martes, 5 de enero de 2010

Gita Govinda Tika

çré rädha is a mahä bhäva – 'an ecstatic concept about an exquisite beauty...' and she is the cynosure of this mini-epic géta govinda or Gita Govinda of Jayadeva. This work Gita Govindam is a lyrical dance-drama, plussed with the then romantics, poetic aesthetics and what not – with a theme of vipralambha sångära - anguish in separation and joy in uniting of divine couple Rädha and Krishna. The poet sings to the joy of Krishna, wishing him to be always joyous togetherness of Rädha, addressing him variously like – Govinda, Maadhava, Hari, Keshava etc., according to the situation, and hence it is called Gita Govindam, like bhaja govindam i.e., devout yourself unto Govinda. For easy comprehension we have put all the names as Krishna. And Rädha is none else than Krishna, the very fount of his lélä çakti, creative power. She transmutes his glory into prema änanda, the zenith of blissful happiness, in which alone he takes pleasure. This is the idea of géta govinda.

That being the viewpoint of Absolute Theology, taking hold of Applied Theology our poet Jayadeva brings Rädha a little closer to our nature, under the ozone sphere within this Earthly Nature that which is also crafted by that God for our habitation, to depict her romance with Krishna to our viewpoint. Hence, Rädha can be construed as Queen Nature, in a way of interpretation of this mini-epic. The dancing, singing, frolicking and merrymaking of Krishna with this type of unique milkmaids is räsa léla or räsa kréòa. This dancing in a circle, a ronde dance as we call it, in itself is a particular dance, by the singing of many milkmaids to the fluting of one Krishna. This happens only in Brindavan, all- holy woodland with thickets of basil plants, conceived only for the congregation of such milkmaids for their communion with Krishna.

'As heat is to fire, as cold is to ice, as sweetness to honey so are god's qualities to himself, so is Rädha to Krishna. Rädha, or Rädhika, is Krishna's power brought into play so that he may have a partner in his game, who may supersensuously share his love. Her love is the highest possible, and it is when identified with her as the Supreme Lover of God that the soul attains perfection. 'Just as Krishna is essentially god and beyond Nature, so too is Rädha essentially god, immaculate...' Narada pancaraatra. She is the power by which god creates, herself remaining beyond what he creates through her. She remains ever immaculate even while manifesting through Nature's three 'modes' sattva, rajo, tamo, guṇa-s, or subtle elements; she cannot be bound by the laws of their interaction, for she is the source of their activity The Gospel of Narada.

On an autumnal full moon night, the gopi-s or gopika-s, or milkmaids, attracted by the flute of Krishna, went out of their homes and met him in the groves of Brindavan. He first tried to send them back, but failed. Then the raasa began on the beach of Yamuna, and when the gopika-s were besides themselves with ecstasy, Krishna suddenly disappeared from the scene. When they came to know of this, their sorrow knew no bounds. They searched for him in every grove, bewailing all the while. When they came back... he suddenly reappeared in their midst. The dance was resumed... they roamed... played... bathed in Yamuna waters... The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. 4, The Religions The Ramakrishna Mission.

gopika-s or the milkmaids in Brindavan are not mere girlish milkmaids, but they are all saints and sages in their earlier incarnation, or the Veda-s themselves, so says the tradition. And Krishna according his proximity to each one, wants to satisfy every soul. On such an occassion of räsa léla or räsa kréòa Krishna had to deviate from Rädha in this ronde dance, in order to satisfy others. Rädha 's femininity spews fire at Krishna. These are the opening episodes of this drama, and we have to follow through it, rather giving a trailer of it.

These räsa léla or räsa kréòa-s are not just lustful erotic dances, but they have esoteric meaning. We are trying to include esoteric meaning of this ronde dance in appropriate episode, and we are gathering some info about it. All dancing, singing and frolicking of a devotee for a perfect communion with her devoted being, as said by:

In spite of the many kinds of love, which in Greek are designated as philia (friendship), eros (aspiration toward value), and epithymia (desire), in addition to agape, (Theo. Christian love, esp. as distinct from erotic love,) which is the creation of the Spirit, there is one point of identity in all these qualities of love, which justifies the translation of them all by "love"; and that identity is the 'urge toward the reunion of the separated,' which is the inner dynamics of life. Love in this sense is one and indivisible." Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, vol.3, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 137.

The problem of Rädha is almost that of St. Theresa 'for whom ecstasy is betrothal leading up to the spiritual marriage 'in which the soul always remains in its centre with God...' The Interior Castle, Seventh Mansion, Ch. II sec. 2 4., via S. Radhakrishnan's Eastern Religions and Western Thought.

Here also, the poet portrays that spiritual betrothal of Rädha with Krishna in this work. And what lust can be attached to a devotee, if he/she sings this Psalm: ' Sing unto the Lord a new song: sing praises lustily unto him with a good courage...' Psalm 33, v. 3.

If any peripherally casual reader would like to deride or despise such philosophisation of apparently erotic expressions, they are requested to firstly read articles of Christian theologists on Rädha, like Hon'ble David C. Scott, and Adam Clarke et al, whose urls are given at the end of this page.

When there are scores of websites on Jayadeva and his life, it will be unbefitting for this page to re-narrate the same. However, we may dare say that none has given any word for word translation for this work, nor for the complete translation of Gita Govinda, excepting that someone's attempt halted at the song on the eulogy of ten incarnations. There can be no exact translation of this work in any language, including the regional languages of India, because of the wordsmithy of this poet. This is as observed by Prof. T.Koteshvara Rao, Reader, SKD University. He cites, for example, one letter running into the next word, to give a completely different meaning like: vasante vaasantii - va, vaa; kusuma, sukumaaraiH - su, ku; baadhaam, raadhaam - aa, dhaa. The other main feature of Jayadeva is wordplay. Very small words with cadence, pause, tempo etc., as in lalita - lavanga - lataa - parishiilana - only a letter la with extended play. This is art of Jayadeva and there are many such examples to cite.

Tanslations or trashlations: Because Jayadeva's way of writing is so well-knit, it does not mean that others should not translate in regional languages or foreign ones, so says the above professor. But they remain a photocopy with many toner patches. We cannot possibly attain that delicacy or word arrangement in our languages. Hence, if we are translating, or calling them translations, they may please be viewed as 'communicating poet's ideas through other tongue with many redundant words...' and hence we may be doing trashlations.

There are five gurus of Jayadeva peeping into this Gita Govinda, namely 1] Valmiki for designing the work, melodrama, anguish in separation of lead characters. Ramayana is in 24, 000 verses and this work is in 12 chapters. Half of that number 24. But the aSTa padi-s, eight-footed songs are in 24 numbers. Next 2] Bharata Muni - for dance drama. 3] Vaastaayana - for romance. 4] Kalidasa - for word selection, brevity, small words with big meanings, alliterations etc. 5] Jayadeva on his own, as a trendsetter to language, grammar, poetic aesthetics etc.

There are many commentaries on this work, but rasika priya of Kumbha, and rasa manjari of Shankara Misra, shruti ranjani of Tirumala Deva Raaya, are renowned ones in Sanskrit world. There is a commentary called nritya lakshaṇa samhita by Sri K. Vaasudeva Saastry. This is an exhaustive and unique commentary, not commentary but a dance treatise, useful for any form of dancing school, since every word of Jayadeva is interpreted to have dance gestures, abhinaya, mudra-s, bhangima-s. This can be reflected here once in a while, because of that work's excellence, and limitation of this work. This book is available with Tanjavore Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjavore, Tamil Nadu state, India.

On musical side it is sung throughout India and there are many cassettes, CDs. But some of the best renderings can be listened from HMV's cassette SPHOS 3405. A complete dance ballet is recently telecast on sanskar TV channel, India.

An appeal to the readers

All translations are approximations, and this is not just a translation, an elucidation of the words and expressions used by the poet. This may not be a scholarly or highbrow work, but it is full with orthodoxy, circuitous, serpentine, self-coiling presentation in Indian routine, only to explain words used by the poet. Hence, the readers are requested to go by the word-for-word section than gist. If any mistakes, typos and the like are noticed, they may kindly be informed. pramaado api dhiimataam Whatever extra words that appear in the gist of song, than found in word-to-word section, they may please be construed as ellipted words, incorporated to bring out a meaningful paragraph or emphasis. The words arranged in word-to-word meanings are in accordance with anvaya krama, placement of words of Sanskrit to give a prosaic meaning.

This minni-epic is in twelve chapters and each chapter is given a heading as below:


1] 1] The Gospel of Narada, by Duncan Greenlees, M.A., (Oxon.) a - publication of The theosophical Publishing House, Adayar, with branches all over the world. This book referred in here as [GN], is a treasure book of info about Krishna and Rädha , is presently out of print but they are making its photocopies available.

2] Radha in the Erotic Play of the Universe - David C. Scott

3] Bible, Clarke's Commentary - Adam Clarke

Chapter [Sarga] 1

saamoda daamodaram

All-pervasive Exuberant Krishna

Poet Jayadeva wishing to portray the devine love of Raadha and Krishna in his immortal song giita govindam, starts this with a benedictory verse, that indicates the theme of his poetic work, as poets are required to start their poetic works with ashiish, namaskriya, or vastu nirdesha...

Verse Locator

meghairmeduramambaram vanabhuvaH shyaamaastamaaladrumaiH
naktam bhiirurayam tvameva tadimam raadhe gR^iham praapaya |
ittham nandanideshitashchalitayoH pratyadhvaku~njadrumam
raadhaamaadhavayorjayanti yamunaakuule rahaHkelayaH || 1-1

words separated - meghaiH - meduram - a.mbaram - vana bhuvaH - shyaamaaH - tamaala - drumaiH - naktam - bhiiruH - ayam - tvam - eva - tat - imam - raadhe - gR^iham - praapaya - ittham - nanda - nideshitaH - chalitayoH - prati - adhva - ku.nja - drumam - raadhaa - maadhavayoH - jayanti - yamunaa - kuule - rahaH - kelayaH

1-1. Tiika/word-order/meanings: hè raadhe= hey! Raadha; ambaram+meghaiH+ meduram = sky, with clouds, thick with; vana+bhuvaH= wood, areas [lands]; shyaamaaH= are blackened; tamaala+ drumaiH = with Tamaala, trees; naktam [ca + abhivartate]= night [is also drawing nigh]; bhiiruH+ayam= [naively] timorous, that one [Krishna is]; tat= thereby; tvam + eva= you, alone; imam+gR^iham+praapaya= him, to home, see he reaches [lead him forth]; ittham+nanda+ nideshitaH= this way, by Nanda, she who is instructed [Raadha]; chalitayoH= while both are on the go [to home]; raadhaa+ maadhavayoH = of both Raadha, Maadhava; yamunaa+kuule= on Yamuna, banks of; prati= each, at each and every; adhva= on pathway; kunja+drumam= in arbour, at tree; rahaH+kelayaH= sequestered, [Gr. erös, or epithymia, or philia not just love] plays of passion [that are the happenstances, bechanced events]; jayanti= won over, fructified [transcendentally exquisite.]

"Hè! Raadha, clouds are thickening on the sky, black Tamaala trees blacken the woodlands, and night is also drawing nigh... and that one is naively timorous... thereby, you alone lead him home..." this way when Nanda instructed Raadha, both Raadha and Maadhava are on the go homeward, and then the happenstances of their sequestered plays of passion, on each pathway, at every tree, and in each and every arbour on the banks of River Yamuna, are transcendentally exquisite. [1-1]

Comment: This is the 'worm's-eye-view' of this poetic work, but not the invocation of deity of speech/poetics. The invocation is in next verse.

A parable is said about this verse. As usual with any other poet, Jayadeva was also said to be a twiddler of his thumbs, and seeing this his maternal uncle daunts him for not taking up any job or profession like any other youngster. Jayadeva refuses trivial jobs and declares himself as a poet of par excellence, and he can portray ayam 'that' god in an innovative manner and in off the beaten-track. Then his maternal uncle questions who is 'that' god and what is the theme of 'that' poetry about 'that' god. Then this poem emerged from the depths of heart of Jayadeva about ayam , that god and his sequestered deeds. At the last words of this verse, that uncle sprang up to his feet in ire, and almost said to have stifled Jayadeva to death, for uttering such 'blasphemous poetry' on 'that' god.

Then Jayadeva, to stand by his own self-declaration as an eminent poet, started to compose the rest of this work, and puts the next verse, an invocatory poem, to stylus. Thus, though unconnected, this poem remained at the head of the work as a prologue, preamble etc., in the pattern of aashiirvaada, vastu nirdehsa, mangala aadiini... 'blessings, indicative of the topic of poetry, and for auspicious beginning of the poetic works, which the poets usually employ. Here the love-game of Raadha and Maadhava itself became the auspicious, blessing a priori, and content of this poetic work. That way, without naming him as Krishna, Govinda, or Maadhava etc., the poet puts the pronoun on the tongue of Nanda, the father of Krishna, as ayam, ayam bhiiruH... on the lines of kaalidasa , in his kumaara sambhava - 5 - ayam janaaH prahR^iShTa manaaH tapo dhane However, the poet really starts his work with the next verse.

raadhe said by Nanda has three shades; anunaya vaakya 'please Raadha, you take him home, for he is still a boy...' kopa ukti 'said in anger...' 'Raadha, don't you know that he is boyish and naively timorous... when it is dusking and darkening... what is it you play in nights... you go home, and while going take this fellow also to his home... no night wanderings... ' tattva ukti 'with some subtext... 'Raadha, tvam eva you alone, gR^iham 'house, personified by wife, you on becoming wife...' praapaya 'make him prosperous...' 'On your account Krishna became a householder, hence you alone lead him forth and enrich his prosperity as a his wife...'

Raadha did not get her cherished desire fulfilled in a trice, or at a snap of finger. She had to undergo her historical ordeal, put to test by Krishna. Why should she? When she is willing, when Krishna is at her side, when father Nanda permitted, when her maid encourages her... is she still put to test? These would be the pertinent doubts that arise, though they are not the questions in reality. Yes! She is put to litmus test by this most mischievous Krishna, and she had to shed her tears, sob her sobs, frown her resentments etc. Where all this has happened? On each and every pathway to home, at each and every tree, and in each of the bowers. Krishna seems to be there, but he is actually not there, and he is supposedly unavailable, but his fluting is audible very nearly. So, to depict that a true devotee has to undergo a step-by-step process for the culmination of his/her ardent desire, the poet indicates that there are many a pathway to tread, many are the trees of wisdom, and many are the bowers to contemplate lonely and solitarily, not only for Raadha but to any devotee. All these are godsend gifts of nature and humans.

The clouds spreading on sky will naturally be many. Here the word meghaiH is also in plural, but the commentators limit them to number nine, without the sense of innumerability, and simile them with the nine states, out of the ten states of love-pangs or manmatha avastha-s -

manmatha avasthäù
dåk manas sankalpa jägaräù kåçatä aratiù |
hré tyägo unmäda mürcchä antä iti ananga daçä daça

1] eyeing; 2] heart-loosing; 3] endeavour; 4] sleeplessness; 5] shrivelling; 6] disinterestedness in anything; 7] shamelessness; 8] maddening; 9] swooning; 10] trying to end oneself. The word ambaram sky suggests 'openness, sky is the limit for enjoyment... elate yourselves to sky...' And the word vana bhuva 'woodland areas are like heavens, lonely, secluded... thus a secreted heaven is said to be there on earth, on the banks of River Yamuna...' for Krishna is there. And naktam 'night time' is the proper time for such activity, since it is forbidden from dawn to dusk. And yamunaa kuule 'on the banks of Yamuna, exciting environ of Yamuna, with breezes wafting coolness of Yamuna waters and fragrances of flowers on its banks. The openness, solitude, rivers, waters, flowers, fragrances, all of them made that place heavenly. Above all, ayam, 'that' god is here. Then what more does a devotee require for his/her dedication, in order to commingle in him - physically, in mortal's parlance, and psychically in a devotee's experience.

The use of ultramundane word maa dhava Lakshmi's, husband - Vishnu may be observed, even when Krishna is manifestly a mortal, and available just before the eye. Though Krishna is Vishnu and though Rukmini, his first consort, is Lakshmi, Krishna's longing for an ephemeral and poetic embodiment called Raadha is more, and it suggests that god is inclined more towards real devotees, rather than for his coequals, like Rukmini or Lakshmi and the like.

Aesthetics info for Sanskrit students: The whole work revolves round the following aesthetics. 1] uddipanaa bhaavaaH excitants of mood: clouds, woodlands, night, arbours and bowers, riverside, cool breezes etc; 2] aalambana bhaavaaH mood for devotement: Raadha, Yamuna banks, arbours and bowers, solitude etc.; 3] anu bhaava indicatives of mood timorousness, prudishness, coyness of all characters; 4] vybhicaara bhaavaaH deviating moods ecstasy, fear, interestedness, embarrassment etc; 5] sthaayii bhaavaaH common mood longing, desperation, jealousy, resentment etc., with these moods, it is sambhoga vipralambha sR^ingaara and the metre of this verse is shaarduula vikriiDitam.

Though the moods are available in each of the foot, they may not be brought here, as they do not mean anything these days. But in a prima donna-ish fashion, some are said here. From meghaiH to praapaya it is vipralmbha sR^ingaara ; iththam to kelayaH it is sambhoga sR^ingaara ; shyaamaa tamaala, radhaamaadhavoH are in anu praasaa aalnnkaara ; first part of verse has samuccaya alankaara while the later part is having ashiir alankaara and on total it is said in samshR^iSTi alankaara. And the first verse itself is indicative of the activities of Krishna, and his playful acts, disporting, or the frolicking that is termed as raasa liila, raasa kriiDa, krishna liila, which will be heart pleasing.

Verse Locator

vaagdevataacharitachitritachittasadmaa padmaavatiicharaNachaaraNachakravartii | shriivaasudevaratikelikathaasametam etam karoti jayadevakaviH prabandham || 1-2

words separated - vaak - devataa - charita - chitrita - chitta - sadmaa - padmaavatii - charaNa - chaaraNa - chakravartii - shrii - vaasudeva - rati - keli - kathaa - sametam - etam - karoti - jayadeva - kaviH - prabandham

1-2. Tiika/word-order/meanings: vaak+devataa= speech, deity of; charita= with legend of; chitrita + chitta+sadmaa= depicted, [painted, with murals, embellished with] heart [soul,] [called] house; caraNa= feet; caaraNa= [which are] massaged by; padmaavatii= Goddess Lakshmi; chakra+vartii= wheel, mover [either His own Sudarshana disc, or the wheel of world, i.e., by the grace of one whose feet are massaged by Goddess Lakshmi, Vishnu, the Prime Mover];padmaavatii= padma= lotus; vatii= on who handles it, [one who is presiding deity of aSTaakshari hymn,] Goddess Lakshmi; charaNa = at feet; chaaraNa= by serving; chakravartii = one who became kingly poet; padmaavatii= Padmaavati - as proper noun, one named as Padmaavati, poet's wife; caraNa+ caaraNa= with feet, by moving, by dancing feet of Padmaavati ; chakra vartii = one who became kingly poet; shrii= epitome of Fortune, Lakshmi, here Raadha; vaasudeva= vasu + deva = earth's, deity of [Krishna]; rati+keli= epithalamic passion [Gr. eros, epithymia, not just love, or lust,] plays; kathaa+ sametam= episodes, along with [comprising of]; etam= this [one that is abiding in the heart like house with murals, poetic work]; prabandham= poetic work; jayadeva+kaviH = Jayadeva [named,] poet; karoti= [he is, or, I am] doing [authoring.]

Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, is embellishing his soul with her legends, like a home ever embellished with murals, and he who has become an emperor among poets by his service at the feet of Goddess Lakshmi, such a poet Jayadeva is now authoring this poetic lore that is so far abiding in such a soul with such murals, called Gita Govindam, which comprises the episodes of plays of passion of Raadha and Krishna. [1-2]


Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, is embellishing his homelike soul, ever embellished with murals-like legends of her literary grace, and he who has become an expert in poetry by the grace of one, whose feet are ever massaged by Goddess Lakshmi, Vishnu or Krishna, who also is the Prime Mover of this world, such a poet Jayadeva is now authoring this poetic lore that is so far abiding in such a soul with such murals, called Gita Govindam, which comprises the episodes of plays of passion of Raadha and Krishna. [1-2]


Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, is embellishing my soul with her legends, like a home ever embellished with murals, and I who became an emperor among poets by my service at the feet of Goddess Lakshmi, and even by the service rendered by my wife Padmaavati, for she tightly fastened my lyrics to tune and rhythm with her dancing feet, such as I am, I the kingly poet Jayadeva, am now authoring this poetic lore that is so far abiding in my soul, called Gita Govindam, which comprises the episodes of plays of passion Raadha and Krishna. [1-2]

Comment: This invocation starts with vaak devataa after Kalidasa's vaak arthaav iva sampR^iktau in his epic Kumaarassambhava. In those days, poetic narration about one's own wife or about her performing arts was a taboo. Jayadeva pooh-poohed this with the above stanza, questioning as to how Satyabhama danced before Krishna, and how Paarvati always dances with always dancing Shiva. Further, devotion does not equate with solitary self-surrender, or by hermetic sainthood, or by murmuring hymns singly. That is for devotees of nirguNa brahma and this ' bhaagavata devotion' culminates only when upacaaraa-s 'devotional offerings' are offered, and the singing and dancing are the end part of any worship. Even today this custom continues, but only as a lip service, Chatram dhaarayaami, caamaram viijayaami, giita vaadya R^ityam pradashayaami 'I hold up an parasol, I fan you, I show dance, sing, play music instruments... oh, god give me what I want...' Instead of worshipping with a dialogue, Jayadeva and Padmaavati danced. It is said the Jayadeva recognised not only a dancer in his wife, but a bhaagavatii pratipatti 'female devotee' in her, and thus both have adored their god jointly.

The analogy between Vaasudeva and Jayadeva is vasubhiH diipyata iti vaasudeva 'one shines forth with his wealth...' If Krishna is resplendent with his charm, Jayadeva is glistening with his wordplay. tasya apatyam vaasudeva 'his son is Vaasudeva...' meaning that one who has come out of his indebtedness towards his father, hence a free bird to take his own wings and to flirt as he may. Jayadeva is equally free to flirt away from the orthodoxy of poetics.

Aesthetics: Heart and house are in simile, hence ruupaka alankaara and at sametametam it is anupraa alankaara - vyanjana vyR^ittena; kaavya guNa - oja; riiti - gaudiiya; vR^itti - bhaarati metre -vasanta tilaka.

Verse Locator

yadi harismaraNe sarasam mano yadi vilaasakalaasu kutuuhalam |
madhurakomalakaantapadaavaliim shR^iNu tadaa jayadevasarasvatiim || 1-3

words separated - yadi - hari - smaraNe - sarasam - manaH - yadi - vilaasa - kalaasu - kutuuhalam - madhura- komala - kaa.nta - pada - aavaliim - shR^iNu - tadaa - jayadeva - sarasvatiim

1-3. he+sat+jana+gaNa [adhyaahR^ita, ellipted word] = oh, graciuous, people, assemblage [rounded off to oh, gracious people]; hari= on Hari, on Krishna; smaraNe= in meditation; manaH= soul; sa+rasam= with, elixir [of devotion]; yadi= if, [should it be filled with, plethoric with]; vilaasa= in flirtaceous [women's]; kalaasu= arts [arts of coaxing]; kutuuhalam+yadi= curiousness, if [should you have]; tadaa= then; madhura = mellowly; komala = deicate [willowy]; kaanta= heart-pleasing [mellifluous]; pada+aavaliim= words, medley of; jaya+deva= [about] glorious, god Krishna [or, poet Jayadeva's]; sarasvatiim= divine speech, praise song; shR^iNu= be listened.

Oh, gracious people, should your hearts be plethoric with the elixir of devotion for meditating on Krishna, and should you be curious enough about the arts of coaxing of flirtaceous womenkind, then listen to the praise song of Jayadeva on that glorious god Krishna, that which is a medly of willowy words, worded mellowly and mellifluously... [1-3]

Comment: This verse will be at 4th place in North Indian versions and in South, it is as above. The word used mathura melodious - mellowly, meaning that the words used have shabda gata, artha gata maadhuryam sound based and meaning based melody. In them sound based melody occurs when harsh sounding consonants like Tha Dha are not used, while the meaning based melody occurs when those words are primarily heat-pleasing, yet a little thinking is necessary to derive their meanings, unlike the words of absolute philosophy, which do not give any satisfaction eve after delving deep into them. Again the komala has the two aspects of meaning. In them, sound based delicacy occurs when too much of combining vowels and consonants is not adopted as in nistriaguNya, tymbaka and the like, which usage is called as cakra bandha - padma bandha way of compounding. And the word kaanta is also the same, in that the poetic work is desirable for it has sound based lissomness, and meaning based litheness. The usefulness of this verse is hari smaraNa, vilaasa vidya sikshaNa meditation on Krishna, and how the coaxing and combing of womenfolk will be delightfully inciting. Thus, this work's subject matter contains cognizable god in Krishna, if it is mulled over by his cognitive devotees smaarya smaaraka bhaava; diipaka- alankaara; paancaalii - riiti; kaishikii vR^itti; vR^ittam - dR^ita vilambita With this invocatory poem the poet is embarking on the usual prologues necessary for a poetic work.

Verse Locator

vaachaH pallavayatyumaapatidharaH sandarbhashuddhim giraam
jaaniite jayadeva eva sharaNaH shlaaghyo duruuhadrute |
spardhii ko.api na vishrutaH shrutidharo dhoyii kavikshmaapatiH || 1-4

words separated - vaachaH - pallavayati - umaapatidharaH - sa.ndarbha - shuddhim - giraam - jaaniite - jayadeva - eva - sharaNaH - shlaaghyaH - dur - uuha - drute - shR^i.ngaara - uttara sat - prameya - rachanaiH - aachaarya - govardhana - spardhii - kaH - api - na - vishrutaH - shrutidharaH - dhoyii - kavi - kshmaa - patiH

1-4. umaapatidharaH= Umaapatidhara, [a contemporary poet of Jayadeva]; vaachaH+ pallavayati = words, spreads [uses words with prolixity and expansile meanings]; sharaNaH= Sharana poet; dur+uuha+ drute= impossible, to think, in speediness [words are unpronounceably speedy]; shlaaghyaH= praiseworthy [Sharana poet]; shR^ingaara= romance; rachanaiH= with writings; uttara= before [prioritized]; sat= best; prameya= inferable subject of poetic work [or, sat= by scholars, prameya= inferable, knowable; aachaarya+ govardhana= scholar, poet Govardhana; spardhii= antagonist; kaH+api+na= anyone, even, not there; shrutidharaH + vishrutaH= poet Shrutidhara, renowned [for he is a wordsmith]; dhoyii+kavi+ kshmaa+ patiH = Dhoyii, poet, poets, king of; giraam= of words; sandarbha + shuddhim= situational, pureness [properness] jayadeva+eva+ jaaniite= Jayadeva, alone, knows.


umaapatidharaH+ vaachaH +pallavayati= Umaapatidhara, words, spreads [verbose]; sharaNaH= Sharana poet; dur+uuha +drute= impossible, to think, in speediness [words are unpronounceably speedy]; shlaaghyaH= praiseworthy [Sharana poet]; shR^ingaara = romance; uttara= before [prioritized]; sat= by his work called saccarita; prameya= inferable [as a poet by his work called saccitra]; rachanaiH= with writings; aachaarya+govardhana= for [pedagogic] scholar, poet Govardhana; spardhii= antagonist; kaH+ api+ na= anyone, even, not there; dhoyii+kavi+kshmaa+patiH = Dhoyii, poet, poets, king of; shruti+ dharaH + vishrutaH= what he has heard, he retains [parroted poetry,] thus renowned; giraam= of words; sandarbha + shuddhim= situational, pureness [properness] jayadeva+eva+ jaaniite= Jayadeva, alone, knows.

Poet Umaapatidhara uses words with prolixity and with expansile meanings, poet Sharana is praiseworthy for his unpronounceable speedy wordplay, none is an antagonist to the scholarly poet Govardhana, for he inferentially prioritises romance, poet Shrutidhara is renowned as an expert wordsmith, poet Dhoyii is a king among poets, but poet Jayadeva alone knows the situational properness of words and wordplay. [1-4]


Poet Umaapatidhara is verbose with words of prolixity and with expansile meanings, hence he is a poetaster with strident and shrilly words vaagaaDambaram, poet Sharana is praiseworthy for his unpronounceable speedy wordplay, hence he is unintelligible and unexplainable, and none is an antagonist to the scholarly poet Govardhana, for he prioritises romance alone, thus when he is bereft of other aesthetics, he is unfit to be called as a pedagogic scholar, aachaarya, for his treatise on alankaara shaastra named aaryaa sapta shati, and poet Dhoyii, a self-styled king of poets, is renowned for his parroted poetry, thus he is hardly a poet, but poet Jayadeva alone knows the situational properness of words and wordplay, hence he alone is the poet of the day... [1-4]

Comment: The second meaning is not a ridicule thrown at other poets, but it is like 'throwing hat in the ring...' and avowed declaration that he alone is good at poetry. It was a practice to say one or two verses in praise of good poets and in scorn at bad poets su kavi prashamsa, ku kavi ninda . This is in samuccaya alnkaara; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. - VerseLocator#VerseLocatorVerse Locator

aSTa padi -1 dasha avataara kiirti dhavalam

From here on the aSTa padi-s will be coming. These will be in eight-footed stanzas, with a repeatable stanza at their end. Though all the stanzas are a single verse, they are now being divided into separate units for the sake of easy reading and for easy incorporation of comment section. These units are given numbers like a pa1-1, a pa 1-2, where a pa represents aSTa padi eight-footed verse 1, and -1, -2, -3 are its unit.


pralayapayodhijale dhR^itavaanasi vedam | vihitavahitracharitramakhedam || keshavaadhR^itamiinashariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-1

words separated - pralaya - payodhi - jale - dhR^itavaan - asi - vedam - vihita - vahitra - charitram - akhedam - keshava - dhR^ita - miina - shariira - jaya - jagat - iisha - hare

a pa 1-1. keshava= oh, Keshava; jagat+iisha= worlds, the Almighty of; hare= oh, Hari; pra+laya= completely, commingled [deluged]; payodhi= oceans' [all common nouns, jaati eka vacana]; jale= in waters; dhR^ita+miina+shariira= on donning, fish's, body; vihita= make do [improvising]; vahitra= [like a] ship; charitram= legendary; vedam= Veda-s; a+khedam= not, with weariness [indefatigably]; dhR^itavaan+asi= upheld, you are; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, when worlds were under the deluge of all the waters of all seven seas, you on donning the body of a fish, and improvising yourself as a legendary ship, you indefatigably upheld all the four Veda-s, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-1]

Comment: The word Keshava is a formation of ka + iisha + va where kaH is Brahma; iisha is Shiva; va born from Vishnu; ka iti brahmaëo näma éço aham sarva dehinäm aväm ta ange sambhütau tasmät keçavo nämavän - nirukta bhäñyam thus Brahma and Shiva are born from the body of Vishnu. jagadiisha 'you are the controller of all worlds and when they have become uncontrollable you set them in order... that too indefatigably, hence we are reassured of your presence...' Hari 'he who steals away the troubles of his adherents...' sthaayii bhaava - utsaaha; rasa - viira; naayaka lakshaNa - dhiira lalita; alankaara - upama; atishayokti; riiti - artha maagadhi Next, the incarnation of tortoise is taken up, sequentially. Now let us see some of the dance gestures for this stanza from nritya lakshaNa samhita:

pralaya - pataaka upari pari mardita pataakena gagana dR^iShTyaa ca | payodhi jale - adhaH svastikii kR^ita vicyuta uurdhva tala pataakaabhyaam | dhR^itavaan asi - adho deshaat uddhR^ita muShTinaa | vedam - purasthala niku.ncakena | vihita - shanaiH adhara talii kR^ita muShTikena | vahitra - calita a.nguShTa kara prasaarita puSpa vR^iShTena | charitram - prasaarita uurdhva tala pataakena | akhedam - hR^id gata pataakena mukulayaa dR^iSTyyaa ca | keshava - keshava bandhena | dhR^ita - aavar.htanena kR^ita muSTinaa | miina shariira - makara hastakena | jaya - ud.h ddhR^itta hastakena | jagadiisha - lalaaTa sthaana a.njalinaa | hare - viShNava sthaanakena - iti nR^itya lakshaNa sa.mhita


kshitirativipulatare tavatiShThatipR^ishhThe | dharaNidharaNakiNachakragariShThe
keshava dhR^itakacChaparuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-2

words separated - kshitiH - ati - vipula - tare - tava - tiShThati - pR^ishhThe - dharaNi - dharaNa - kiNa - chakra - gariShThe - keshava - dhR^ita - kacChapa - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-2. keshava jagadiisha hare = as above; dhR^ita+kacChapa+ruupa= assumed, tortoise, form; ati+vipula+tare= very, wide, much in degree [widest]; dharaNi+dharaNa= earth, by bearing weight [or by bearing the weight of Mt. Manthara, when Milky Ocean was churned]; kiNa= tumid, puffed up; chakra+ tava= circular shell of tortoise, of yours; gariShThe + pR^iShThe= on its heightened, back; kshitiH+ tiShThati = earth, is abiding; jaya= as above.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on assuming the form of a tortoise and by bearing the weight of very wide earth, and Mt. Manthara as well, on the heightened back of circular shell of tortoise, that shell is puffed up and tumid, even then the earth is abiding on your back, even today... thus, hail to thee... [a pa 1-2]

Comment: The word tiSThati is in the tense of vartamaana nirdesha 'present continuous' so the earth is on the back of that tortoise, even today.

vasati dashanashikhare dharaNiitavalagnaa | shashini kala~Nkakaleva nimagnaa ||
keshava dhR^itasuukararuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-3

words separated - keshava - dhR^ita - suukara - ruupa - vasati - dashana - shikhare - dharaNii - tava - lagnaa - shashini - kala.nka - kala - iva - nimagnaa - keshava - dhR^ita - suukara - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-3. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+suukara+ruupa= on assuming, wild boar's, form; tava+dashana+shikhare= your, fang's, top; lagnaa+dharaNii= became stuck, earth; shashini+ nimagnaa = in moon, embedded; kalaN^ka+kala+iva= blemish's, streak, like; vasati= is lodged; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the form of a wild boar, only to uplift the earth from its sinking to netherworlds you lifted it up, and while uplifting with your snout, the earth is stuck in your crescentic fang, and it is lodged there on that fang, like a streak of blemish in the moon... hail to thee... [a pa 1-3]

Comment: Krishna, earth, and wild boar are black, while boar's fang and crescentic moon like fang is white. While the earth is spinning on the tip of fang, its blackness is appearing as the deer mark in the moon. The earth is, in a way, a blemish to God for he created it, but it separated itself from him, and its inmates always do certain deeds that brings more blemish to him.

tava karakamalavare nakhamadbhutashR^i~Ngam | dalitahiraNyakashiputanubhR^i~Ngam ||
keshava dhR^itanarahariruupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-4

words separated - tava - kara - kamala - vare - nakham - adbhuta - shR^i.ngam - dalita - hiraNyakashipu - tanu - bhR^i.ngam - keshava - dhR^ita - nara - hari - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-4. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+nara+hari+ruupa= on assuming, man, lion, form of; tava+kara+kamala+vare= in your, hand, [called] lotus, the best; dalita+ hiraNya kashipu + tanu = lacerated, Hiranyakashyapa's, body; bhR^iN^gam= [which is like a] honeybee; adbhuta+shR^iN^gam + nakham+ [bhaati]= wondrous, tip, of nail [thus those nails shine forth]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the form of man-lion, lacerated is the honeybee like body of demon Hiranyakashyapa just with the tips of fingernails of your hands, that are like best lotuses, thus those fingernails shine forth for their elimination of vice on earth, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-4]

Comment: It is usual for a honeybee to sting and lacerate delicate lotuses for nectar. But lotus lacerating thick-skinned honeybee is unusual. Though the palms of god are like delicate petals of lotus, they have very sharp and slashing tips of fingernails, like the claws of lion, only to bisect thick-skinned vice, called monstrosity. Hence those tips of fingernails ever shine forth as goodness against evil. alankaara - ruupaka

Chalayasi vikramaNe balimadbhutavaamana | padanakhaniirajanitajanapaavana ||
keshava dhR^itavaamanaruupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-5

words separated - chhalayasi - vikramaNe - balim - adbhuta - vaamana - pada - nakha - niira - janita - jana - paavana - keshava - dhR^ita - vaamana - ruupa jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-5. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+vaamana+ruupa= assuming, dwarf's, mien; adbhuta+vaamana= astounding dwarf; pada+nakha= from foot's toenail; niira+ janita= water, emerged; jana+paavana= [which is] people, santifier; vikramaNe + balim + chhalayasi = by treading [three worlds,] Emperor Bali, is being deluded; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the mien of a dwarfish boy to tread all the three worlds in three steps, you became an astounding dwarf, and then emerged is the water from your foot's toenail, namely River Ganga, which became the sanctifier of people on earth, and you always delude people of anti-establishment like Emperor Bali with such an astounding treading of yours, hence hail to thee... [a pa 1-5]

