-s, the black singing birds, on their seeing just sprouted tender buds on mango treetops, thus they sally forth their coo-coo voicing in an inexplicably melodious and heightened tones, thus this springtime is blithesome... [1-12]

Comment: The word kuhu, kuhuuH also means no moon night without a streak of moon. The cooing of Kokila-s is a bother to estranged couple, yet they are singing in fifth octave pancama svara only to intensify the troubles of such couples. The moon is an enemy to the estranged couple, for his very appearance enhances their uneasy passion. And somehow, the no moon day - amaavaashya - can be tolerated. The sounds of black koels are almost like no moon day that intimidates the moon. But the singing of koels is painful, and all this culminates into spring fever, a restless or lethargic feeling sometimes associated with spring.

riiti vaidarbhi; varNaanu praasa - shabda alankaara; upama hetu - ardhaa alankaara; shaarduula vikriiDitam (rīti vaidarbhi varṇānu prāsa - śabda alankāra upama hetu - ardhā alankāra śārdūla vikrīḍitam) is its metre. Next, the poet while closing the first canto is telling a blessing benediction - aashiirvaada ruupaka mangala aacaraNa (āśīrvāda rūpaka mangala ācaraṇa).

Verse Locator

abhyarNam pariramyanirbharamuraH premaandhayaa raadhayaa |
saadhu tvadvadanam sudhaamayamiti vyaahR^itya giitastuti
vyaajaadutkaTachumbitasmitamanoharii hariH paatu vaH || 1-13

अभ्यर्णम् परिरम्यनिर्भरमुरः प्रेमान्धया राधया।
साधु त्वद्वदनम् सुधामयमिति व्याहृत्य गीतस्तुति
व्याजादुत्कटचुम्बितस्मितमनोहरी हरिः पातु वः॥ १-१३
abhyarṇam pariramyanirbharamuraḥ premāndhayā rādhayā |
sādhu tvadvadanam sudhāmayamiti vyāhṛtya gītastuti
vyājādutkaṭacumbitasmitamanoharī hariḥ pātu vaḥ || 1-13

words separated - raasa ullaasa bhareNa vibhrama bhR^itaam aabhiira vaama bhruvaam abhyarNam parirabhya nirbharam uraH prema andhayaa raadhayaa saadhu tvat vadanam sudhaamayam iti vyaahR^itya giita stutii vyaajaat utkaTa cumbita smita manoharii hariH paatu vaH

words separated - rāsa ullāsa bhareṇa vibhrama bhṛtām ābhīra vāma bhruvām abhyarṇam parirabhya nirbharam uraḥ prema andhayā rādhayā sādhu tvat vadanam sudhāmayam iti vyāhṛtya gīta stutī vyājāt utkaṭa cumbita smita manoharī hariḥ pātu vaḥ

1-13. prema+andhayaa= by love, blinded [heedless]; raadhayaa= by Raadha; raasa= in ronde dance; ullaasa+bhareNa= rejoice, replete with; vibhrama+bhR^itaam= overwhelm, bearers [those girls that bear an overwhelmed mood= vivacious girls]; aabhiira= milkmaids; vaama= with curved; bhruvaam= eyebrows; abhyarNam= in close proximity [drawing nigh of him]; uraH= chest [of Krishna]; nirbharam= ardently; parirabhya= hugged; saadhu= by far [enthusiastically]; tvat+vadanam= your, face; sudhaa+mayam= nectar, abounding with; iti= thus; vyaahR^itya= on saying; giita= song [of Krishna]; stuti= eulogising; vyaajaat=on the pretext of; utkhaTa= excitedly; cumbita = one who is kissed [by Raadha]; smita= by smiles; manaH+haarii= heart, stealing; hariH= Hari, Krishna; vaH= us, all of us; paatu= rule over [save our souls.]

Blinded by her love for Krishna, Raadha drew nigh of him, who is among vivacious milkmaids with curvy eyebrows, and who are replete with rejoice while in ronde dancing, but Raadha ardently hugged his chest among all of them, and enthusiastically said thus, "Your face is nectareous...thus your singing must be nectarean...come sing now... " And then, on the pretext of eulogising his singing, she started to kiss him, and he who is thus kissed by Raadha is all smiles for her, and he who steals hearts with his beaming smiles, that Krishna may save our souls... [1-13]

Comment: In this lyric sringaara - vipralambha; naayika -pragalbha; naayaka - mugdha; the manner of hugging is called vR^iksha adhiruuDha - tree-climbing embrace - tarum iva kamitaaram cumbana aartaa adhi roDhum yadabhilaSati naarii tat ca vR^ikshaadhiruuDham; the kissing style is called namitaka - where milkmaids are happy enough with kissing and kisses - abhiirajaaH cumbana haarya cittaaH; alankaara - aashiis, aprastuta prasanga, vyaajoktiu, aakshepa, hetu; since Raadha advanced, some heroine's bravery is there - naayika utsaaha ruupa viira rasa; anuvritti - aarabhaTi; riiti - paancaali; giiti -artha maagadhi; gaana - sthiti laya; Its metre is shaarduula vikriiDitam.

Thus, this is the 1st chapter in giita govindam of Jayadeva called saamoda daamodaram.