Comment: When Vishnu incarnated himself as Vamana he seeks donation of a three-foot-space from Emperor Bali, and Bali being a no naysayer, accords it. Then the dwarf covers entire earth with one foot, entire heaven with the second, and asks Bali where to keep the third. Bali shows his head and the boy places his third foot on the head of Bali, subduing Bali to netherworlds. In doing so, when that dwarf boy raises his foot to cover heavens, his toenail goes straight to the presence of Brahma. Observing that toenail as his father Vishnu's toenail, Brahma anoints it with sacred waters. When that dwarf-boy withdraws his foot from heaven to place it on Bali's head, the sacred water on toenail poured by Brahma, rushed onto earth as River Ganga. Here the poet is saying that Bali is being deluded each time in each cycle of eras, as a present continuous action.

kshatriyarudhiramaye jagadapagatapaapam | snapayasi payasi shamitabhavataapam |
keshava dhR^itabhR^ighupatiruupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-6

words separated- kshatriya - rudhiramaye - jagat - apagata - paapam - snapayasi - payasi - shamita - bhava - taapam - keshava - dhR^ita - bhR^ighu - pati - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-6. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+bhR^ighu+pati+ruupa= on assuming, sage Bhrigu's legatee [Parashu Rama,] saver, saviour's, mien; kshatriya+ rudhira+ maye= Kshatriya, blood of, filled with; payasi= in waters [pools of blood waters]; jagat= world [people]; shamita+bhava+taapam= ceased, worldly, torridity; apagata+paapam= swerved off, sin is; snapayasi= you make them to bathe [in blood pools of kings]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the mien of Parashu Rama, the saviour of the world, you have filled five pools with the blood of atrocious Kshatriya kings, thus ceased is the torridity of the worlds, and swerved are the sins of people, as you make them to bathe in those five pools of blood waters, called shamanta pancaka, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-6]

Comment: In this rasa - bhiibhasta; naayaka - dhiiroddhata; alankaara - svabhaavoktii are its aesthetics.

vitarasi dikshu raNe dikpatikamaniiyam | dashamukhamaulibalim ramaNiiyam ||
keshava dhR^itaraamashariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-7

words separated - vitarasi - dikshu - raNe - dik - pati - kamaniiyam - dasha - mukha - mauli - balim - ramaNiiyam - keshava - dhR^ita - raama - shariira - jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-7. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+raama+shariira= on assuming, Rama's, body; dikshu= in all directions, ten of them; dik+pati= direction, presiding deity of; kamaniiyam= desired by [those deities]; ramaNiiyam= heart-pleasing [act of]; dasha+mukha= ten, faced demon, octahedron Ravana's; mauli= heads; balim= sacrifice; raNe= in war; vitarasi = generously giving; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of the worlds, on your assuming the body of Rama, an act desired by each of the ten presiding deities of each direction of compass in all the ten directions, namely the sacrifice of ten heads of octahedron Ravana in war, and that heart-pleasing sacrifice you are offering in war ever and anon, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-7]

Comment: The act is heart pleasing because there are ten presiding deities of quarters and Ravana has ten heads, and the sacrifice is symmetrical; hence, heart pleasing to us, and even to those ten deities like Air-god, Fire-god, and Rain-god et al. Ravana was a terror to these ten gods. When Ravana comes out Air fears to be gusty, Fire become coolant, not a drop of Rain falls on his body - so says Ramayana. naayaka - dhirodaata; alankara - jaatyalankaara Next, though the incarnation of Krishna is to be eulogised as per rule raamo raamaH ca kR^iSNaH ca , but Bala Rama's incarnation is taken up, according to another flex of this rule vanjau vanjau kharvaH tri raamii sa tapo.atapaH And even non-Vedic Buddha is also narrated in here. Thus, the devotional scripts do not care for isms.

vahasi vapuSivishadevasanam jaladaabham | halahatibhiitimilitayamunaabham ||
keshava dhR^itahaladhararuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-8

words separated - vahasi - vapuShi - vishade - vasanam - jalada - abham - hala - hati - bhiiti - milita - yamuna - aabham - keshava - dhR^ita - hala - dhara - ruupa - jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-8. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita= on assuming; hala+dhara+ ruupa = plough, wielder, form of; vishade+vapuShi= on whitish, body; jala+da+abham= water, giver [cloud,] in shine with; hala+hati+bhiiti+milita= by plough, hit, fear, blent with; yamuna + aabham = River Yamuna, in shine; vasanam+vahasi= raiemnt, you bear [you are clad in]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the body of Bala Rama, the wielder of plough, you are clad in blackish cloudlike raiment on your whitish body, and it is rippling like the ripples of River Yamuna, for she is hit by your plough and that fear is blent in her ripples, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-8]

Comment: Once Bala Rama laid hold of River Yamuna to gratify his desire and when she did not yield he beleaguers her. This is according to mythology. According to water management, he changed the course of her flow by digging a mammoth tunnel with his forceful plough for irrigation purposes. Thus, Yamuna is always fearful of Bala Rama, as she is unaware as to how many more tunnels he is going to dig and alter her course.

nindati yaGYavidherahaha shrutijaatam | sadayahR^idayadarshitapashughaatam ||
keshava dhR^itabuddhashariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-9

words separated - nindati yaj~na vidheH - a ha ha - shruti jaatam sadaya hR^idaya darshita pashu ghaatam keshava dhR^ita buddha shariira jaya jagadiisha hare

A1-9. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+buddha+shariira= on assuming, Buddha's, body; sa+daya+hR^idaya= with, kindness, in heart; darshita= shown [taught by scriptures]; pashu+ghaatam= animal, killing; yaj~na+vidheH= in Vedic-rituals, methods of; shruti+jaatam= scriptural words, collection of; nindati= fault-finding; a ha ha= aha, aha, aha [expression of surprise]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the body of kind-hearted Buddha, you are finding fault with the animal sacrifices in the methods of Vedic-rituals, taught by scriptures, and even with the collection of those scriptural words themselves, what a revamp in religious methods... aha, aha, aha, hail to thee... [A1-9]

mlecChanivahanidhane kalayasikaravaalam | dhuumaketumiva kimapikaraalam ||
keshava dhR^itakalkishariira jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-10

words separated - mlecCha nivaha nidhane kalayasi karavaalam dhuuma ketum iva kim api karaalam keshava dhR^ita kalki shariira jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-10. keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+kalki+shariira= on assuming, Kalki, body of; mlecCha+nivaha+nidhane= fractious, groups of race, in eliminating; dhuumaketum+iva= as with a comet, as with [or, dhuuma+ketu= smoke, as symbol; Kalki wields a sword and its golden handle is compared to burning fire, and bloodstained blade with red smoke]; karavaalam+ kalayasi= sword, you are brandishing; karaalam+kim+api= dreadful [deeds of yours,] why, even [tell about them, unimaginable to detail them]; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, oh, Hari, the Almighty of worlds, on your assuming the body of Kalki at the end of Kali-yuga, you are brandishing a sword like a comet to eliminate the groups of fractious races, and unimaginable are your horrendous deeds to detail, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-10]

Comment: The appearance of a comet in the sky is a bad omen and when that comet hits the earth it is still worse. And when Kalki brandishes his sword as gods brandish coments, it is unimaginable and that suggests the end of that era. naayaka - dhiirodaatta; rasa - bhayaanaka Next, the poet is mingling all of these incarnations into Krishna's incarnation, along with an appeal to listen to his poetry in his glory.

shriijayadevakaveridamuditamudaaram | shR^iNu sukhadam shubhadam bhavasaaram | keshava dhR^itadashavidharuupa jayajagadiishahare || a pa 1-11

words separated shrii jayadeva kaveH idam uditam udaaram shR^iNu sukha dam shubha dam bhava saaram keshava dhR^ita dasha vidha ruupa jaya jagadiisha hare

a pa 1-11. shrii= deferential prefix to god, or, one who is with her, shrri - Goddess Lakshmi; keshava jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita+dasha+vidha+ruupa= one who can assume, ten, kinds, of forms; udaaram = excellent one; bhava+saaram= wordly life, having pith [to get release from it]; shubha+dam= wellbeing, giver [blissful]; sukha+dam= comfort, giver [blithesome]; idam= this; jayadeva+kaveH= Jayadeva, by poet; uditam= articulated by; shR^iNu= listen; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, shrii Keshava, the Almighty of worlds, as you can assume ten kinds of forms for the sake of humanity, pray, listen to this articulation of poet Jayadeva, which has an excellent pith and kernel of worldly living, and will be blissful and blithesome in getting a release from it, hail to thee... [a pa 1-11]

Comment: With this stanza the poet is dedicating his work in his god and asking him to bear testimony for his work. And if Krishna endorses his work, this will be as good as canonised by him, so that this work will become a valid devotional song. rasa - shaanta; alankaara - paryaayokti The poet is summarising all these incarnations that are so far said separately. This can be sung in maalava raaga; ruupaka taala. - Verse6#Verse6Verse Locator

vedaanuddharate jagannivahate bhuugolamudbibhrate
daityam daarayate balim chhalayate kshatrakshayam kur.hvate |
paulastyam jayate halam kalayate kaaruNyamaatanvate
mlechchhaanmuurchchhayate dashaakR^itikR^ite kR^ishhNaaya tubhyam namaH || 1-5

words separated - vedaan ud dharate jagat nivahate bhuu golam ud bibhrate daityam daarayate balim cChalayate kshatra kshayam kur.hvate paulastyam jayate halam kalayate kaaruNyam aatanvate mlecChaan muurcChayate dasha akR^iti kR^ite kR^iShNaaya tubhyam namaH

1-5. vedaan+uddharate= Veda-s, one who revives; jagat+nivahate= world, one who bears up; bhuu+golam+ut+bibhrate= eath, globe of, up, lifted to support; daityam+daarayate= demon [Hiranya kashyapa,] one who slashed; balim+cChalayate= Bali, one who deluded; kshatra+kshayam+kurvate= Kshatriya-s, annihilation, one who does; paulastyam+jayate= Pulasya's legatee, Ravana, one who conquers; halam+kalayate= plough, one who wields; kaaruNyam+ aatanvate= pity [non-violence,] one who fosters; mlecChaan+muurcChayate= fractious races, one makes them to swoon [mangler of]; dasha+akR^iti+ kR^ite= ten, semblances, one who puts on; kR^iShNaaya+tubhyam+namaH= [such as he is] Krishna, for you, my reverence.

The reviver of Veda-s as a fish, bearer of this earth as tortoise, uplifter and supporter of earth as wild boar, slasher of Hiranyakashyapa as lion-man, deluder of Bali as dwarf-boy, annihilator of Kshatriya-s as Parashu Rama, conqueror of Ravana, the legatee of Paulastya, as Rama, wielder of plough as Bala Rama, fosterer of non-violence as Buddha, mangler of fractious races as Kalki, and as you alone can put on ten semblances, thus oh, Krishna, my reverences are unto you... [1-5]

Comment: In all the incarnations Vishnu has not taken a selfsame physique excepting in Krishna incarnation. Vishnu will be in his milky abode and Krishna is brought up in a milky environ. Vishnu comfortably reclines on Thousand-hooded serpent, while Krishna has never been in any uncomfortable position like Rama, Parashu Rama, and Vishnu has three wives whereas Krishna is having eight of them, so on and so forth. Hence, the poet is focussing his attention on Krishna alone. alankaara - diipaka; cChandam - kiiti dhavala; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. With this, the auspicious beginning of the poetic work is over and he is entering into the subject matter of this work. In the next verse, the poet is extolling his lead character Krishna's attributes and endowments. At times some biblical usage of words is adopted, as expressions like 'you, your, you will always be doing...' are somehow dissatisfactory.

Verse Locator

aSTa padi 2 - hari vijaya mangalaa caraNa


shritakamalaakuchamaNDala dhR^itakuNDala e |
kalitalalitavanamaala jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-1

words separated - shrita kamalaa kucha maNDala dhR^ita kuNDala e kalita lalita vanamaala jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-1. jaya= hail; shrita= sheltered [whorled, embraced]; kamalaa= Goddess Lakshmi’s [where kamalam is lotus, one who abides in lotus]; kucha+maNDala= bosomy, roundlets, bust; dhR^ita= bedecked; kuNDala= ear-knobs; e= this is aalaapana and can be taken as a an addressing, or as ye = he who is wearing; this is musicians delight and dropped in dance treatises]; kalita= adorned with; lalita= exquisite; vanamaala = garland knotted with Tulasi, Ocimum sanctum, basil, leaves and other flowers; deva= one who accords felicity; hare= Hari, viz., one who steals sins of adherers, here, Krishna; jaya= hail to thee.

Hail thee… for thine chest is ever whorled and embraced by Goddess Lakshmi with her bosomy bust, and which chest is ever adorned with an unfading garland of basil leaves and flowers that dangles unto thy knee, and thine ears ever bedecked with golden knobby ear-hangings, studded with nine jewels, thus to thee, the felicitous sin remover, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-1]

Comment: At the very start of extolling his hero of his poetic work, the poet has gone straight to the bosomy busts of hero’s consort, and to hear this, it primarily appears to be an erotic word, and if the hearer happens to be an Oedipus, he will be excited even by his mother’s mammaries. But here Goddess Lakshmi is the Supreme Mother and she has Divine mammae, and let millions and millions take birth, she can feed them, indefatigably. Similar is the word used for Lalita in Lalita sahasra naamaavali - kaThina sthana maNDalaa… as one among many of her motherly attributes.

Here she is abiding in the lotus-like heart of Vishnu, say Krishna, thus undifferentiated are the chests, either as that of a male or as the bust of a female. She is said to be shrita - whorled around him like a climbing plant onto a tree. So, the poet attempts to distinguish which is which, and says that he is wearing a garland of basil leaves and flowers, which he alone wears, hence recognise him as Krishna. Because he is so tightly embraced by the personified fortune, he is not becoming a pauper and he is even capable of endowing shelter under that absolute fortune to his devotees, called aashraya - Niiyatvam. So, anyone can seek for his shelter, and he is called shrayaH patiH - Omni-shelterer, again under the aegis of Goddess Lakshmi. And vanamaala indicates hale and healthiness, thus ready to spring to his feet in the period of crisis, i.e., Omnipotent. Ear-knobs indicate learnedness, for they were accorded according to one’s own scholarliness, called makara kuNDala, candra kuNDala, like the present day graduate gowns and headgears. Hence, this is indicative of his Omniscience.

Envisioning Krishna from top to toe indicates his supreme and auspicious physique divya mangala vigraha - besides deified fortune is in his heart. Hence he alone is adorable.

dinamaNiimaNdalamaNDana bhavakhaNDana e |
munijanamaanasaha.nsa jaya jayadeva hare || a pa 2-2

words separated - dina maNi maNdala maNDana bhava khaNDana muni jana maanasa hamsa jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-2. jaya= hail; dina+maNi+maNdala= day’s, jewel, namely sun, his sphere [in solar system]; maNDana= an embellisher; bhava+khaNDana= present world [karmic cycle,] one who whittles; muni+jana= for saintly, people; maanasa= mind [called, maanasa sarovar]; hansa= a swan; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… though yond and yonder, thou art functional from within the solar system, where that sun is just a gem of solar system, while thou art an embellisher of that system in its entirety, and as a swan swims in maanasa sarovar, a blissful lake in Himalayas, thou swimmest in the minds of saintly people, thus whittle, whittle the karmic cycles of thy saintly devotees, thus to thee, the felicitous sin remover, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-2]

Comment: This connotes Vedic import in saying that Supreme Person, who is far beyond the solar orbit, but functional through solar system. In iishaavaasyopanishad, at hymn 15, we hear the following mantra, hymn.

` ihr{Myye paÇSyaipiht muom!, tt! Tvm! pU;n! Apa

AUM hiraNmyaye paatrasyaapihita mukham |
tat tvam puuSan apaa.nvR^iNu satya dharmaaya dR^iSTaye ||

hiraNmayeNa+paatreNa= by golden, disc like lid; satyasya= of truth; apihitam= covered; mukham= face of; tat+tvat= that, your; apaavR^iNu= slide aside; satya+dharmaaya= I as truthful, righteous one; dR^iSTaye= to visualise, [that which is beyond you.]

On looking at the rising red sun, the devotee is asking "Oh! Pooshan! God Sun, nourisher of the universe, the trueness of the Supreme Person is covered by your golden disk like lid, i.e., your Solar disk, slide it aside, for as a truthful and righteous devotee, I aspire to visualise that which is beyond your golden Solar disc…

The jewel of the day etc., indicate while sun is a friendly entity to humans, Krishna is far more friendlier to them, as he has sthira sakhitvam - ever friendly like sun; saamarthyam - capability to alleviate from the troubles of karmic cycles; sat sahavaasam - amiable fraternity.

Extolling him in this way indicates that he alone has accorded release to many a saintly soul. Hence, he alone is to be venerated for he not only accords deliverance, but also becomes a blissful partner during lifetime.

kaaliyavishhadharaga~njana janaraJNjana e |
yadukulanalinadinesha jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-3

words separated - kaaliya viSha dhara ga.njana jana ra.njana yadu kula nalina dina iisha jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-3. jaya= hail; kaaliya= one called Kaaliiya, multi-hooded serpent; viSha+dhara= venom, bearer of; ganjana = abominator of; jana+ranjana= people, fascinator of; yadu+kula= Yadu, lineage; nalina= [called] lotus; dina+iisha= day, ruler of; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the abominator of venomous multi-hooded serpent, called Kaaliiya, thus thou fascinate people, and as the sun makest a lotus abloom, thus to thee, the bloomer of lotus called Yadu’s lineage, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-3]

Comment: His capability in abominating and eradicating enemies, thereby his gladdening the panicked friends, his impeccable lineage are extolled, thus the attributes of hero of the poetic are sublime, as they are uttama naayaka lakshaNa.

This serpent is eliminated in his incarnation of Krishna, thus he incarnates himself n earth to save people from the torture imposed by certain negative forces. Therefore he alone is worship-worthy, for he incarnates himself.

madhumuranarakavinaashana garuDaasana e |
surakulakelinidaana jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-4

words separated - madhu mura naraka vinaashana garuDa aasana sura kula keli nidaana jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-4. jaya= hail; madhu+mura+naraka= Madhu, Mura, Naraka demons; vinaashana = annihilator of; garuDa+ aasana= Garuda, the Divine Eagle, as your seat [ as vehicle]; sura+ kula= gods, stock of; keli= disporting; nidaana= prime cause; jaya jayadeva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the annihilator of endangering demons like Madhu, Mura, and Naraka, and thou art fleetest while sitting on thine fleetly Divine Eagle Garuda, thus to thee, the prime causer of unhindered disporting for the stock of devout divinities, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-4]

Comment: Even if he does not incarnate manifestly, he is kind enough to eliminate evildoers like these demons, hence he is dependable for unforeseen calamities.

amalakamaladalalochana bhavamochan e |
tribhuvanabhavananidhaana jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-5

words separated - amala kamala dala lochana bhava mochana tri bhuvana bhavana nidhaana jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-5. jaya= hail; a+mala= not, blemished [dispassionate, unbigoted]; kamala+dala= white-lotus, petal [like]; lochana= eyed one; bhava+mochan= mundane life, releaser; tri+ bhuvana = triad, of worlds; bhavana= becoming, [manifestation]; nidhaana= prime cause [or, as in other mms: tri+bhuvana = triad of worlds]; bhavana= called a housing; nidhaana= in-dweller, or a treasure trove; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the prime cause for the manifestation of a housing for the triad of worlds, thus to thee, the releaser of devotees from their mundane existence with thine eyes, that are like petals of white-lotus, unbigoted, and impartial, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2-5]

Comment: Because the hero is said to be the releaser or saviour his attribute is parama aananda lakshaNa, everlasting blissfulness.

janakasutaakR^itabhuuShaNa jitaduushhaNa e |
samarashamitadashakhaNTha jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-6

words separated - janaka sutaa kR^ita bhuuShaNa jita duushhaNa samara shamita dasha khaNTha jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-6. jaya= hail; janaka+sutaa= Janaka’s, daughter, Seetha; kR^ita+bhuuShaNa= made you, as an ornament; jita+ duuShANa= conquered [mitigated,] Dushana is; samara+ shamita = in war, mollified; dasha+khaNTha= ten, throated one, octahedron Ravana; jaya jayadeva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for Janaka’s daughter Seetha made thee as her pendant ornament, for thou repose on her bust, thus to thee, the mitigator of demon Dushana and the mollifier of octahedral Ravana, hail to thee… [a pa 2-6]

Comment: There is another shade for ‘an ornament to Seetha…’ Rama decorates and paints foliate designs on the body of Seetha, with an erasable tattooing. When Seetha was ill at ease to wear sari of an anchoress, when given by Kaikeyi, Rama demonstrates the folding, tying, and wearing of that dress. Thus by these two, the hero is qualified not only as a romantic hero, but a knower of all arts sarva kalaa vishaarada, and even as a brave and bold enemy subjugator, by way of releasing Dushana from mortality kaaruNya bhaava, and by mollifying the self-conceit of Ravana, taaruNya bhaava are indicated.

abhinavajaladharasundara dhR^itamandara e |
shriimukhachandrachakora jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-7

words separated - abhinava jala dhara sundara dhR^ita mandara shrii mukha chandra chakora jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-7. jaya= hail; abhinava= freshly new; jala+dhara= water, bearer [black cloud]; sundara= handsome; dhR^ita + mandara= sustainer, of Mt. Mandara, or Manthara; shrii+mukha= Goddess Lakshmi’s, face; chandra+ chakora= moon, chakora bird; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art handsome like a fresh and new vapourish blue-black cloud, yet thou sustained voluminous Mt. Mandara when Milky Ocean was churned, and yet thou art like a small chakora bird that gazes at the moon to swill its shine, thus to thee, who gazes at the moonlike face of Goddess Lakshmi, to swill her sheen, hail to thee… a pa [2-7]

Comment: So far the personality of Supreme Person is portrayed with his attributes and endowments svaruupa ruupa guNa vibhuuti and now the poet is appealing on his own, and on behalf of fellow devotees to bestow beneficence.

tavacaraNe praNataavayamiti bhaavaya e |
kurukushalam praNateShu jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-8

words separated - tava caraNe praNataa vayam iti bhaavaya kuru kushalam praNateShu jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2- 8. jaya= hail; hare= oh, Krishna; tava+caraNe+praNataa= at your, feet, adoring; vayam= we are; iti+ bhaavaya= thus, you deem; kuru+kushalam= make happen, blessing; praNateShu= among adorers; jaya deva= as above.

Hail to thee, oh, Krishna, deem that we are adoring your own feet and none else, thus let your adorers be blest by your blessing, and thus, oh, felicitous sin remover, hail to thee… [a pa 2-8]

Comment: This verse may not be found in other mms. Next the poet is taking up the closing verse of this eight-foot verse - aSTa padi.

shriijayadevakaveridam kurute mudam e |
ma~Ngalamujjvalagiitam jaya jaya deva hare || a pa 2-9

words separated - shrii jayadeva kaveH idam kurute mudam ma.ngalam ujjvala giitam jaya jaya deva hare

a pa 2-9. shrii+hare= oh, Shri Krishna; ujjvala= brilliant; giitam [or, giiti]= song; idam+jayadeva+ kaveH= this one, by Jayadeva, poet; maN^galam= auspicious [te= to you]; mudam+kurute= rejoice, making; jaya jaya deva= hail, hail, oh, god. Or idam+mangalm+ giitam= this, auspicious, song; jayadeva + kaveH+mudam+kurute= to Jayadeva, poet, rejoice, causing; Or te+mangala+giitam= on you, auspicious, song; jayadeva+kaveH= of Jayadeva, poet; mangalam+ kurute = auspiciousness, causing [to singers and listeners]

Oh, Shri Krishna, let this brilliant song on you, rendered by poet Jayadeva, be auspicious and rejoicing to you, hail, hail to thee, oh, god…

Oh, Shri Krishna, this brilliant and auspicious song rendered on you, is rejoicing the poet Jayadeva, hail, hail to thee, oh, god…

Oh, Shri Krishna, let this brilliant and auspicious song on you, rendered by poet Jayadeva, be auspicious and rejoicing to the singers and listeners as well, hail, hail to thee, oh, god… [a pa 2-9]

Comment: This is sung in bhairavi raaga - tripuTa taala; chandas - mangala; naayaka lakshaNa - dhiira lalita, shR^ingaari; taala - lalita; aalaapana - e is available at the end o each foot.

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padmaapayodharataTiiparirambhalagna kaashmiiramudritamuro madhusuudanasya | vyaktaanuraagamiva kheladana~Ngakheda svedaa.mbupuuramanupuurayatu priyam vaH || 1-6

words separated - padmaa payo dhara taTii pari ra.mbha lagna kaashmiira mudritam uraH madhu suudanasya vyakta anuraagam iva khelat ana.nga kheda sveda a.mbu puuram anupuurayatu priyam vaH

1-6. padmaa= Goddess Lakshmi's; payaH+dhara= milk, bearers - bosoms; taTii= perimeter; parirambha= on embracing [pari= in overarching manner; rabh= embracing;] lagna= touched [speckled]; kaashmiira= saffron [vermilion mark on forehead]; mudritam= imprinted; vyakta+anuraagam+iva= manifest, fondness, like [heartily fondness]; khelat= pulsating [twinkling]; ananga+kheda= by plays of passion, strained; sveda+ambu+puuram = sweat, water [drops,] filled with [pour forth, hR^idaya anuraagam iva= heartily fondness like]; madhu suudanasya= demon Madhu, eliminator of [Krishna's]; uraH= chest; vaH= you all [naH= us also]; anupuurayatu= will accord fulfilment; priyam [a + priyam]= likes [and dislikes.]

On tightly embracing the perimeter of Lakshmi's bosom, speckled is her forehead's vermilion mark on his chest, and it is twinkling like an imprint for his heartily fondness that is about to manifest, but sealed by this mark, and he is strained by the plays of passion, thus his chest is pouring forth sweat, as though it is his heartily fondness for her and for all us, hence let that chest of Krishna accord fulfilment to our likes and dislikes... [1-6]

Comment: Why his heart should bless us when he has four hands, of which one is said to be a blessing hand? There will be three items of annihilation, namely disc, mace, and conch in three hands and the fourth is said to be abhaya hasta blessing hand. Is it withdrawn or what? Not so, that blessing hand is symbolic one when he alone functions. Here his chest is now under the auspices of Lakshmi, and thus both of them are blessing - a double blessing. She knows that his heart feels fondness for anyone, but she is unbothered if that fondness is for some devotee. It will be bothersome if this god brings in another ladylove, apart from those that are already available. So, a seal is sealed, mudritam on his heart with her vermilion mark, kumkuma, tilaka. By her doubting, we must infer that he has 'such a fondness' for not only for Rukmini and Satyabhama and the like, but even more for Raadha.

This is for establishing the poetics about the hero. naayika - mugdha; naayaka - kushala; rasa - srinngaara; alankaara - utpreksha, aashiis, anupraasa; vasanta tilaka is its metre. Next, Raadha's disposition is being narrated according to poetics, as she is the leading lady of this work.

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vasante vaasantiikusumasukumaarairavayavaiH
bhramantiim kaantaare bahuvihitakR^iSNaanusaraNaam |
amandam kandarpajvarajanitachintaakulatayaa
valadbaadhaam raadhaam sarasamidamuche sahacharii || 1-7

words separated - vasante vaasantii kusuma sukumaaraiH avayavaiH bhramantiim kaantaare bahu vihita kR^iSNa anusaraNaam amandam kandarpa jvara janita chinta aakulatayaa valad baadhaam raadhaam sa rasam idam uche saha charii

1-7. vasante= in spring season; kandarpa+jvara+janita= by Love-god's, fever, caused by [caused by spring fever]; chinta+aakulatayaa= by anguish, disquieted; valat [calat]+ baadhaam = recurrently, distraught [Raadha]; vaasantii+kusuma= [delicate] vernal, flower [like]; sukumaaraiH+avayavaiH= with dainty, limbed [physique]; bhramantiim+kaantaare= meandering, in woodlands; bahu+vihita= in many [ways,] make happen [the search]; kR^iShaNa + anu saraNaam = Krishna's, one who is following [searching]; raadhaam= to Raadha; sahacharii= girlfriend; sa+rasam = with, romanticism [romantically]; a+mandam= not, slowly [quickly]; idam+uuche= this, said.

In spring season Krishna is playing truant with her, thus she is disquieted by the anguish caused by the spring fever, that which is ignited by Love-god, and thus she is recurrently distraught, and thus she is meandering in woodlands with her daintily limbed physique, similar to a delicate reddish vernal flower, and thus as a searcher for Krishna she searched for him in many a way, but in vain, and to such a Raadha, her girlfriend said this quickly, yet romantically... [1-7]

Comment: Because the hero has not come to her, in spite of her earnest longing, hence the heroine is viraha utkaNThita. A hero having uniform interest in all of his women is dakshiNa naayaka; sringaaram - vipralambha; riiti - vaidarbhi; alankaara - vR^itti anupraasa lupta upama; vR^ittam - sikhiriNi - is the metre of this verse.

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aSTa padi -3 maadhava utsava kamalaakaram


lalitalava~Ngalataaparishiilanakomalamalayasamiire | madhukaranikarakarambitakokilakuujitaku~njakuTiire |
viharati haririha sarasavasante | nR^ityati yuvatijanena samam sakhi
- virahijanasya durante - dhR^ivam || a pa 3-1

words separated - lalita lava.nga lataa parishiilana komala malaya samiire madhukara nikara karambita kokila kuujita ku.nja kuTiire viharati hariH iha sa rasa vasante nR^ityati yuvatii janena samam sakhi virahi janasya durante

a pa 3-1. lalita+lavanga+lataa= slimly, clove gillyflower plants, tendrils of; parishiilana= [lexically] on examining, [interwoven with their fragrance]; komala= gentle; malaya+samiire= Mt. Malaya [with sandalwood trees] breezes; madhu+kara+nikara= honey, makers [honey bees] swarms of; karambita= intermingled with; kokila+kuujita= by Kokila [black singing bird] crooned; kunja+kuTiire= bowery, in cabins;

vi+rahi= without, having [their lovers, estranged couples]; janasya= of people; dur+ ante = non, stop endless, incessant [unrequited]; [ellipted] vasante= in springtime; - unrequited are lovelorn people in vernal season; or, dur+ante+vasante= for adverse, end, to spring fever = terminable is spring fever; in spring alone the unrequitedness of lovelorn people is terminable; lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise; hariH - iha - 1 sa - ra - 2 sa - vasante

saH= he, [for whom you are searching; where the second sa became saH; saH vasante viharati nR^ityati ca]; hariH= Hari, Krishna; vasante= in spring season; yuvatii+janena= with girls of age, folks; samam= even as [at the very moment]; viharati+nR^ityati= frolicking, dancing; sakhi = oh, dear; sara= come on [when the first sa with ra became sara = move on, come on]

sa+mam= with, glory [gloriously]; yuvati+jane+nR^ityati= with girls of age, folks of, dances; sa+rasa+vante [vasante] = with sapful bliss, inclusive of [spring season that which contains the sapful bliss]; na= isn't he [phatic expression minus ? mark]; virahati= frolicking.

Now the gentle breezes with scents of sandalwood from Mt. Malaya, the abode of sandalwood trees, on swivelling round the tendrils of clove gillyflower plants, they are gently breezing, interwoven with both the fragrances... bowery cabins are intermingled with the buzzes of swarms of honeybees and with the croons of Kokila-s... and he for whom you are searching, that Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring, isn't it... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-1]

Comment: Here the heroine compared to clove plant and hero to breeze, hence - uddipana vibhaava - an idea escalated.

unmadamadanamanorathapathikavadhuujanajanitavilaape | alikulasa.nkulakusumasamuuhaniraakulabakulakalaape || a pa 3-2

words separated - ut mada madana manoratha pathika vadhuu jana janita vilaape ali kula sa.nkula kusuma samuuha niraakula bakula kalaape

3-2. ut+mada= heightened, rejoice; madana+manoratha= lust, longings [lustfulness]; pathika= of itinerants; vadhuu+jana= women, folks of; janita+vilaape= caused, ruefulness; ali+kula= by honeybee, stock of [swarms of]; sankula= hurley-burley; kusuma+samuuha= flowers, groups of [bunches of]; niraakula= full of; vakula= Mimusops elengi, any of various acacia plants with showy yellow flowers; kalaape= in thickets; annexable - hariH iha viharati ... durante.

Now the swarms of honeybees are hurley-burley on the bunches of flowers, and the thickets of spring are full with showy yellow flowers, thereby heightened will be the rejoice and longings of womenfolk of itinerants, but this paraphernalia of spring alone causes ruefulness and spring fever in them, but Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-2]

mR^igamadasaurabharabhasavasha.nvadanavadalamaalatamaale | yuvajanahR^idayavidaaraNamanasijanakharuchiki.nshukajaale || a pa 3-3

words separated - mR^iga mada saurabha rabhasa vasha.nvada nava dala maala tamaale yuva jana hR^idaya vidaaraNa manasija nakha ruchi ki.nshuka jaale

a pa 3-3. mR^iga= deer; mada= fat [musk]; saurabha= of fragrance; rabhasa= speediness [instantaneous]; vashanvada= self-surrendered [one's own]; nava+dala= new, tender leaves having; maala= enwreathing [the environ]; tamaale= having Tamaala trees; yuva+jana= young, people's; hR^idaya+vidaaraNa= heart, rending; manasi+ja= of mind, born one, [Love-god, for he takes birth in one's own mind]; nakha= of nails; ruchi= in shine with; kinshuka= Butea frondosa, with blood red flowers; jaale= bunches of; annexable - hariH iha viharati...durante.

Now the black Tamaala trees are enwreathing the environs with their new tender leaves that have their own fragrance, like that of the instantaneous fragrance of deer's musk, and those blackish Tamaala trees have bunches of reddish flowers, that are like the tender and roseate nails of Love-god, that rend the hearts of youngsters of age, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-3]

madanamahiipatikanakadaNDaruchikesarakusumavikaase | militashiliimukhapaaTalipaTalakR^itasmaratuuNavilaase || a pa 3-4

words separated - madana mahii pati kanaka daNDa ruchi kesara kusuma vikaase milita shilii mukha paaTali paTala kR^ita smara tuuNa vilaase

a pa 3-4. madana= Love-god; mahii+pati= land, lord [king]; kanaka= golden; daNDa= sceptre; ruchi= in shine with; keshara+kusuma= Kesara [Mimisops elangi] flowers; vikaase= bloomed; milita = commingled; shilii+mukha= iron, faced = arrow / honeybee [bees are metaphorical to the arrows of Love-god, shliSTa ruupaka]; paaTali+paTala= cup like daffodil flowers, bunches of; kR^ita= made as [rendered as]; smara = Love-god's; tuuNa+vilaase= quiver, in fashion of.

Now the bloomed golden flowers of Kesara are in shine with the sheen of the sceptre of kingly Love-god, the ruler of spring, and the bunches of cup like daffodils are in the fashion with his quivers, and the bees swarming on flowers are rendered as the arrows of that Love-god, bolted on unrequited love pairs in this season, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-4]

Comment: The Love-god, Manmatha, has only one quiver and one bow, and only five flower arrows - aravindam, ashokam, cuutam, nava mallika, niilotpala - but here they get multiplied as the love-pairs are many.

vigalitalajjitajagadavalokanataruNakaruNakR^itahaase | virahinikR^intanakuntamukhaakR^itiketakadanturitaashe || a pa 3-5

padacChjeda - vigalita lajjita jagat avalokana taruNa karuNa kR^ita haase virahi nikR^intana kunta mukha aakR^iti ketaka danturita ashe

a pa 3-5. virahi= lovelorn ones; vi+galita= completely, tumbled [utterly bereft of]; lajjita= having prudishness; jagat= world [lovelorn people]; avalokana= on espying; taruNa+ karuNa= tender, whitish Karuna flowers; kR^ita+haase= made, laugh at; [or, jagat vigalita lajjita = at people, who are utterly bereft of prudishness; avalokana= on espying; taruNa= youngsters of age [who are with their ladyloves]; karuNa= piteously; kR^ita+haase= making, saddish grins = [youngsters who are with their ladyloves are grinning sadly at those that are behaving oddly as they are bereft of their prudishness]; virahi= lovelorn ones; nikR^intana= [as though] to lunge, tear asunder; kunta+mukha+akR^iti= spear, faced, in shape; ketaka= Ketaka, Mogra flowers; danturita+ashe= full with, directions of compass.

Now the tender whitish flowers of Karuna are in full bloom, and they on espying the lovelorn people, who are utterly bereft of their prudishness in their lovesick behaviour, appear to be laughing at them, and the long and spear-faced Mogra flowers are in full bloom in all directions, as though ready to lunge and tear asunder the hearts of lovelorn people, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-5]

maadhavikaaparimalalalite navamaalikajaatisugandhau |
munimanasaamapi mohanakaariNi taruNaakaaraNabandhau || a pa 3-6

words separated - maadhavikaa parimala lalite nava maalika jaati sugandhau muni manasaam api mohana kaariNi taruNa a-kaaraNa bandhau

a pa 3-6. maadhavikaa= of Maadhavai flower plant - Gaertnera racemosa; parimala= fragrance; lalite= gentleness; nava maalika= double jasmine; jaati= jasmines, Jasminum grandiflorum; sugandhau= with pleasant fragrances; [or, as in other mms: nava maalika jaati sugandhau= double jasmines, jasmines', with the fragrances of ]; muni+manasaam+api= saints, hearts, even; mohana+kaariNi = baffle, causers of [bafflers of]; taruNa= for youngsters of age; a+kaaraNa+bandhau [iva] = without, reason [unexpected,] kinsman, [like.]