Chapter [Sarga] 2


Intolerant of Krishna Krishna’s flirtatious behaviour with other girls, Raadha deviates from ronde and complains all her feelings to her friend. Even in her complaining that Krishna is cheerfully irresponsible – blithesome Krishna, aklesha keshava, she extols Krishna’s enrapturing nature.

Verse Locator

viharati vane raadhaa saadhaaraNapraNaye harau
vigalita nijotkarSaadiirSyaavashena gataanyataH |
kvachidapi lataakuJNje guJNjanmadhuvratamaNDalii
mukharashikhare liinaa diinaapyuvaacha rahaH sakhiim || 2-1

विहरति वने राधा साधारणप्रणये हरौ
विगलित निजोत्कर्षादीर्ष्यावशेन गतान्यतः।
क्वचिदपि लताकुञ्जे गुञ्जन्मधुव्रतमण्डली
मुखरशिखरे लीना दीनाप्युवाच रहः सखीम्॥ २-१
viharati vane rādhā sādhāraṇapraṇaye harau
vigalita nijotkarṣādīrṣyāvaśena gatānyataḥ |
kvacidapi latākuñje guñjanmadhuvratamaṇḍalī
mukharaśikhare līnā dīnāpyuvāca rahaḥ sakhīm || 2-1

padacCheda - viharati vane raadhaa saadhaaraNa praNaye harau vigalita nija utkarSaat iirSyaa vashena gata anyataH kvachit api lataa ku.nje gu.njat madhu vrata maNDalii mukhara shikhare liinaa diinaa api uvaacha rahaH sakhiim

padaccheda - viharati vane rādhā sādhāraṇa praṇaye harau vigalita nija utkarṣāt īrṣyā vaśena gata anyataḥ kvacit api latā kuṁje guṁjat madhu vrata maṇḍalī mukhara śikhare līnā dīnā api uvāca rahaḥ sakhīm

2-1. hare= by Krishna; saadhaaraNa= general [fairly, in a fair and square manner]; praNaye= in lovingness [Krishna, whose love is equipoise in respect of other milkmaids and herself]; vane+ viharati = in woodlands, while pleasure-tripping; vi+galita= muchly [steeply,] slithered; nija= one's own [Raadha's]; utkarSaat= by her superiority complex, [privilege]; iirSyaa+ vashena= begrudge, by control of [overtaken by]; anyataH+gata= elsewhere, gone; raadhaa= Raadha; kvachit+api= somewhere, even; gu.njat+madhuvrata= humming, honeybees, swarms of; maNDalii= spiralling; mukhara= with noise; shikhare= at spire [of bower]; lataa+ku.nje= in tendrils, of bower; liinaa= steeped in; diinaa= forlornly [Raadha]; rahaH= in solitude; sakhiim = to girlfriend; api+ uvaacha= even, said.

Steeply slithered is Raadha's privilege, for Krishna's love is equipoise in respect of all other milkmaids and herself, and thus some grudge overtook her when he is pleasure-tripping with others, hence she has gone elsewhere, somewhere into a bower of tendrils, that which is noisy with spiralling swarms of honeybees' humming at its spire, and when she steeped into that bower she forlornly said this to her girlfriend, in solitude. [2-1]

Comment: She became a forlorn one as the humming noise of bees is increasing her passion for Krishna bhramaraiH kaamoddiipita hence, unable to endure it she has become somewhat a forlorn one, who otherwise is a resolute girl.

Again the word rahaH sakhiim uvaaca is sometimes said as ' she told her secrets...' etc. But whole world knows what her secret is, i.e., to have Krishna for herself... Hence, it is - said in solitude - what she is going to say is not to be heard by others... even if someone is going to eavesdrop she/he shall presume it as the humming of bees, as she is going to tell next aSTa padi in a tune and wording almost like the buzz of bees.

Then, diinaa api forlorn one, even so; even so she became a forlorn one by losing her pride, she got guts in regaining it - cf., Ramayana, 4-6-23, tataH saH raaghavaH diinaH sugriivam idam abraviit... even if Rama became a forlorn one, he spoke to Sugreeva self-confidently.

In this verse it is vipralambha sringaara, as Raadha is intolerant of Krishna's separation; rasavad alankaara - as she is ecstatic; shabda alankaara called varNa anupraasa; naayika -prauDha; metre - hariNi.

Verse Locator

a pa - 5 - madhuripu ratna kaNThika - sa.nchaladadharasudhaamadhuradhvanimukharitamohanava.nsham |
chalitadR^iga.nchalacha.nchalamaulikapolavilolavata.nsam |
raase harimiha vihitavilaasam smarati mano mama kR^itaparihaasam - dhR^ivam || a pa 5-1

padacCheda - sa.nchalat adhara sudhaa madhura dhvani mukharita mohana va.nsham chalita dR^iga.nchala cha.nchala mauli kapola vilola vata.nsam raase harim iha vihita vilaasam smarati mano mama kR^ita parihaasam

अ प - ५ - मधुरिपु रत्न कण्ठिक - संचलदधरसुधामधुरध्वनिमुखरितमोहनवंशम्।
रासे हरिमिह विहितविलासम् स्मरति मनो मम कृतपरिहासम् - धृवम्॥ अ प ५-१

a pa - 5 - madhuripu ratna kaṇṭhika - saṁcaladadharasudhāmadhuradhvanimukharitamohanavaṁśam |

calitadṛgaṁcalacaṁcalamaulikapolavilolavataṁsam |
rāse harimiha vihitavilāsam smarati mano mama kṛtaparihāsam - dhṛvam || a pa 5-1

पदच्छेद - संचलत् अधर सुधा मधुर ध्वनि मुखरित मोहन वंशम् चलित दृगंचल चंचल मौलि कपोल विलोल वतंसम् रासे हरिम् इह विहित विलासम् स्मरति मनो मम कृत परिहासम्
padaccheda - saṁcalat adhara sudhā madhura dhvani mukharita mohana vaṁśam calita dṛgaṁcala caṁcala mauli kapola vilola vataṁsam rāse harim iha vihita vilāsam smarati mano mama kṛta parihāsam

a pa 5-1. sa.ncarat or sa.nchalat= pulsating; adhara= from lips; sudhaa+madhura= with ambrosial, sweetness, [lusciousness]; dhvani= by melody; mukharita= sounded, fluted; mohana= causing delight, or, Mohana named; va.nsham= flute; chalita= flitting; dR^ik+ a.nchala = eye, ends - sidelong glances; cha.nchala= swaying, nodding; mauli= head, or half-crown, or peacock feathers; kapola = on cheeks; vilola= dangling, swaying; vata.nsam= knobby ear-hangings; [next stanza is a reprise in next foots]; iha= here; raase= in ronde dance; vihita+vilaasam= having, frolics; kR^ita= made; parihaasam= fun of me, or, uncared-for, with blithe indifference towards me; [api + cet = even, though]; mama+manaH+ smarati= my, heart, reminds; harim= of Krishna [alone.]

"Oh, friend, while Krishna's lips are pulsatile on his delightful flute Mohana Vamshi, ambrosial lusciousness is fluted melodiously, and while his head with half-crown and peacock feathers is nodded, his sidelong glances are flitting from one maid to the other, to observe their observation of his fluting fugues, and in doing so, his knobby ear-hangings are swaying onto both of his cheeks, in tune with all the fugues, thus he is frolicking here in ronde dance, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-1]

chandrakachaarumayuurashikhaNDakamaNDalavalayitakesham |
prachurapurandaradhanuranura~njitameduramudirasuvesham || a pa 5-2

padacCheda - chandraka chaaru mayuura shikhaNDaka maNDala valayita kesham prachura purandara dhanuH anura.njita medura mudira suvesham - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

प्रचुरपुरन्दरधनुरनुरञ्जितमेदुरमुदिरसुवेशम्॥ अ प ५-२
candrakacārumayūraśikhaṇḍakamaṇḍalavalayitakeśam |
pracurapurandaradhanuranurañjitameduramudirasuveśam || a pa 5-2

पदच्छेद - चन्द्रक चारु मयूर शिखण्डक मण्डल वलयित केशम् प्रचुर पुरन्दर धनुः अनुरंजित मेदुर मुदिर सुवेशम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - candraka cāru mayūra śikhaṇḍaka maṇḍala valayita keśam pracura purandara dhanuḥ anuraṁjita medura mudira suveśam - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-2. chandraka= plumage of peacock; chaaru= beautiful; mayuura= of peacock; shikhaNDaka= tail plumes with eyelike markings; maNDala= with wreath; valayita= enwreathed; kesham= [blackish] hairstyle; prachura= expansive; purandara+dhanuH= Indra's, bow = rainbow; anura.njita= decorated with, with a wraparound; medura= thickly; mudira= [like] cloud; su+vesham= beautiful, attire; reprise: raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, whose blackish hairstyle is enwreathed with a wreath of beautiful plumery of peacock with their eyelike markings, is like thick blue-black, or cerulean cloud with a wraparound of rainbow as its beautiful attire... such as he is, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-2]

Comment: Here there are two concepts. One, any seen peacock is reminding her of Krishna as he has peacock plumes in his crown. The other, every cloud is appearing like him, as blue-black, cerulean hue is common to both, and common are the colourful rainbow on a cloud and rainbow-like attire on this boy. Hence she is in a fit of the blues.

gopakadambanitambavatiimukhachumbanalambhitalobham |
bandhujiivamadhuraadharapallavamullasitasmitashobham || a pa 5-3

padacCheda - gopa vatii mukha chu.mbana la.mbhita lobham ba.ndhu jiiva madhura adhara pallavam ullasita smita shobham - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

बन्धुजीवमधुराधरपल्लवमुल्लसितस्मितशोभम्॥ अ प ५-३
gopakadambanitambavatīmukhacumbanalambhitalobham |
bandhujīvamadhurādharapallavamullasitasmitaśobham || a pa 5-3