Now the springtime is fragrant with the gentle fragrance of Maadhavi flowers, even with the pleasant fragrance of double jasmine and jasmines, and such a season can cause bafflement even to the hearts of saintly saints, not to say of youngsters, but springtime is like an unexpected kinsman of those youngsters, as such Krishna is frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan, at this very moment for this is spring... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-6]

sphuradatimuktalataaparirambhaNamukulitapulakitachuute |
bR^indaavanavipine parisaraparigatayamunaajalapuute || a pa 3-7

words separated - sphurat atimukta lataa pari ra.mbhaNa mukulita pulakita chuute bR^i.ndaavana vipine pari sara pari gata yamunaa jala puute

a pa 3-7. [vasante= in spring season]; sphurat= vibrate, titillating; ati mukta+lataa= Maadhavi, tendrils; pari+rambhaNa= by overarched, whorled; mukulita= having buds; pulakita = ticklish; chuute= mango trees; pari+sara= around, surging; pari+gata= around, going [flowing in an enwreathing and surging manner]; yamunaa+jala+puute= by River Yamuna, waters, sanctified; bR^indaavana+vipine= in Brindavan named, forest; [or, bR^inda= group of yearners, yearning for love of god; avane= that which can alleviate, accord release, moksha; vipine= wilderness, solitude.]

In this spring season, whereat the titillating tendrils of Maadhavi climber plants are whorled around the budding mango trees in an overarching manner, tickling those mango trees, and whereat River Yamuna is flowing in an enwreathing and surging manner, with whose waters that place is sanctified, and in which sanctified place obtainable is the final release, moksha, namely Brindavan, and in which solitude a group of yearners are yearning for the love of Krishna, hence Krishna is frolicking and dancing with groups of girls of age, at this very moment... oh, dear, therefor, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-7]

Comment: The climber plants are feminine and the mango trees are masculine. According to the saying vanita, kavita, lata, na aashrayam vinaa shobhate - a maid, a poetry, or a tendril cannot possibly outshine themselves, with not a leg to stand on. Thus, when sessile beings are thrilling and tickling in spring, how about other living beings.

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamudayati haricharaNasmR^itisAram | sarasavasantasamayavanavarNanamanugatamadanavikaaram || a pa 3-8

words separated - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam udayati hari charaNa smR^iti saaram sarasa vasanta samaya vana varNanam anu gata madana vikaaram

a pa 3-8. shrii+hari= Shri Krishna's; charaNa= feet; smR^iti= remembrancer of; saaram= having sapful bliss, [or, smR^iti+saaram= for meditating; saaram= the best; sa+rasa= plays of passion, sapful bliss, one having such ingredients; or, sarasa= congenial poetry]; vasanta+ samaya= spring, time; vana= woodlands [or, about gregariously reclusive Brindavan]; varNanam= having depictation; anugata= ingoing, imbibed; madana+vikaaram= with passional, immoderations; idam+jayadeva+bhaNitam= this, Jayadeva, uttered by [poetry]; udayati= dawning, emerging, coming up.

This poem can be a remembrancer of Krishna's feet, for it has all the ingredients to obtain a sapful bliss from it, and this is even a best and congenial poem to meditate upon them, as this has a sapid depictation about the gregariously reclusive Brindavan, and even imbibed are the passional immoderations of springtime fevers, and such a poem is now coming up, as uttered by Jayadeva, on the feet of Shri Krishna... [a pa 3-8]

Comment: In this aSTa padi: alankaara - jaati; naayika -madhya; naayaka - dakshiNa; rasa - vipra lambha sringaara; chanda - laya; raaga - vasanta; taala - jhampa. Thus, this aSTa padi named maadhavotsava kamalaakaram concludes here. - VerseLocator#VerseLocatorVerse Locator

prakaTitapaTavaasairvaasayan kaananaani |
iha hi dahati chetaH ketakiigandhabandhuH
prasaradasamabaaNapraaNavadgandhavaahaH || 1-8

words separated - dara vidalita mallii valli cha.nchat paraaga prakaTita paTavaasaiH vaasayan kaananaani iha hi dahati chetaH ketakii gandha bandhuH prasarat asama baaNa praaNa vat gandha vaahaH

8. dara= a little, just; vi+dalita= unfolded, blooming; mallii+valli= jasmine, intertwines of tendrils; chanchat= on jiggling; paraaga= by pollen; prakaTita= made known, disseminating; paTavaasaiH= with perfumed powder-sprays [as in playing Holi festival]; kaananaani+ vaasayan= woodlands, on making fragrant; ketakii+gandha+bandhuH= of Ketaki flowers, fragrance of, a relative like [in league with]; prasarat = rambling; asama= unequalled one [Love-god's]; baaNa= bow, [Love-god's bow]; praaNa+vat= his lives, as if [or, forcefully by Love-god]; gandha+vaahaH= perfume, carrier - breeze; iha= now; chetaH+ dahati+hi= hearts, burning, indeed.

The springtime breeze, on jiggling the intertwines of jasmine tendrils, that are with their just bloomed jasmines, is disseminating their pollen, like the sprays of perfumed powder, thus this breeze is ramblingly disseminating even the fragrance of Ketaki flowers, in league with that of jasmines, thus this breeze is rendering the woodlands fragrant, moreover this breeze, though a coolant fragrance-carrier, it has become as if the life-breath of Love-god, and now it is forcefully burning the hearts of estranged couples, indeed... [1-8]

Comment: This verse has: alankaara - samaasokti, vrittyanupraasa, upama; sringaara - vipralambha; riiti - paancaali; metre - maalini.

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unmiilanmadhugandhalubdhamadhupavyaadhuutachuutaa~Nkura kriiDatkokilakaakaliikalakalairudgiirNakarNajvaraaH |
niiyante pathikaiH katha.nkathamapi dhyaanaanudhaanakshaNa praaptapraaNasamaasamaagamarasollaasairamii vaasaraaH || 1-9

words separated - unmiilat madhu gandha lubdha madhupa vyaadhuuta chuuta a.nkura kriiDat kokila kaakalii kala kalaiH udgiirNa karNa jvaraaH niiyante pathikaiH katham katham api dhyaana anudhaana [avadhaana] kshaNa praapta praaNa samaa samaagama rasa ullaasaiH amii vaasaraaH

9. madhu+gandha+lubdha= honey, fragrance, greedy of; madhupa= by honeybees; vyaadhuuta [vi+aa+dhuuta]= up heaved; unmiilat= unfolding, just sprouted [tender leaves]; chuuta+ankura +kriiDat= in mango, tender leaves, playing; kokila= Kokila, singing birds; kaakalii= pleasant; kala+kalaiH= with singsong coo-cooing [kila, kila-s onomatopoeic words]; udgiirNa+karNa+ jvaraaH= heightened, ear, fever [frenzy]; amii+vaasaraaH= these, days; dhyaana= rumination; anudhaana [avadhaana]= interested in [daydreaming]; kshaNa= for a moment; praaNa+samaa= lives, coequal [alter ego]; praapta+samaagama= bechanced [came to mind,] togetherness; rasa+ullaasaiH= in mouth-watering [in ravishing,] felicity; katham+katham+api= somehow, somehow, even so; pathikaiH = by itinerants; niiyante= led away.

The honeybees greedy for the fragrance of nectar of mango flowers are up heaving the just sprouted leaflets of mango trees, thus the singing birds Kokila-s, which are equally greedy to nibble the new tender leaves of mango trees are in those leaves, but disturbed when swarmed by bees, and they are taking to their wings with their pleasant sing-song coo-cooing, and on listening these clarion calls of Kokila-s heightened is the frenzy of ears of itinerants, for their ladyloves, who are their alter egos, came to their mind for a moment, and these days of springtime are somehow led away by them, by dreamy rumination on their dreamy ravishing felicity together with their ladyloves, as in daydreaming. [1-9]

Comment: This springtime is more bothersome than the bother of separation from their ladyloves, and hence time has predominance on earthlings, may it be humans or others. But humans can quench their desires in drams, and when they can dream about embracing their ladyloves, they can even dream about the all-embracing Krishna. Here Raadha is not advised to be dreamy, but to quickly reach her goal, namely Krishna. Spring is the only season for pastoral poetry and hence it is extolled thus far. alankaara - kaavya linga; riiti -gauDi; shringaara - vipralambha; metre - shaarduula vikrriDitam.

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anekanaariiparirambhasambhrama sphuranmanohaarivilaasalaalasam | muraarimaaraadupadarshayantyasau sakhii samaksham punaraaha raadhikaam || 1-10

words separated - aneka naarii pari ra.mbha sa.mbhrama sphurat manohaari vilaasa laalasam mura arim aaraat upa darshayanti asau sakhii samaksham punaH aaha raadhikaam

10. asau+sakhii= this, girlfriend [of Raadha]; aneka+naarii= not one [many,] women of age; pari rambha = in embracing; sambhrama= anxious of; sphurat= erratic [scintillating one]; manaH+haari= heart stealing one; vilaasa+laalasam= in frolicking, interested; mura+arim= demon Mura's, enemy; aaraat= in vicinity; samaksham= within eyeshot; upadarshayanti= she is showing him; raadhikaam+punaH+aaha= to Raadha, again, telling.

This girlfriend of Raadha is telling her again by showing him, who is in the vicinity and within eyeshot, who is scintillatingly anxious to embrace not one, but many women, one who is a heart-stealer and an interested one in frolicking, more so an enemy of Mura, namely Krishna. [1-10]

Comment: This verse has sringaara - sambhoga; naayaka - dakshiNa; alankaara - anupraas; metre - vamshastha.

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aSTA padi 4 saamoda daamodara bhramara padam


chandanacharchitaniilakalevarapiitavasanavanamaalii | kelichalanmaNikuNDalamaNDitagaNDayugasmitashaalii |
haririhamugdhavadhuunikare vilaasini vilasati kelipare | dhR^ivam | a pa 4-1

words separated - chandana charchita niila kalevara piita vasana vanamaalii keli chalat maNi kuNDala maNDita gaNDa yuga smita shaalii hariH iha mugdha vadhuu nikare vilaasini vilasati keli pare

a pa 4-1. chandana= with sandal paste; charchita= bedaubed; niila+kalevara= on bluish, body; piita= [pale brownish yellow] ochry; vasana= silk cloths [clad in]; vanamaalii= one who wears a garland of basil leaves and flowers; keli+chalat= while playing [while romping,] moving [swaying]; maNi+kuNDala= gems [gem studded,] knobby ear-hangings; maNDita= by [ear-knobs] embellished; gaNDa+yuga= cheeks, pair; smita+shaalii= of smiling on with such disposition [gleeful one]; hariH+iha= Krishna, now; vilaasini= ravishing [damsels]; mugdha= coyly; vadhuu+nikare= damsels, in group [amidst coterie]; vilasati= frolicking; keli+pare= in game [here - in ronde; Fr. ronde = n. a dance in which the dancers move in a circle, raasa liila, raasa kriiDa] rapturous [game.]

He, whose sapphirine-bluish body is bedaubed with sandal paste, clad in ochry silks, and garlanded with a garland of basil leaves and flowers, and whose both cheeks are embellished by the sways of his gem-studded knobby ear-hangings, while he is romping, he that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde…

Comment: All these stanzas are girlfriend’s dialogue with Raadha, but the addressing ‘oh, Raadha…’ is omitted. With this she has also said, ‘when you are here, an expert in romantic amusement, leaving you Krishna’s frolicking with coyly, simplistic and naïve girls is unbefitting for him… hence, you go at once…’ naayika - utkaNThita.

Many take the word niila kalevara - as an absolute black colour of body, while it is sky-blue-black, on par with ‘sky-blue pink’ n. & adj. n. an imaginary colour, or somewhat semi-sapphirine-blue and similes with the sky itself, as sky is the Absolute - kham brahma. Hence, some hex value is to be derived for this hue of sky-blue-black at least now, or said as somewhat sapphirine-bluish colour. And piita ambara and vanmaala are not just rustling ochry silks and garland of wild leaves, but those basil leaves and silken garments are also the removers of sins.

piinapayodharabhaarabhareNa harim pariramya saraagam |
gopavadhuuranugaayati kaachiduda~nchitapa~nchamaraagam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-2

words separated - piina payodhara bhaara bhareNa harim pari rabhya - ramya - saraagam gopa vadhuuH anu gaayyati kaachit uda.nchita pa.nchama raagam

a pa 4-2. kaachit= someone; gopa+vadhuuH= milker’s, damsel [milkmaid]; piina+ payo dhara= bosomy, bust; bhaara+bhareNa= weight, carrying [weightiness]; sa+raagam= with, longing; harim= Krishna; pari+rabhya [ramya]= in over [arching manner,] hugging [cleaving to]; udanchita= in a heightened; panchama= fifth [note, octave]; raagam= melodiously; anu= in tune with his fluting]; gaayati= singing; annex: haririha…kelipare = as above.

Someone, a milkmaid, eager to ease the weightiness of her bosomy bust is cleaving to Krishna in a overarching manner, and then in a heightened octave she is singing melodiously, in tune with his fluting, hence, he that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-2]

Comment: The damsel is hugging even before the hero tries to embrace her; hence, she is in eagerness as her naayika lakshaNa is mugdha, a meekish heroine. Some scholars translate this word mugdha as a foolish girl. This translates as - innocent, ignorant, artless rhetorical naayika, artless insofar as romantic advances are concerned. If this black boy and white girl combination is set aside for a while, it is the twosome of devotee-god, trying to achieve oneness, in which the devotee has to make his/her first move to embrace the god, as in markaTa nyaaya - mother monkey and child monkey syndrome, that contrasts with maarjaala nyaaya - cat-kitten syndrome. Swelling bosoms suggests swelling milky devotion, where both emerge from bosom alone, contrary to a lip service.

kaapi vilaasavilolavilochanakhelanajanitamanojam |
dhyaayati mugdhavadhuuradhikam madhusuudanavadanasarojam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-3

words separated - kaa api vilaasa vilola vilochana khelana janita manojam dhyaayati mugdha vadhuuH adhikam madhu suudana vadana sarojam

a pa 4-3. kaa+api= someone, even; mugdha+vadhuuH= meekish, damsel [one who is an inexpert in romancing, sringaara ceSTaaH abhaava ]; vilaasa= by romantic gesticulations [haava bhaava ceSTaaH shuunyata of Krishna, or of that milkmaid]; vi+lola= verily, flustered; vi+lochana= wide, eyes; khelana= by their play [of eyes, slanting, siding glances]; janita= caused; manaH+jam= mind, causer of [one who can give rise to Love-god, Krishna, personified passion]; madhu+suudana= demon Madhu’s, eliminator [Krishna’s]; vadana= face; saraH+ jam = lake, born [lotus, beautiful lotus like beautiful face]; adhikam+ dhyaayati= highly [fixatedly,] contemplating.

Even someone, a meekish damsel, for being an inexpert in romancing she is helpless, but caused is the passion in her mind, by the romantic gesticulations of Krishna and even by his slanting and sliding glances of his verily flustered wide eyes, thus she at once started gazing at the beautiful lotus like face of the eliminator of demon Madhu, namely Krishna, and fixatedly contemplating on that face, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-3]


Even someone, a meekish damsel, is impassioned for she is there, and by her inexpert gesticulations of romance, like her slanting and sliding glances with her flustered wide eyes, she caught a sight of the beautiful face of Krishna, beautiful like a lotus, from then on she fixatedly contemplated on that face, for she is an expert in contemplation, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-3]

Comment: All may not be expert danseuses or songsters, but lovingness is common in all. Some girl came there, but she became a third row ballerina, or fourth row chorus girl, even then that environ enkindles a kind of belongingness in her, and she longed for him in her way - prekSya - prekSaka riiti. Usually contempplations come in when the object to contemplate is not before the eyes. But he is very much there, even then, she is contemplating. Again, she is mugdha, somewhat artless, meekish heroine. Reaching him is the goal, whether it is a bodily reaching, or reaching through contemplation. Some derive the word madhu suudana vadana sarojam basing on the root Suuda ksharaNe as madhu= honey, nectar; suudana= spilling; that lotus like face is pouring forth potable nectar of grace.

kaapi kapolatale militaa lapitum kimapi shrutimuule |
chaaru nita.mbavatii dayitam pulakairanukuule |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-4

words separated - kaa api kapola tale militaa lapitum kim api shruti muule chaaru nita.mbavatii dayitam pulakaiH anukuule

a pa 4-4. kaa+api= someone, even; nitambavatii= one with big buttocks; shruti+muule= ear, base of [at earhole]; kim+api= something, even; lapitum= to say; militaa+dayitam= on reaching, her lover [Krishna]; pulakaiH+anukuule= by tickles, made convenient [when Krishna’s face is tickly, his cheek is bent for her convenience to kiss it]; kapola+tale= on cheek’s, surface; chaaru+chuchumba= goodly [amusingly,] kissed.

Even someone with her big buttocks neared him as though to say something in his ear, and on reaching her lover Krishna, his tickly face conveniently turned sideways in all ears for her, thus she kissed his cheek conveniently and amusingly, thus that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-4]

Comment: pulakita - tickly, when ladylove touched his ears, his body became tickly and thus he had to move his cheeks sideways; nitambavati - because her buttocks are heavy she could not run a race with Krishna, hence she paused him in his dance saying ‘listen this…’ and then carried off her wish; naayika - prauDha [somewhat artful one]; naayaka - anukuula [acquiescent one.]

kelikalaakutukena cha kaachidamum yamunaajalakuule |
maJNjulavaJNjulakuJNjagatam vichakarshha kareNa dukuule |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-5

words separated - keli kalaa kutukena ca kaachit amum yamunaa jala kuule ma.njula va.njula ku.nja gatam vichakarSa kareNa dukuule

a pa 4-5. kaachit= someone; keli = [manmatha keli] plays of passions; kalaa= artistry; kutukena+ ca= with enthusiasm, also; [parihaasena+ca= with glee, also]; yamunaa+ jala+ kuule = River Yamuna, waters, in bank; manjula= beautiful; vanjula+kunja= Ashoka tree, bower; gatam = one who has gone there, frolicking in there; amum= him; dkuule= by his dress; kareNa= with her hand; vichakarSa= lugging along.

Someone, another milkmaid, enthusiastic in the artistry of plays of passion, and passionate to play in the waters of river Yamuna with Krishna, found him frolicking in a beautiful bower at that Ashoka tree, and she is gleefully lugging him along by his dress with her hand, thus that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-5]

Comment: Krishna is otherwise busy anyaasakta so she had to lug him along by catching his silk upper coth. Thus naayika - adhiira. It should have said ass yamunaa kuule - for Yamuna riverbank. But it is said a river called Yamuna that contains water and banks… a river naturally contains water, then why that redundant usage of water… will be the exclamation. It has two purposes - she is interested in sporting in water with Krishna, and the other is to indicate that water’s cooling effect and sanctification - shaityatva, paavanatva and hence the word waters is used emphatically.

karatalataalataralavalayaavalikalitakalasva.mava.nshe |
raasarase sahanR^ityaparaa hariNaa yuvatiH prashasha.nse |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-6

words separated - kara tala taala tarala valaya aavali kalita kala svana va.mshe raasa rase saha nR^itya paraa hariNaa yuvatiH prashasha.nse

a pa 4-6. yuvatiH= a maiden; kara+tala= hand, surface - with palms; taala= by clapping rhythmically ; tarala= moving; valaya= [valaya angada]= heavy wrist metal roundlets; avali= a group of, a set of; kalita= intermingling [touching one to one, clanking, clanks mingling with fluting]; kala+svana= avyakta madura svana = undefinable dulcet clanks; vamshe= one who has a flute - va.msha = bamboo - mohana vamshii = name of Krishna’s bamboo flute; raasa= raasa kriiDa = in plays of passion, in ronde; rase= zealous [Krishna]; saha= along with; nR^itya+ paraa= in dancing, engrossed; hariNaa= by Hari, Krishna; prashashanse= [that maiden is] commended.

While a maiden is engrossed in ronde dancing, along with zealously dancing Krishna, she is clapping her palms in rhythm to his fluting, while doing so the sets of her heavy wrist metal roundlets are clanking in undefinable dulcet clanks, and those rhythmic clanks are intermingling with that fluting, and that flautist of mohana vamshi, the Divine Flute, namely Krishna, is singing the praises unto her, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-6]

Comment: By employing the word rasa raase it is said, though this girl is an inexpert in superfine singing and dancing, she is expert in her rustic, moorish, and boorish dances, hence she is aware of beat and rhythm - laya taala j~naana, thereby she is praiseworthy.

shlishhyati kaamapi chumbati kaamapi kaamapi ramayati raamaam |
pashyati sasmitacaaruparaamaparaamanugacChati vaamaam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-7

words separated - shlishhyati kaam api chu.mbati kaam api kaam api ramayati raamaam pashyati saH smita caaru taraam aparaam anu gacChati vaamaam

a pa 4-7. saH= such as he is, he that Krishna; kaam+api= someone, even; shliSyati= cleaves to; kaam+api+chumbati= someone, even, kisses; kaam+api= someone, even; raamaam = delightful damsel; ramayati= delights [her]; smita= beaming; caaru+taraam= beauty, in high degree [most beautiful lass]; aparaam= another one; pashyati= sees to her, pay attention to; vaamaam= leftist, querulous one; anu= in tow; gacChati= goes after.

Such frolicsome Krishna is even cleaving to someone, and even kissing someone, and even delighting someone, a delightful damsel, and paying his attention to another beaming and most beautiful damsel, and he is going in tow after one with her slanting glances, thus, that gleeful Krishna is now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-7]

Comment: Here the word raamaam is generative from root ramu - ramu kriiDaayaam - one who gives and takes delight in which she is delighted. This word is on the analogy of the name of Rama in Ramayana. When the syllable ‘a’ is prolonged to ‘aa’ - ‘raa maa’ - it becomes feminine delighter and the delighted. And smita caaru taraam or, smita caaru paraam - ‘beamingly smiling’ indicates her readiness for intimacy, expressed in a smile itself. Hence, this piece of poem is floridly smiley. The word vaamaam - is displeased, irritated, peeved, vexeed, querulous girl. Even if she were to be so, he can tame her shrewdness and bring her round by going after her. nayaka - catura [artful.]

All these acts are performed sequentially or at a time? At a time only - is the answer. How can one Krishna become many at a time, is its sequel. That is what raasa kriida or raasa liila is, and unimaginable are his acts, deeds, or plays of passion. Thus this poetry, though expressed in mundane parlance, attains a supramundane eros [aspiration toward value] - a divine lusting. The poet says in the next foot ‘that is why this is an amazing act of Krishna - adbhutam.

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamadbhutakeshavakelirahasyam |
vR^indaavanavipine lalitam vitanotu shubhaani yashasyam |
haririha - - - - kelipare || a pa 4-8

words separated - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam adbhuta keshava keli rahasyam vR^indaavana vipine lalitam vitanotu shubhaani yashasyam

a pa 4-8. yashasyam= endowing gloriousness [if sung or danced to its tunes]; vR^indaavana + vipine= in Brindavan, woodlands [what that happens]; lalitam= exquisite [pleasure giver]; adbhuta= admirable; keshava= Krishna’s; keli+rahasyam= plays of passion, arcaneness of; idam= this; jayadeva+ bhaNitam= by Jayadeva, articulated; shrii - shrii suukti = felicitous, saying, lyric, libretto, [with double entendre = n. a word or phrase open to two interpretations, one usu. risqué or indecent, here the whole poem]; shubhaani+ vitanotu= prosperities, let it radiate [ tr. transmit or demonstrate - life, love, joy, etc. ‘radiates happiness’.]

This song, which endows gloriousness to the devotees of Krishna, if sung or danced to its tunes, and which contains the arcaneness about the exquisite plays of passion of Krishna in equally arcanus Vrindavan, is articulated by Jayadeva, thus let it radiate prosperities to one and all… [a pa 4-8]

Comment: With this the poet concludes this lyric. Here Krishna is adbhuta, because he is manifest separately to each of the milkmaid, in a trice, though remaining himself as one entity. In this lyric the words keli rahasyam are usually translated as secrets sports, or secret love-games etc., taking them to be rahasya keli kalaapam, but the word rahasyam qualifies the word keli. Then they are the secrets about those plays, of which the poet wishes to tell, but not how secretly the plays are played, and Krishna is no covert player, either in these dance dramas of Bhaagavata or in the politics of Maha Bhaarata. chandas - laya.

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vishveShaamanura.njanena janayannaanaana.ndamindiivara shreNiishyaamalakomalairupanayanna~Ngairana~Ngotsavam |
svacCha.ndam vrajasundariibhirabhitaH pratya~Ngamaali~NgitaH
shR^i~NgaaraH sakhi muurtimaaniva madhau mugdho hariH kriiDati || 1-11

words separated - vishveShaam anura.njanena janayan aanaana.ndam indiivara shreNii shyaamala komalaiH upanayan angaiH ana.nga utsavam svacCha.ndam vraja sundariibhiH abhitaH prati a.ngam aali.ngitaH shR^i.ngaaraH sakhi muurtimaan iva madhau mugdho hariH kriiDati

1-11. sakhi= oh, friend, Raadha; mugdhaH= charming [not meekish]; hariH= Krishna; vishveShaam = for all in the world; anuranjanena= to cause mutual intimacy; aanaanandam+ janayan= happiness, to cause; indiivara= blue-black lotuses; shreNii= rows of; shyaamala= blue-blackish; komalaiH= daintily; angaiH= with limbs; ana.nga+utsavam= Love-god's, festival [vasanta utsavam, carnivalesque excitation]; upa+nayan= to near, draw [to draw nigh]; abhitaH= by all [external limbs and internal heartfelt feelings]; svacChandam= unreservedly; prati+a.ngam= each, limb; vraja= county called Vraja province; sundariibhiH = by beautiful damsels [of Vraja county]; aali.ngitaH= embraced [Krishna is embraced]; shR^i.ngaaraH+ iva +muurtimaan= romance, like, embodiment of; madhau= in springtime; kriiDati= playing [titillating.]

sakhi= oh, friend; hariH= Krishna [with his personage, that is] mugdhaH= with heart-stealing; vishveShaam= for all in the world; anuranjane= to accord delight; aanaanandam +janayan= rejoice, to cause; angaiH= with parts [romanticised factors that are apt to cause happiness, like]; indiivara+shreNii= blue- black lotuses, clusters; shyaamala= darker [ambience with black Tamaala trees, nightfall, nightly Yamuna river etc.]; komalaiH= softish [flower beds, greensward, sand dunes]; ana.nga+utsavam= Love-god's, festivity [vasantosavam carnivalesque excitation]; upanayan= bringing off; abhitaH= all over; sva cChandam = unreservedly; prati+a.ngam= every, limb; vraja+sundariibhiH= by going, beauties [beauties who are passing by him]; aali.ngitaH= embraceable; muurtimaan= one having such a body, bodily presence; shR^i.ngaaraH+iva= [personified] romance, as though; madhau+kriiDati= in springtime, frolicking.

Oh, friend Raadha, charming Krishna is titillating in Brindavan in this springtime, causing happiness and mutual intimacy among all the worldly beings, and by the presence of his sapphirine-bluish and daintily limbed body, that simile with the sprayey rows of blue-black lotuses, he appears to be fetching the annual vasantotsava, the carnivalesque excitation, hence such limbs are unreservedly embraced by the beautiful damsels of Vraja county, either with their bodily limbs or by their heartfelt feelings, thus he is appearing like an embodiment of romance... [1-11]


Oh, friend Raadha, Krishna in Brindavan is with a delighting personage that is heart-stealing for all people, and it is apt to cause rejoice in one and all, added are the romanticised factors of Brindavan, like darkish ambience with black Tamaala trees, nightfall, nightly Yamuna river, and softish flower beds, greensward, and riparian sand dunes, and his very bodily presence is as though the personified romance, bringing off the annual vasantotsava, carnivalesque excitation, and the beauties of Vraja, moving past him are deeming that personality as an unreservedly dependable and embraceable embodiment, hence Krishna is frolicking with them in this springtime, as he reckons them as dependents and embraced devotees... [1-11]

Comment: When it is said - viSveSaam anuranjanena - Krishna being capable to delight whole world in his own nature, here he became a mugdha personality - charmingly graceful youngster, not a foolish boy, and delighted them and got delight from them, though they are nowhere near his Omniscience.

vasantotsava includes many festivals like snaana yaatra - ablution-festival, hindola yaatra - swing- festival, raasa yaatra - festival of circular dance, ratha yaatra - chariot-festival, dolaa yatra or holi festival, in which people come out as in carnivals and colour sprays water and powder sprinkled for amusement. It is annual and takes it root in Krishna liila-s of Brindavan.

alankara - shleSa, diipaka; riiti - vaidarbhi; rasa -sringaaara; sharduula vikriiditam - its metre; and this one verse is replete with incommunicable reflections from bhaaratiiya sringaara shaastra - treatises on aesthetics of romanticism, but they are left out for the present.

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praaleyaplavanechchhayaanusarati shriikhaNDashailaanilaH |
kim cha snigdharasaalamaulimukulaanyaalokya harshhodayaat
unmiilanti kuhuuH kuhuuriti kalottalaaH pikaanaam giraH || 1-12

words separated - nitya utsa.nga vasat bhuja.nga kavala kleshaat iva iisha achalam praaleya plavana icChayaa anusarati shrii khaNDa shaila anilaH kim cha snigdha rasaala mauli mukulaani aalokya harSha udayaat unmiilanti kuhuuH kuhuuH iti kala uttalaaH pikaanaam giraH

1-12. shrii khaNDa= Malaya; shaila+anilaH= mountain's, breezes; nitya= always; utsa.nga= in close proximity; vasat= living, inhabitation; bhuja.nga= by serpents; kavala= gluttonised; kleshaat= by agony [from their fangs]; iva= as though; praaleya= in snow water; plavana= to plunge down; icChayaa= desirous of; iisha+achalam= god's, mountain [iishaH+a+calam= Shiva's, not, mobile mountain, or, iishaa guruH acalaH = Paarvati, father of= Himalaya - madhyama pada lopa samaasa]; anusarati= following, coursing to; ki.m+cha= why, even [further]; rasaala+mauli= mango trees, at tops; snigdha+ mukulaani = tender [eatable,] sprouted buds; aalokya= on seeing; harSha+ udayaat= rejoice, on dawning, burgeoned; kala+ uttalaaH = inexplicably melodious, heightened in tone; kuhuuH+ kuhuuH+ iti = coo, coo [onomatopoeic words,] thus; pikaanaam+giraH= Kokila-s, words, voicing; unmiilanti= unfolding [sallying forth.]

The gentle breezes of Mt. Malaya will always inhabit in close proximity with venomous serpents, only to be gluttonised by serpents, and when repeatedly stricken by their fangs the breezes are in the agony of feverishness, and as though desirous of taking a plunge in the snow waters, to cool of that feverishness, they are coursing to Himalayan mountains... why breezes, even high rejoice is burgeoning in Kokila-s, the black singing birds, on their seeing just sprouted tender buds on mango treetops, thus they sally forth their coo-coo voicing in an inexplicably melodious and heightened tones, thus this springtime is blithesome... [1-12]

Comment: The word kuhu, kuhuuH also means no moon night without a streak of moon. The cooing of Kokila-s is a bother to estranged couple, yet they are singing in fifth octave pancama svara only to intensify the troubles of such couples. The moon is an enemy to the estranged couple, for his very appearance enhances their uneasy passion. And somehow, the no moon day - amaavaashya - can be tolerated. The sounds of black koels are almost like no moon day that intimidates the moon. But the singing of koels is painful, and all this culminates into spring fever, a restless or lethargic feeling sometimes associated with spring.

riiti vaidarbhi; varNaanu praasa - shabda alankaara; upama hetu - ardhaa alankaara; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. Next, the poet while closing the first canto is telling a blessing benediction - aashiirvaada ruupaka mangala aacaraNa.

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abhyarNam pariramyanirbharamuraH premaandhayaa raadhayaa |
saadhu tvadvadanam sudhaamayamiti vyaahR^itya giitastuti
vyaajaadutkaTachumbitasmitamanoharii hariH paatu vaH || 1-13

words separated - raasa ullaasa bhareNa vibhrama bhR^itaam aabhiira vaama bhruvaam abhyarNam parirabhya nirbharam uraH prema andhayaa raadhayaa saadhu tvat vadanam sudhaamayam iti vyaahR^itya giita stutii vyaajaat utkaTa cumbita smita manoharii hariH paatu vaH

1-13. prema+andhayaa= by love, blinded [heedless]; raadhayaa= by Raadha; raasa= in ronde dance; ullaasa+bhareNa= rejoice, replete with; vibhrama+bhR^itaam= overwhelm, bearers [those girls that bear an overwhelmed mood= vivacious girls]; aabhiira= milkmaids; vaama= with curved; bhruvaam= eyebrows; abhyarNam= in close proximity [drawing nigh of him]; uraH= chest [of Krishna]; nirbharam= ardently; parirabhya= hugged; saadhu= by far [enthusiastically]; tvat+vadanam= your, face; sudhaa+mayam= nectar, abounding with; iti= thus; vyaahR^itya= on saying; giita= song [of Krishna]; stuti= eulogising; vyaajaat=on the pretext of; utkhaTa= excitedly; cumbita = one who is kissed [by Raadha]; smita= by smiles; manaH+haarii= heart, stealing; hariH= Hari, Krishna; vaH= us, all of us; paatu= rule over [save our souls.]

Blinded by her love for Krishna, Raadha drew nigh of him, who is among vivacious milkmaids with curvy eyebrows, and who are replete with rejoice while in ronde dancing, but Raadha ardently hugged his chest among all of them, and enthusiastically said thus, "Your face is nectareous...thus your singing must be nectarean...come sing now... " And then, on the pretext of eulogising his singing, she started to kiss him, and he who is thus kissed by Raadha is all smiles for her, and he who steals hearts with his beaming smiles, that Krishna may save our souls... [1-13]

Comment: In this lyric sringaara - vipralambha; naayika -pragalbha; naayaka - mugdha; the manner of hugging is called vR^iksha adhiruuDha - tree-climbing embrace - tarum iva kamitaaram cumbana aartaa adhi roDhum yadabhilaSati naarii tat ca vR^ikshaadhiruuDham; the kissing style is called namitaka - where milkmaids are happy enough with kissing and kisses - abhiirajaaH cumbana haarya cittaaH; alankaara - aashiis, aprastuta prasanga, vyaajoktiu, aakshepa, hetu; since Raadha advanced, some heroine's bravery is there - naayika utsaaha ruupa viira rasa; anuvritti - aarabhaTi; riiti - paancaali; giiti -artha maagadhi; gaana - sthiti laya; Its metre is shaarduula vikriiDitam.


Thus, this is the 1st chapter in giita govindam of Jayadeva called saamoda daamodaram.

Chapter [Sarga] 2


Intolerant of Krishna Krishna’s flirtatious behaviour with other girls, Raadha deviates from ronde and complains all her feelings to her friend. Even in her complaining that Krishna is cheerfully irresponsible – blithesome Krishna, aklesha keshava, she extols Krishna’s enrapturing nature.

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viharati vane raadhaa saadhaaraNapraNaye harau
vigalita nijotkarSaadiirSyaavashena gataanyataH |
kvachidapi lataakuJNje guJNjanmadhuvratamaNDalii
mukharashikhare liinaa diinaapyuvaacha rahaH sakhiim || 2-1

padacCheda - viharati vane raadhaa saadhaaraNa praNaye harau vigalita nija utkarSaat iirSyaa vashena gata anyataH kvachit api lataa ku.nje gu.njat madhu vrata maNDalii mukhara shikhare liinaa diinaa api uvaacha rahaH sakhiim

2-1. hare= by Krishna; saadhaaraNa= general [fairly, in a fair and square manner]; praNaye= in lovingness [Krishna, whose love is equipoise in respect of other milkmaids and herself]; vane+ viharati = in woodlands, while pleasure-tripping; vi+galita= muchly [steeply,] slithered; nija= one's own [Raadha's]; utkarSaat= by her superiority complex, [privilege]; iirSyaa+ vashena= begrudge, by control of [overtaken by]; anyataH+gata= elsewhere, gone; raadhaa= Raadha; kvachit+api= somewhere, even; gu.njat+madhuvrata= humming, honeybees, swarms of; maNDalii= spiralling; mukhara= with noise; shikhare= at spire [of bower]; lataa+ku.nje= in tendrils, of bower; liinaa= steeped in; diinaa= forlornly [Raadha]; rahaH= in solitude; sakhiim = to girlfriend; api+ uvaacha= even, said.

Steeply slithered is Raadha's privilege, for Krishna's love is equipoise in respect of all other milkmaids and herself, and thus some grudge overtook her when he is pleasure-tripping with others, hence she has gone elsewhere, somewhere into a bower of tendrils, that which is noisy with spiralling swarms of honeybees' humming at its spire, and when she steeped into that bower she forlornly said this to her girlfriend, in solitude. [2-1]

Comment: She became a forlorn one as the humming noise of bees is increasing her passion for Krishna bhramaraiH kaamoddiipita hence, unable to endure it she has become somewhat a forlorn one, who otherwise is a resolute girl.