पदच्छेद - गोप कदंब नितंब वती मुख चुंबन लंभित लोभम् बंधु जीव मधुर अधर पल्लवम् उल्लसित स्मित शोभम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - gopa kadaṁba nitaṁba vatī mukha cuṁbana laṁbhita lobham baṁdhu jīva madhura adhara pallavam ullasita smita śobham - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-3. gopa= milkmaids; group of [samuuha, brindam, nikurambam, kadambam - amara kosha; not Kadamba tree]; with beamy buttocks, women having them [gagana jaghana]; mukha= face; chu.mbana= in kissing; la.mbhita= that which is acquired [his own interestedness]; lobham= interested in; ba.ndhujiiva= Bandhuuka flower, a rosy red flower; madhura= dainty; adhara= lower lip; pallavam= tender leaf like; ullasita= beaming; smita= smile; shobham= by which he is shining forth; reprise; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who has acquired an interestedness in making the group of milkmaids with beamy buttocks to kiss his face, and on whose dainty and tender-leaf like lower lip, that resembles the roseate Bandhuuka flower, a beaming smile ever shines forth... he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-3]

Comment: Please read the word mukha as face, but not as mouth, since mouth's function is different from that of lips, insofar as kissing is concerned. Whenever Raadha sees a Bandhuuka flower, a rosy red flower, Krishna's delicate lower lip is coming to her mind, but unavailable is his face, as other round-bottomed girls are invading it. Then why not Raadha follow the suite of other girls? How can she do so, when others are mobbing him? Moreover she wants him, only for herself, without any sharing or partaking. Then the friend may question her, asking 'why you are after that boy when he is after those many?' For that Raadha's answer is: 'He is fully interested in me... none else... la.mbhita lobham... but he acquired an interestedness, created by those girls, when all those girls forcibly dragged him away, so allowed them to kiss his face... hence, I extol him and his attributes, as he really belongs to me...'

Round-bottomed milkmaids... ni.ndaa vaacaka... Raadha is sneering at other girls for their ungainly physique, as Raadha herself is the most beautiful girl.

vipulapulakabhujapallavavalayitavallavayuvatisahasram |
karacharaNorasi maNigaNabhuushhaNakiraNavibhinnatamisram || 5-4

padacCheda - vipula pulaka bhuja pallava valayita vallava yuvati sahasram kara charaNa urasi maNi gaNa bhuuSaNa kiraNa vibhinna tamisram - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

करचरणोरसि मणिगणभूषणकिरणविभिन्नतमिस्रम्॥ ५-४
vipulapulakabhujapallavavalayitavallavayuvatisahasram |
karacaraṇorasi maṇigaṇabhūṣaṇakiraṇavibhinnatamisram || 5-4

पदच्छेद - विपुल पुलक भुज पल्लव वलयित वल्लव युवति सहस्रम् कर चरण उरसि मणि गण भूषण किरण विभिन्न तमिस्रम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - vipula pulaka bhuja pallava valayita vallava yuvati sahasram kara caraṇa urasi maṇi gaṇa bhūṣaṇa kiraṇa vibhinna tamisram - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-4. vipula= immense; pulaka= with frisson; bhuja+pallava= arms, tender leaf like; valayita= encircled [embraced]; vallava+yuvati+sahasram= cowmen, maids, thousands [and thousands of milkmaids]; kara+charaNa+urasi= on hands, feet, chest; maNi+gaNa+ bhuuSaNa = jewels, sets of, jewelry; kiraNa= [by that jewelry's] shaft of light, [luminosity]; vibhinna+ tamisram= dispelled, darkness [gloom]; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who is embraced by thousands and thousands of milkmaids with their tender leaf-like arms, which are with immense frisson, and which luminosity of sets of jewelry on his hands, feet and chest dispels darkness, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-4]

Comment: The word tamisram is not the darkness of night alone, but the general darkness, gloom, ignorance etc., as in tamasomaa jyotir gamayaH. A single ray of light from his jewellery is enough to dispel any kind of darkness, then what more can be said of his total jewellery and about himself. Thus the ignorance of all the other milkmaids is dispelled, call them as sages and saints of Ramayana times, as you may, as a kind of deliverance.

On Raadha's side, she is remembering their starting time episodes. When they started homeward the night was falling, and the pathway was darksome. Krishna played her along till she came very near to him. But when she neared him all the darkness around them is dispelled only because of the luminosity of his jewellery, and she was prudish to be with him in broad daylight like resplendence. She ran away into darkness. But he is already there with his luminosity and it was inescapable for her to avoid him, in many an attempt. In the meanwhile other milkmaids came and carried him away, and she is disgruntled, and now she is grunting about it.

jaladapaTalavaladinduvinandakachandanatilakalalaaTam | piinapayodharaparisaramardananirdayahR^idayakavaaTam || 5-5

padacCheda - jalada paTala valat indu vinindaka chandana tilaka lalaaTam piina payodhara parisara mardana nirdaya hR^idaya kavaaTam - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

जलदपटलवलदिन्दुविनन्दकचन्दनतिलकललाटम्। पीनपयोधरपरिसरमर्दननिर्दयहृदयकवाटम्॥ ५-५
jaladapaṭalavaladinduvinandakacandanatilakalalāṭam | pīnapayodharaparisaramardananirdayahṛdayakavāṭam || 5-5