Again the word rahaH sakhiim uvaaca is sometimes said as ' she told her secrets...' etc. But whole world knows what her secret is, i.e., to have Krishna for herself... Hence, it is - said in solitude - what she is going to say is not to be heard by others... even if someone is going to eavesdrop she/he shall presume it as the humming of bees, as she is going to tell next aSTa padi in a tune and wording almost like the buzz of bees.

Then, diinaa api forlorn one, even so; even so she became a forlorn one by losing her pride, she got guts in regaining it - cf., Ramayana, 4-6-23, tataH saH raaghavaH diinaH sugriivam idam abraviit... even if Rama became a forlorn one, he spoke to Sugreeva self-confidently.

In this verse it is vipralambha sringaara, as Raadha is intolerant of Krishna's separation; rasavad alankaara - as she is ecstatic; shabda alankaara called varNa anupraasa; naayika -prauDha; metre - hariNi.

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a pa - 5 - madhuripu ratna kaNThika - sa.nchaladadharasudhaamadhuradhvanimukharitamohanava.nsham |
chalitadR^iga.nchalacha.nchalamaulikapolavilolavata.nsam |
raase harimiha vihitavilaasam smarati mano mama kR^itaparihaasam - dhR^ivam || a pa 5-1

padacCheda - sa.nchalat adhara sudhaa madhura dhvani mukharita mohana va.nsham chalita dR^iga.nchala cha.nchala mauli kapola vilola vata.nsam raase harim iha vihita vilaasam smarati mano mama kR^ita parihaasam

a pa 5-1. sa.ncarat or sa.nchalat= pulsating; adhara= from lips; sudhaa+madhura= with ambrosial, sweetness, [lusciousness]; dhvani= by melody; mukharita= sounded, fluted; mohana= causing delight, or, Mohana named; va.nsham= flute; chalita= flitting; dR^ik+ a.nchala = eye, ends - sidelong glances; cha.nchala= swaying, nodding; mauli= head, or half-crown, or peacock feathers; kapola = on cheeks; vilola= dangling, swaying; vata.nsam= knobby ear-hangings; [next stanza is a reprise in next foots]; iha= here; raase= in ronde dance; vihita+vilaasam= having, frolics; kR^ita= made; parihaasam= fun of me, or, uncared-for, with blithe indifference towards me; [api + cet = even, though]; mama+manaH+ smarati= my, heart, reminds; harim= of Krishna [alone.]

"Oh, friend, while Krishna's lips are pulsatile on his delightful flute Mohana Vamshi, ambrosial lusciousness is fluted melodiously, and while his head with half-crown and peacock feathers is nodded, his sidelong glances are flitting from one maid to the other, to observe their observation of his fluting fugues, and in doing so, his knobby ear-hangings are swaying onto both of his cheeks, in tune with all the fugues, thus he is frolicking here in ronde dance, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-1]

chandrakachaarumayuurashikhaNDakamaNDalavalayitakesham |
prachurapurandaradhanuranura~njitameduramudirasuvesham || a pa 5-2

padacCheda - chandraka chaaru mayuura shikhaNDaka maNDala valayita kesham prachura purandara dhanuH anura.njita medura mudira suvesham - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-2. chandraka= plumage of peacock; chaaru= beautiful; mayuura= of peacock; shikhaNDaka= tail plumes with eyelike markings; maNDala= with wreath; valayita= enwreathed; kesham= [blackish] hairstyle; prachura= expansive; purandara+dhanuH= Indra's, bow = rainbow; anura.njita= decorated with, with a wraparound; medura= thickly; mudira= [like] cloud; su+vesham= beautiful, attire; reprise: raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, whose blackish hairstyle is enwreathed with a wreath of beautiful plumery of peacock with their eyelike markings, is like thick blue-black, or cerulean cloud with a wraparound of rainbow as its beautiful attire... such as he is, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-2]

Comment: Here there are two concepts. One, any seen peacock is reminding her of Krishna as he has peacock plumes in his crown. The other, every cloud is appearing like him, as blue-black, cerulean hue is common to both, and common are the colourful rainbow on a cloud and rainbow-like attire on this boy. Hence she is in a fit of the blues.

gopakadambanitambavatiimukhachumbanalambhitalobham |
bandhujiivamadhuraadharapallavamullasitasmitashobham || a pa 5-3

padacCheda - gopa vatii mukha chu.mbana la.mbhita lobham ba.ndhu jiiva madhura adhara pallavam ullasita smita shobham - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-3. gopa= milkmaids; group of [samuuha, brindam, nikurambam, kadambam - amara kosha; not Kadamba tree]; with beamy buttocks, women having them [gagana jaghana]; mukha= face; chu.mbana= in kissing; la.mbhita= that which is acquired [his own interestedness]; lobham= interested in; ba.ndhujiiva= Bandhuuka flower, a rosy red flower; madhura= dainty; adhara= lower lip; pallavam= tender leaf like; ullasita= beaming; smita= smile; shobham= by which he is shining forth; reprise; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who has acquired an interestedness in making the group of milkmaids with beamy buttocks to kiss his face, and on whose dainty and tender-leaf like lower lip, that resembles the roseate Bandhuuka flower, a beaming smile ever shines forth... he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-3]

Comment: Please read the word mukha as face, but not as mouth, since mouth's function is different from that of lips, insofar as kissing is concerned. Whenever Raadha sees a Bandhuuka flower, a rosy red flower, Krishna's delicate lower lip is coming to her mind, but unavailable is his face, as other round-bottomed girls are invading it. Then why not Raadha follow the suite of other girls? How can she do so, when others are mobbing him? Moreover she wants him, only for herself, without any sharing or partaking. Then the friend may question her, asking 'why you are after that boy when he is after those many?' For that Raadha's answer is: 'He is fully interested in me... none else... la.mbhita lobham... but he acquired an interestedness, created by those girls, when all those girls forcibly dragged him away, so allowed them to kiss his face... hence, I extol him and his attributes, as he really belongs to me...'

Round-bottomed milkmaids... ni.ndaa vaacaka... Raadha is sneering at other girls for their ungainly physique, as Raadha herself is the most beautiful girl.

vipulapulakabhujapallavavalayitavallavayuvatisahasram |
karacharaNorasi maNigaNabhuushhaNakiraNavibhinnatamisram || 5-4

padacCheda - vipula pulaka bhuja pallava valayita vallava yuvati sahasram kara charaNa urasi maNi gaNa bhuuSaNa kiraNa vibhinna tamisram - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-4. vipula= immense; pulaka= with frisson; bhuja+pallava= arms, tender leaf like; valayita= encircled [embraced]; vallava+yuvati+sahasram= cowmen, maids, thousands [and thousands of milkmaids]; kara+charaNa+urasi= on hands, feet, chest; maNi+gaNa+ bhuuSaNa = jewels, sets of, jewelry; kiraNa= [by that jewelry's] shaft of light, [luminosity]; vibhinna+ tamisram= dispelled, darkness [gloom]; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who is embraced by thousands and thousands of milkmaids with their tender leaf-like arms, which are with immense frisson, and which luminosity of sets of jewelry on his hands, feet and chest dispels darkness, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-4]

Comment: The word tamisram is not the darkness of night alone, but the general darkness, gloom, ignorance etc., as in tamasomaa jyotir gamayaH. A single ray of light from his jewellery is enough to dispel any kind of darkness, then what more can be said of his total jewellery and about himself. Thus the ignorance of all the other milkmaids is dispelled, call them as sages and saints of Ramayana times, as you may, as a kind of deliverance.

On Raadha's side, she is remembering their starting time episodes. When they started homeward the night was falling, and the pathway was darksome. Krishna played her along till she came very near to him. But when she neared him all the darkness around them is dispelled only because of the luminosity of his jewellery, and she was prudish to be with him in broad daylight like resplendence. She ran away into darkness. But he is already there with his luminosity and it was inescapable for her to avoid him, in many an attempt. In the meanwhile other milkmaids came and carried him away, and she is disgruntled, and now she is grunting about it.

jaladapaTalavaladinduvinandakachandanatilakalalaaTam | piinapayodharaparisaramardananirdayahR^idayakavaaTam || 5-5

padacCheda - jalada paTala valat indu vinindaka chandana tilaka lalaaTam piina payodhara parisara mardana nirdaya hR^idaya kavaaTam - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-5. jalada= in clouds; paTala= crowds of; calat or valat= moving; indu= moon; vi+nindaka= verily, deploring; chandana+tilaka= sandal paste, mark on forehead; lalaaTam= having forehead; piina= busty; payodhara= bosoms; [maNDala= area, bust] parisara= nearby, closely, tightly; mardana= on rubbing; nir+daya= without, mercy, implacable; hR^idaya+ kavaaTam= heart [chest,] door; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, by whose sandal paste's roundish mark on his forehead, that roundel moon moving in the crowds of clouds is highly deplorable, and he whose chest hardened by tight rubbing of busty bosoms of milkmaids, thus his implacable heart is encased in his strong-doored chest, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-5]

Comment: The moon moving in clouds is reminding her about the round sandal-paste mark on Krishna's forehead. The moon may not be moving in clouds as in shaakhaa-candra nyaaya, but Krishna's head is definitely and constantly nodding while piping his flute. Then his face is like a mass of clouds, and mark on forehead is brilliant than the semi-visible moon in clouds. Though he is boy his chest is so hardened to keep his all-loving heart in a strong-doored strongroom. From his childhood his chest is rubbed against busty bosomy breasts, either of women of Vraj or demoness Puutana from Madhura. Hence this boy is calculatingly entertaining unassuming milkmaids, but heedless of Raadha, as her claim is for ownership of the very same boy, and hence Raadha is with this discontentment, yet not able to forget him.

maNimayamakaramanoharakuNDalamaNDitagaNDamudaaram | piitavasanamanugatamunimanujasuraasuravaraparivaaram || 5-6

padacCheda - maNi maya makara manohara kuNDala maNDita gaNDam udaaram piita vasanam anugata muni manuja sura asura vara parivaaram - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-6. maNi+maya= gems, full with; makara= crocodile; manohara= heart-stealing; kuNDala= knobby ear-hangings; maNDita= decorated, [illuminates as in 3 decorate (an initial letter, a manuscript, etc.) with gold, silver, or brilliant colours etc.]; gaNDam= cheeks; udaaram =glorious one; piita+ vasanam= ochry silks, as raiment; anu+gata= in tow, followed by; muni= sage; manuja= human; sura= gods; asura= demon; vara+parivaaram= best, followers, fraternity; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, whose gem-studded crocodile-like knobby ear-hangings will be heart-stealing when they illuminate his sapphirine-blue cheeks, when they swing onto them, and he who has ochry silks as his raiment, and who has a best fraternity of gods, demons, and men in his tow, and such a glorious one is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-6]

Comment: Here his followers are said in singular, but we usually take it as plural for generalisation. In singularity they are: among gods it is Sage Narada; among demons it is Emperor Bali; among humans it is Bhiishma pitaamah, where all the three symbolise 'surrendering, forfeiture, dedication...' Narada is an out-and-out dedicatee of Vishnu and his incarnations, Emperor Bali is a non-naysayer, and Bhiishma is renowned for his forfeiture of a vast kingdom for the sake of one solemn promise. Of course, Raadha as an illiterate 'thumb-impression' girl may not know all these things, but the poet knows, and hence he puts these expressions on her tongue, since she too is no less a devotee. She as a poor girl from a hamlet may not have kingdoms to forego like Bhiishma, spheres of worlds like Bali, and utmost scriptural knowledge like Narada. But she is female and female's body and soul alone are her property or possessions, hence she wants to surrender them in the Supreme Being.

vishadakadambatale militam kalikalushhabhayam shamayantam |
maamapi kimapi tarangadanaN^gadR^ishaa manasaa ramayantam || 5-7

padacCheda - vishada tale militam kali kaluSa bhayam shamaya.ntam maam api kim api tara.ngat ana.nga dR^ishaa manasaa ramaya.ntam - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-7. vishada= serene; at Kadamba tree, base; militam=mingled, arrived at; kali= praNaya kalaha = niggling in romance/ Kali, the fourth era; kaluSa= manaH kaaluSya= blemish; bhayam = fear; shamaya.ntam= mollifier; kim+api= how, even [impossible to tell, unspeakably]; tara.ngat= tidal; ana.nga+dR^ishaa= with Love-god's, look [with passionate looks]; manasaa= with heart, soulfully; maam+api= me, even; ramaya.ntam= exhilarate; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who is arrived at the foot of a serene Kadamba tree for me, and he who is a mollifier of niggles in romance, and he who can exhilarate even me with his tidally passionate looks and soulfully, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-7]

Comment: kadamba tale militam: He who is mixed up or mingled in the darkness at a peaceful Kadamaba tree, pre-set by me, only to hoodwink me; kali kaluSa... one as above, and the other is the mollifier of the blemishes of Kali era, the fourth era; drishaa, manasaa ca - not only by his gracious looks and but with his kind heart also; maam api - even me, as I deserve supreme love and affection of the Supreme lokottara prema arhiNii - raadhika, hence I reminisce about him...

shriijayadevabhaNitamatisundaramohanamadhuripuruupam |
haricharaNasmaraNam prati samprati puNyavataamanuruupam || 5-8

padacCheda - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam ati sundara mohana madhu ripu ruupam hari charaNa smaraNam prati samprati puNyavataam anuruupam - raase harimiha - - parihaasam

a pa 5-8. shrii= shrii suukti= sacred saying; jayadeva+bhaNitam= by Jayadeva, said; ati+sundara= most, beautiful; mohana= enrapturing [physically rapturous to milkmaids, divinely to whole of the world]; madhu+ripu= Madhu, the demon's, enemy's Krishna; ruupam = form; hari+charaNa= Krishna's, feet; smaraNam+prati= cogitate, for; samprati= presently [in this kali yuga]; puNyavataam= pietistic people; anuruupam = befitting; raase harimiha - - parihaasam= as above.

"He, who has a most beautiful and all-enrapturing form, on whom a sacred saying is said by Jayadeva, a befitting saying for pietistic people to cogitate over the feet of Krishna in this Kali era, he is frolicking here in ronde, blithely making fun of me... albeit, my heart reminds me of Krishna alone... [a pa 5-8]

Comment: The last line of reprise is generally removed in this verse, as it will be confusing whether Raadha is saying this, or it is the poet's saying. But if read with next verse, it is Raadha's dialogue that is continued.

Verse Locator

gaNayati guNagraamam bhaamam bhramaadapi nehate |
vahati cha paritoshham doshham vimuJNchati duurataH |
yuvatishhu valastR^ishhNe kR^ishhNe vihaariNi maam vinaa |
punarapi mano vaamam kaamam karoti karomi kim || 2-2

padacCheda - gaNayati guNa graamam bhaamam bhramaat api nehate vahati cha paritoSam doshham vimu.nchati duurataH yuvatiSu valat tR^iSNe kR^iSNe vihaariNi maam vinaa punaH api manaH vaamam kaamam karoti karomi kim

2. sakhii= oh friend; mama+manaH+vaamam= my, heart, is divergent; maam+vinaa= me, without [leaving out; vihaariNii= frolicking; yuvatiSu= among damsels; valat+tR^iSNe= over, ambitiously; kR^iSNe= in Krishna; [mama+manaH= my, heart] punaH+api= again, even [repeatedly]; kaamam= desire; karoti= doing [inciting]; guNa+graamam+gaNayati= [his] traits, group of [lot of,] reckoning; [mama+manaH= my, heart] bhramaat+api= by mistake, even; bhaamam+nehate= resentment, thinks not; doshham+duurataH+vimu.nchati= error, distantly, discarding; [mama+manaH= my, heart] paritoSam+vahati+ca= gladness, bearing up, also; kim+karomi= what, I should do.

"Oh, friend, my heart is diverging from my control... my heart is repeatedly inciting desire in me for that Krishna alone, though he is overambitiously frolicking with other damsels, leaving me out, yet my heart is reckoning a lot of of his traits... and discarding his errors distantly my heart does not think of resenting him even by mistake, more so, my heart bears up gladness on thinking about him... what should I do... [2-2]

Comment: vaamam - mutually contradictory states of mind; gladdening in an unbefitting time; though he is erroneous, thinking that he does not err; though he has no inclination in her, presuming that he is absolutely predisposed towards her - all these are vaamam- leftish states.

The mood of heroine is known as utkaNThita - heroine in ecstasy. In verse of Bharata muni uddaapanamanmatha mahaa jvara vepamaanaam romaa.ncaka kaNTakitam a.nga ka.mpam a.ngakam aavaha.ntiim | sa.mveda vepadhu ghanotkalika akula a.ngiim utkaNThitaam vadati taam bharataH || She who is in high fervidity of lovesickness, limbs in frisson, anguished, quivering, highly ecstatic, her Bharata muni calls tkaNThita naayika... Though these songs of Jayadeva peripherally appear as just wordplay and singable songs, they are replete with moods, gestures, and postures etc., as contained in naaTya shaastra, the treatise of dance of Bharata. Let's load them later.

There is no reason or motive as why she should love Krishna; hence alankaara is vibhaavana alankaara; though he is frolicking with other girls she is all praise for him, hence viSeSokti alankaara; in other places there is yamaka alankara; hariNi - is its metre.

Verse Locator

aSTa padi 6 - aklesha keshava ma.njarii tilakam

nibhR^itaniku~njagR^iham gatayaanishirahasiniliiyavasantam |
chakitavilokitasakaladishaa ratirabhasabhareNahasantam |
sakhi he keshimathanamudaaram |
ramaya mayaa saha madanamanorathabhaavitayaa savikaaram - dhR^ivam || 6-1

padacCheda - nibhR^ita niku~nja gR^iham gatayaa nishi rahasi niliiya vasantam chakita vilokita sakala dishaa rati rabhasabhareNa hasantam sakhi he keshi mathanam udaaram ramaya mayaa saha madana manoratha bhaavitayaa savikaaram

a pa 6-1. he+sakhi= oh, friend; udaaram= generous, bounteous one in giving pleasure [Krishna]; sa+vikaaram= naanaa sringaara vikaaraiH = with, lustful comportment; nibhR^ita = lonely; niku~nja+gR^iham= bower, cabin= alcove; gatayaa= one who has gone [Raadha -when I have gone in]; mayaa+saha= me, along with; nishi= in night; rahasi= secretly; niliiya= merged, hiding; vasantam= on who stays there; chakita= startled [when I was startled]; vilokita= seen around; sakala = all; dishaa= directions; mayaa+saha= me, along with; rati= intimacy; rabhasa= hastiness; bhareNa - or - raseNa= filled with, or, desiring to; hasantam= smilingly; keshi+mathanam= Keshi, the demon, subjugator of; madana+manoratha= love, heart seeking, desirous of [my heart is filled with love for him]; bhaavitayaa= one who with such thinking [I, who has such a mind, heart and mind are eager for his love]; mayaa+saha= me, along with [in me]; ramaya= you make him to take delight in me.

"Oh, friend, one night when I have gone into a lonely alcove, as a prearranged place to meet him, he that bounteous pleasure-giver was already there along with me, coming earlier than me, but hiding in the darkness... and I was startled when he was unavailable there and started to see all around for him, then he appeared with all his lustful comportment and smiling wryly at me, for not finding him who is already there... and then he, filled with hastiness for an intimacy, he met me... now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-1]

Comment: Keshi madhanam - Krishna beguiles the demon Keshi in order to eliminate him. A beguiler must be capable enough to get his things done, so Krishna's vancakatva, saamarathya are suggested here. He beguiles everyone who goes on a wrong track, only to bring him to the right path. In this verse he is said to be hasantam - laughing at her for not finding him who is already at her side, suggests that he beguiles manyone, if he/she seeks him for their ulterior motives.

prathamasamaagamalajjitayaa paTuchaaTushatairanukuulam |
mR^idumadhurasmitabhaaSitayaa shithiliikR^itajaghanadukuulam |
sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-2

padacCheda - prathama samaagama lajjitayaa paTu chaaTu shataiH anukuulam mR^idu madhura smita bhaaSitayaa shithilii kR^ita jadhana dukuulam sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-2. prathama+samaagama= first, meeting; lajjitayaa= bashful; paTu= capable [reassuring words]; chaaTu+shataiH= good words, hundreds of; anukuulam= agreeable [he made me agreeable to him]; mR^idu+madhura+smita= softly, sweetly, smiling; bhaaSitayaa= one who is speaking [Raadha, myself]; shithilii+kR^ita= collapse, made to [stripped down]; jaghana= hip; dukuulam= silk dress; sakhi - savikaaram= reprise, as above.

"On my first meeting I was bashful, but he said hundreds of reassuring good words, and then when I was speaking softly, sweetly and smilingly, my silken dress stripped down from my hips... now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-2]

Comment: prathama samaagama lajjita - damsels are bashful, silent, and uncertain, na uktaH kasmaat it nava vadhuu ceSTitam cintayantii pascaattapam vahati taruNii premNi jaate rasaj~nayaa... bharata muni

paTu caaru shataiH anukuulam - hero has some techniques of speaking good and soft words in first meeting - prathamam iha deyam puuga puSpaadikam syaat mridu madhu vacobhiH vojayet tat sannidhaanam...

shithilii kR^ita - antarbhaavita Nic` - the silk dress collapsed on its own, neither Raadha nor Krishna are responsible for it - kaante talpam paagate shithilitaa niivii svayam bandhanaat... bharata muni

jaghana dukuulam - it is already a slippery silk sari, just tied with a simple knot and a golden girdle string - mekhala - is helping it to remain on her hips. But when the heroine has seen Super hero - naakaya uttama - her ecstasy made that knot to loosen and girdle string to unfasten - niivii ca skhalati sthitaa api su dhR^iDham kaamengite yoSitaam...

kisalayashayananiveshitayaa chiramurasi mamaiva shayaanam |
kR^itaparirambhaNachumbanayaa parirabhya kR^itaadharapaanam |
sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-3

padacCheda - kisalaya shayana niveshitayaa chiram urasi mama eva shayaanam kR^ita parirambhaNa chumbanayaa parirabhya kR^ita adharapaanam sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-3. kisalaya= tender grass, lawn; shayana= as bed; niveshitayaa= placed in [on reposing me]; chiram= all the time; mama+urasi+eva= on my, chest, only; shayaanam= reposing; kR^ita= on making; pari+rambhaNa= bracing, embraces; chumbanayaa= with kisses; pari+rabhya= in besetting manner, hugging [graspingly]; kR^ita+adhara+paanam= done, lower lip, swilled; sakhi - savikaaram= as above.

"After reposing me on a bed like lawn he reposed on my chest all the time, and on making bracing embraces and kisses, he used to hug me and swill my lower lip, graspingly... now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-3]

Comment: The first embracing is called kshirra - niira aalingana - milk-water embrace, also called tila-tanDula - gingelly seeds and rice. And krita parirambha cumbanayaa - is called jaghanopa shleSa - karajadana kR^ityam cumbanam vaa vidhastsuH | kathayati jaghanopa shleSam enam muniindraH || Then the kissing is called samauSTa - cumbostavam nR^ityati yatra naarii proktam samauSTam kavibhiH puraaNaiH || And then the type of kissing said in - parirabhya kR^itaa adhara paaanam - is called lalaaTika - sa aananda bhaavam shrama miilita aksham lalaatikam tatva vido vadanti ||

alasanimiilitalochanayaa pulakaavalilalitakapolam |
shramajalasakalakalevarayaa varamadanamadaadatilolam |
sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-4

padacCheda - alasa nimiilita lochanayaa pulaka aavali lalita kapolam shrama jala sakala kalevarayaa vara madana madaat ati lolam - sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-4. alasa= tired; thereby; nimiilita= slouching; lochanayaa= with eyes [rather, eyelids, and such as I was]; pulaka= tingles; aavali= a series of; lalita= delicate; kapolam= cheeks [of Krishna]; shrama+ jala= strain, water [sweat]; sakala+kalevarayaa= whole, body [such as I was]; vara+madana+madaat= utmost, love-god [passion,] by intemperance; ati+lolam= wholly, giggling; sakhi - savikaaram= as above.

"I was tired hence my eyelids were slouching, his delicate cheeks too, experienced a series of tingles, and whole of my body was wet with sweat, his body too, was wholly jiggling with passionate intemperance... such as we were, now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-4]

Comment: By the slouching eyelids, the type of kissing is called - anaghR^iSTa cumbana - ...yatra lolaa aakhyaatam rasaj~naiH anghR^iSTa sanj~nam || And by embracing his love Krishna is said to have lovely tingling on his cheeks and it is called saattvika vikaara -which is of eight kinds as bharata muni says: svedaH kampaH atha romaancaH svara bhangaH atha vepadhuH | vaivarNyam ashru pralayau iti aSTau saattvikaaH smR^itaaH || - sweating, thrilling, shivering, voice fading, wobbling, colour fading, tears of happiness, or tearless state these eight are temperate moods...

kokilakalaravakuujitayaa jitamanasijata.ntravichaaram |
shlathakusumaakulakuntalayaa nakhalikhitaghanastanabhaaram |
sakhi - - savikaaram || 6-5

padacCheda - kokila kala rava kuujitayaa jita manasija ta.ntra vichaaram shlatha kusuma aakula kuntalayaa nakha likhita ghana stana bhaaram - sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-5. kokila= Kokila, black singing bird; kala+rava= inexplicable, cooing; kuujitayaa= one who cooing like that [myself]; or, kokila= like koel; kalaraa= like a pigeon; kuujitayaa= calling/cooing; jita= conquered, mastered; manasi+ja= mind, born one [Love-god]; ta.ntra= treatise [of Love, kaama shaastra]; vichaaram= one who is pondering over [Krishna]; shlatha+kusuma= faded, flowers [I was with]; aakula+kuntalayaa= tousled, braid [tousle-haired]; nakha= by nails; likhita= written, scratched; ghana= busty; stana= bosoms; bhaaram= he who has to bear the weight [Krishna]; sakhi - savikaaram= as above.

"Then, when I was cooing and calling like a koel or a pigeon, he who has mastered every treatise of Love was pondering... and then, when my flowers faded and braids tousled he started to scratch my busty bosoms, bearing their weight... such as we were, now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-5]

Comment: The type of scratching with nails is called panjakaja patra - according to sringaara shaastra.

charaNaraNitamaninuupurayaa paripuuritasuratavitaanam |
mukharavishR^i~Nkhalamekhalayaa sakachagrahachu.mbanadaanam |
- sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-6

padacCheda - charaNa raNita mani nuupurayaa paripuurita surata vitaanam mukhara vishR^i.nkhala mekhalayaa sakacha graha chu.mbana daanam - sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-6. charaNa+raNita= by feet, made to jingle; mani+nuupurayaa= gemmy, anklets; paripuurita= fulfilled; surata+vitaanam= copulation, with a group of [bandha bheda sahita ratim]; mukhara= while [anklets are] jingling; [next] vishR^i.nkhala= unfettered, fallen down ; mekhalayaa= girdle-chain-set; sa+kacha+graha= by, hair bun, on grasping; chu.mbana + daanam= kiss, one who gave as a gift; sakhi - savikaaram= as above.

"My anklets that usually jingle by my feet are made to jingle more when he copulated with me in different conjoining postures, and then my girdle-chain-set has fallen down in that act, and then he grasped my hair bun to give a dole of kiss, such as we were, now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-6]

Comment: The expression surata vitaanam - is many kinds of unions, namely indraaNi bandha etc., explained by vaastyaana kaama suutra-s, possible only for yogis or experts in sringaara shaastra. The girdle-chain-set is not an exaggerated expression, where that girdle ornament contains festoons of golden strings, ranging from a set of three to hundreds. Please see Seetha's Marriage, siitaa kalyaan in Ramayana, where each type is detailed. And making this sort of girdle-chain to fall without unfastening is called prenkhollikita vipariita rati - where vipariita rati - is not a crude type, but again a climatic and masterly act.

Caveat: All this stuff, like masterly acts, climatic union etc., will be good for reading and listening. Better limit them up to that stage. Trying to implement these things, on purchasing cheap books sold on railway platforms, or deducing from such half-baked translations like these, would be harmful, and we are told that a threat of death looms on one's head, if these yogic practices are practiced, without proper knowledge. Just construe that Krishna is a supramundane bhogi and yogi, and salute him. That's all.

ratisukhasamayarasaalasayaa daramukulitanayanasarojam |
niHsahanipatitatanulatayaa madhusuudanamuditamanojam |
- sakhi - - savikaaram || 6-7

padacCheda - rati sukha samaya rasaa alasayaa dara mukulita nayana sarojam niHsaha nipatita tanu latayaa madhu suudanam udita manojam - sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-7. rati+sukha+samaya= union, joy, at time of; rasaa+alasayaa= by delight, relaxing; dara= a little; mukulita= closed; nayana= eyes; sarojam= lotuses; niHsaha= weakened; ni+patita= down, fallen, reposing on lawn; tanu= body; latayaa= creeper plant like [myself, and with me]; udita= arisen; manojam= mind born, Love-god, passion; madhu+ suudanam= Madhu, the demon, subjugator, Krishna; sakhi - savikaaram= as above.

"When I, with my creeper plant-like body was reposing on lawn, relaxing delightedly with union time joyousness, he too was weakened, and his lotus like eyes were half-closed, though reposing on lawn, again arisen was passion in him for me... such as we were, now why don't you make him to take delight in me, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-7]

Comment: Here the heroine is utkanThita - ecstatic one, lustfully waiting for the arrival of hero. na eva aagataH samuciteSu api vaasareSu.... viraha jvara taaita angiim utkanThitaam vadati taam bharata kaviindra... bharata muni.

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamatishayamadhuripunidhuvanashiilam |
sukhamutkaNThitagopavadhuukathitam vitanotu saliilam |
- sakhi - - savikaaram || a pa 6-8

padacCheda - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam atishaya madhu ripu nidhuvana shiilam sukham utkaNThita gopa vadhuu kathitam vitanotu sa liilam - sakhi - - savikaaram

a pa 6-8. shrii= shrii suukti, good saying, or, one who reveres the feet of Goddess Lakshmi; jayadeva = [such a] Jayadeva; bhaNitam+idam= said, this one; atishaya= by far; madhu+ripu= Madhu's, enemy - Krishna's; nidhuvana+shiilam= romances, having accounts of; sa+liilam= having, romantic frolics [of Krishna]; utkaNThita+gopa+vadhuu= ecstacised, milkers', damsel - milkmaid; kathitam= told by her; [vaH= for all of us]; sukham+vi+tanotu= blessedness, amply, pass around; sakhi - - savikaaram= as above.

"This song that contains the accounts of Krishna's romantic frolics, as said by poet Jayadeva, who always worships the feet of Goddess Lakshmi, and as retold by me, an ecstasied milkmaid Raadha, let this song broadly pass blessedness all round, to one and all, and such as I am, a well-wisher of one and all, and wishing now for Krishna, oh, friend, why don't you make him to take delight in me now, when my heart and mind are filled with love for him... [a pa 6-8]

Comment: Some sentences are ellipted in the above summing up for the subtext. This song will not heard, in general, as it is loaded with some 'nakedness' in expression, and peripherally it sounbds 'bad' and no singer can go on singing the praise of alankaara or sringaara shaastra contained in it. Hence it is ill fated to be sung. If at all it is sung, it is singable in guNa kriya raaga, eka taala, again both are unknown tunes and rhythms, and none sings them in the tunes suggested by the poet-singer-dancer Jayadeva these days. - Verse6#Verse6Verse Locator

hastasrastavilaasava.nshamanR^ijubhruuvalliimadvallavii |
vR^indotsaaridR^igantaviikshitamatisvedaardragaNdasthalam |
maamudviikshya vilajjitam smitasudhaamugdhaananam kaanane |
govindam vrajasundariigaNavR^itam pashyaami hR^ishhyaami cha || 2-3

padacCheda - hasta srasta vilaasa va.nsham anR^iju bhruu valliimat vallavii bR^inda utsaari dR^iga.nta viikshitam ati sveda aardra gaNDa sthalam maam udviikshya vilajjitam smita sudhaa mugdha aananam kaanane govindam vraja sundarii gaNa vR^itam pashyaami hR^iSyaami cha

2-3. he sakhii= of, friend; maam+ut+viikshya= me, up, seeing [seeing me by raising his neck, make sheep's eyes at with goggling eyes, this repeats with every action of Krishna]; hasta+srasta= from hand, slid; vilaasa+va.nsham= playful, Mohana Vamshi, the Flute; an+R^iju= not, straight, awry; bhruu= eyebrows; valliimat= wiry; vallavii+ bR^inda= milk maids', throng of; ut+saari= up, flowing - raising head to catch a glimpse of Raadha from the gang of milkmaids; dR^ik+a.nta= eye, up to end - sidelong glances; viikshitam= seeing; ati+ sveda+aardra= much, sweat, moist; gaNDa+sthalam= cheek, places; maam+udviikshya= me, on goggling; vilajjitam= abashed; smita+sudhaa= smile, called nectar; mugdha+aananam= pretty, faced one; kaanane= in woodlands, in Brindavan; govindam= at Krishna; vraja+ sundarii +gaNa+vR^itam= by Vraj, belles', mob, surrounded by; pashyaami+ hR^iSyaami+ca= I have seen, I am delighted, also.

"Oh, friend, when he was frolicking as he likes with the flocks of milkmaids, I suddenly entered the ronde, then on goggling me his playful flute Mohana Vamshi slid from his hands, and his wiry awry eyebrows raised, and he started to cast sidelong glances at me, as he is abashed to be among the throngs of milkmaids, and then on seeing me his cheeks are muchly moist with sweat, but I saw him in woodlands of Brindavan, whose face is pretty and whose smile is nectarean, and to see him surrounded by mobs of belles of Braj, I must be delighted - Really? [2-3]

Comment: I am delighted, or, I am delighted also etc., words of Raadha are not in appreciation, but they are her snappish words with jealousy and derision. In another way: bR^inda= groups of belles; utsaari= to ward off, in dispelling; driganta viikshitam= with sidelong looks, he who is seeing; meaning that, "when I suddenly gone into ronde, he started to cast sidelong glances at other milkmaids to go away, as he was abashed to be in the company of other girls, while I was present... and such as he was, now why doesn't he come now, when I long for him?" - This is according to her ownership's viewpoint, as he solely belongs to her.

vipralambha - sringaara; diipaka - alankaara; naayaka -dakshiNa; lalaaTaanupraasa; paancaalii riiti; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre.

Verse Locator

duraalokastokastabakanavakaashokalatikaa |
vikaasaH kaasaaropavanapavano.api vyathayati |
api bhraamyadbhR^iN^giiraNitaramaNiiyaa na mukula |
prasuutishchuutaanaam sakhi shikhariNiiyam sukhayati || 2-4

padacCheda - dur aaloka stoka stabaka navaka ashoka latikaa vikaasaH kaasaara upavana pavanH api vyathayati api [ca] bhraamyat bhR^iN^gii raNita ramaNiiyaa na mukula prasuutiH [api] chuutaanaam sakhi shikhariNii iyam sukhayati

2-4. sakhi= oh, friend; dur+aaloka= impossible, to see round; stoka= small; stabaka= bunches; navaka= new ones; ashoka= Ashoka trees'; latikaa= creeper, twigs; vikaasaH= blooming; kaasaara= having lakes; upavana= fringe lands; pavanH= gentle wind; api+ca= even, also; vyathayati= distressing; api ca= and, also; bhraamyat= whirling; bhR^iN^gii= female honeybees; raNita= sounded by them, their buzzing; ramaNiiyaa= beautiful; shikhariNii= having apexes; iyam+chuutaanaam= this, mango trees'; mukula+prasuutiH= folded, offspring - unblown buds; api = even that; na+sukhayati= not, comforting.

"Oh, friend, for a lonesome girl it is impossible to see round this environ, and this gentle wind that glides upon the lakes and their fringe lands to bloom new twigs of Ashoka trees is distressing, and even the beautiful apexes of mango trees that have unblown buds, on which female honeybees are whirling and whirring, they too, are uncomfortable for me to see... [2-4]

Comment: kaasaara upavana in this the wind is gliding upon the lakes, hence it is cool, and when it is blowing gently on fringe lands, it is getting fragrance, and when it is circling around tress, twigs, and flowers, the whole environ is dullish, gloomy. In mukula prasuuti the vernal mango trees are distressing even when their buds are in the process of parturition, and who knows what they will do when they are fully flowered.

alankaara - samuccaya, lalaaTaanu praasa; vipralambha sringaara; riiti - maagadhi; vritti/chandas - shikhariNi; and the beauty of composition is in including the name of the metre of poem, namely shikhiriNi, in the song itself. Some have understood this shikhiriNi as mountain.

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saakuutasmitamaakulaakulagaladdhammillamullaasita |
bhruuvalliikamaliikadarshitabhujaamuulordhvahastastanam |
gopiinaam nibhR^itam niriikshya gamitaakaa~Nkshashciram cintayan |
antarmugdhamanoharam haratu vaH klesham navaH keshavaH || 2-5

padacCheda - saakuuta smitam aakulaa aakula galat dhammillam ullaasita bhruu valliikam aliika darshita bhujaa muula uurdhva hasta stanam gopiinaam nibhR^itam niriikshya gamita aakaa~NkshaH ciram cintayan antaH mugdha manoharam haratu vaH klesham navaH keshavaH

2-5. he bhagavad jno= oh, god-loving people; saakuuta= with inner meaning; smitam= having smiles; aakulaa+aakula= thrills and throbs; galat= slipping; dhammillam= hair bun; ullaasita= up raised; bhruu+valliikam= eyebrow, wiry ones; aliika= artfully; darshita= showing; bhujaa+muula= shoulder, corners - armpits; uurdhva+hasta= lifting up, arms; stanam= bosoms; gopiinaam= of milkmaids mugdha+manoharam [yathaa tathaa]= simple-minded, heart-stealers [milkmaids]; [ceSTitam= acts that are being done]; nibhR^itam= secretly; niriikshya= on seeing; antaH= innerly [in his heart]; gamita= relieved, got rid of; aakaa~NkshaH= longings; ciram = for a long time; cintayan= thinking; navaH= ever new; keshavaH= Krishna; vaH= our; klesham= despairs; haratu= steal away.

"Oh, god-loving people, he whose smiles imply something, is seeing milkmaids who are with thrilling and throbbing, by which their hair buns are loosened and braids slipping repeatedly, and they are raising up their arms as though to tie up their plaits, in doing so they are artfully showing are their armpits and bosoms repeatedly, and in doing so, their see-sawing curvaceous eyebrows also confirm their desire for him, and he on seeing these wilful acts of simple-minded beauties of Brindaavan, he got rid of his longings, for he satisfied them to their content, and stayed there thinking for along time, such as he is, he that ever-new Krishna shall deprive us of all of our despairs... [2-5]

Comment: This verse will not be found in other recensions, but available in south. nava Krishna - ever-new Krishna, kshaNe kshaNe yat navataam upaiti tat eva ruupam ramaNiiyataayaaH whoever/whatever gets newness minute by minute, that is the name of beauty. Here Krishna himself is that newness, and he is becoming, new, newer etc., only by these simple-minded acts of milkmaids. subhaaSitena giitena yuvatiinaam ca liilayaa | ceto na bhidyate yasya sa vai mukto athavaa pashuH || 'he who remains unperturbed by good sayings, or by music, or by the lovely acts of womenfolk, he must be a saint or a beast...'

naayaka vidagdha; samuccaya - instrument; alankaara aashiis; sharduula vikriiDita - its metre. With this end benediction the poet is concluding the second chapter.


iti shrii jayadeva kR^itau giitagovinde akleshakeshavo naama dvitiiyaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 2nd chapter in giita govindam of Jayadeva.

mugdha madhussudanam - Winsome Krishna

Chapter [Sarga] 3


On establishing Raadha's sincere longing for K in the earlier chapter, now the poet commences this chapter to show how Krishna feels for her, in an equal yearning.

Verse Locator

ka.nsaarirapi sa.nsaaravaasanaabandhashR^iN^khalaam |
raadhaamaadhaaya hR^idaye tatyaaja vrajasundariiH || 3-1

words separated - ka.nsa arirH pi sa.nsaara vaasanaa bandha shR^inkhalaam raadhaam aadhaaya hR^idaye tatyaaja vrajasundariiH

3-1. ka.nsa+ariH= Kamsa's, enemy [Krishna]; api= even [also, not only Raadha but Krishna also]; sa.nsaara= this worldly; vaasanaa= by nostalgic reminiscences; bandha= bondage; shR^i.nkhalaam= shackle [like]; raadhaam= of Raadha; aadhaaya+hR^idaye= retaining, in heart; tatyaaja+vraja+sundariiH= refrained from, Vraj, beauties.

Even Krishna refrained from the beauties of Vraj, retaining Raadha in his heart, as though she is like his shackle-like bondage in this worldly life, with nostalgic reminiscences of his earlier birth. [3-1]

Comment: If one can enjoy the love of Raadha, he will be shackled to live in this world under love-bondage. When a departed soul cannot find any 'love' in heavens or other worlds, where gods adore and admire each other, and seraphically enjoy their divinity, minus any quotient of living, called love, that soul retains nostalgic reminiscences of this love, and takes a rebirth longing for that love.

Verse Locator

itastatastaamanusR^itya raadhikaam
ana~NgabaaNavraNakhinnamaanasaH |
kR^itaanutaapaH ssa kalindanandinii
taTaantaku~Nje vishhasaada maadhavaH || 3-2

words separated - itaH tataH taam anusR^itya raadhikaam ana~Nga baaNa vraNa khinna maanasaH kR^ita anutaapaH saH kalinda nandinii taTa anta ku.nje viSasaada maadhavaH

3-2. ana~Nga= formless one's [Love-god's]; baaNa= arrow; vraNa= wounded; khinna+ maanasaH= disheartened, with heart; kR^ita+anutaapaH= made [became,] regretful [for unnecessarily neglecting Raadha]; saH+maadhavaH= he, that Krishna; itaH+tataH= here, there; taam+raadhikaam + anusR^itya= after her, that Raadha, followed [on searching]; kalinda = Mt. Kalinda; nandinii= one who gladdens that Mt., namely River Yamuna, as she originated from this Mt. Kalinda; taTa+anta+ku.nje= on bank, at edge, in bower; viSasaada= slumped.

Wounded with Love-god's arrows disheartened is his heart, thus he is regretful as he was unnecessarily neglectful of Raadha, and hither and thither he searched for her, but when that attempt came to naught, he slumped in a bower edging on the bank of Yamuna river.

Verse Locator

- aSTa padi 7 -
mugdha madhusuudana ha.msa giitam -
maamiyam chalitaa vilokya vR^itam vadhuunichayena |
saaparaadhatayaa mayaapi na vaaritaatibhayena |
harihari hataadaratayaa gataa saa kupiteva - dhR^ivam || a pa 7-1

words separated - maam iyam chalitaa vilokya vR^itam vadhuu nichayena sa aparaadhatayaa mayaa api na vaaritaa ati bhayena hari hari hata adaratayaa gataa saa kupitaa iva

a pa 7-1. iyam= this [Raadha]; maam= me; vilokya= on seeing; vadhuu+nichayena= girls, heaps of [flocks of]; vR^itam= surrounded [thronged]; chalitaa= went away [forsook]; sa+aparaadhatayaa+ mayaa+api= with, fault [at fault,] by me, also; ati+bhayena= highly, with fret - fretfully; na+vaaritaa= not, averted; hari+hari= oh, god, oh, god; saa+kupitaa+iva= she is, vexed one, as if; hata+adaratayaa= hurt, attentiveness [I was flippant of her, so she fled flippantly]; gataa= she fled; reprise - hari= oh, god; hata+adaratayaa= marred, courtesy; hari= oh, god; gataa= fled; saa= she is kupitaa+iva=

"On seeing me with thronging folks of girls this Raadha forsook me... unable to avert her parting, as I was also at fault, I fretfully didn't implore her to stay... oh, god, she fled, as if she is an ireful person, which she isn't, in person... oh, god, I was flippant of her, so she fled, that flippantly... [a pa 7-1]

kim karishhyati kim vadishhyati saa chiram viraheNa |
kim dhanena janena kim mama jiivanena gR^iheNa || harihari - kupiteva || a pa 7-2

words separated - kim kariSyati kim vadiSyati saa chiram viraheNa kim dhanena janena kim mama jiivanena gR^iheNa

a pa 7-2. saa= she; chiram= for a long time; viraheNa= [in my] separation; kim= what [possible deed to relieve herself of that anguish]; kariSyati= she can do; kim+vadiSyati= what, she say [if I go and beg her forgiveness]; mama= to me; dhanena= with money [prosperity]; kim= what [kim prayojanam vinaa raadhaa = what is the use of prosperities without Raadha]; janena= with people [kim prayojanam = what is the use with other without Raadha] gR^iheNa + [kaa]= with a house [what use]; jiivitena+ kim= with [my] life, what [is its usefulness.]

"What would she do to relieve herself of from the long-time anguish owing to my separation... what would she say if I were to go and beg her forgiveness... what is the use of them, the prosperity, people, a palace, or with my very personality, when she won't be with me... [a pa 7-2]

Comment: Here, by saying the 'prosperity' his shriyaH patitvam 'the possessor of Goddess Lakshmi' is suggested. And by the word 'people' his prajaa patitvam 'the mastership of living beings' in leading them in and out of mortality is suggested. And with word 'house' bhuu patitvam 'lordship of abodes' is suggested. There is another variant as mama kim gR^iheNa sukhena 'even if riches are there, what is the use with a house or other comforts without Raadha...' would be its import.

Here we have to dwell a little while on rasa siddhaanta 'Treatises on Aesthetic Pleasure...' where romance is but on expressible component.

A psychological theory that is a peculiarly Indian contribution is that of rasa, which is very often though wrongly, translated as sentiment. Rasa is aesthetic pleasure, which is said to be akin to the sublime bliss of God. The writers of alankaara [rhetoric, poetics] follow the Upanishadic view generally, and say that rasa is one and is Brahman. But it can take different forms, which are usually accepted as nine, corresponding to nine bhaavaa-s [emotions, sentiment]. bhaavaa-s are of two kinds, sthayii bhaava 'stable' bhaavaa-s and sancaarii bhaavaa-s or unstable bhaavaa-s. It is the former that can become rasa. They are sringaara love, viira heroism, karuNa pity, adbhuta wonder, haasya laughter, bhhayaanaka dread, bhiibhatsa disgust, raudra fury, shaanta quiet or peace. At their base lie the corresponding dominant feelings of rati sexual craving, utsaaha energy, shoka sorrow, vismaya astonishment, haasa mirth, bhaya fear, jugupsa aversion, krodha anger, nirveda self-disparagement, which must be assisted by favourable excitants vi bhaava-s, both aalambana essential, uddiipana enhancing, by reinforcing ensuants anu bhaava, namely, voluntary and saatvika bhaava-s expressions and also by certain accessories or subordinate feelings sancaarii bhaava-s, vybhicaarii bhaavaas which follow in the wake of the dominant sentiments and diversify themselves. - The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. III, The Philosophies.

Thus the explanations expand and expand. When it is said as 'he is appearing like an embodiment of romance... at 1-11, it is Krishna's personification, with which all milkmaids enjoyed all the aesthetic pleasures endowed by him. Some of the many ensuants of this savoury called aesthetic pleasure are noted here. shR^ngaaara is explained as vibhaavairanubhaavaiH ca bhaavaH sancaarii saattvikaiH | janito bodhitaH sphiito vR^iddhaH shR^ingaa iti ucyate - bharata i.e., shR^ingaara will be caused by vibhaava, noticed by anu bhaava, excited by sancaarii bhaava, enhanced by saattvika bhaara then it shines forth as shR^ingaara rasa. And vibhaava-s are defined as: bhaavayanti visheSeNa ye rasaan vai manoharaan | te vibhaavaaH tu kathyante naaTya shaastra kovidaiH || taking its root visheSeNa bhaavayanti [manoharaan rasaan] iti vibhaavaaH 'those that can be heart-pleasingly experienced, they are bhaavaa-s emotions, sentiments, let us call the 'pleasing romantic feelings' a time being.

The shR^ingaara rasa vibhaavaaH are R^itu maalyaa alankaaraiH priya jana gaandharva kaavya sevaabiH | upavana gamana vana vihaaaraiH shR^ingaara rasa samudbhavati 'acts befitting to the season, like wearing garlands and ornaments, moving with dear ones, singing and listing music, reading poetry, pleasure tripping in gardens and pleasure-parks etc., will be excitant factors for pleasing romantic feelings...'

The shR^ingaara rasa anuhaavaaH are nayana vadana prasaadaiH smita madhura vaco dhR^iti pramodaiH ca | madhuraiH svaa anga vikaaraiH tasyaa abhinayaH prayoktavyaH ' smiley faces and sparkling eyes, talking smilingly and melodiously, confidence, happiness, behaving with beautiful bodily gestures, and the like...'

The vyabhicaarii bhaavaaH - a word need be said about this word. The usage of this word is now corrupt and used to mean 'a bitch, or bitching...' That is absolutely wrong from the viewpoint of aesthetics. vyabhicaarii = vi + abhi + caarii; vi = visheSeNa = essentially; abhi = abhimukhyena = before mukhyaH before important one, say the hero; caariNaH = caranti iti vyabhicaariNaH = those that move, behave, comport themselves. And in shR^ingaara vyabhicaara bhaavaaH are shankaa asuuyaa tathaa glaaniH vyaadhi cintaaa smR^itiH | autsukam vismayaH harao vriiDaa unmaadau bhayam tathaa | viSaado jaDataa nidraa bahudhaa capalaa matiH |iti bhaavaa prayoktavyaaH shR^ingaare vyabhicaariNaH || - shR^ingaara tilaka. These are roughly - doubt, jealousy, misgiving, uneasy thinking, reminiscing, self-confidence, happiness, astonishment, hilarity, shyness, craziness, slight fear, sadness, stolidity, sleepiness, uneasiness are the feeling in pleasing romanticism.

Then the shR^ingaara saattvika bhaavaaH expressions in pleasing romantics are sthambhH, svedaH, atha romaancaH, svara bhango atha, vepadhuH | vaivarNyam, ashru pralaya, iti aSTau saattvikaa mataaH || - sh^ingaara tilaka freezing, sweating, bristling, voice change, shuddering, colour fade, tearfulness, self-torment are the eight states. So goes the list of moods and their expressions. With all this software Krishna makes others happy.

'As shR^ingaara has two aspects viz., samyoga [union] and vi yoga [separation,] there are two stages in this rasa, [rasa anubhuuti] , which the devotees enjoy. One in his company as they are in union with him, while the other in his absence they suffer the misery of separation and think of him all the time, so much so that they cannot see or experience anything but Krishna. According to some, the stage of separation is therefore superior to that of union.' - The Cultural Heritage of India. Vol. III, Philosophies.

Coming to our mainstay, Krishna also has a longing feeling for his devotees, personified here as Raadha, whom he once neglected. Here he is in the state of smaraNa avastha 'reminiscing' his wrongdoing and her resent. Doesn't matter. A wrongdoer has a right to beg excuses, entwining threads and laces of many stories, at anytime. Let him do so, but first let him soliloquize what he has to say or feel for Raadha.

chintayaami tadaananam kuTilabhru kopabhareNa |
shoNapadmamivopari bhramataakulam bhramareNa | || harihari - kupiteva || a pa 7-3

words separated - chintayaami tat aananam kuTila bhruu kopa bhareNa shoNa padmam iva upari bhramataa akulam bhramareNa

a pa 7-3. kopa+bhareNa= choler, filled with [cholerically]; kuTila+bhruu= curvy [knitted,] eyebrows; upari= over; bhramataa= whirling; bhramareNa= by honeybee; akulam+iva = agitated [frenzied,] resembles ; shoNa= red; padmam= lotus; tat+aananam+chintayaami= that, face, I muse.

"I muse on that face which might be cholerically reddened with knitted eyebrows, and it must be resembling a red-lotus frenzied at a whirling honeybee over it... [a pa 7-3]

Comment: 'I muse on that face...' finishes with a word 'bemusedly...' It is his bounden duty to incite her, not to a resentment or anger, but to a full-fledged choleric state. Otherwise he will not have a chance to beg pardon. A lotus sways many times when jolted by a honeybee, and in doing so its petals widen and contract. Here the bee agitating Raadha is the buzzing thought of Krishna, knitted eyebrows are knitting/opening petals, and reddish lotus like face of Raadha/lotus still reddened, angering at bee/Krishna. upama.

taamaham hR^idi sa.ngataamanisham bhR^isham ramayaami |
kim vane.anusaraami taamiha kim vR^ithaa vilapaami | || harihari - kupiteva || a pa 7-4

words separated - taam aham hR^idi sa.ngataam anisham bhR^isham ramayaami kim vane anusaraami taam iha kim vR^ithaa vilapaami

a pa 7-4. aham= I am; vane= in woodland; taam= her; kim= why; anusaraami= following [searching]; iha+vR^ithaa= now, futilely; kim+vilapaami= why, I wail [here, I worry]; hR^idi= in heart; anisham= always; sa.ngataam= unified; taam= about her; bhR^isham+ramayaami= highly, I am delighting her; [or, the word 'kim' can be taken as interrog. ad said 'what for, why should I search?']

"Now why should I futilely search her in woodlands, why should I worry for her now, when she is always unified with my heart, and whom I always delight, heartily... [a pa 7-4]

tanvi khinnamasuuyayaa hR^idayam tavaakalayaami |
tanna vedmi kuto gataasi na tena te.anunayaami || harihari - kupiteva || a pa 7-5

words separated - tanvi khinnam asuuyayaa hR^idayam tava aakalayaami tat na vedmi kutaH gataa asi natena te anunayaami

a pa 7-5. tanvi= oh, comely Raadha; tava+hR^idayam= your, heart; asuuyayaa+khinnam= by jealousy, downhearted; aakalayaami= [thus] I reckon; kutaH+gataa+asi= where, gone, you are; na+vedmi= not, I know; tat= thereby; natena= head bent [bowing, reverently]; te+anunayaami= you, I appease; [or, tat= thereby, because of your jealousy; kuto gataa asi na vedmi kim? = where you have gone don't I know; I know it; tena= thereby; te= you; na+anunayaami= not, I appease; I needn't appease you, as I am aware of your departure on account of your own jealousy.]

"Oh, comely Raadha, jealousy downhearted your heart, not I, thus I reckon, but I am unaware as to where you have gone, now I reverently beseech you... tell me where you are... [a pa 7-5]

Comment: In the first part of the verse state of ecstasy udvega avasta is said as in: yasmin ramyam aramyam ca syaat prakarSaaya kim can na | vidveSaH praaNitavye sa udvegaH prakiirtitaH || shR^ingaara tilaka In the later part talking beseechingly is said as in bambhramiiti mano yasminautsukyaayitam tataH | vaacaH priyaa aashrayaa eva sa pralaapa smR^ito yathaa || 'who heart long for his dear ones, whose talking will be over his dear ones, that is said to be pralaapanam 'an ecstatic talking.' Next he assumes that Raadha is before him, but not replying him.

dR^ishyase purato gataagatameva me vidadhaasi |
kim pureva samambhramam parirambhaNam na dadaasi || harihari - kupiteva - a pa 7-6

words separated - dR^ishyate purataH gata aagatam iva me vidadhaasi kim puraa iva samambhramam parirambhaNam na dadaa asi

a pa 7-6. me+purataH+dR^ishyase= in my, front, you are appearing; gata+aagatam+iva= comer, goer, as if; vidadhaasi= you do [behave]; puraa+iva= earlier, as with; samambhramam= tantalizingly; parirambhaNam= tight hugging; kim+na+dadaa+asi= why, don't, endow, you.

"You are appearing before me as if you are toing and froing towards me, why don't you endow a tight and tantalising embrace to me as you used to earlier... [a pa 7-6]

Comment: This soliloquizing is as old as Ramayana, as at kim dhaavasi priye nuunam dR^iSTaa asi kamala iikSaNe | vR^ikSeNa aacchaadya ca aatmaanam kim maam na pratibhaaSase || 3-60-26 'Oh lotus eyed lady, in fact I have seen you my dear, then why this running away... even why this veiling of yours with leaves... why not reply me... and many other serenading soliloquies of Rama

kshamyataamaparam kadaapi tavedR^isham na karomi |
dehi sundari darshanam mama manmathena dunomi || harihari - kupiteva - a pa 7-7

words separated - kshamyataam aparam kadaa api tava iidR^isham na karomi dehi sundarii darshanam mama manmathena dunomi

a pa 7-7. O, sundarii= O, beauty [for, you take pride in your beauty]; kshamyataam= let [my offence be] pardoned; kadaa+api+aparam= never, again, next [ever]; tava= to you [in your respect]; iidR^isham= this sort of [wrongdoing]; na+karomi= not, I do; mama+dehi+darshanam [or, ramaNam]= to me, give, your audience, [or, enjoyment]; manmathena+dunomi= by Love-god, I am seethed.

"O, beauty, let my offence be pardoned, I will never or ever do this again in your respect... come, give me your audience, as Love-god is seething me... [a pa 7-7]

Comment: In the earlier part of verse an ecstasied mood of love unmaada avasthata atasmimstaditi bhraantiH unmaadaat iva jaayate... is stated.

varNitam jayadevakena hareridam pravaNena |
bindubilvasamudrasa.mbhavarohiNiiramaNena || harihari - kupiteva - a pa 7-8

words separated - varNitam jayadevakena hareH idam pravaNena bindubilva samudra sa.mbhava rohiNii ramaNena

a pa 7-8. hareH+pravaNena= of Krishna, in devotedness; bindubilva [or, Kendubilva]= in Bindubilva village; samudra= ocean/ocean-like; sa.mbhava= begotten; rohiNii+ramaNena= Star Rohini, [one who] delights namely the moon; jayadevakena= by Jayadeva; idam+varNitam= this is, romanticized.

"O, Raadha, this I appeal to you as romanticized by poet Jayadeva, a devotee of Krishna, whom the poetic ocean called Binbdubilva village has begotten, and who delights starry poetry, as ocean-born moon delight his star of stars, namely Rohini, hence listen to him and tell me where you are... [a pa 7-8]

Comment: This is said to be a grand poetic construct. Unlike the doubtful expression of Kalidasa as at, kaH suuryaH prabhavo vamshaH? Jayadeva is self-assertive in asserting that though he came from a small village, he will be a moon in starry poetry, raising from earth to skyward like the ocean-born moon. This village Bindubilva, or Kendubilva, or Kenduli is said to be in Utkala area. If Utkala historically belongs to Vanga desha it is in Bengal. Else, it is in Orisaa.

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hR^idi bisalataahaaro naayam bhujaN^gamanaayakaH
kuvalayadalashreNii kaNThe na saa garaladyutiH |
malayajarajo nedam bhasma priyaarahite mayi
prahara na harabhraantyaanaN^ga krudhaa kimu dhaavasi || 3-4

words separated - hR^idi bisalataa haaraH na ayam bhuja.ngama naayakaH kuvalaya dala shreNii kaNThe na saa garala dyutiH malayaja rajaH na idam bhasma priyaa rahite mayi prahara na hara bhraantyaa ana.nga krudhaa kimu dhaavasi

3-4. hè+ana.nga= you, bodiless fellow [Love-god]; priyaa+rahite+mayi= darling, without, in my respect; hara+bhraantyaa= Hara, [Shiva,] confusedly; na+prahara= don't, batter; hR^idi= on chest; ayam = this; bisalataa+haaraH= lotus stalks, garland; na+ bhujan gama + naayakaH= not, snakes, king of; kaNThe= at neck; saa= that; kuvalaya + dala + shreNii= black-lotus, petals, row [circlet]; na+garala+ dyutiH= not, in venom's, in hue; idam+malayaja+rajaH= this, sandal-paste's, dried up particles; na+ bhasma= not, ashes; krudhaa + kimu + dhaavasi= rancorously, why [kim u = vexatiously,] run after [hound me.]

"You knavish bodiless Love-god, don't batter me when I am without my darling, and don't chase me confusing me for God Shiva... look, this garland of lotus-stalks on my chest is not king cobra, and the circlet of blue-lotus petals at my neck is not in the hue of venom, and these particles of dried-up sandal-paste on my body are not the ashes on the body of Shiva body... why do you rancorously and vexatiously hound me... [3-4]

Comment: "When Shiva reduced you not even your ashes remained, as he then graced you to be a formless entity... but, if you wish to take that revenge on Shiva, and rancorously and vexatiously chase me mistaking me for Shiva, I will now make you even a nameless, functionless entity... be careful..." is the finishing line.

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paaNau maa kuru chuutasaayakam amum maa chaapamaaropaya
kriiDaanirjitavishva muurchhitajanaaghaatena kim paurushham |
tasyaa eva mR^igiidR^isho manasijapreN^khat.hkaTaakshaashuga
shreNiijar.hjaritam manaagapi mano naadyaapi sa.ndhukshate || 3-5

words separated - paaNau maa kuru chuuta saayakam amum maa chaapam aaropaya kriiDaa nirjita vishva muurchhita jana aaghaatena kim paurushham tasyaa eva mR^igii dR^ishaH manasija prenkhat kaTaaksha ashuga shreNii jarjaritam manaagapi manaH na adya api sa.ndhukshate

3-5. kriiDaa= by sport [love-sport]; nirjita= vanquished; vishva= world one who has it under his control]; manasija= oh, Love-god; paaNau+amum= in hand, that; chuuta= mango [tender leaf]; saayakam= arrow; maa+kuru= don't, make [don't wield it]; chaapam+ maa + aaropaya = bow, don't, string [with bowstring]; muurchhita+jana+aaghaatena= fainted [killed,] people, by killing; kim+ paurushham= what is, valour [kimpaurushham= vainglorious]; mR^igii+dR^ishaH= deer, look [one having them, Raadha]; tasyaa+eva= by them, only; prenkhat= flitting; kaTaaksha [viikshaNa]= tilting glances; ashuga= that go at full tilt [arrows like glances]; shreNii= by rows, by fusillades; jar jaritam = pulverised to particles; manaH= [my] heart; manaagapi= in the least; na+adya= not, now; api+ sa.ndhukshate= composed [or, sa.ntuSyate= happy.]

"Oh, Love-god, agreed that you are the vanquisher of this world with your love-sports, but now don't wield that arrow of tender mango leaf, even if you wiled it, don't string your bow with bowstring to take an aim with that arrow at me... now my heart is disconcerted and pulverised by the fusillades of tilting deer-like glances of Raadha that are at full tilt targeting me... as such, of what worth is your valour in killing them that are already killed... [3-5]

Comment: In other mms this verse is placed as the last verse of this chapter. Here, if anyone is going to ask Krishna, "O one and you say that Love-god is tormenting you, an on the other you say your own ladylove is doing so, in so many 'unusual' words, have you got a method in your madness?" For this Krishna says, "Yes! Yes! Why blame my selfsame Love-god is tormenting, when this girl has become more than this fellow... as in next song of Jayadeva..."

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bhruupallavam dhanurapaaN^gataraN^gitani
baaNaaH guNaH shravaNapaaliriti smareNa |
astraaNi nirjitajaganti kimarpitaani || 3-6

words separated - bhruu pallavam dhanuH apaa.nga tara.ngitani baaNaaH guNaH shravaNa paaliH iti smareNa tasyaam ana.nga jaya ja.ngama devataayaam astraaNi nirjita jaganti kim arpitaani

3-6. ana.nga+jaya= Love-god, for the sake of victory; ja.ngama+devataayaam= a mobile, goddess like; tasyaam= in her [in Raadha]; smareNa= by Love-god; bhruu+pallavam+dhanuH= eyebrows, leaflet-like, as bow; apaa.nga+tara.ngitani= slanting-glances, lilting ones; baaNaaH= as arrows; shravaNa+paaliH+guNaH= ear-side, hanging flowery tassels [karNa lataa,] as bowstring; iti= this way [if thought, if seen]; nirjita+jaganti+astraaNi= completely conquerable , worlds, missiles [those missiles that can completely conquer all worlds]; arpitaani + kim = gave [entrusted,] or what?

"Has this Love-god entrusted all his missiles that can completely conquer all the worlds to this mobile goddess like Raadha, or what? If seen in this way, her leaflet like arching eyebrows appears as his bow, her slanting, lilting, slitting glances as his arrows, and the flowery tassels hanging at her ear-sides as that bow's bowstring... Yes! Both are connivers... [3-6]

Comment: 'Then why blame that unseen conniver, let me blame the seeable conniver as to why she became so hostile at me, just for one [among many of my meaningful] mistakes... I will tell her like this, if she is found..."

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bhruuchaape nihitaH kaTaakshavishikho nirmaatu marmavyathaam
shyaamaatmaa kuTilaH karotu kabariibhaaro.api maarodyamam |
mohaantaavadayamcha tanvi tanutaam bimbaadharo raagavaan
sad vR^ittastanamaNdalastava katham praaNairmama kriiDati || 3-7

words separated - bhruu chaape nihitaH kaTaaksha vishikhaH nirmaatu marma vyathaam shyaama aatmaa kuTilaH karotu kabariibhaaraH api maarodyamam mohaan taan ava dayam cha tanvi tanutaam bimba adharaH raagavaan sad vR^ittaH stana maNdalaH tava katham praaNaiH mama kriiDati

3-7. hè+tanvii= oh, beauty; bhruu+chaape= in eyebrow, bow; nihitaH= kept [take an aim] kaTaaksha+ vishikhaH= sidelong, glances; marma+vyathaam= vitals, torture; nirmaatu= may build [may cause]; shyaama+ aatmaa= black, by nature; kuTilaH+kabarii+bhaaraH+api= curvy, hair-bun, weighty one, even [rather, curvy horsewhip like braid]; karotu= may do; maarodyamam= lashing [or, maara+ udayam = Love-gods, activity]; raagavaan+ taan + bimba + adharaH + cha= reddish [or, loveable,] small cucumber like, lips, also; a+ vadayamun = un , speakable; mohaan+tanutaam= infatuation, may increase; sad+vR^ittaH = well, roundly [or, well, behaved, decorous]; tava+stana+maNdalaH= your, bosom, sphere [bosomy bust]; katham+mama+praaNaiH+kriiDati= how, with my, loves, playing; [pashya= see]

"Oh, beauteous Raadha, your sidelong glances taking aim on your bow-like eyebrows may cause torture to the vitals of others, your curvy horsewhip-like weighty braid may lash others in Love-god's activity, and small reddish cucumber like lips of yours may also increase infatuation in others, but see how your decorous bosomy bust is playing with my lives... [3-7]

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taani sparshasukhaani te cha taralaaH snigdha dR^ishorvibhramaaH
tad vak.htraa.mbujasaurabham sa cha sudhaasyandii giraam vakrimaa |
saa bimbaadharamaadhuriiti vishhayaasaN^ge.api chenmaanasam
tasyaa lagnasamaadhi hanta virahavyaadhiH katham var.hdhate || 3-8

words separated - taani sparsha sukhaani te cha taralaaH snigdha dR^ishoH vibhramaaH tad vaktra a.mbuja saurabham sa cha sudhaa syandii giraam vakrimaa saa bimba adhara maadhurii iti viSayaa sange api chet maanasam tasyaa lagna samaadhi hanta viraha vyaadhiH katham vardhate

3-8. taani= those; sparsha+sukhaani= touch, comforts of; te+cha= they, also; taralaaH+ snigdha+ dR^ishoH+vibhramaaH= billowy, friendly, eyes', flirtation; tat+ vaktra + a.mbuja+ saurabham = that, face, lotus-like, perfume; sa+cha= that, also; sudhaa+syandii+giraam+vakrimaa [caaturyam]= ambrosia, pouring, words, finesse; saa+ bimba + adhara+maadhurii= that, small reddish cucumber like, lips, lusciousness; iti= this way; viSayaa+sa.nge+api= in subjects [of sensory organs,] attached to, even; maanasam= heart; tasyaa= in her; lagna+samaadhi+chet= held fast, in [her] concentration, if [if unified in her thought]; viraha+vyaadhiH = disunion, [called] sickness; katham+vardhate= how, escalating; hanta= alas/amazing.

This verse is also explained in this way: sparsha sukhaani = comforts from touching her [now being sensed]; taani = they alone [those that were felt previously, by this sense of touching, namely skin, is satisfied even now]; taralaaH snigdha dR^ishoH vibhramaaH = now the eye filling sights of environ; te cha = they alone [those that were seen earlier – hence sense of seeing is satisfied even now]; vaktra a.mbuja saurabham = now the perfume that is being smelled; tat= that alone [that was smelt earlier, by this sense of smell is still satisfied]; sudhaa syandii giraam vakrimaa = now what all the ears are listening; sa cha= hers, only [those that were heard earlier, hence sense of hearing remains satisfied]; bimba adhara maadhurii = lips still have that palatability; saa = of her [which were once enjoyed, hence sense of taste remains satisfied]; rest as above.

"Those comfortable touches are still lasting, also those flirtations of billowy and friendly eyes are still lingering, that perfume from her lotus-like face is still redolent, those reddish cucumber like lips that pour forth ambrosial words with finesse, and luscious in taste are still immutable from memory, and though no single sense organ is dissatisfied, as each is still enjoying the good old comfort, but my heart is longing for her, in spite of the fact that hearts usually long after someone or something, an unavailable satisfying factor... this is amazingly self-contradictory, as it happens only in 'love...' [3-8]

Comment: If it is asked 'is it enough that the satisfaction of sensory organs is simply sufficient, leaving the motor organs? For this it is replied 'motor organs are subservient to sensory organs, as they cannot perform actions on their own... further, the classification of motor organs is varied and numerous... hence, leave them as they are...'

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ddiiptisthaanakR^itaavadhaanalalanaalakshairnasa.mlakshitaaH |
saarekandalitaashcitamdadatunaH kshemam.hkaTaakshormayaH || 3-9

words separated - tiryak kNTha vilola mauli tarala avattamsasya va.msha uccarat diipti sthaana kR^ita avadhaana lalanaa lakshaiH na sa.mlakshitaaH sa.mmugdhe madhusuudanasya madhure raadhaa mukha indau sudhaa saare kandalitaaH ciram dadatu naH kshemam kaTaaksha uurmayaH

3-9. tiryak+kNTha= transverse, neck; vilola+mauli= rocking, head; tarala+ avattamsasya= tossing, headgear; madhusuudanasya= of Madhusuudana, of Krishna; va.msha= Mohana Vamshi, his flute; uccarat+diipti+sthaana= sounding off [blurted,] in higher, octave; kR^ita+avadhaana= on making, listening; lalanaa+lakshaiH= girl folks, in lakhs, numerous; na+sa.mlakshitaaH= not, aimed at; sa.mmugdhe= highly, infatuating; madhure= luscious; sudhaa+saare= nectarean, essence having; raadhaa+mukha+indau= in Raadha's, face, called moon; ciram= for a long-time; kandalitaaH= sprouted; kaTaaksha= gracing sidelong glances; uurmayaH= ripples; naH= to us; kshemam+dadatu= impunity, let give.

He whose neck is slanted transversely, whose head is nodding tossing his headgear, while that Krishna started to sound off his transverse flute, Mohana Vamshi, in a higher octave, and then his highly infatuating looks that have sprouted in the moon like face of Raadha, enjoying the luscious and nectarean essence of such a face for a long-time, are now not aiming at those thousands of milkmaids, who have come again to listen his fluting, as those looks are searching for Raadha... let those gracing ripples like sidelong glances endow us impunity in all our actions... [3-9]

Comment: this verse will not be found in northern mms, hence the problem with the construct of na sa.mlakshitaaH may not be observed. This is available in the publication of Gurudev Ranade Institute of Philo and Mysticism, B'lore. There seems to be a riddle in that, and if any scholars can inform the correct construction, this will be amended.

iti giitagovinde mugdhamadhusuudano naama tR^itiiyaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 3rd chapter called Winsome Krishna in giita govindam of Jayadeva.


Chapter [Sarga] 4 - Suavely Krishna


Raadha's friend approaches Krishna to inform about the agony of Raadha owing to her state of separation from Krishna. This is calledduutii yoga a friendly messaging.

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yamunaatiiravaaniiraniku~Nje mandamaasthitam |
praaha premabharodbhraantam maadhavam raadhikaasakhii || 4-1

words separated - yamunaa tiiravaaniira nikunje mandam aasthitam praaha prema bhara ud bhraantam maadhavam raadhikaa sakhii

4-1. raadhikaa= Raadha's; sakhii= friend; yamunaa+tiira= Yamuna, on bank of; vaaniira = rattan plant [Calamus rotang]; niku.nje= in arbour; mandam= slowly [indolently]; aasthitam = [aa+sthitam]= came and staying; prema+bhara= love, overwhelmed by; ud bhraa.ntam= perplexed; maadhavam= to Maadhava, Krishna; praaha= [pra+aaha]= well [in detail,] said [the following.]

Raadha's friend is now approaching him, who has came to another bower and staying at it indolently, for he could not find Raadha even after a through search, hence he is perplexed as he is overwhelmed by his love for Raadha, and to such a Krishna, she says the following details.

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aSTa padi 8 - harivallabha ashoka pallavam -
nindatichandanamindukiraNamanuvindatikhedamadhiiram |
vyaalanilayamilanenagaralamivakalayatimalayasamiiram |
maadhavamanasijavishikhabhayaadivabhaavanayaatvayiliinaa |
saa virahe tava diinaa - dhR^ivam || 8-1 a pa

words separated - nindati chandanam indu kiraNam anu vindati khedam adhiiram vyaala nilaya milanena garalam iva kalayati malaya samiiram maadhava manasi ja vishikha bhayaat iva bhaavanayaa tvayi liinaa saa virahe tava diinaa - dhR^ivam

a pa 8-1. hè maadhava= oh, Krishna; saa= she [Raadha]; manasi+ja= mind, born one Love -god's; vishikha = those that have pointed ends, arrows; bhayaat+iva= from fear, as though; [tava+] bhaavanayaa [saakshaatkaarayitvaa]= [about you,] on cogitating; tvayi+ liinaa m= in you, engrossed; chandanam+ nindati = sandal-paste, scorns [loathes]; indu+kiraNam = moon's, beams [and their dints = blows or strokes, as with arrows of Love-god]; khedam= desperately; a+dhiiram= without, courage [despondent, or, adhi iiram = adhikam iirayati, adhikam = muchly, iirati= inciting, breeze of sandalwood trees and moonbeams are releasing Love-god's arrows]; anu+vindati= thereby, knowing [to be unbearable, hence reviling them]; vyaala = serpents; nilaya= of abode [sandalwood trees]; milanena = by their mingling; malaya + samiiram= Mt. Malaya's, [sandal-scented] breeze; garalam= poison; iva= as if; kalayati= she reckons; tava+virahe= your, from separation [left in the lurch]; saa+ [prema bhaavanayaa] diinaa= she is, [in the sense of love = forlorn=] lovelorn.