पदच्छेद - जलद पटल वलत् इन्दु विनिन्दक चन्दन तिलक ललाटम् पीन पयोधर परिसर मर्दन निर्दय हृदय कवाटम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - jalada paṭala valat indu vinindaka candana tilaka lalāṭam pīna payodhara parisara mardana nirdaya hṛdaya kavāṭam - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-5. jalada= in clouds; paTala= crowds of; calat or valat= moving; indu= moon; vi+nindaka= verily, deploring; chandana+tilaka= sandal paste, mark on forehead; lalaaTam= having forehead; piina= busty; payodhara= bosoms; [maNDala= area, bust] parisara= nearby, closely, tightly; mardana= on rubbing; nir+daya= without, mercy, implacable; hR^idaya+ kavaaTam= heart [chest,] door; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, by whose sandal paste's roundish mark on his forehead, that roundel moon moving in the crowds of clouds is highly deplorable, and he whose chest hardened by tight rubbing of busty bosoms of milkmaids, thus his implacable heart is encased in his strong-doored chest, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-5]

Comment: The moon moving in clouds is reminding her about the round sandal-paste mark on Krishna's forehead. The moon may not be moving in clouds as in shaakhaa-candra nyaaya, but Krishna's head is definitely and constantly nodding while piping his flute. Then his face is like a mass of clouds, and mark on forehead is brilliant than the semi-visible moon in clouds. Though he is boy his chest is so hardened to keep his all-loving heart in a strong-doored strongroom. From his childhood his chest is rubbed against busty bosomy breasts, either of women of Vraj or demoness Puutana from Madhura. Hence this boy is calculatingly entertaining unassuming milkmaids, but heedless of Raadha, as her claim is for ownership of the very same boy, and hence Raadha is with this discontentment, yet not able to forget him.

maNimayamakaramanoharakuNDalamaNDitagaNDamudaaram | piitavasanamanugatamunimanujasuraasuravaraparivaaram || 5-6

padacCheda - maNi maya makara manohara kuNDala maNDita gaNDam udaaram piita vasanam anugata muni manuja sura asura vara parivaaram - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

मणिमयमकरमनोहरकुण्डलमण्डितगण्डमुदारम्। पीतवसनमनुगतमुनिमनुजसुरासुरवरपरिवारम्॥ ५-६

maṇimayamakaramanoharakuṇḍalamaṇḍitagaṇḍamudāram | pītavasanamanugatamunimanujasurāsuravaraparivāram || 5-6

पदच्छेद - मणि मय मकर मनोहर कुण्डल मण्डित गण्डम् उदारम् पीत वसनम् अनुगत मुनि मनुज सुर असुर वर परिवारम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - maṇi maya makara manohara kuṇḍala maṇḍita gaṇḍam udāram pīta vasanam anugata muni manuja sura asura vara parivāram - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-6. maNi+maya= gems, full with; makara= crocodile; manohara= heart-stealing; kuNDala= knobby ear-hangings; maNDita= decorated, [illuminates as in 3 decorate (an initial letter, a manuscript, etc.) with gold, silver, or brilliant colours etc.]; gaNDam= cheeks; udaaram =glorious one; piita+ vasanam= ochry silks, as raiment; anu+gata= in tow, followed by; muni= sage; manuja= human; sura= gods; asura= demon; vara+parivaaram= best, followers, fraternity; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, whose gem-studded crocodile-like knobby ear-hangings will be heart-stealing when they illuminate his sapphirine-blue cheeks, when they swing onto them, and he who has ochry silks as his raiment, and who has a best fraternity of gods, demons, and men in his tow, and such a glorious one is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-6]

Comment: Here his followers are said in singular, but we usually take it as plural for generalisation. In singularity they are: among gods it is Sage Narada; among demons it is Emperor Bali; among humans it is Bhiishma pitaamah, where all the three symbolise 'surrendering, forfeiture, dedication...' Narada is an out-and-out dedicatee of Vishnu and his incarnations, Emperor Bali is a non-naysayer, and Bhiishma is renowned for his forfeiture of a vast kingdom for the sake of one solemn promise. Of course, Raadha as an illiterate 'thumb-impression' girl may not know all these things, but the poet knows, and hence he puts these expressions on her tongue, since she too is no less a devotee. She as a poor girl from a hamlet may not have kingdoms to forego like Bhiishma, spheres of worlds like Bali, and utmost scriptural knowledge like Narada. But she is female and female's body and soul alone are her property or possessions, hence she wants to surrender them in the Supreme Being.

vishadakadambatale militam kalikalushhabhayam shamayantam |
maamapi kimapi tarangadanaN^gadR^ishaa manasaa ramayantam || 5-7

padacCheda - vishada tale militam kali kaluSa bhayam shamaya.ntam maam api kim api tara.ngat ana.nga dR^ishaa manasaa ramaya.ntam - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

विशदकदम्बतले मिलितम् कलिकलुषभयम् शमयन्तम्।
मामपि किमपि तरन्गदनङ्गदृशा मनसा रमयन्तम्॥ ५-७
viśadakadambatale militam kalikaluṣabhayam śamayantam |
māmapi kimapi tarangadanaṅgadṛśā manasā ramayantam || 5-7