"Hè, Krishna, now Raadha is desperately despondent as she is engrossed in you, and cogitates only on you, and she fears and reviles the dint of moonbeams as though they are the arrows of Love-god. Moreover, she loathes the scent of sandal-paste as if that scent is a poison. She reckons the sandal-scented breeze is as if mixed with venom, for it breezes from Mt. Malaya, an abode of serpents... thus, now she is lovelorn, as you have left her in the lurch... [a pa 8-1]


"Hè, Krishna, she that Raadha appears to be fearing the arrows of Love-god, and thinks that you alone would shield her from them, hence she divines that you are revealed to her by her constant cogitation on you, and emotionally engrossed in you... but, outside her realm of imagination you are unseen... and seen are the arrowy beams of moon, and envenomed sandal-scent of breeze, thus she desperately and despondently reckons both the moon and sandal-scent as the agents of that Love-god, thus she loathes and reviles all of them, but for you... thus, now she is lovelorn, and unbefitting is your leaving her in the lurch... [a pa 8-1]

Comment: This famous song contains two tones, one that of a tongue-lashing of a friend, with somewhat harsh words of milkmaid, niSTura vaakya, nindaa vaacka which is limitable only to text. Its construal is: candanam kaamam adhikam iirayati; tava bhaavanayaa, tava saakshaatkaareNa, tayi liinaa... etc. Moreover, the other tone is the entreaty of a devotee, with stuti vaakya, praardhanaa vaakya devotional eulogy, extolling, praise song, which is tunefully adopted by singers with most piteous requisition to comeback to Raadha. The reprise in this song is only for words saa virahe tava diinaa... saa tava virahe diinaa... 'she is lovelorn, without you...' but many take some more lines, unnecessarily.

aviralanipatitamadanasharaadivabhavadavanaayavishaalam |
svahR^idayamar.hmaNivarmakarotisajalanaliniidalajaalam | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-2 a pa

words separated - avirala nipatita madana sharaat iva bhavat avanaaya vishaalam sva hR^idaya mar.hmaNi varma karoti sajala nalinii dala jaalam

a pa 8-2. saa= she that Raadha; a+virala= without, gap [incessant]; nipatita= falling [darting]; madana = Love-god's; sharaat= from arrows; bhavat= your; avanaaya= to safeguard; iva= as if; vishaalam= wide; sajala= with water [wet petals]; nalinii+dala= lotus, petals; jaalam= a group of [sprays of]; sva= her own; hR^idaya = heart; marmaNi= in innermost recesses; varma= leather coat of mail; karoti= she is making; saa virahe - diinaa = as above.

"She that Raadha is making a coat of mail with the sprays of wide and wet lotus petals, in the innermost recesses of her heart, against the incessantly darting arrows of Love-god targeting her it... methinks... maybe to safeguard you who are snugly settled in there, I dunno... but, now she is lovelorn, as you have left her in the lurch... [a pa 8-2]


"Hè, Krishna, you know how delicate is Raadha's heart, and targeting it Love-god is incessantly flinging fiery flowery arrows, but uncaring for herself she is bravely preparing a lotus-petal shield, like that of a leathern or metallic shield used by brave warriors, only to protect you, as she ensconced you in the innermost recesses of her heart... and those petals are wide enough to cover you, and wet enough, for they are wet with water and with her love as well, to give enough resistance to you from their heat... hence, she is lovelorn, and unbefitting is your leaving her in the lurch... [a pa 8-2]

Comment: The Love-god has five arrows and they are: aravindam asokam ca cutam ca navamallika nilotpalam ca pañcai te pañca banaa× asya sayakaa× || 1.aravinda = a lotus [nelumblum speciosum], 2. ashoka = a flower of hellebore origin, 3. chutam = mango flower, 4.nava mallika = new jasmine, 5.neela utpala = blue costus, are the five arrows of Manmatha. Their functions are: - unm˜dana× t˜pana× ca þoÿõa stambhana× tad˜ | sammohana× ca k˜masya paðca b˜õ˜× prakŸrtit˜× || The five states associated with each arrow are: 1 unmaada = maniacal state; 2 tapana = fervent state; 3 shoshana = wasting away; 4 sthambhana = standstill state; 5 sammohana = stupefaction.

kusumavishikhasharatalpamanalpavilaasakalaakamaniiyam |
vratamiva tava parirambhasukhaaya karoti kusumashayaniiyam | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-3 a pa

words separated - kusuma vishikha shara talpam analpa vilaasa kalaa kamaniiyam vratam iva tava pari rambha sukhaaya karoti kusuma shayaniiyam

a pa 8-3: saa= she is; an+alpa= not, less; vilaasa+kalaa= voluptuousness, with arts of; kamaniiyam= beautiful; kusuma= flowery; shayaniiyam= one on which one can repose, reclinable bed; tava= your; pari+rambha= overly [tightly,] hugging; sukhaaya= [desiring that] comfort; kusuma+vishikha+shara= flowers, with pointed ends, arrows [one who has flowers as his pointed arrows, i.e., Manmatha, Love-god]; talpam= bed; vratam+iva= a ceremony, as if; karoti= making; saa virahe - diinaa = as above.

"She that Raadha is making a beautiful flowery reclinable bed with all her arts of voluptuousness, with the flowery arrows of Love-god, desiring to repose on it in a your comfortable tight embrace, as if it is a ceremony... but, now she is lovelorn, as you have left her in the lurch... [a pa 8-3]


" Hè, Krishna, though the flower arrows darted by Love-god are pinching her heart, she is preparing a flowery and reclinable bed with them alone, as if it is a ceremony, desiring to instate you in there, and to ceremoniously repose in your tight but comfortable embrace... hence, think not that she is idling, as she is ceremonially preparing a love-seat idolizing you... therefor, leave her not in the lurch, as she is lovelorn... [a pa 8-3]

Comment: This girl Raadha has a sense of delicacy. Usually devotees arrange a small golden or silver throne to gods in their worship rooms, and place an idol on it, and run the rote of what they have learnt. Here, she is making a flowery bed to give painless seating, and a seat collapsible even as a bed, if he wants to repose. Stones replaced the thrones of gods in temples, as we see har kankar me shankar... god in every granite rock.

vahaticavalitavilochanajaladharamaananakamalamudaaram |
vidhumivavikaTavidhuntudadantadalanagalitaamR^itadhaaram | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-4 a pa

words separated - vahati ca valita vilochana jala dharam aanana kamalam udaaram vidhum iva vikaTa vidhuntuda danta dalana galita amR^ita dhaaram

a pa 8-4: saa= she that Raadha; valita= squirmy [galita= slippery, calita= moving rolling glances]; vilochana= eyes; jala+dharam [bharam= filled with] = water, bearer, clouds like; udaaram= beauteous; aanana+kamalam= face, lotus; vikaTa= uneven, sawtoothed; vidhun+tuda= moon, biter [Raahu's, eclipsing planet]; danta= by teethe; dalana= by way of biting; galita= slid; amR^ita= ambrosial; dhaaram= streams; vidhum+iva= moon, as if; vahati+ca= bearing up, also; saa virahe - diinaa = as above.

"She that Raadha bears up a lotus like beauteous face, that have cloud like blackish eyes with squirmy glances, which now appears like the moon bitten by the sawtoothed Rahu, the eclipsing villainous planet, and while that moon sheds streams of ambrosia when bitten by teeth, she is shedding streams of tears, smitten by love... thus, she is lovelorn, as you have left her in the lurch... [a pa 8-4]


" Hè, Krishna, beauteous will be the face of Raadha like a lotus, but her lotus like eyes are streaming tears like black clouds, and that moonfaced Raadha is searching for you with her squirmiest glances, as moon would, when bitten by teeth of sawtoothed Raahu, though still streaming his ambrosial moonshine... thus, caught in the cobweb of time neither of them is a sinner, isn't so... so, leave her not in the lurch, as she is lovelorn... [a pa 8-4]

Comment: This is full with similes - eyes shed tears, clouds shed raindrops; even if eclipsed, moon doesn't loose shine, and even if shedding tears a beautiful face doesn't loose its beauty; even if bitten by sawtoothed eclipsing planet Raahu, moon doesn't stop outpouring of his ambrosial moonshine; even if smitten by alienation, a girl won't stop outpouring her heartfelt love, and so on...

vilikhatirahasikura~Ngamadenabhavantamasamasharabhuutam |
praNamatimakaramadhovinidhaayakarecasharamnavachuutam | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-5 a pa

words separated - vilikhati rahasi kuranga madena bhavantam asama shara bhuutam praNamati makaram adhaH vinidhaaya kare ca sharam nava chuutam

a pa 8-5. saa= she is; rahasi= in aloneness; kuranga+madena= deer's, fat [kastuuri, musk]; a+sama+ sharaH= not, equalling, arrow [an unequalled archer, Love-god]; bhuutam= like that of, in the shape of [not, ghost pl.]; bhavantam= you; vilikhati= writing [sketching, picturing]; adhaH= down under [aasana sthaane= at the place of seat]; makaram= crocodile; kare= in hand; nava+chuutam+ sharam+ ca= new, mango, [leafy] arrow, also; vinidhaaya= on properly placing; praNamati= adoring.

"She that Raadha in all her aloneness is sketching you in the shape of shapeless Love-god with deer musk, and even sketching a crocodile as his seat, and placing a mango leaflet in his hand, since it is his arrow, and then she is adoring that sketch saying, "oh, god, save my body and soul..." that way she is lovelorn, as you have left her in the lurch... [a pa 8-5]


" Hè, Krishna, formless Love-god had to be given your form, as Raadha is unaware of any other form of love, hence she in her loneliness is painting you using deer musk as paint, and in confusion painting a crocodile as his seat, instead of portraying it on his flag... but without confusion she is properly placing a leaflet of mango in his hand for his arrow, as she is repeatedly shot by such arrows, and beholding that sketch she is single-mindedly adoring you, through him, and through that sketch, to save her from her pangs of passion... hence, leave her not in the lurch, as she is lovelorn... [a pa 8-5]

Comment: In this stanza the adoration of Love-god agreeable for alienated ladyloves is suggested. This is called kaama puuja as said by bharata muni; devataa puujanam kuryaat dadyaat bali bhuje balim, likhet kaanta prati kR^itim paaThayet shuka shaarikaaH | gaNayet avadhi dinam giitam gaayet tad ankitam, evam vidha vinodena nayet kaalam viyoginii || Alienated ladyloves spend time by worshipping gods, offering oblations, sketching rough shapes of their dear ones, counting the balance of days for his arrival, teaching singing to parrots and songbirds, singing lyrics comprising his name....

dhyaanalayenapuraH parikal.hpyabhavantamatiivaduraapam |
vilapatihasativiSiidatiroditicha~nchatimu~nchatitaapam | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-6 a pa

words separated - dhyaana layena puraH pari kalpya bhavantam atiiva duraapam vilapati hasati viSiidati roditi chanchati munchati taapam

a pa 8-6: saa= she that Raadha; dhyaana+layena= in meditation, engrossed; atiiva+dur+aapam= highly, impossible, one to get [highly inaccessible for others, Krishna]; bhavantam= you; puraH= in front of; parikalpya= imagining; vilapati= snaps at; hasati= sneers; viSiidati= sinks; roditi= sobs; chanchati[bhramati ] = strays taapam= simmer; munchati= leaves off [simmers down.]

"She that Raadha, thinking that you shall be highly inaccessible to others, she is engrossed in meditation on you, and on imagining you in her front, in the form of that musk painting, she snaps, sneers, sinks, sobs, strays, and simmers down her simmer... [a pa 8-6]


"Hè, Krishna, she knows that you are highly inaccessible to anyone, and such as you are, she wants to possess you for herself, only for herself, thus she personifies you in that musk painting in her imagination and engrossed in her meditation on you through that painting, in doing so she snaps at you saying, 'you beguiler, now you're here... what happened all the time... go, go away to those doltish girls, for they alone match you...'

And then sneers at that unmoving painting to say, 'oh, still you're loitering here without making a move... that's why I call you a beguiler... but, now I beguiled you to win you...'

Then sinks down saying, 'ah, poor me, I can't make you happy with my clasps and clings for you're in a picture... alas...'

Then she sobs clinging to that painting; (aside: where a wail is the ultimate weapon of a woman;) and then she strays from there thinking, 'if I go away from this place, this beguiler surely follows me, then I can chide him to accept...'

Then she simmers down her simmering mind meditating on you concluding, 'yes, he's with me... he'll be with me... why should I worry...' hence, Krishna, leave her not in the lurch, as she is lovelorn... [a pa 8-6]

Comment: The words - snaps, sneers, sinks, sobs, and strays etc., are not just a cluster of words jumbled by the poet. Each has its own significance and some of them are compiled here, as said by ancient commentators. For the wail-weapon of woman: bharata muni says; rudita mudita maatram yoSitaam vigraheSu... 'when a women start their siren like wailing, men are supposed to yield...' hence, siren has this meaning too - 4 a - a dangerously fascinating woman; a temptress; b - a tempting pursuit etc., and hence, wailing is the congenital weapon of a woman - Natura dat unicuique quod sibi conveniens est. Nature gives to each what is appropriate. So that is that.

pratipadamidamapinigadatimaadhavatavacharaNepatitaaham |
tvayivimukhemayisapadisudhaanidhirapitanutetanudaaham | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-7 a pa

words separated - prati padam idam api nigadati maadhava tava charaNe patitaa aham tvayi vimukhe mayi sapadi sudhaa nidhiH api tanute tanu daaham - a tanu daaham

a pa 8-7: saa= she that Raadha; prati+padam= at each, step; idam+api+nigadati= this, even, says - asserts; maadhava= oh, Maadhava; aham+tvayi+charaNe+ patitaa= I, on your, feet, fallen; sapadi= now; tava= of yours; mayi= in me; vi+mukhe= away, faced - paraa~Nmukhata= uninterested, insouciant]; sudhaa+nidhiH+api= ambrosia, treasure trove = moon with cool moonshine, even; tanu+daaham= body's, thirst; tanute= increasing; or, a+tanu+daaham= without, body - bodiless Love-god, fervidity - love fever; tanute= making rampant; saa virahe - diinaa = as above.

"She that Raadha is even asserting this on each and every step of hers, "Oh, Maadhava, though you are insouciant towards me as of now, the moon, who is supposed to be the treasure trove of coolant ambrosial moonshine, is making my love fever rampant..." thus, she who is lovelorn is mediating on you, as you have left her in the lurch... [a pa 8-7]


"Hè, Krishna, that Raadha is even asserting this on each and every step of hers, "Oh, Maadhava, your first wife Goddess Lakshmi's brother and your brother-in-law, namely the moon, a pot of ambrosial moonshine, who didn't dare to raise an eye at me, when you were with me... now he alone is torturing me, presuming that I have done wrong to his sister, and presuming that you are uninterested in me... hence, oh, Maadhava, come to me, lest he will not think I am his another sister..." so, Krishna, leave her not in the lurch, as she is lovelorn... [a pa 8-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamadhikam yadi manasaa naTaniiyam |
harivirahaakulavallavayuvatisakhiivachanam paThaniiyam | saa virahe tava diinaa || 8-8 a pa

words separated - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam adhikam yadi manasaa naTaniiyam hari viraha aakula vallava yuvati sakhii vachanam paThaniiyam

a pa 8-8. hè, vaiSNavaaH= hè, devotees of Vishnu; idam+jayadeva+bhaNitam= this one, by Jayadeva, said; shrii= shrii suukti - auspicious saying; adhikam+yadi= highly, reverently, if [if deemed highly reverent]; manasaa = heartily; naTaniiyam= actable [relishable]; hari= Krishna; viraha= heartsick; aakula= flustered; vallava= milkers'; yuvati= damsel's; sakhii= friend's; vachanam= words; paThaniiyam= readable [memorable.]

"hè, Vishnuites, if you deem this auspicious saying said by Jayadeva, through the girlfriend of milkers girl, namely Raadha, as highly reverent to relish, then this alone is memorable for all of us... [as these words have a conductance to conduct spirituality...] [a pa 8-8]

Comment: Vishnuites is Oxford's nomenclature for vaiSNavaites and the word naTaniiyam is to be taken as 'relishable' as said by bharata naaTya shaatra: naaTya shabdo rase mukhyaH nearly: 'relishing the mood is the essence of dance/drama/performing arts...'

Throughout these songs, or whole of the chapter, the heroine is said as virahotkaNThita, out of eight forms of naayika, the heroine. They are 1 - vaasava sajjika; 2 - utkaNThita; 3 - svaadhiina bhartuka; 4 - kalahaantarita; 5 - vipralabdha; 6 - abhisaarika; 7 - khaNDita; 8 - proSita bhartrika. And virahotkaNThita is - yasyaaH samucite api ahni pravaasii na eti vallabha | saa smaraan alasam taptaa virahotakaNThitaa mataa || Which heroine will be burning with bodily fire on a befitting day, to whose presence her lover does not come at such time, she is viraha = by separation, utkaNThita ecstasized.

Verse Locator

aavaaso vipinaayate priyasakhiimaalaapi jaalaayate
taapo.api shvasitena daavadahanajvaalaakalaapaayate |
saapi tvadviraheNa hanta hariNiiruupaayate haa katham
kandarpo.api yamaayate virachayanshaarduulavikriiDitam || 4-3

words separated - aavaasaH vipinaayate priya sakhii maala api jaalaayate taapH api shvasitena daava dahana jvaalaa kalaapaayate saa api tvat viraheNa hanta hariNii ruupaayate haa katham kandarpaH api yamaayate virachayan shaarduula vikriiDitam

4-3. hè, Krishna; aavaasaH= house; vipinaayate= became forest; priya+sakhii+maala= dear, friends, rows [flocks of]; api= even; jaalaayate= became net like restrainers; shvasitena= by sighing; taapH+ api= bodily heat, even; daavadahana= wildfire's; jvaalaa= tongues; kalaapaayate= became myriads [of tongues of fire]; saa+api= she even; hariNii+ruupaayate= she-deer, became such a deer; haa= hah; kandarpaH= one who gladdens people, Love-god; api= even he; virachayan= on scripting [all these scenes]; shaarduula= tiger; vi+kriiDitam= verily, sporting [hunting, on the prowl for hunt] yamaayate= became Death-god; hanta= alas; tvat+viraheNa= by your, lovesickness; katham= how; [jiivati= she lives.]

"hè, Krishna, her house became an empty forest, hence she came out, but a flock of her dear friends became a human-net to hold her in, presuming a possibility of some untoward action by her, but bringing them round she came to a real forest, and sitting there lonely she is sighing in her bodily heat, but that bodily heat became a wildfire, and her sighs became myriads of tongues of that wildfire, and whole of that forest is afire, then even she became like a she-deer caught in that wild fire, and when she wanted to flee, hah, that Love-god who scripted all these scenes, even he became a roaring, growling, prowling Death-godlike tiger... alas, languishing in lovesickness for you, how can she possibly live! [4-3]

Comment: What a deer can do when triangularly caught between wildfire, tiger and a hunter with a snare? So also, Raadha is unhappy, caught between wildfire like bodily heat, deathlike, tigerish Love-god, and human-netlike misapprehensive friends. The first foot details udvega avastha - ecstatic state - A trance induced by intense religious devotion; does not show reduced bodily functions that are typical of other trances. Other foots detail the vyaadi avastha - where vyaadhi is not necessarily a bedridden condition, but an uneasy predicament, as yoga says. Its condition is like this: abhiiSTa sangama abhaavaat vyaadiH santaapa lakshaNaH | atra santaapa nishshsvau shiita vastu niSevaNam | na uttaram bhaaSate prasne na iikshate ca shruNoti ca || roughly: because of the lack of desired object, a sort of uneasiness occurs; anguishing, sighing, devouring cool items, non-replying questions of dear ones, or even not looking at them eye to eye... are its states. This poet Jayadeva is an expert in using the name of the metre of his poem, as an item of portrayal in his versification. This verse is said in shaarduula vikriiDitam, which he incorporated in last foot. This is not for 'just punning' the verse, but to use those objects in that name of metre, as objects of poetic thought.

Verse Locator

aSTapadi 9 - sigdha madhusuudana rasaavalayam -
stanavinihitamapi haaramudaaram |
saa manute kR^ishatanuratibhaaram |
raadhikaa kR^iSNa raadhikaa | raadhikaa tava virahe keshava || 9-1 a pa

words separated - stana vinihitam api haaram udaaram saa manute kR^isha tanuH ati bhaaram raadhikaa-tava virahe keshava

aSTapadi - 9-1. hè, keshava= hè, Krishna; kR^isha+tanuH= frail, bodied; stana+ vinihitam = on bosom, arranged [adorning,] udaaram= invaluable [feather-light]; haaram+api= [pearl] string, even; manute= [she] feels; ati+bhaaram= much, weighing, weighty; saa+ raadhikaa = such as she is, Raadha; tava= in your/for you; vi+rahe= without, having [parted from you]; virahe [virahiNi]= pining for; reprise - raadhikaa kR^isha raadhika | raadhikaa virahe tava keshava.

"hè, Krishna, she with her frailly body feels even a feather-light pearly string adorning her bosom is weighty, and such as she is, she is pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-1]

Comment: The reprise as above is singers' delight and droppable in these word-to-word transcriptions.

sarasamasR^iNamapi malayajapa~Nkam |
pashyativiSamivavapuSisashaa~Nkam | raadhikaa-tava virahe keshava || 9-2 a pa

words separated - sa rasa masR^iNam api malayaja pa.nkam pashyati viSam iva vapuSi sa sha.nkam

a pa 9-2: api= even though; malaya+ja= Mt. Malaya, born; pa.nkam= cream [cosmetic cream obtained on rubbing sandalwood sticks on gritstone]; vapuSi= on body; sa+rasa= with, fluidity [soggy]; masR^iNam = satiny; pashyati= sees [looks down on]; viSam= venom; iva= as if; sa sha.nkam; raadhikaa ...virahe= as above.

"Even though the sandal-cream on her body is soggy, satiny, thus balsamic, she looks down on it as if it is a venom... thus, she is pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-2]

shvasitam pavanam anupam apariNaaham |
madanadahanamivavahatisadaaham | raadhikaa-tava virahe keshava || 9-3 a pa

words separated - shvasita pavanam anupama pariNaaham madana dahanam iva vahati sa daaham

a pa 9-3: an+upama= not, similar - uncommon, abnormal; pariNaaham= overlong [in duration]; shvasita+ pavanam= breathed, air [sighs]; madana+dahanam= Love-god's, flame; iva= as if; sa+ daaham= with, flames [flamelike]; vahati= bears [overburdened]; raadhikaa...virahe= as above.

"Her abnormally overlong flamelike sighs are overburdening her, as if they are the flames of Love-god... hence, she is pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-3]

dishidishikiratisajalakaNajaalam |
nayananalinamivavigalitanaalam | raadhikaa-tava virahe keshava || 9-4 a pa

words separated - dishi dishi kirati sa jala kaNa jaalam nayana nalinam iva vigalita naalam

a pa 9-4: sa+jala+kaNa+jaalam= with, water [tear,] drops, group of [sea of]; vigalita+naalam+iva= slipped down, tubular stem, like; nayana+nalinam= eyes [sight,] black-lotuses; dishi+dishi+kirati= direction, direction, make to fall [bestrews, cast about for]; raadhikaa...virahe= as above.

"She with her eyes that look like black-lotuses, slipped from their stems, are filled with a sea of teardrops, and she is casting about her sight for you, in every direction... that way, she is pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-4]

Comment: In this stanza a kind of manmatha avastha state in lovesickness called jaData stolidity is indicated. yatra dhyaati niHshankam jaDataa saa prakiirtitaa | atra sprsha anabhij~natve vaivarNam shithilaam gataa | akriiDa anga kR^iti stambhana shvaasa kR^ishataadayaH || roughly: just contemplating fearlessly; unknowing even if touched; colour change; withering of limbs; no pleasure strolling; body attaining stolidity; sighing; emaciation are its features.

nayanaviSayamapikisalayatalpam |
kalayativihitahutaashanavikalpam | raadhikaa - tava virahe keshava || 9-5 a pa

words separated - nayana viSayam api kisalaya talpam kalayati vihita hutaashana vikalpam>

a pa 9-5. nayana+viSayam+api= eyes, subject of, even [though eye-filling]; kisalaya+talpam= coppery tender leaves, a bed of; vihita+hutashana= made, flame [bed like]; vikalpam+kalayati= doubtfully, reckons; raadhikaa...virahe= as above.

"Though the subject of her eyes is an eye-filling bed of coppery tender leaves, she reckons it as a flamy bed... that way, she is pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-5]

Comment: The red-brown colour of coppery leaves taamratva, is a causative factor for anguish santaapatva, in separation.

tyajatinapaaNitalenakapolam |
baalashashinamivasaayamalolam | raadhikaa - tava virahe keshava || 9-6 a pa

words separated - tyajati na paaNi tale na kapolam baala shashinam iva saayam alolam

a pa 9-6. saa= she; saayam [kaalam] in evenings; baala= tender [7 (of age) early, youthful]; a+lolam= not, moving [motionless]; shashinam+iva= moon, akin to; kapolam= cheek; paaNi+talena= on palm's, surface ; na+tyajati= not, removes; [saa ca = she is also] a+lolam= not, moving [motionless]; raadhikaa ... virahe = as above.

"She neither removes her moonlike cheek, a cheek akin to youthful but motionless moon of evenings, placed on her palm, nor she is motional... and statically she is pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-6]

haririti haririti japati sakaamam |
virahavihitamaraNena nikaamam | raadhikaa - tava virahe keshava || 9-7 a pa

words separated - hariH iti hariH iti japati sa kaamam viraha vihita maraNena nikaamam

a pa 9-7. saa= she; viraha+vihita= by wistfulness, ordained; maraNena= death; [iva= as if]; sa+ kaamam = with, wish [wishful to tell last words]; nikaamam= always; hariH+iti+hariH+iti= Hari, thus, Hari, thus; japati= chanting, intoning; raadhikaa...virahe= as above.

"She is as if dying, a death ordained by her own wistfulness, and hence wishful to tell her dying words she is always intoning thus as, "Hari... Hari..." hence, she is dying pining for you, for she is parted from you... [a pa 9-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitamitigiitam |
sukhayatukeshavapadamupaniitam | raadhikaa - tava virahe keshava || 9-8 a pa

words separated - shrii jayadeva bhaNitam iti giitam sukhayatu keshava padam upa niitam

a pa 9-8. iti= this way; keshava+padam= to Krishna's, feet; upa+niitam= nearby, brought to [that draws nigh of those feet, or, dedicated to his feet]; jayadeva+bhaNitam= Jayadeva, said by; shrii+ giitam= auspicious, song; sukhayatu= comforts; [vayam= us, singers, listeners.]

"This way, this auspicious song said by Jayadeva, and dedicated at the feet of Krishna through me, the friend of Raadha, comfort all of us, its singers like me and Raadha, or its listeners like you... thus Raadha is pining for Krishna, parted from him... [a pa 9-8]

Verse Locator

dhyaayatyudbhramatipramiilatipatatyudyaatimuurcChatyapi |
svarvaidyapratimaprasiidasiyadityakto.anyathaanaantakaH || 4-5

words separated - saa romaacati siit karoti vilapati ut kmpate taamyati dhyaayati udbhramati pramiilati patati udyaati muurcChati api etaavati atanu jvare vara tanuH jiivet na kim te rasaat svar vaidya pratima prasiidasi yadi tyaktaH anyathaa na antakaH

4-5. saa= she is; romaacati= hair bristling [frisson, tingling sensations - romaancavatii iva aacarati - abhilaaSaaparatvam - awaiting his arrival with tingling sensations in her body]; siit karoti = noisily breathing [onomatopoeically respirinmg - cintaa smR^iti kaaraNena niH svanam 'he is not coming, what to do... huh, ah, oh etc.]; vilapati= extolling naayaka guNa gaNa kiirtana 'he alone is a great hero, he alone is beautiful...]; ut+kmpate= highly thrills katham iidR^ishii viraham taarayaami... 'how can I swim over this wistfulness...']; taamyati+ dhyaayati = taking pain, meditating [ by these two udvega avastha ecstasied state is suggested]; ud bhramati = whirling around [showing places of pleasure taking about them pralaapaana ]; pramiilati= eyelids are half-closed [state of love-madness madanonmaada avastha ]; patati= falls down [off her own feet - vihvalatvam ]; udyaati= getting up [ vyaadhi avastha - struggling to raise from a decumbent posture]; api= furthermore; muurcChati= swooning jaDatva, acetanatvaavastha ]. Then Krishna may ask "When she swooned and under a delirious situation , you may call a doctor, not definitely me..." Presuming this the milkmaid is continuing her thread; hè, svar= heavenly; vaidya= doctor; pratima= in similarity. [That is, you are the one similar to Ashwin brothers, not just twin gods of medicine, but they also possess most beautiful aspect. So, Krishna, you possess not only a beautiful physique like Ashwin Kumar-s but you are also the presiding deity to cure the mental illnesses - either that of Raadha, or that of Arjuna, at a later time... so you come.] etaavati= this much; a+tanu= without, body - bodiless Love-god; jvare= in fever [afflicted by that bodiless fellow]; [tvam= you] yadi= if; prasiidasi= oblige; vara+tanuH= beautiful, bodied [Raadha]; te+rasaat= by your, quintessence [of graceful love]; na+jiivet+kim= not, going to live, why [why doesn't she live, she will live by that grace of yours]; anyathaa= otherwise; [tvattaH= more than you]; na+antakaH= no, ender [no other eliminator is there, than you]; or, in other mms - tyaktaH + hastakaH = leaving off, moving hands etc., i.e., as of now she is doing all these bizarre things as her sensory organs have gone astray, and if you do not come now, her motor organs too will cease to function.] [Another mms - tvattaH anyathaa antakaH - na bhavet.]

vyaadhi para artha : saa+romaacati= she is, bristling as if with cold etc; siit karoti= sighing heavily; vilapati= insanely talking; ut kmpate= shivering; taamyati= drooping; dhyaayati = in delirium; udbhramati= swings up; pramiilati= shutting eyelids with rolling eyes; patati+udyaati= stumbles, gets up; muurcChati+ api= swoons, even; etaadR^ishii sannipaata jvare= etaavati atanu jvare= in this kind of morbid sickness; svar vaidya pratima prasiidasi yadi; te+rasaat= by your, rasa= paada rasa; ghuTika, vaTi = medicated mercury tablet; vara tanuH jiivet na kim; anyathaa= otherwise, if you don't give a tablet; tyaktaH hastakaaH = leaves of, motor functions.

"hè, Krishna, Raadha is now in a kind of morbid lovesickness. She frissons, sighs, raves, shivers, droops, swings up, goes into delirium with rolling eyes with half-shut eyelids. Next, she gets up, stumbles and swoons. For this kind of sickness, you alone are the godlike doctor. As such, if you come to give a potion of medicine, called your love-grace, she definitely survives. Otherwise, she has to breath her last...' [4-5]

Comment: It will be painful to the casually peripheral readers to read the gist, if all the trash of naayakii bhaava-s, lakshaNa diipikaa-s as in the first word-to-word section is repeated. Hence, only the list of words, minus their function, is re-rolled here.

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smaraaturaam daivatavaidyahR^idya
tvada~Ngasa~NgaamR^itamaatrasaadhyaam |
vimuktabaadhaam kurushhe na raadhaam
upendra vajraadapi daaruNo.asi || 4-6

words separated - smara aaturaam daivata vaidya hR^idya tvat anga sanga amR^ita maatra saadhyaam vimukta baadhaam kuruSe na raadhaam upendra vajraat api daaruNaH asi

4-6. daivata+vaidya= gods', doctor [Ashwin Kumar like]; hR^idya= heart-pleasing one [heartthrob, swain, hè, Krishna]; upendra= oh, Upendra, Vishnu's another name; smara= Manmatha, Love-god; aaturaam= for the agonised one, Raadha; tvat= your; anga= body; sanga= touch; amR^ita+maatra= ambrosia, just by it; saadhyaam= possible [to relieve her sickness]; raadhaam= Raadha be; vimukta= relieved; baadhaam= from agony; na kuruSe [yadi]= not, going to do, [if]; vajraat+api+daaruNaH= than thunderbolt, even, horrible; [tvam= you] asi = you, are.

"Oh, heart-pleasing one like Ashwin Kumar-s, the doctors of gods, if you are not going to possibly relieve Raadha from the agony caused by Love-god, just by the ambrosial touch of your body, oh, Upendra, you will be a more horrible being than Indra's Thunderbolt, mark you... [4-6]

Comment: Unseen Indra hurls his Thunderbolt from a distant place and it pains the target, only when it meets its target. Nevertheless, this fellow is here before her eyes, and he has not hurled any bolt or dart at Raadha, but hurt her with his charm. Hence, he alone should ease it; otherwise, he will be more horrible and ungodly in his demeanour.

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chetashchandanachandramaHkamaliniichintaasu sa.ntaamyati |
kintu klaantivashena shiitalataram tvaamekameva kshaNam
dhyaayantii rahasi sthitaa kathamapi kshiiNaa kshaNam praaNiti || 4-7

words separated - kandarpa jvara sa.njvara aakula tanoH aashcharyam asyaaH chiram chetaH chandana chandramaH kamalinii chintaasu santaamyati kintu klaanti vashena shiitala taram tvaam ekam eva priyam dhyaayantii rahasi sthitaa katham api kshiiNaa kshaNam praaNiti

4-7. asyaaH= hers, Raadha's; tanoH= body; kandarpa+jvara= Love, sickness; sa.njvara= by anguish; aakula= flurried; chetaH= heart; chandana= sandal-paste; chandramaH= moon; kamalinii= clusters of lotuses; chintaasu= in thinking [wanting them]; chiram= for a long; santaamyati= facing difficulties [flustered]; aashcharyam [kim]= surprising [or, what, unsurprising]; kintu= but; klaanti+vashena= enervation, controlled by; rahasi= in lonely place; sthitaa= staying; priyam+tvaam= dearer, you; ekam +eva= one, only; shiitala+taram= cooling agent [invigorative,] higher in degree [best]; dhyaayantii = contemplating; kshiiNaa+api= emaciated, though; katham+api= how, even [somehow]; kshaNam+ praaNiti= for a moment, bears lives.

"What surprise can be there if lovesickness flurries Raadha's body and flusters her heart to cherish cooling agents like sandal-paste, moon and his shine, clusters of lotuses and the like? However, it is surprising that though she is enervated and emaciated, she is contemplating on you, on you alone, staying in a lonely place, asserting that you alone are the supreme cooling agent than others, and somehow she is bearing up her lives for a moment... [4-7]

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kshaNamapi virahaH puraa na sehe
nayananimiilanakhinnayaa yayaa te |
shvasiti kathamasau rasaalashaakhaam
chiraviraheNa vilokya puSpitaagraam || 4-8

words separated - kshaNam api virahaH puraa na sehe nayana nimiilana khinnayaa yayaa te shvasiti katham asau rasaala shaakhaam chira viraheNa vilokya puSpita agraam

4-8. puraa= earlier [when you were with her]; te+virahaH= your, evanesce [fade from sight]; nayana= eyes; nimiilana= for blinking; khinnayaa= saddening; tayaa= by her; kshaNam + api= for a moment, even; na+sehe= not, tolerant; asau= such as she was; chira+ viraheNa= long time, by separation/ heartstrings; puSpita+agraam+rasaala+ shaakhaam = flowered, [tree ] top, mango, branches [flowered branches at mango tree tops, say spring, Vasanta season]; vilokya= on observing; katham= how; shvasiti= breathes [her life.]

"Earlier when you were with her she was saddening even to have a blink on her eyes, intolerant of a momentary evanesce of your form from her sight, even for a moment, such as she was, now how can she observe this spring season with flowered branches on mango treetops, and possibly breathe her lives... [4-8]

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bibhradvallavavallabhaabhiradhikaanandaaccira.mcumbitaH |
baahurgopatanostanotubhavataa.mshreyaa.msika.msadviSaH || 4-9

words separated - vR^iSTi vyaakula gokula avana rasaat uddhR^itya govardhanam bibhrat vallava vallabhaabhiH adhika aanandaat cira.m cumbitaH darpeNa eva tat arpita adhara taTii sinduura mudra ankitaH baahuH gopa tanoH tanotu bhavataam shreyaansi ka.msa dviSaH

4-9. vR^iSTi= by thunderstorms; vyaakula= put to chaos; gokula= stock of cowherds; avana= to protect; rasaat= interestedness; uddhR^itya= uplifted; govardhanam= Mt. Govardhana; bibhrat= [the hand] that upheld [that mountain]; vallava= cowherds'; vallabhaabhiH= milkmaids; adhika= highly; aanandaat= from gladness; ciram+cumbitaH= ever, kissed; darpeNa+eva= pridefully, only; tat= by them [milkmaids]; arpita= dedicated; adhara+taTii= lips, lips of [outer-lips]; sinduura= vermilion [lipstick colour]; mudra+ankitaH= with marks, imprinted; gopa [baalaka]+tanoH= in cowboy's, body; kamsa+dviSaH= King Kamsa's, despiser's; baahuH= arm [palm]; bhavataam= to you; shreyaa.nsi= prosperities; tanotu= let accord.