पदच्छेद - विशद कदंब तले मिलितम् कलि कलुष भयम् शमयंतम् माम् अपि किम् अपि तरंगत् अनंग दृशा मनसा रमयंतम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - viśada kadaṁba tale militam kali kaluṣa bhayam śamayaṁtam mām api kim api taraṁgat anaṁga dṛśā manasā ramayaṁtam - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-7. vishada= serene; at Kadamba tree, base; militam=mingled, arrived at; kali= praNaya kalaha = niggling in romance/ Kali, the fourth era; kaluSa= manaH kaaluSya= blemish; bhayam = fear; shamaya.ntam= mollifier; kim+api= how, even [impossible to tell, unspeakably]; tara.ngat= tidal; ana.nga+dR^ishaa= with Love-god's, look [with passionate looks]; manasaa= with heart, soulfully; maam+api= me, even; ramaya.ntam= exhilarate; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who is arrived at the foot of a serene Kadamba tree for me, and he who is a mollifier of niggles in romance, and he who can exhilarate even me with his tidally passionate looks and soulfully, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-7]

Comment: kadamba tale militam: He who is mixed up or mingled in the darkness at a peaceful Kadamaba tree, pre-set by me, only to hoodwink me; kali kaluSa... one as above, and the other is the mollifier of the blemishes of Kali era, the fourth era; drishaa, manasaa ca - not only by his gracious looks and but with his kind heart also; maam api - even me, as I deserve supreme love and affection of the Supreme lokottara prema arhiNii - raadhika, hence I reminisce about him...

shriijayadevabhaNitamatisundaramohanamadhuripuruupam |
haricharaNasmaraNam prati samprati puNyavataamanuruupam || 5-8

padacCheda - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam ati sundara mohana madhu ripu ruupam hari charaNa smaraNam prati samprati puNyavataam anuruupam - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

हरिचरणस्मरणम् प्रति सम्प्रति पुण्यवतामनुरूपम्॥ ५-८
śrījayadevabhaṇitamatisundaramohanamadhuripurūpam |
haricaraṇasmaraṇam prati samprati puṇyavatāmanurūpam || 5-8

पदच्छेद - श्री जयदेव भणितम् अति सुन्दर मोहन मधु रिपु रूपम् हरि चरण स्मरणम् प्रति सम्प्रति पुण्यवताम् अनुरूपम् - रासे हरिमिह - - परिहासम्
padaccheda - śrī jayadeva bhaṇitam ati sundara mohana madhu ripu rūpam hari caraṇa smaraṇam prati samprati puṇyavatām anurūpam - rāse harimiha - - parihāsam

a pa 5-8. shrii= shrii suukti= sacred saying; jayadeva+bhaNitam= by Jayadeva, said; ati+sundara= most, beautiful; mohana= enrapturing [physically rapturous to milkmaids, divinely to whole of the world]; madhu+ripu= Madhu, the demon's, enemy's Krishna; ruupam = form; hari+charaNa= Krishna's, feet; smaraNam+prati= cogitate, for; samprati= presently [in this kali yuga]; puNyavataam= pietistic people; anuruupam = befitting; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who has a most beautiful and all-enrapturing form, on whom a sacred saying is said by Jayadeva, a befitting saying for pietistic people to cogitate over the feet of Krishna in this Kali era, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-8]

Comment: The last line of reprise is generally removed in this verse, as it will be confusing whether Raadha is saying this, or it is the poet's saying. But if read with next verse, it is Raadha's dialogue that is continued.

Verse Locator

gaNayati guNagraamam bhaamam bhramaadapi nehate |
vahati cha paritoshham doshham vimuJNchati duurataH |
yuvatishhu valastR^ishhNe kR^ishhNe vihaariNi maam vinaa |
punarapi mano vaamam kaamam karoti karomi kim || 2-2

गणयति गुणग्रामम् भामम् भ्रमादपि नेहते।
वहति च परितोषम् दोषम् विमुञ्चति दूरतः।
युवतिषु वलस्तृष्णे कृष्णे विहारिणि माम् विना।
पुनरपि मनो वामम् कामम् करोति करोमि किम्॥ २-२
gaṇayati guṇagrāmam bhāmam bhramādapi nehate |
vahati ca paritoṣam doṣam vimuñcati dūrataḥ |
yuvatiṣu valastṛṣṇe kṛṣṇe vihāriṇi mām vinā |
punarapi mano vāmam kāmam karoti karomi kim || 2-2

padacCheda - gaNayati guNa graamam bhaamam bhramaat api nehate vahati cha paritoSam doshham vimu.nchati duurataH yuvatiSu valat tR^iSNe kR^iSNe vihaariNi maam vinaa punaH api manaH vaamam kaamam karoti karomi kim

padaccheda - gaṇayati guṇa grāmam bhāmam bhramāt api nehate vahati ca paritoṣam doṣam vimuṁcati dūrataḥ yuvatiṣu valat tṛṣṇe kṛṣṇe vihāriṇi mām vinā punaḥ api manaḥ vāmam kāmam karoti karomi kim

2. sakhii= oh friend; mama+manaH+vaamam= my, heart, is divergent; maam+vinaa= me, without [leaving out; vihaariNii= frolicking; yuvatiSu= among damsels; valat+tR^iSNe= over, ambitiously; kR^iSNe= in Krishna; [mama+manaH= my, heart] punaH+api= again, even [repeatedly]; kaamam= desire; karoti= doing [inciting]; guNa+graamam+gaNayati= [his] traits, group of [lot of,] reckoning; [mama+manaH= my, heart] bhramaat+api= by mistake, even; bhaamam+nehate= resentment, thinks not; doshham+duurataH+vimu.nchati= error, distantly, discarding; [mama+manaH= my, heart] paritoSam+vahati+ca= gladness, bearing up, also; kim+karomi= what, I should do.

"Oh, friend, my heart is diverging from my control... my heart is repeatedly inciting desire in me for that Krishna alone, though he is overambitiously frolicking with other damsels, leaving me out, yet my heart is reckoning a lot of of his traits... and discarding his errors distantly my heart does not think of resenting him even by mistake, more so, my heart bears up gladness on thinking about him... what should I do... [2-2]

Comment: vaamam - mutually contradictory states of mind; gladdening in an unbefitting time; though he is erroneous, thinking that he does not err; though he has no inclination in her, presuming that he is absolutely predisposed towards her - all these are vaamam- leftish states.

The mood of heroine is known as utkaNThita - heroine in ecstasy. In verse of Bharata muni uddaapanamanmatha mahaa jvara vepamaanaam romaa.ncaka kaNTakitam a.nga ka.mpam a.ngakam aavaha.ntiim | sa.mveda vepadhu ghanotkalika akula a.ngiim utkaNThitaam vadati taam bharataH || She who is in high fervidity of lovesickness, limbs in frisson, anguished, quivering, highly ecstatic, her Bharata muni calls tkaNThita naayika... Though these songs of Jayadeva peripherally appear as just wordplay and singable songs, they are replete with moods, gestures, and postures etc., as contained in naaTya shaastra, the treatise of dance of Bharata. Let's load them later.

There is no reason or motive as why she should love Krishna; hence alankaara is vibhaavana alankaara; though he is frolicking with other girls she is all praise for him, hence viSeSokti alankaara; in other places there is yamaka alankara; hariNi - is its metre.

Verse Locator

aSTa padi 6 - aklesha keshava ma.njarii tilakam

nibhR^itaniku~njagR^iham gatayaanishirahasiniliiyavasantam |
chakitavilokitasakaladishaa ratirabhasabhareNahasantam |
sakhi he keshimathanamudaaram |
ramaya mayaa saha madanamanorathabhaavitayaa savikaaram - dhR^ivam || 6-1

padacCheda - nibhR^ita niku~nja gR^iham gatayaa nishi rahasi niliiya vasantam chakita vilokita sakala dishaa rati rabhasabhareNa hasantam sakhi he keshi mathanam udaaram ramaya mayaa saha madana manoratha bhaavitayaa savikaaram

अष्ट पदि ६ - अक्लेश केशव मंजरी तिलकम्
aṣṭa padi 6 - akleśa keśava maṁjarī tilakam

निभृतनिकुञ्जगृहम् गतयानिशिरहसिनिलीयवसन्तम्।
चकितविलोकितसकलदिशा रतिरभसभरेणहसन्तम्।
सखि हे केशिमथनमुदारम्।
रमय मया सह मदनमनोरथभावितया सविकारम् - धृवम्॥ ६-१
nibhṛtanikuñjagṛham gatayāniśirahasinilīyavasantam |
cakitavilokitasakaladiśā ratirabhasabhareṇahasantam |
sakhi he keśimathanamudāram |
ramaya mayā saha madanamanorathabhāvitayā savikāram - dhṛvam || 6-1

पदच्छेद - निभृत निकुञ्ज गृहम् गतया निशि रहसि निलीय वसन्तम् चकित विलोकित सकल दिशा रति रभसभरेण हसन्तम् सखि हे केशि मथनम् उदारम् रमय मया सह मदन मनोरथ भावितया सविकारम्
padaccheda - nibhṛta nikuñja gṛham gatayā niśi rahasi nilīya vasantam cakita vilokita sakala diśā rati rabhasabhareṇa hasantam sakhi he keśi mathanam udāram ramaya mayā saha madana manoratha bhāvitayā savikāram

a pa 6-1. he+sakhi= oh, friend; udaaram= generous, bounteous one in giving pleasure [Krishna]; sa+vikaaram= naanaa sringaara vikaaraiH = with, lustful comportment; nibhR^ita = lonely; niku~nja+gR^iham= bower, cabin= alcove; gatayaa= one who has gone [Raadha -when I have gone in]; mayaa+saha= me, along with; nishi= in night; rahasi= secretly; niliiya= merged, hiding; vasantam= on who stays there; chakita= startled [when I was startled]; vilokita= seen around; sakala = all; dishaa= directions; mayaa+saha= me, along with; rati= intimacy; rabhasa= hastiness; bhareNa - or - raseNa= filled with, or, desiring to; hasantam= smilingly; keshi+mathanam= Keshi, the demon, subjugator of; madana+manoratha= love, heart seeking, desirous of [my heart is filled with love for him]; bhaavitayaa= one who with such thinking [I, who has such a mind, heart and mind are eager for his love]; mayaa+saha= me, along with [in me]; ramaya= you make him to take delight in me.