"Which hand has uplifted and upheld Mt. Govardhana as an asylum, in the interest of protecting the stock of cowherds when they were put to chaos of Indra's thunderstorms... thereby, which hand will ever be kissed by the pridefully gladdened milkmaids, who dedicatedly imprint the vermilion marks of their outer-lips, let that Divine palm of that despiser of evil-willed Kamsa, which by chance is now with the body of a cowboy, accord prosperities to you all... [4-9]

Comment: This concluding benedictory verse is unavailable in northern versions. It is hoped that Krishna's lifting a mammoth mountain need not be reiterated here, as that is a well known incident.

iti giitagovinde snigdhamadhusuudano naama chaturthaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 4th chapter, called Suavely Krishna in giita govindam of Jayadeva.

saakaanksha punDariikaaksham

Chapter [Sarga] 5 - Passionate Krishna


Raadha's friend comes back to Raadha and narrates how Krishna is lovelorn as Raadha left abruptly. The poet dwells on 'anguish in separation' vipralambha shR^ingaara from the first chapter to tenth, and in eleventh and twelth he unifies the hero and heroine of the song. That mood of anguishful separation will be heightened from now on.

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ahamiha nivasaami yaahi raadhaam
anunaya madvachanena chaanayethaaH |
iti madhuripuNaa sakhii niyuk.htaa
svayamidametya punarjagaada raadhaam || 5-1

words separated - aham iha nivasaami yaahi raadhaam anunaya mat vachanena aanayethaaH iti madhu ripuNaa sakhii niyuk.htaa svayam idam etya punaH jagaada raadhaam || 5-1

5-1. aham+iha+nivasaami= I will, here, remain; yaahi= you go; raadhaam+anunaya= Raadha, convince; mat+vachanena= my, by word [as I told to come here]; aanayethaaH= fetch [her]; iti= that way; madhu+ripuNaa= by Madhu, the demon's, enemy [Krishna]; sakhii + niyukhtaa = friend, assigned; svayam= in person; punaH+etya= again, having come back [to Raadha]; idam+jagaada+raadhaam= this, said, to Raadha.

When Krishna said to the girlfriend of Raadha this way, "I'll remain only at this bower, you go and convince Raadha, and tell her that I want her to come here..." then assigned by Krishna thus, she came back to Raadha and said this in person. [5-1]

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aSTapadi 10 - harisamudayagaruDapadam -
vahati malayasamiire madanamupanidhaaya |
sphuTati kusumanikare virahihR^idayadalanaaya |
tava virahe vanamaalii sakhi siidati raadhe || 10-1 a pa

words separated - vahati malaya samiire madanam upa nidhaaya sphuTati kusuma nikare virahi
hR^idaya dalanaaya tava virahe vanamaalii sakhi siidati raadhe

aSTapadi 10-1. sakhi+raadhe= oh, friend - dear, Raadha; malaya+samiire= in sandal, breeze; madanam= Love-god; upa+nidhaaya= nearby, keeping [keeping close to]; vahati [sati]= breezing [so to say]; kusuma+nikare= in flowers, bunches of; virahi+hR^idaya+ dalanaaya = estranged [people's,] hearts, ripping apart; sphuTati [sati]= unfolding [so to say] ; tava + virahe = for you, in pain of separation - lorn in your love; vanamaalii= one who wears leafy garland, Krishna; siidati= sinking down - listlessly longing for you; reprise: tava virahe vanamaalii sakhi siidati raadhe.

"hè, dear Raadha, keeping Love-god close to it the sandal-breeze is breezing there, and it is unfolding bunches of flowers, as though to rip the hearts of estranged lovers, and there alone that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-1 a pa]

dahati shishiramayuukhe maraNamanukaroti |
patati madanavishikhe vilapati vikalataro.ati || 10-2 a pa

words separated - dahati shishira mayuukhe maraNam anu karoti patati madana vishikhe vilapati vikala taraH ati

a pa 10-2. shishira+mayuukhe= with coolant, moonbeams [by moon]; dahati+ [sati]= burning [while] ; maraNam+anu karoti= death, tagging along; madana+vishikhe= Love-god's, sharp arrows; patati [sati]= falling [while]; vikala+taraH= frantic, higher in degree - highly frantic; ati+vilapati= greatly, rueful; reprise.

"While the moon is burning him with his coolant moonbeams, he is tagging along the death-line, and while the sharp arrows of Love-god are falling on him, he is highly frantic and greatly rueful... thus, that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-2 a pa]

dhvanati madhupasamuuhe shravaNamapidadaati |
manasi valitavirahe nishi nishi rujamupayati || 10-3 a pa

words separated - dhvanati madhupa samuuhe shravaNam apidadhaati manasi valita virahe nishi nishi rujam upayati

a pa 10-3. madhupa+samuuhe= honeybees, swarms of; dhvanati [sati]= buzzes [while]; shravaNam = hearing [ears]; apidadhaati= keep lids [lids ears with palms]; manasi= in heart [come to mind]; valita, [kalita]= annoyance; virahe [sati]= parting [while in]; nishi+nishi= night, by night; rujam= pangs; upayaati= getting, [undergoing.]

"While swarms of honeybees start to buzz he lids his ears with palms, and while the annoyance of your parting comes to mind, night after night, he undergoes pangs of love... thus, that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-3 a pa]

vasati vipinavitaane tyajati lalitadhaama
luThati dharaNishayane bahu vilapati tava naama || 10-4 a pa

words separated - vasati vipina vitaane tyajati lalita dhaama luThati dharaNi shayane bahu vilapati tava naama

a pa 10-4. [saH= he]; vasati= lingering; vipina+vitaane= woods, thicket of; tyajati= leaves off; lalita + dhaama= heat-pleasing, house; luThati= writhes; dharaNi+shayane= earth [sward,] on bed; bahu= in many [kinds]; vilapati= utters [descants]; tava+naama= your, name.

"Leaving off his heart-pleasing house he lingers in the thickets of woods, and writhing on the beds of swards, he descants on your name, many a time... thus, that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-4 a pa]

raNati pikasamavaaye pratidishamanuyaati |
hasati manujanicaye virahamapalapati neti || 10-5 a pa

words separated- raNati pika samavaaye prati disham anuyaati hasati manuja nicaye viraham apalapati na iti

a pa 10-5. pika+samavaaye= Kokila-s, flocks of; raNati [sati]= re-echoing [while]; prati+disham= to each direction; anuyaati= goes ahead [rushes]; manuja+nicaye= people, by lots; hasati [sati]= laughing at [while]; na= nothing; iti+viraham+apalapati= thus, pangs of love, conceals.

"While flocks of Kokila-s are re-echoing their singings, he rushes to each and every direction unable to listen those love-songs, and while lots of people laugh at him, for his mad-rush in love, he conceals his pangs of love saying thus as, 'nothing... nothing...' thus, that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-5 a pa]

sphurati kalaravaraave smarti maNitameva |
tavaratisukhavibhave gaNayati suguNamatiiva || 10-6 a pa

words separated - sphurati kalarava raave smarti maNitam eva tava rati sukha vibhave gaNayati suguNam atiiva

a pa 10-6. kalarava+raave= pigeons, cooing; sphurati [sati]= coming to mind [while]; smarti= reminisces; maNitam+eva= love-murmurs, only; tava+rati+sukha= your, hymeneal, comfort; vibhave= in sublimity; gaNayati+suguNam+atiiva= reckons, excellent, highly.

"While the cooing of pigeons comes to his mind, he reminisces them only as love-murmurs, and he reckons the sublimity of hymeneal comfort with you, as highly excellent... thus, that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-6 a pa]

tvadabhidashubhamaasam vadati nari shR^iNoti |
tamapijapatisarasam yuvatiSu naratimupaiti || 10-7 a pa

words separated - tvat abhida shubha maasam vadati nari shR^iNoti tam api japati sarasam yuvatiSu na ratim upaiti

a pa 10-7. tvat= your; abhida= name having; shubha+maasam= auspicious, month; nari+vadati [sati]= people, speak of [while]; shR^iNoti= hearing; tam+api= that, even; sa+rasam+japati= with, aesthetic pleasure, reminisces; yuvatiSu+ratim= in [other] girls, interestedness; na+upaiti= not, getting.

"While people speak of the name of a month, similar to your name, he listens to it, and even reminisces that name with aesthetic pleasure, as he is now disinterested in other girls... thus, that Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-7 a pa]

Comment: The month named after Raadha is Vishaakha, vaishaakhe maadhavo raadhaH 'Vishaakha is the name of Maadhava, or of Raadha [apart from that of a month...]'

bhaNati kavijayadeve virahivilasitena |
manasi rabhasavibhave harirudayatu sukR^itena || 10-8 a pa

words separated bhaNati kavi jayadeve virahi vilasitena manasi rabhasa vibhave hariH udayatu sukR^itena

a pa 10-8. kavi+jayadeve= poet, Jayadeva; virahi+vilasitena= passional frolics [of Krishna]; bhaNati [sati]= tells [while]; sukR^itena= by the merit [people]; rabhasa= enthusiasm [in devotion to Krishna]; vibhave= in that felicity; manasi+hariH+udayatu= in hearts, Krishna, let dawn.

While poet Jayadeva tells about the passional frolics of Krishna, let Krishna dawn in the hearts of merited people, by their own merit... [a pa 10-8]

Comment: The stanzas at 5, 6, and 7 do not appear in Mumbai, or in northern editions. As they are without eight sub-songs, this whole song is said to be an interpolation, to which southern versions further interpolate three sub-songs, as above.

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puurvam yatra samam tvayaa ratipateraasaaditaH siddhayaH
tasminneva niku~Njamanmathamahaatiirthe punarmaadhavaH |
dhyaaya.nstvaamanisham japannapi tavaivaalaapama.ntraavaliim
bhuuyastvatkuchaku.mbhanirbharapariira.mbhaamR^itam vaa.nchhati || 5-3

words separated - puurvam yatra samam tvayaa ratipateH aasaaditaH siddhayaH tasmin eva niku~Nja manmatha mahaa tiirthe punaH maadhavaH dhyaayan tvaam anisham japan api tava eva alaapa ma.ntraavaliim bhuuyaH tvat kucha ku.mbha nirbhara pariira.mbha amR^itam vaa.ncChati || 5-3

5-3. puurvam= earlier; yatra= where; samam [krishnena]+tvayaa= along with Krishna, by you; ratipateH= by Love-god; aasaaditaH+siddhayaH= reacquired, achievements; tasmin+eva= in there [bower, alone; niku~Nja= bower; manmatha+mahaa+tiirthe= Love-god, sacred, riverine [bower]; maadhavaH= Krishna; punaH= again; tvaam= about you; anisham= ceaselessly; dhyaayan= meditating ; tava + eva= your, only; alaapa= chatting; mantra+ aavaliim = chants, strings of; japan + api= chanting, even; bhuuyaH= again; tvat + kucha+ ku.mbha= your, bosoms, called pots; nirbhara+ pari ra.mbha = tight, embrace; amR^itam = called ambrosia, moksha; vaa.ncChati= he is desiring.

"Earlier, where you were with Krishna in a riverine bower on Yamuna River, where Love-god reacquired all his achievements through your conjugation, now Krishna is in that bower only, ceaselessly meditating only upon you, by making your words of chat as his strings of chants, and again desirous of moksha by a tight embrace of your pot-like ambrosial bosoms...

Comment: Whoever wants a final release meditates on far away place, preferably on a riverbank and in a bower, preferring solitude in ascesis. This is as said in manjuuSa: gR^ihe goSTana aaraama nadii naga sura aalaye | anugrahaat guroH siddiH shiighram syaat uttarottam 'in a solitary place, cowshed, forest, gardens, on riverbanks, seashore, in temples if hymns are chanted, one can attain his moksha, with the blessings of his teacher...' Here, Krishna is compared with a meditator, Raadha his goddess, her various chitchatting as hymns to her, and the finality of his meditation culminates in an embrace, which itself is moksha through supreme love.

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aSTapadi 11 -saakaa.nksha pu.nDariikotkadhaa madhuram -
ratisukhasaare gatamabhisaare madanamanoharavesham |
na kuru nitambini gamanavila.mbanamanusara tam hR^idayesham |
gopii piinapayodharamardanaca.ncalakarayugashaalii |
dhiira samiire yamunaa tiire vasati vane vanamaalii - dhR^ivam || 11-1 a pa

words separated - rati sukha saare gatam abhisaare madana manohara vesham na kuru nitambini gamana vila.mbanam anusara tam hR^idaya iisham gopii piina payodhara mardana ca.ncala kara yuga shaalii dhiira samiire yamunaa tiire vasati vane vanamaalii

a pa 11-1. hè+nitambini= oh, high-hipped one, Raadha; rati+sukha+saare= [a place which has] connubial, blissful, quintessentially; abhisaare+gatam= in preset place, gone [available]; madana+ manohara+vesham= arousable, lovely [here, not like Love-god's getup, as he is formless to wear any getup; even if it is so, it is an inferior getup than that of Krishna ] heart-stealing, with mien [not getup, again]; na+kuru= don't, do; gamana+ vilambanam = in going, delay; anusara+tam+hR^idaya+iisham= follow, him, [your] heart's, lord; gopii= milk maids; piina+payodhara= bosomy, busts [hence the milkmaids are too cocky, with vanity]; mardana= [lexically] in massaging [or, manipulate, to engineer of, to artifice] ; ca.ncala= moving [active, or, have a sleight of hand]; kara+yuga+shaalii= hands, a couple of, having; dhiira+ samiire= in gentle, wind [breezy]; yamunaa + tiire= on Yamuna, riverbank; vasati+ vane= located in [lingering in,] garden; vanamaalii = one who wears leafy garland, Krishna.

"Oh, high-hipped Raadha, he is available in that preset place, a quintessentially blissful place for connubial bliss, with his lovely and heart-stealing mien, hence follow the lord of your heart, who alone has a couple of hands that have a selight of hand to engineer the busty bosoms of milkmaids of their vanity... don't linger to go... for Krishna is lingering in that breezy garden on that riverbank of Yamuna... [a pa 11-1]

naamasametamkR^itasa.nketamvaadayatemR^iduveNum |
bahumanutenanutetanusa.ngatapavanachalitamapireNum || 11-2 a pa

words separated - naama sametam kR^ita sa.nketam vaadayate mR^idu veNum bahu manute nanu te tanu sa.ngata pavana chalitam api reNum

a pa 11-2. hè+Raadhe; te+naama+sametam= your, name, coupled with [while fluting he uses your names as lyrics, and that flute sings 'ha, Raadha, 'o, beauty, o, goddess of love etc]; kR^ita+ sa.nketam = made, indication [he made an indication to bring to that preset bower where he will be fluting; or, kR^ita + sa.nketam+vaadayate+mR^idu+veNum= to make, indication, he plays, softly; [he indicates his place of tarrying with his soft fluting]; nanu= definitely; te+tanu+sa.ngata= to your, body, attached; pavana+ chalitam +api+reNum= by air, moved, even, particle [of pollen etc]; bahu+manute [aalingane]= highly, dotes on, [to embrace.]

"O, Raadha, he uses your lyrical names in his fluting, he indicates himself with such a soft fluting, he dotes on to embrace any particle of pollen on your body, when wafted by air to his near, then why harping about your embrace... [a pa 11-2]

patatipatatrevichalatipatreshankitabhavadupayaanam |
rachayatishayanamsachakitanayanampashyatitavapanthaanam || 11-3 a pa

words separated - patati patatre vichalati patre shanita bhavat upa yaanam rachayati shayanam sa chakita nayanam pashyati tava pa.nthaanam

a pa 11-3. patatre= wing [of bird]; patati= while falling, flapping; patre+vichalati= leaves, while rustling; shankita= in suspense; bhavat+upa+yaanam= your, nearby, arrival; rachayati+shayanam= makes, [leafy] bed; sa+chakita+nayanam= with, flustered, eyes; pashyati+tava+pa.nthaanam= looks about, your, path [of arrival.]

"When wings of birds flap, or when leaves of trees rustle, he prepares a leafy bed suspenseful of your drawing nigh, and with flustered eyes he looks about your path of arrival... [a pa 11-3]

mukharamadhiiram tyaja manjiiram ripumiva keliSulolam |
chala sakhi kunjam satimirapu.njam shiilaya niilanicholam || 11-4 a pa

words separated - mukharam adhiiram tyaja manjiiram ripum iva keliSu lolam chala sakhi kunjam sa timira pu.njam shiilaya niila nicholam

a pa 11-4. hè sakhii= o, friend; keliSu= in disports [of courtship]; lolam= moving [bumping; adhiiram + mukharam= highly, jangling - dissonant; manjiiram= solid anklets; ripum+iva= enemy, like; tyaja= discard; sa+timira+pu.njam+kunjam= with, darkness, shades, to bower; chala= start; niila+ nicholam + shiilaya= black, shawl, wear.

"O, Raadha, discard your solid silver anklets like your enemy, as they will be highly dissonant when they are bumping in disports of courtship, but wear a blackish shawl, and start towards that darkly shady bower... [a pa 11-4]

urasimuraarerupahitahaareghanaivataralabalaake |
taTidivapiiterativipariiteraajasisukR^itavipaake || 11-5 a pa

words separated - urasi muraareH upahita haare ghana iva tarala balaake taTit iva piite rati vipariite raajasi sukR^ita vipaake

a pa 11-5. hè+piite= o, yellowy girl; [tvam= you]; sukR^ita+vipaake= on [your] merit, fructifying; rati+vipariite= love's foreplay; upahita+haare= having, pearly pendants; tarala+balaake= flittering, cranes; ghana+iva= cloud, like [cloudy, unclear, un-understandable Krishna, cf. prajnaanam ghana eva; sthite = existing]; muraareH+urasi= Krishna's, on chest; taTit+iva+ raajasi= streak of lightning, alike, you will beam forth.

"O, yellowy-golden Raadha, when you will be in foreplay with him, then your pearly pendants will be dangling on the cloudlike chest of Krishna, like flittering flights of cranes on a cloud, then you will beam forth like a streak of lightning on that cloudy Krishna, if only your merit fructifies... [a pa 11-5]

Comment: Here Raadha is said to be goldenly yellow indicating the initially yellowish lightings piitaa varSaaya vij~neyaa on an all-giving cloudlike Krishna. Though other comparison in similes, - 'cloud-Krishna's chest, pearl strings-cranes rows, golden Raadha- golden lightning' are agreeable some hold objection in their placement. The lightning will be above clouds, and cranes will be below clouds. Here Krishna is below, over whom pendants are dangling, above which Raadha is beaming forth like lightning. Even then it is replied that the cranes are above the lowered cloud, called Krishna, who is lowering himself for a devotee, then Raadha is shining forth above those two obects - upraised is her personality. It is then abhuuta upama, as Poet Dandi said: sarva padma prabhaa saaraH samaahR^ita iva kvacit | tava aananam vibhaati it taam abhuuta upamaam viduH 'o, beauty, you face is shining forth as though it has the collection of all the resplendence of all lotuses...'

Or, this can be explained as, tarala - cancala - flirtatious; balaake= coquettish girl; as said in shaashvata nighaNtu 'an everlasting lexicon' balaakaa baka panktantau syaat balaakaa bisa kaNThikaa, balaakaa kaamukii proktaa balaakaa ravako mataH meaning 'oh, Raadha, you can outdo Krishna, who is an embodiment of millions and millions of Love-gods, if only you can youself place yourself on his chest, then only your merit fructifies...'

vigalitavasanam parihR^itarasanam ghaTaya jaghanamapidhaanam |
kisalayashayane paN^kajanayane nidhimiva harSanidaanam || 11-6 a pa

words separated - vigalita vasanam parihR^ita rasanam ghaTaya jaghanam apidhaanam kisalaya shayane pankaja nayane nidhim iva harSa nidaanam

a pa 11-6. hè+pankaja+nayane= o, lotus-petal, eyed one; vigalita+vasanam= slither down, clothing parihR^ita+rasanam [rashanaanam]= stolen [snaked,] waist-strings; [on their own, not divested herself ]; [vinaa= without]; apidhaanam+jaghanam= covering, on hips; harSa+nidaanam= for bliss, primary source; nidhim+iva= treasure trove, like; kisalaya+shayane= on tender leaves, bed of; ghaTaya= treasure up.

"O, lotus-petal-eyed Raadha, if you eye him, who is an aggregate of all kinds of love, your clothing slithers down, waist-string sneaks out, your hips will be shorn of any covering on their own, then why don't you treasure up your body, the primary source of bliss, on a bed of tender leaves, like a treasure trove... [a pa 11-6]

Comment: Here a repeat of idea said at a pa 6-2, in Ch. 2 is there. The dress and peripherals peel off on their own in ecstasy, may it be in love or madness.

harirabhimaaniirajaniridaaniimiyamapiyaativiraamam |
kurumamavachanamsatvararachanampuurayamadhuripukaamam || 11-7 a pa

words separated - hariH abhimaanii rajaniH idaaniim iyam api yaati viraamam kuru mama vachanam sa tvara rachanam puuraya madhu ripu kaamam

a pa 11-7. hariH+abhimaanii= Krishna, self-respecting boy [lest, he may depart concluding that you disgraced him]; idaaniim= now; iyam+rajaniH+api= this, night, even; yaati+viraamam= slips by, to its cessation; sa+tvara= with, haste; rachanam= artful [words of mine]; kuru+mama+vachanam= make happen, my, words; madhu+ripu= demon Madhu's, enemy - Krishna's; kaamam+puuraya= desire, fulfil.

"On one hand Krishna is a self-respectful one and on the other now this night is slipping by to it cessation, make happen my words that are artful in hastening you, thus let Krishna's be fulfilled... there Krishna is listlessly longing for you, lorn in your love... [10-7 a pa]

shriijayadeve kR^itahariseve bhaNati paramaramaNiiyam |
pramuditahR^idayam harimatisadayam namata sukR^itakamaniiyam || 11-8 a pa

words separated - shrii jayadeve kR^ita hari seve bhaNati parama ramaNiiyam pramudita hR^idayam harim ati sadayam namata sukR^ita kamaniiyam

a pa 11-8. kR^ita= on making; shrii+hari= Shri Krishna's; seve= service [on worshipping]; jayadeve= by Jayadeva; parama+ramaNiiyam= highly, pleasant; bhaNati= is being said; ati+sadayam= highly, graceful one; sukR^ita+kamaniiyam= by merit, desirable one; harim= at Krishna; pramudita+ hR^idayam [yathaa tathaa]= gladdening, [his] heart [as it were]; namata= bow down before [adore.]

On worshipping Shri Krishna, Jayadeva is saying this highly pleasant poem on that highly graceful one, and one desirable by our merit, and thus oh, devotees, adore Krishna, only to gladden his heart... [a pa 11-8]

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vikirati muhuH shvaasaandishaaH puro muhuriikshate
pravishati muhuH ku.nja.mgu.njanmuhurbahu taamyati |
rachayati muhuH shayyaa.mparyaakulaMmuhuriikshate
madanakadanaklaantaH kaante priyastava var.htate || 5-5

words separated - vikirati muhuH shvaasaan dishaaH puraH muhuH iikshate pravishati muhuH ku.njam gu.njan muhuH bahu taamyati rachayati muhuH shayyaam paryaakulam muhuH iikshate madana kadana klaantaH kaante priyaH tava vartate

5-5. hè+kaante= o, desirable one, Raadha; tava+priya= your, lover; vikirati+shvaasaan + muhuH= strews, sighs, oftentimes; puraH+dishaaH+iikshate+muhuH= in his fore, directions, look about, often; muhuH + pravishati+gu.njan+ku.njam= often, enters, buzzing, bowers; muhuH+bahu+ taamyati= often, highly, scorching [in love]; muhuH+rachayati+ shayyaam= often, makes, bed; muhuH+ paryaakulam+ iikshate= often, bewilderedly, looks over; tava+priyaH+vartate= your, lover, deports himself; madana+ kadana + klaantaH= love's, in war, worsted.

"O, Raadha, your lover bestrews his sighs oftentimes as you are unapparent, he often looks about frontally in all directions for your reappearance unceasingly, and often enters buzzing bowers presuming that you are hidden in them unobservedly, often highly scorched by love-heat, he often prepares leafy love-beds unprofitably, and he often looks over all the directions unforgettably, thus your lover now deports himself, worsted in the war of love... [5-5]

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tvadvaamyena sama.msamagramadhunaa tigmaa.nshurasta.mgato
govindasya manorathena cha sama.mpraapta.mtamaH saandrataam |
kokaanaa.mkaruNasvanena sadR^ishii diirghaa madabhyarthanaa
tanmugdhe viphala.mvilambanamasau ramyo.abhisaarakshaNaH || 5-6

words separated - tvat vaamyena samam samagram adhunaa tigmaa.nshuH astam gataH govindasya manorathena cha samam praaptam tamaH saandrataam kokaanaam karuNa svanena sadR^ishii diirghaa mat abhyarthanaa tat mugdhe viphalam vilambanam asau ramyaH abhisaara kshaNaH

5-6. mugdhe= you, missy Raadha; tvat+vaamyena= your, awry, misgivings; [or, in other mms: tvat baapSpena= with your tears - as you are tearless ; tvat vaakyena= with your speech - as you are speechless]; samam= matching to; samagram= completely; adhunaa = now; tigma+anshuH= one with scorching, sunrays - sun; astam+gataH= in to dusk, went; govindasya + manorathena +cha= Govinda-s, with passion, also; samam= matching; praaptam + tamaH+saandrataam= gaining, to darkness, density; diirghaa+mat+abhyarthanaa= prolonged, my, entreaty; kokaanaam+karuNa+ svanena = Cakravaka birds', pathetic, callings ; sadR^ishii [aabhuut]= matching [became]; tat= thereby; viphalam= wasteful; vilambanam= delaying; asau+abhisaara+kshaNaH= this, going to preset place, moment; ramyaH= will be delightful, enjoyable.

"You missy Raadha, matching to your fading misgivings the scorching sun is now dusking, matching to the densely passion of Krishna the darkness is gaining density, matching to the pathetic callings of Cakravaka-s, the lovebirds, my entreaties are prolonged... thereby wasteful is this delaying, and enjoyable is this moment in going to the preset place of love... [5-6]

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saa maam drakshyati vakshyati smarakathaam pratya~Ngamaali.nganaiH
priitim yaasyati ra.msyate sakhi samaagatyeti chi.ntaakulaH |
sa tvaam pashyati vepate pulakayatyaana.ndati svedyati
pratyudgacChati muur.hcChati sthiratamaHpu.nje niku.nje sthitaH || 5-7

words separated - saa maam drakshyati vakshyati smara kathaam pratya~Ngam aali.nganaiH priitim yaasyati ra.msyate sakhi samaagatya iti chi.ntaakulaH sa tvaam pashyati vepate pulakayati aana.ndati svedyati pratyudgacChati muur.hcChati sthira tamaH pu.nje niku.nje sthitaH

5-7. hè+sakhi= o, friend; saH= he; sthitaH= while staying; sthira+tamaH+pu.nje+ nikunje = thick, dark, shaded, in bower; saa+samaagatya= she, on coming closely; maam+ drakshyati= me, she sees; vakshyati+smara+kathaam= says, love [pangs',] stories; prati+ a~Ngam+aali.nganaiH= each, limb, when hugged; priitim+yaasyati= delight, she goes into; ra.msyate= disports; iti [cintayan]= this way, [while thinking]; chi.nta+aakulaH= anxiously, agitated; tvaam= at you; pashyati= sees, awaits vepate= shudders; pulakayati= thrills; svedyati= sweats; aana.ndati= gladdens; pratyudgacChati= goes forward; muurcChati= nonplussed.

"O, friend, he staying in a bower filled with thick dark shades thinks, 'she draws nigh of me, sees me, tells stories of her love-pangs, hugging every limb of mine she goes into delight, thus she disports with me...' and this way he is anxiously agitated, hence he shudders for his aloneness, but thrills for your expected arrival, again sweats for it is darkening, but gladdens to go forward to welcome you, again he becomes nonplussed for your absence... [5-7]

Comment: This verse will be placed as 2nd verse in 11 chapter of this work in other mms. Even then the meaning would be the same, but this characterisation then belongs to Raadha.

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aashleShaadanu chu.mbanaadanu nakhollekhaadanu svaantaja
prodbodhaadanu sa.mbhramaadanu rataara.mbhaadanu priitayoH |
anyaarthamgatayorbhramaanmilitayoH sambhaaSaNairjaanato
rdampatyoriha ko na ko na tamasi vriiDaavimishro rasaH || 5-8

words separated - aashleShaat anu chu.mbanaat anu nakha ullekhaat anu svaanta ja pra udbodhaat anu sa.mbhramaat anu rataara.mbhaat anu priitayoH anya artham gatayoH bhramaat militayoH sambhaaSaNaiH jaanatoH dampatyoH iha ko na ko na tamasi vriiDaa vimishraH rasaH

5-8. aashleShaat= [firstly] by hugging; anu= next; chu.mbanaat= from kissing; anu= next; nakha+ ullekhaat= with nail, writing [scratches] anu= next; svaanta+ja= with mind, born [desires]; pra+ udbodhaat = clearly, instructed [highly excited]; anu= next; sam bhramaat= with excitement; anu= next; rataara.mbhaat= with foreplay; anu+priitayoH= step by step, [transport into[ blissfulness; anyaa+ artham = for other, [love mates] aiming at; gatayoH= those [lovers] who have gone; bhramaat = on meandering [in those and those bowers]; militayoH= meeting [again]; sambhaaSaNaiH= by conversations [in which man talks about another woman, and woman talks about another man]; jaanatoH= on knowing [that, is this my wife - is this my husband]; dampatyoH= by couples; vriiDaa+ vi+mishraH= with shame, well, mixed; rasaH= aesthetic pleasure; iha= here; tamasi= in such dark nights; kaH+na= what is, null; kaH+na= what is, void [in the negative - everything is enjoyment in aesthetic pleasure.]

"In these dark nights libertine couples start meandering in still darker bowers for their cherished lovers, but unwittingly one meets one's own wife/husband, and then their escapade firstly starts with hugging, next with kissing, next with nail scratching, next highly excited by excitement and desire they enter into foreplay, and then step by step they culminate it into their conjugal bliss... after that when they converse, he comes to know that she is his wife, and she comes to know likewise... and caught unawares, they mix that bliss in shame and depart shamefully, nil desperandum... and in such passsional nights, aesthetic pleasure seeking is null and void - Really? [5-8]

Comment: Jayadeva is less sung for his 'treatise on aesthetic pleasures' - rasa siddhaanta and Dr. Raj Brahmbhatt in his 'History of Sexual Medicine' says, Ratimanjari 'the garland of love - is the work of poet Jayadeva. This treatise is very short, written in an elegant style...' It is said that this song contains, though not all of the nine, but many rasa-s moods. Firstly by hugging, a sort of 'fear' is occurring bhaya sthaayii bhaava - bhayaanaka rasa because it is a stealthy hugging. Next, after coaxing and combing, kissing and scratching is started, hence she should be in a pitiable mood, as the woman in question will almost be departing confusedly but dragged forcefully by that man. Then should be crying, as she does not know who is doing what. Hence it is - 'piteous mood' karuNa rasa. Then, on entering into foreplay an enthusiastic bravery viira rasa bechances. Then, during that enjoyment, an astonishment is caused vismaya saha cari - adbhuta rasa, which leads to contented smiling, which gives rise even to laughter. It is haasa sahita haasya rasa.

This verse opens with the very words and the step-by-step eightfold enjoyment, as Bharata says in naaTya shaastra: aaSleSa cumbana nakha kshata kaama bodha shiighratva maithunam ananta mukha prabodham | priitiH tato api rasa bhaavanam eva kaaryam evam nitaanta caturaaH suciram ramante || . Of course, there is opposition to the eightfold course of enjoyment, but it is negated, taking the saying of aesthetician called Rudra iirSyaa kula striiSu na naayakasya niH shanka keliH na paraa anganaasu 'jealousy in a chaste woman, men's unrestrained indulgence in other's women are taboos...'

All this is for licentious human couples, but not in respect of higher gods or lower animals, because humans alone can enjoy aesthetic pleasure rasa aasvaadana, which facility is nonexistent in others kinds of existence. And here Raadha's friend is quoting from her human experience, and through Jayadeva's poetic expertise. So, nothing can be ascribed to role-players like nonexistent poetic characters, or those with supra existence, i.e., divine couple. This is only to remind the poetic ability of Jayadeva.

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pratitaru muhuH sthitvaa mandam.hpadaani vitanvatiim |
kathamapi rahaH praaptaama~Ngairana~Ngatara~NgibhiH
sumukhi subhagaH pashyansatvaamupaitu kR^itaarthataam || 5-9

words separated - sa bhaya chakitam vinyasyantiim dR^ishau timire pathi prati taru muhuH sthitvaa mandam padaani vitanvatiim katham api rahaH praaptaam angaiH ananga tarangibhiH sumukhi subhagaH pashyan saH tvaam upaitu kR^itaarthataam

5-9. su+mukhi= oh, pretty, faced one, Raadha; su+bhagaH= highly desirable one Krishna [subhaga= a youthful, mannish eligible youngster, muchly desirable by all girls of age - say, a prince charming]; saH= he that Krishna; bhaya+chakitam= by fear, wincing; dR^ishau= looks; timire= in darkness; pathi= on pathway; vinyasyantiim= she who is keeping [keep an eye on, watchfully, or, dancers' stage searching like stage walking]; prati+taru+ muhuH + sthitvaa= every, tree, at foot, on staying awhile [unable to run or rush due to weight of bust or bums]; mandam+padaani+vitanvatiim= slowly [not slowly, but gracefully,] feet, placing [dancer's footwork is suggested, and a graceful lady is not supposed to rush to her man, lest he may mistake her for a strumpet; ananga+tarangibhiH+angaiH= Love-god's, weaves limbs [her limbs are nothing but the passional tiderips of a sea called Love-god]; katham+api= somehow, even [somehow veiling herself with black cloths, some how treading unseen by others, somehow made up her mind to go to him, at least now]; rahaH+praaptaam = in secrecy, he who chanced [to meet you]; tvaam+pashyan= you, on seeing [seeing you in darkness! Absurd? No, explained later]; kR^ita+arthataam+upaitu= achive, purpose [consummation,] let him achieve.

"O, pretty-faced Raadha, Krishna being an unique Prince Charming, will find you out, while you advance to him casting your fearful glances wincingly on your unenlightened path, walking gracefully on that indiscernibly darkened pathway, watching your own step, and while pausing awhile at every foot of a tree, either by your hesitation, or by your graceful footwork, and you with passional tiderips like limbs of yours, if you somehow reach him, even if in unknowable secrecy, even if it is an unknown darkness, he certainly sees you, and let him achieve that consummation on your reaching him...

Comment: the philo-ing giita govindam is avowedly not taken up in this work; but it is to be incorporated induced by the itching commentaries. This has two shades. One belongs dancers and the other to devotees. Keeping dancers side away for a while, on devotee's side it is like this. Krishna has not come to Raadha but asked her friend to fetch her to him, only to examine her devotedness. That being so, here it is said, 'he sees you...' taking the word dR^ishau and the root for this word is dR^ishi meaning 'discern' vivakshita j~naana arthakatvam a kind of gnosis... 'You can 'Gnosticise' him and he does the same, if only you come into union with him, first psychically, then bodily. To achieve that you have to fearfully wince you glances in searching for him in the wild darkness of unenlightened state. You have to tread an unenlightened path, where unenlightened path is - physically a darksome way, and in the sense 'give spiritual insight to (a person)...' you have to have your own enlightenment to search for him in the dark... you have watch your step otherwise you may misstep, pause it at each tree of knowledge to learn more about that object you search... and then you should have a graceful footwork, lest your running, rushing, and racing will appear as your greediness and it would result into futility... this is as far as spiritual mind is concerned - ahamta I-ness'. Then all your bodily limbs, for whose passional tiderips sake you are staging all this drama, they shall be surrendered unto him, and let them merge into one colliding tiderip called universal love. Much more is there, but leave it as it may. Here ends the 5th chapter in northern mms. Southerners have another verse as below.

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nepathyocitaniilaratnamavaniibhaaraavataaraa.ntakaH |
ka.msadhva.msanadhuumaketuravatutvaamdevakiina.ndanaH || 5-10

words separated - raadhaa mugdha mukha aravinda madhupaH trailokya mauli sthalii nepathya ucita niila ratnam avanii bhaara avataara a.ntakaH svacChandam vraja su.ndarii jana manaH toSa pradoSa udayaH ka.msa dhva.msana dhuumaketuH avatu tvaam devakii na.ndanaH

5-10. raadhaa= Raadha's; mugdha+mukha+aravinda= comely, face, lotus [like]; madhupaH = he is a honeybee; trailokya= belonging to triad of words [for all people and their kings]; mauli+sthalii= at head, place [at crown place]; nepathya= as background [as an ornament, jewel]; ucita= befitting [decorative]; niila+ratnam= blue, diamond [sapphire]; avanii+bhaara= for earth, a burden; avataara= incarnate [Shishupaala etc., self-conceited ones]; a.ntakaH= remover; svacChandam= blithely; vraja+su.ndarii+jana = Brindavan, beauties, folks [milkmaids]; manaH+toSa= hearts, he who gladdened; pradoSa= crepuscle [crepuscular Zool. appearing or active in twilight., so a crepuscular gloaming] gloaming; udayaH= dawning; ka.msa= Kamsa's; dhva.msana= in destroying; dhuuma ketuH= comet; devakii+na.ndanaH= Devaki, delighter; avatu+ tvaam= grace, you [you all listeners, besides Raadha.]