"Oh, friend, one night when I have gone into a lonely alcove, as a prearranged place to meet him, he that bounteous pleasure-giver was already there along with me, coming earlier than me, but hiding in the darkness... and I was startled when he was unavailable there and started to see all around for him, then he appeared with all his lustful comportment and smiling wryly at me, for not finding him who is already there... and then he, filled with hastiness for an intimacy, he met me... now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-1]

Comment: Keshi madhanam - Krishna beguiles the demon Keshi in order to eliminate him. A beguiler must be capable enough to get his things done, so Krishna's vancakatva, saamarathya are suggested here. He beguiles everyone who goes on a wrong track, only to bring him to the right path. In this verse he is said to be hasantam - laughing at her for not finding him who is already at her side, suggests that he beguiles manyone, if he/she seeks him for their ulterior motives.

prathamasamaagamalajjitayaa paTuchaaTushatairanukuulam |
mR^idumadhurasmitabhaaSitayaa shithiliikR^itajaghanadukuulam |
sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-2

padacCheda - prathama samaagama lajjitayaa paTu chaaTu shataiH anukuulam mR^idu madhura smita bhaaSitayaa shithilii kR^ita jadhana dukuulam sakhi - - savikaaram

प्रथमसमागमलज्जितया पटुचाटुशतैरनुकूलम्।
मृदुमधुरस्मितभाषितया शिथिलीकृतजघनदुकूलम्।
सखि - - सविकारम्॥ अ प ६-२
prathamasamāgamalajjitayā paṭucāṭuśatairanukūlam |
mṛdumadhurasmitabhāṣitayā śithilīkṛtajaghanadukūlam |
sakhi - - savikāram || a pa 6-2

पदच्छेद - प्रथम समागम लज्जितया पटु चाटु शतैः अनुकूलम् मृदु मधुर स्मित भाषितया शिथिली कृत जधन दुकूलम् सखि - - सविकारम्
padaccheda - prathama samāgama lajjitayā paṭu cāṭu śataiḥ anukūlam mṛdu madhura smita bhāṣitayā śithilī kṛta jadhana dukūlam sakhi - - savikāram

a pa 6-2. prathama+samaagama= first, meeting; lajjitayaa= bashful; paTu= capable [reassuring words]; chaaTu+shataiH= good words, hundreds of; anukuulam= agreeable [he made me agreeable to him]; mR^idu+madhura+smita= softly, sweetly, smiling; bhaaSitayaa= one who is speaking [Raadha, myself]; shithilii+kR^ita= collapse, made to [stripped down]; jaghana= hip; dukuulam= silk dress; sakhi - savikaaram= reprise, as above.

"On my first meeting I was bashful, but he said hundreds of reassuring good words, and then when I was speaking softly, sweetly and smilingly, my silken dress stripped down from my hips... now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-2]

Comment: prathama samaagama lajjita - damsels are bashful, silent, and uncertain, na uktaH kasmaat it nava vadhuu ceSTitam cintayantii pascaattapam vahati taruNii premNi jaate rasaj~nayaa... bharata muni

paTu caaru shataiH anukuulam - hero has some techniques of speaking good and soft words in first meeting - prathamam iha deyam puuga puSpaadikam syaat mridu madhu vacobhiH vojayet tat sannidhaanam...

shithilii kR^ita - antarbhaavita Nic` - the silk dress collapsed on its own, neither Raadha nor Krishna are responsible for it - kaante talpam paagate shithilitaa niivii svayam bandhanaat... bharata muni

jaghana dukuulam - it is already a slippery silk sari, just tied with a simple knot and a golden girdle string - mekhala - is helping it to remain on her hips. But when the heroine has seen Super hero - naakaya uttama - her ecstasy made that knot to loosen and girdle string to unfasten - niivii ca skhalati sthitaa api su dhR^iDham kaamengite yoSitaam...

kisalayashayananiveshitayaa chiramurasi mamaiva shayaanam |
kR^itaparirambhaNachumbanayaa parirabhya kR^itaadharapaanam |
sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-3

padacCheda - kisalaya shayana niveshitayaa chiram urasi mama eva shayaanam kR^ita parirambhaNa chumbanayaa parirabhya kR^ita adharapaanam sakhi - - savikaaram

किसलयशयननिवेशितया चिरमुरसि ममैव शयानम्।
कृतपरिरम्भणचुम्बनया परिरभ्य कृताधरपानम्।
सखि - - सविकारम्॥ अ प ६-३
kisalayaśayananiveśitayā ciramurasi mamaiva śayānam |
kṛtaparirambhaṇacumbanayā parirabhya kṛtādharapānam |
sakhi - - savikāram || a pa 6-3

पदच्छेद - किसलय शयन निवेशितया चिरम् उरसि मम एव शयानम् कृत परिरम्भण चुम्बनया परिरभ्य कृत अधरपानम् सखि - - सविकारम्
padaccheda - kisalaya śayana niveśitayā ciram urasi mama eva śayānam kṛta parirambhaṇa cumbanayā parirabhya kṛta adharapānam sakhi - - savikāram

a pa 6-3. kisalaya= tender grass, lawn; shayana= as bed; niveshitayaa= placed in [on reposing me]; chiram= all the time; mama+urasi+eva= on my, chest, only; shayaanam= reposing; kR^ita= on making; pari+rambhaNa= bracing, embraces; chumbanayaa= with kisses; pari+rabhya= in besetting manner, hugging [graspingly]; kR^ita+adhara+paanam= done, lower lip, swilled; sakhi - savikaaram= as above.

"After reposing me on a bed like lawn he reposed on my chest all the time, and on making bracing embraces and kisses, he used to hug me and swill my lower lip, graspingly... now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-3]

Gita Govinda Tika (original) con 149 páginas

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