He who is the honeybee hovering on the lotus called the comely face of Raadha, he who is a decorative sapphirine jewel at the helm of crowns of all people and their kings in the triad of worlds, he who is the remover of burdensome incarnates on earth like Shishupaala etc., and he who is the crepuscular gloaming dawning in eventides to blithely gladden the hearts of milkmaid beauties of Braindaavan, and he who is a cometary destroyer of evildoers like Kamsa, he that delighter of his mother Devaki, shall grace you all, along with Raadha.

Comment: This chapter has a subtitle abhisaarika varNana 'portrayal of a heroine who makes advances to her lover...' and as explained in treatises of aesthetics her role-play will be like this madana anala santaptaa yaa abhisaarayati priyam, jyotsnii tamasvinii yaana yogyaa ambara vibhuuSaNaa | svayam ca abhisaret yaatu saa bhavet abhisaarikaa - rasaarNavam 'one who proceeds to her lover in the darkness of moonlit nights, attired and decorated with befitting material, parched by love heat, is called abhisaarika nigh-nearing ladylove...'

iti giitagovinde saakaankshapuNDariikaaksho naama pa.nchamaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 4th chapter, called Passionate Krishna, in giita govindam of Jayadeva.

dhanya- dhR^iSta vaikuNTho

Chapter [Sarga] 6 Inconsiderate Krishna


Raadha's friend returns to Krishna to inform about the ecstatic state of Raadha.

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atha taam gantumashaktaam chiramanuraktaam lataagR^ihe dR^iSTvaa |
tachcharitam govinde manasijamande sakhii praaha || 6-1

pa Che- atha taam gantum ashaktaam chiram anuraktaam lataa gR^ihe dR^iSTvaa tat charitam govinde manasija mande sakhii praaha || 6-1

6-1. atha= then; sakhii= girlfriend; taam= her [Raadha]; dR^iSTvaa= on seeing; gantum +ashaktaam= to go [immediately,]unable[uncompliant to];chiram+lataa+gR^ihe+anuraktaam = for a long, in creeper, house [bower,] interested [dawdling]; [meaning that Raadha is clinging to this bower expecting Krishna to come here, unyielding]; tat+caritam= that, episode; govinde manasija+ mande= to Krishna, by Love-god, dreary-minded; pra+aaha= clearly said [started to tell in this episode of poem.]

Then the girlfriend of Raadha, on coming to Raadha from Krishna, and on seeing Raadha who is still dawdling in the same bower, and uncompliant to go to Krishna immediately, that girlfriend again returned to Krishna, and started to tell clearly about that episode of Raadha's unyieldingness. [6-1]

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aSTapadi 12 - dhanya -dhR^iSTa- vaikuNTham -
pashyati dishi dishi rahasi bhavantam | tadadharamadhuramadhuuni pibantam|
naatha hare hare jagannaatha hare | siidati raadhaa vaasagR^ihe - dhR^ivam || 12-1 a pa

pa cChe- pashyati dishi dishi rahasi bhavantam | tadadharamadhuramadhuuni pibantam naatha hare hare jagannaatha hare | siidati raadhaa vaasagR^ihe - dhR^ivam

a pa 12-1. h諮aatha= oh, lord; hare= oh, Krishna; jagannatha= master of worlds; hare= oh, stealer of sins; raadhaa= Raadha; vaasagR^ihe= in a bower; siidati= saddened/aweary; tadadhara, or tvatadhara - tvat= those, other milkmaids' [here tvat shabda anya shabda paryaaya, ta kaaraanta, sarva naama - tvacChabdo.anya vaacii dviH paThitaH... dvaavapi anudaattau-prakriyaa prasaada grantha, sarva naama vyaakhya];adhara+madhura+ madhuuni = lips', luscious, nectar; rahasi= in secrecy; pibantam= swilling; bhavantam= for you; pashyati +dishi+dishi= looking [for you,] in direction, direction; reprise - raadhaa= Raadha; siidati= is aweary; vaasagR^ihe= in an arbour.

"h謠lord Krishna, master of worlds, stealer of sins, saddened Raadha is in a bower, and she looks for you, a secret swiller of nectar from the lips of other milkmaids, in all directions... thus, Raadha is aweary in an arbour...

Comment: Here the poet uses a pun for the word naatha hare meaning an impetuous bull roped at nose for restraining its impetuosity. naadham = naasaa rajjum, harati = gR^ihNaati, iti naadha hari 'when Raadha is patiently waiting in that bower your not coming to her is bullish, hence you are not only a gopala, but also a horny bull...' Then he may ask 'why she is so touchy, she could have come here...' for this she is saying as below.

tvadabhisaraNarabhasena valantii | patati padaani kiyanti chalantii || 12-2 a pa

pa cChe - tvat abhisaraNa rabhasena valantii patati padaani kiyanti chalantii

a pa 12-2. tvat+abhisaraNa= to you, in coming; rabhasena+valantii= speed [enthusiasm] having [groggy, muzzy]; kiyanti+padaani+chalantii+ patati= some, steps, on walking, falls.

"Muzzy with enthusiasm in coming to you, she walks some steps but falls... hence, Raadha is aweary in an arbour... [a pa 12-2]

Vividly: 'She walks a few steps, but your infidelity comes to her mind and she stops, but takes some more steps, your duplicity stops her, yet after some more steps your chicanery reminds her to stop... in this back and forth dance-stepping, her steps stumble and she tumbles... yet she is some how living but for thinking on you...' from choreographers viewpoint. How she is 'living' is said next.

vihitavishadabisakisalayavalayaa | jiivati paramiha tava ratikalayaa || a pa 12-3

pa cChe- vihita vishada bisa kisalaya valayaa jiivati param iha tava rati kalayaa

a pa 12-3. Raadha; vihita= on making; vishada= fresh/cool; bisa+kisalaya= lotus, tender leaves, or stems; valayaa= [lexically] by bracelets - but a veil, cover, soother for the present burning]; tava+param+rati+ kalayaa= your, blissful, [earlier enjoyed] association, by dream; iha+jiivati= now, living.

"On making fresh and cooling tender lotus leaves as a soothing veil against the present burning, she is now living by the help of dreams on your blissful association, enjoyed earlier by her... [a pa 12-3]

muhuravalokitamaNDanaliilaa | madhuripurahamiti bhaavanashiilaa || a pa 12- 3

pa cChe- muhuH avalokita maNDana liilaa madhu ripuH aham iti bhaavana shiilaa

a pa 12-4. muhuH= repeatedly; avalokita= having observed; maNDana+liilaa= ornament's, flaunts; madhu+ripuH+ aham= Madhu's, enemy, I am; iti= thus; bhaavana= thinking; shiilaa= with feeling; [vartate= conducting herself.]

On observing the flaunt of her ornaments, that are readjusted to look like those of yours, and on assuming your persona she says thus as 'I am Krishna...' [a pa 12-4]

Vividly. She looks at her ornaments to examine whether they are befitting for a meeting with you. She adjusts them to look better. In doing so, she unwittingly adjusts head ornament as peacock feather, puts some dangling earring as your knobbly earrings, holds her strings of pearls or a necklace as your flute, and so on. And then on seeing herself like that she declares 'I am Krishna...'

Here the core subject of this work is posted. Raadha not only identifies herself with Krishna, but also declares that she is Krishna. Other non-romantic characters like Seetha, Savitri et al appears to not have averred like this, except divinity like naaraayaNi - aham naaraayaNii naam saa vaiSNavii paraa - I am indeed Naaraayanee [i.e. Lakshmi] the supreme essence of Vishnu -Lakshmi Tantra 3.1

tvaritamupaiti na kathamabhisaaram| haririti vadati sakhiimanuvaaram || a pa 12-5

pa cChe- tvaritam upaiti na katham abhisaaram hariH iti vadati sakhiim anuvaaram

a pa 12-5. hariH= Krishna; tvaritam= swiftly; abhisaaram= to preset place; katham= how [why]; na+upaiti= not, coming; iti= thus; anuvaaram= repeatedly, all the while; sakhiim+ vadati= to friend, saying [asking.]

" 'As to why Krishna is not coming swiftly to the preset place?' Thus she that Raadha is asking her friend, all the while... [a pa 12-5]

shliSyati chumbati jaladharakalpam | harirupagata iti timiramanalpam|| a pa 12-6

pa cChe- shliSyati chumbati jaladhara kalpam hariH upagata iti timiram analpam

a pa 12-6. hariH+upagata+iti= Krishna, drew nigh, thus [on thinking]; jaladhara+kalpam = cloud, like; an+alpam= not, small [pitch-black]; timiram= darkness; shliSyati+chumbati= hugs, kisses.

"When she steps out that bower she sees the pitch-black cloudlike darkness, and thinking that Krishna drew her nigh, she hugs and kisses that darkness...

bhavati vilambini vigalitalajjaa | vilapati roditi vaasakasajjaa || a pa 12-7

pa cChe - bhavati vilambini vigalita lajjaa vilapati roditi vaasaka sajjaa

a pa 12-7. vaasaka= in her dwelling place; sajjaa= rati liilopakaraNaiH sajjita= readying herself decorating with befitting ornaments; bhavati+vilambini= by you, delayed [in coming there]; vigalita+lajjaa= slithered, shame; vilapati= she whines; roditi= whimpers.

"She readying her self decorated in befitting ornaments is waiting in her dwelling place, but when you delay in your coming, slithered is her shame, and she whines and whimpers...

Comment: The word vaasaka sajjika is a name to the romantic heroine waiting for her hero, and the poet uses this word for another purpose as above. In this song the heroine with such mood and the hero is shaTha.

shriijayadevakaveridamuditam| rasikajanam tanutaamatimuditam || a pa 12-8

pa pcChe - shrii jayadeva kaveH idam uditam rasika janam tanutaam ati muditam

a pa 12-8. shrii= shrii suukti = auspicious saying; jayadeva+kaveH= Jayadeva, by poet; idam+ uditam = this, [that is] said; rasika + janam= for aesthetic, people; ati+muditam= highly, gladdening; tanutaam = may cause.

May this auspicious song said by poet Jayadeva cause utmost gladness to aesthetic people... [Annex: 'For it is a treatise of divinely romantic aesthetics...] [12-8]

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vipulapulakapaaliH sphiitasiitkaaramantaH
janitajaDimaakaakuvyaakulam vyaaharantii |
tava kitava vidhatte.amandakandarpachintaam
rasajaladhinimagnaa dhyaanalagnaa mR^igaakshii || 8-3

pa cChe- vipula pulaka paaliH sphiita siitkaaram antaH janita jaDimaa kaaku vyaakulam vyaaharantii tava kitava vidhatte amanda kandarpa chintaam rasa jaladhi nimagnaa dhyaana lagnaa mR^igaakshii

6-3. h諫itava= he dhuurta= you, beguiler; [saa] mR^igaakshii= [she that] deer-eyed Raadha; vipula+pulaka+paaliH= ample, thrills, ranges [series]; sphiita= increasing; siitkaaram yathaa tathaa= whining [meaning that she caught hold of you in her contemplation, and when you started to express your love with your danta nakha kshata cumbana aalinganaadi caryaaH - she deeming avoiding your advances, she pulls herself away from you, but coos and whines in pleasure etc]; antaH+janita+jaDimaa= internally, born, stolidity jaDatva; kaaku= grumbles; vyaakulam+vyaaharantii= embarrassedly, behaving [behaving in an odd fashion in that trans by gestures of pulling away from you, when you have tried failingly to kiss her by catching her bun - thereby she went into a haava called kuTTamita and started saying words of refusal - niSedha vaakyaaH, which to others appear to be foolish]; tava+vidhatte= by you, imposed; amanda+kandarpa+chintaam= not less [high,] passion, worried one; rasa+jaladhi+ nimagnaa= aesthetic pleasure, called deep-sea, deluged in; dhyaana+lagnaa= in thought, tenacious.

"You beguiler, brooding on you she that deer-eyed Raadha is in ecstasy, and in that state when she thinks that she got you at her near, her thrilling sensations are ample and in series, and in her phantasmic trance, born out of internal stolidity, she is behaving in an embarrassed manner with grumbles of avoidance, and all this is imposed by you and she, a worried one with high passion, is tenacious to your thought, and deluged in deep-sea, called aesthetic pleasure... sudhaakara rasa aarNavam. [6-3]

Comment: It is quite common for anyone to get shivers and shudders if drenched in cold for a long time. Then they articulate shivers owing to their freezing cold. Here, the situation is reverse. The body is burning with desire, and she is deluged in an ocean, which is like molten lava. Then her shivers and shudders shall be more than ordinary cold caught person.

The stolidity occurred to her is the jaDatva the fifth sate in aesthetics of love manmatha avastha The a feeling called haava is caused and that haava is called kuTTamita . The causing scene for kuTTamita haava to a heroine is as like this: kesha adhara aadi grahaNe mudamaanaa api maanase | duHkhitena bahiH kupyuet atra kuTTamitam tu tat || 205 'a heroine who is happy inwardly but pretends to be painful, uninterested, resentful etc., when the hero handles her by her bun, in trying to kiss her etc., is kuTTamita haava - rasaarNava sudhaakaram

A word about this treatise rasaarNava sudhaakaram This is written by Simhabhuupaala, an erstwhile Telugu king. This book perhaps is ill fated to be republished and remained in the shelves of archives. But this is made available per kindness of Gaudiya Grantha Mandir, in bare Sanskrit text, at with an assurance 'a separate edition with examples will be offered soon - Jan Brzezinski...' In this book the situations to use words kitava, dhuurta are also incorporated. But they are not elaborated here. Next this girl hurries Krishna to reach Raadha, before it is too late.

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a~NgeSvaabharaNam karoti bahushaH patre.api sa.nchaariNi
praaptam tvaam parisha~Nkate vitanute shayyaam chiram dhyaayati |
vyaasaktaapi vinaa tvayaa varatanurnaiSaa nishaam neSyati || 12-4

pa cChe - a.ngeSu aabharaNam karoti bahushaH patre api sa.nchaariNi praaptam tvaam parisha.nkate vitanute shayyaam chiram dhyaayati iti aakalpa vikalpa talpa rachanaa sa.nkalpa liilaa shata vyaasaktaa api vinaa tvayaa varatanuH na eSaa nishaam neSyati

6-4. varatanuH= best bodied [curvaceous (esp. of a woman) having a shapely curved figure, Raadha]; eSaa= this way; a.ngeSu+aabharaNam+karoti= on limbs, jewellery, making [decorating, by this akalpa is said]; bahushaH= many times; patre= leaves [or feather, wings]; api= even if; sa.nchaariNi= moving [rustling]; tvaam+praaptam= you, bechanced; parishankate = surmises [by this vikalpa is said]; vitanute+ shayyaam = makes, bed [by this shayya racana is said]; chiram+dhyaayati= for a long time, contemplates on you [with this sankalpa is said]; iti= this way; aakalpa= sva dehaalankaara carya= decorating with befitting items for a meet; vikalpa= fidgety - expecting arrival, but failing to find]; talpa+rachanaa= bed, making - a precautionary preparation, without annoying her hero; sankalpa= mulls over - single minded devotion; liilaa [vilaasaaH ]= attitudinizes [2 speak, write, or behave affectedly]; shata= in hundreds of ways; vyaasaktaa [vi+aasaktaa= with high, rapture [nympholepsy= n. ecstasy or frenzy caused by desire of the unattainable - NOT nymphomania pl.] api= even with; vinaa+ tvayaa= without, you; nishaam+ na+neSyati= night, not, able to lead off.

"She that curvaceous Raadha, with every jewellery of every description, she is decorating her limbs... with every rattle of wings or rustle of leaves she surmises that you have bechanced... with every flower and every tender leaf she makes a bed, lest no time need be wasted... thus, she is contemplating on you for a long, long a time... and thus she attitudinizes her normal attitude with over-decoration, over-titillation, over-preparation, and with over-meditation, hence she is unable to lead off nights, without you... [6-4]

Comment: Hoping that no more pedantry is required here, we go to next verse, which is a benedictory conclusion unseen in many other mms. On this below mentioned verse the commentator of rasamanjari has not commented, but one commentator known as kumbhakarNa has commented in his work, and unsure is that, whether critical editions have referenced this or not, because this is not a critical version, but a criticisable one.

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kim vishraamyasi kR^iSNabhogibhavane bhaaNDiirabhuumiruhi
bhraata ryaahi nadR^iSTigocaramitassaanandanandaaspadam |
radhaayaavacanam tadadhvagamukhaanna.ndaantikegopato
govindasyajayanti saayamatithipraashastyagarbhaagiraH || 6-5

pa cChe - kim vishraamyasi kR^iSNa bhogi bhavane bhaaNDiira bhuumiruhi bhraataH yaahi na dR^iSTi gocaram itaH sa ananda nanda aaspadam radhaayaa vacanam tat adhvaga mukhaat na.nda antike gopataH govindasya jayanti saayam atithi praashastya garbhaaH giraH

6-5. h諢hraataH= oh, brother [oh, traveller]; kR^iSNa+bhogi+bhavane= black, cobra, palace of; [or, shleSa: kR^iSNa+bhogi+bhavane= someone called Krishna, an enjoyer, in his abode]; bhaaNDiira+ bhuumi+ruhi= banyan tree with holes in trunk; [or, shleSa: bhaaNDiira= treasure house; bhuumi+ruhi= from earth, arose [Krishna who came into existence as an earthly being]; kim+vishraamyasi= why, you take respite; yaahi= go away; sa+aananda= with, happiness; nanda+aaspadam= Nanda's [Krishna's father,] a hospice [house of Nanda]; itaH= from here; na+ dR^iSTi+gocaram [kim?]= not, to eye, visible, [or what?]; adhvaga+mukhaat= a wayfarer's, from face; radhaayaa+tat+vacanam= Raadha's, that, words; na.nda+antike= at father Nanda, nearby; gopataH= cowherd; govindasya= of Krishna; saayam+atithi+praashastya = evening time, guest invitee, as though welcoming] with praise; garbhaaH [narmagarbha]= impregnated [with inner meaning]; giraH= words; jayanti= are paramount.

Vividly. Raadha is asking Krishna to come to a particular place for their pleasure tripping. But she cannot tell it directly to Krishna as his father Nanda and others are there tending cattle. In the meanwhile she caught sight of a traveller tarrying under a banyan tree. She immediately yelled at him saying, "Oh, traveller, why do you take respite under that banyan tree with holes in its trunk into which black cobras truck in and out... oh, brother, won't you see that house of Nanda, a happiest hospice... please go there for a boundless hospitality... [aside: but leave that tree at once... for it is our preset retreat, and it shall serve as a happy abode for Krishna, the enjoyer..."] containing such words of Raadha, impregnated with inner meaning in inviting an evening time invitee, either a traveller or a beguiler, this song shall be paramountly devotional... so sayest poet Jayadeva... [6-5]

iti giitagovinde dhanya- dhR^iSta vaikuNTho naama SaSTaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 6th chapter, called Inconsiderate Krishna, in giita govindam of Jayadeva.


Chapter [Sarga] 7- Shifty Krishna


When a devotee of Krishna receives shuddha sattva , 'purest attribute' it is transformed later into rati or prema ankura. Then it ripens into prema, not general love but a sense of 'mineness' i.e., a feeling that Krishna belongs to me, none else. On some more devotion it ripens into sneha 'divided togetherness' an unsatisfied feeling with words and play of Krishna, because he is a separate entity as yet. This ripens to maana 'intense love' where he/she conceals his own feelings, on account of real/unreal grievance, and then on he/she starts to show jealousy, anger or petulance etc., towards Krishna. These maana abhimaana contain maadana bhaava, a maddening delight, essentially possessed by Raadha, none else, not even by Krishna. [Source: The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. IV - Religions.] This chapter details that exclusive maadana mahaa bhaava of Raadha in her angering, tongue-lashing, upbraiding etc.

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atraantarecha kulaTaakulavartmapaata
sa.njaatapaataka iva sphuTalaaJNchhanashriiH |
rdiksundariivadanachandanabindurinduH || 7-1

pa cChe - atra antare ca kulaTa aakula vartma paata sa.njaata paataka iva sphuTa laa.ncChana shriiH vR^indaavana antaram adiipayat a.nshu jaalaiH dik sundarii vadana chandana binduH induH

7-1. atra+antare+ca= in the, meanwhile, even; kulaTa+aakula= by fancy women, flocks; vartma= their pathway; paata= by spoiling, obstructing; sa.njaata= caused thereby; paataka + iva= blemish, infamy, like [a badge of infamy bechanced on his face, because his moonbeams are obstructive to the sneaky fancy women; sphuTa= clear; laa.ncChana= badge [of infamy]; shriiH= having brilliance; dik+sundarii = [eastern] direction, called beauty; vadana + chandana + binduH= on [her] face, sandal, a blob of; induH = moon; a.nshu+jaalaiH= moonbeams, with laces of; vR^indaavana+antaram+adiipayat= Brindavan, interior of, brightened up.

In the meanwhile, he who bears a brilliant but clear badge of infamy on his face, for he incurred sin by obstructing the pathways of flocks of sneaky fancy women, that moon brightened up the interiors of Brindavan with the laces of his moonbeams, himself staying like the sandal-blob on the forehead of the beauty, called the eastern sky. [7-1]

Comment: In the meanwhile - during the time when girlfriend is telling about Raadha to Krishna. A sinner has to bear a badge of infamy, may it be the black spot on moon, or this impertinent boy Krishna for his non-arrival at Raadha.

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prasarati shashadharabimbe vihitavilambe cha maadhave vidhuraa |
virachitavividhavilaapam saa paritaapam chakaarochchaiH || 7-2

pa cChe- prasarati shasha dhara bimbe vihita vilambe ca maadhave vidhuraa virachita vividha vilaapam saa paritaapam chakaara ucChaiH

7-2. saa= she that Raadha; shasha+dhara+bimbe= rabbit, bearing, discoid [moon]; prasarati= while emanating [coming sprightly]; [ellipse, murali+dhara] maadhave+ca= by [flute bearing] Krishna, also; vihita+vilambe= imposed, tardiness [belatedly]; vidhuraa= by the anguished Raadha; virachita+ vividha+vilaapam = made [underwent,] many a, heartache; ucChaiH+paritaapam+chakaara= utter, anguish, made [underwent.]

While that discoidal moon bearing a rabbit is sprightly coming, and while this Krishna bearing a flute is not coming belatedly, she that anguished Raadha, underwent many a heartache, and an utter anguish. [7-2]

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aSTapdi - 13 - naagara naaraayaNa rasaavalayam
kathitasamaye.api harirahaha na yayau vanam |
mama viphalamidamamalaruupamapi yauvanam ||
yaami he kamiha sharaNam | sakhiijanavachanava.nchitaaham -dhR^ivam || a pa 13-1

pa cChe - kathita samaye api hariH ahaha na yayau vanam mama viphalam idam amala ruupam api yauvanam yaami he kam iha sharaNam sakhii jana vachana va.nchitaa aham

a pa 13-1. he [sakhii, vidhe]= oh, [friend, god]; hariH= Krishna; kathita+samaye+api= on said, time, even; vanam+na+yayau= to Brindavan, not, arrived; mama+idam+yauvanam= my, this, youth; a+mala +ruupam+api= not, blemished, mien [beauty,] even; viphalam= wasteful; iha= here [in forest]; kam+ sharaNam+yaami= whom, as shelter [haven,] I can go; [respite] aha ha= ah, aha; aham= I am; sakhii+ jana + vachana +va.nchitaa= by friends, flocks of, words [cajolery,] befooled.

Krishna didn't turn up on the appointed time at Brindavan, wasteful is my youth and unblemished beauty without him, whom I can approach as a haven in this forest... aha ha, those girl flocks cajolery befooled me... [a pa 13-1]

yadanugamanaaya nishi gahanamapi shiilitam |
tena mama hR^idayamidamasamasharakiilitam || a pa 13-2

pa cChe- yat anugamanaaya nishi gahanam api shiilitam tena mama hR^idayam idam asama shara kiilitam

a pa 13-2. yat= for which [Krishna]; anugamanaaya= to go in tow; nishi= in night; gahanam+api+ shiilitam = forest, even though, is searched [ellipse- adR^ishyena - but, unseen] ; tena= by him [Krishna]; mama+idam+ hR^idayam = mine, this, heart; asama+ [adR^ishyamaana] shara= by Love-god's, [unseeable, unseen] arrow; kiilitam= impaled; [respite] aha ha= ah, aha; aham= I am; sakhii+ jana+ vachana + va.nchitaa= by friends, flocks of, words [cajolery,] befooled.

For which unseen Krishna I have searched the forest even though it is night, he alone became an unseen arrow of still unseen Love-god, and impaling this heart of mine... aha ha, those girl flocks cajolery befooled me... [a pa 13-2]

mama maraNameva varamativitathaketanaa |
kimiha viSahaami virahaanalachetanaa || a pa 13-3

pacChe- mama maraNam eva varam ati vitatha ketanaa kim iha viSaami viraha anala achetanaa

a pa 13-3. ati+vitatha+ketanaa= utterly, shattered, [this] preset place; a+chetanaa= [I am] without, spirit; [aham iha= I, here in this preset place, for it lost its worth by his non-arrival]; viraha+anala= disunion, fire of [put to the torch]; kim+iha+vi+Saami= why, here [ at this preset place,] I am tolerating, put up with; mama+maraNam+eva+varam= to me, death, alone, best.

Utterly shattered is the worth of this preset place, thus I too am spiritless, and then why should I put up with this place that is putting me to the torch of disunion, thus death alone is best to me... [a pa 13-3]

maamahaha vidhurayati madhuramadhuyaaminii |
kaa api harimanubhavati kR^itasukR^itakaaminii || a pa 13-4

pa cChe - maam ahaha vidhurayati madhura madhu yaaminii kaapi harim anubhavati kR^ita sukR^ita kaaminii

a pa 13-4. madhura+madhu+yaaminii= pleasant, spring's, night; maam+vi+dhurayati= me, verily, excruciating; ahaha= aha ha; kaa+api= someone, maybe; kR^ita+su+kR^ita= on making, good, fortune [lucky girl by her merit in last birth]; kaaminii= voluptuous girl; harim+anubhavati= with Krishna, making merry [I lost that chance - ensues.]

Though this night of spring is pleasant it is excruciating me... maybe some lucky and merited voluptuous girl might be making merry with Krishna... aha ha, I lost it... [a pa 13-4]

ahaha kalayaami valayaadimaNibhuuSaNam |
harivirahadahanavahanena bahuduuSaNam || a pa 13-5

pa cChe - aha ha kalayaami valaya aadi maNi bhuuSaNam hari viraha dahana vahanena bahu duuSaNam

a pa 13-5. valaya+aadi= bicep-let, and others; maNi+bhuuSaNam= gem-studded, jewellery; hari+ viraha+dahana+vahanena= for Krishna, anguish, blaze, carrying [have a bearing on, every ornament has a bearing upon my anguish for Krishna]; kalayaami= I reckon; bahu+duuSaNam= highly, contemptible; aha ha= aha, ha.

These bicep-lets and every other gem-studded jewellery I wear, bears a blaze of my anguish for Krishna, hence I reckon them as highly contemptible wear... ah ha... [a pa 13-5]

Comment: It is really worthless to decorate themselves, if unseen by their lovers. striiNaam priya aaloka phalo hi veSaH . After all, the result of these cosmetics results when seen by her dear one.

kusumasukumaaratanumatanusharaliilayaa |

sragapi hR^idi hanti maamativishhamashiilayaa || a pa 13-6

pa cChe - kusuma sukumaara tanum atanushara liilayaa srak api hR^idi hanti maam ati viSama shiilayaa

a pa 13-6. srak+api= garland, even [I am wearing along with ornaments for Krishna]; ati+viSama+ shiilayaa = highly, poisonous, in their import [has an effect]; a+tanu= un, bodied one [bodiless Love-god's]; shara+liilayaa= arrows, by sport of; kusuma+sukumaara+tanum= flower, delicate, bodied [such as I am]; maam+hR^idi+hanti= my, heart, rending.

Even the garland I wear is rending my heart, whose flower like delicate body is already rent by sporting arrows of Love-god, that have a poisonous effect... [a pa 13-6]

Comment: The arrows of Love-god rend the soul not body, but it is still better god for love that is rending the heart. apuurava iyam dhanur vidyaa manmathasya mahaatmanaH | shariiram akshatam kR^itvaa bhinatti antargatam manaH || . Though the arrows tortured her body, her own garland has become a poisonous cosmetic, for it has a bearing upon Krishna.

ahamiha nivasaami navigaNitavetasaa |
smarati madhusuudano maamapi na chetasaa || a pa 13-7

pa cChe - aham iha nivasaami na vigaNita vetasaa smarati madhusuudanaH maam api na chetasaa

a pa 13-7. na+vigaNita+vetasaa= not, counting, Vetasa tree [uncaring a tree that excites - kaama uddiipaka paadapa]; aham+iha+nivasaami= I am, here, lingering; madhusuudanaH= Krishna; maam= me; chetasaa+api= [locus of feelings and intuitions] by bosom, even; na+smarati= not, reminisces.

I am lingering at this excitatory Vetasa tree, uncaring for its excitative effect, but that Krishna doesn't reminisce me, even in his bosom... [a pa 13-7]

haricharaNasharaNajayadevakavibhaaratii |
vasatu hR^idi yuvatiriva komalakalaavatii || a pa 13-8

pa cChe- hari charaNa sharaNa jayadeva kavi bhaaratii vasatu hR^idi yuvatiH iva komala kalaavatii

a pa 13-8. komala= exquisite; kalaavatii= fine-limbed damsel [or, a damsel expert in 64 arts - catuSaTi kalaa prapuurNa]; hari+charaNa+sharaNa= Krishna', at feet, resorting to; jayadeva+ kavi + bhaaratii= Jayadeva, poet's, idiolect [the form of language used by an individual person - the lang. used in here is peculiarly particular to Jayadeva. Neither earlier poets, nor the later could use such a complicatedly delicate construction]; yuvatiH+iva= damsel, like; hR^idi+vasatu= in bosoms, let her abide.

Let the idiolect of poet Jayadeva, whose only resort is at the feet of Krishna, be abiding in the bosoms of all, like an exquisite, fine-limbed damsel, well-versed in sixty-four arts... [a pa 13-8]

Comment: The comparison is between a delicately limbed damsel and the delicately worded poem, which shows even the poet's expertise in sixty-for arts, unlike a curvaceous girl minus brains. upama.

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tatkim kaamapi kaaminiimabhisR^itaH kim vaa kalaakelibhiH
baddho bandhubhirandhakaariNi vanaabhyarNe kimudbhraamyati |
kaantaH klaantamanaa manaagapi pathi prasthaatumevaakshamaH
sa.nketiikR^itama~njuva~njulalataaku~nje.api yannaagataH || 7-4

pa cChe- tat kim kaam api kaaminiim abhisR^itaH kim vaa kalaa kelibhiH baddho bandhubhiH andhakaariNi vanaabhyarNe kim udbhraamyati kaantaH klaanta manaa manaag api pathi prasthaatum eva akshamaH sa.nketii kR^ita ma.nju va.njula lataa ku.nje api yat na aagataH || 7-4

7-4. yat=by which reason; kaantaH= beloved, Krishna; kR^ita+sa.nketii= on making, suggested spot; ma.nju+va.njula+lataa+ku.nje+api= heart-pleasing, cane, viny, to bower, even; na+aagataH= not, arrived; tat= thereby [imaginable is that he]; kaam+api+kaaminiim= whoever, even, voluptuous girl; abhisR^itaH+kim= going after, or what?; vaa= otherwise; bandhubhiH= with his relatives; kalaa kelibhiH= arts [song,] sports [dance with others]; baddhaH+kim= tied up, or what?; andhakaariNi+ vana abhyarNe= pitch dark, in preset forest [in some area]; udbhraamyati+kim= roaming round, or what? klaanta+manaa= despaired, at heart [by my dissociation];' manaag+api= in the least, even; pathi +prasthaatum+eva= on way [this side,] to make a move, even; a+kshamaH+kim= un, able, or what? [sandeha alankaara.]

By which reason that beloved Krishna is not coming to this suggested spot, with its heart-pleasing cane-viny bower... thereby, is he going after whoever voluptuous girl, or what? Otherwise, is he bounded by his relatives, or tied up in song and dance with others, or what? Or, is he roaming round and round in these places of pitch-dark forest, or what? Or, is he unable to make a move towards this side, as his heart is despaired by my dissociation... or what? [7-4]

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athaagataam maadhavamantareNa
sakhiimiyam viikshya viSaadamuukaam |
visha.nkmaanaa ramitam kayaapi
janaardanam dR^iSTavadetadaaha || 7-5

pa cChe- atha aagataam maadhavam antareNa sakhiim iyam viikshya viSaada muukaam visha.nkmaanaa ramitam kayaa api janaardanam dR^iSTavat etat aaha

7-5. atha= then; maadhavam+antareNa= Krishna, on leaving; aagataam= returned; viSaada+muukaam= by sadness, silent; sakhiim+viikshya= girlfriend, on seeing; janaardanam= Krishna is; kayaa+api= by someone, even; ramitam= delighted; iyam= this Raadha; vi shanka maanaa= on doubting; dR^iSTavat= as though seeing with her own eyes; etat= all this [his episode in next song]; aaha= said.

Then on seeing her girlfriend, who has returned from Krishna, but remained silent owing her sadness, doubting that some girl is delighting him, Raadha recounts that episode, as though she is seeing with own eyes. [7-5]

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aSTapadi - 14 - hariramitaca.mpakashekharam -
smarasamarocitaviracitaveshaa |
galitakusumabharavilulitakeshaa |
kaapi madhuripuNaa vilasati yuvatiradhikaguNaa || a pa 14-1

pa cChe- smara samara uchita virachita veshaa galita kusuma bhara vilulita keshaa kaapi madhuripuNaa

a pa 14-1. smara+samara= Love-god, for combat [grapples of courtship= 2 archaic term for lovemaking]; uchita+virachita+veshaa= befitting, well done [well dressed,] getup; galita= slithered; kusuma= flowers; bhara= by weight of [flowers; or, if it is dara= layers]; vi+lulita= verily, entangled; keshaa= braid; kaa+api= some girl [a certain girl,] even; yuvatiH= a damsel; ati+adhika+guNaa= [by her] very, high, talent; madhu+ripuNaa= by Madhu's, enemy Krishna ; vilasati= romantically frolicking.

"She is well-dressed in befitting getup for a grapple of courtship, as her weighty flowers are slithering, and as her braids are muchly tangling, that damsel is rollicking romantically with Krishna... methinks she is muchly talented... [a pa 14-1]

Comment: When Krishna grappled that girl's bun for a kiss, she wanted to whisk, and in her wriggling to take an upper hand over him, her braid is loosened and slithered, hence flowers too wriggly rolled down, yet she is dominant and on his overside, called puruSa aayata While saying madhu ripu the sense of maadhurya ripu is what is meant by Raadha: 'he is unaware of niceties in relishing love maadhurya anabhij~natva because a rustic girl, less proficient than Raadha has overcome on him. The word yuvatiH suggests that the girl has a doership strii kartR^itva - vipariita surata is indicated. Raadha is saying that 'this girl is more talented...' then it a subjective statement of envy plus jealousy. Because she beckoned him to come to certain bower, but this girl brought him round to her place and enjoying with him in a domineering position - hence she should be more talented... as a second thought.

vilasati yuvatiH ati adhika guNaa
hariparirambhaNavalitavikaaraa | kuchakalashopari taralitahaaraa || a pa 14-2

pa cChe- hari parirambhaNa valita vikaaraa kucha kalasha upari taralita haaraa

a pa 14-2. hari+pari+rambhaNa= Krishna, when tightly hugging; valita+vikaaraa= swirling, with romantic jerks; kucha+kalasha= bosoms, flagons like [flagon = a large vessel usu. with a handle, spout, and lid, to hold wine etc. for the Eucharist]; upari=overside; taralita+haaraa= swinging, pearly pendants; [reprise:] kaa + api = some girl [a certain girl,] even; yuvatiH= a damsel; ati+adhika+guNaa= [by her] very, high, talent; madhu+ripuNaa= by Madhu's, enemy - Krishna; vilasati= romantically frolicking. [a pa 14-2]

"When she is tightly hugging Krishna with her flagon-like bosoms, on which pearly pendants are swinging, her body is swirly and jerky... thus that damsel is rollicking romantically with Krishna... methinks she is muchly talented... [a pa 14-2]

vichaladalakalalitaananachandraa |
tadadharapaanarabhasakR^itatandraa || a pa 14-3

pa cChe- vichalat alaka lalita aanana chandraa tat adhara paana rabhasa kR^ita tandraa

a pa 14-3. vi+chalat= liltingly, pulsating; alaka= hair-locks; lalita+aanana+chandraa= pretty, face, moon; tat= his [Krishna's]; adhara+paana= lip, swilling [long kiss]; rabhasa= by speediness [ by happiness]; kR^ita+tandraa= made [became,] dozily.

"Her hair-locks are liltingly pulsating on her prettily moony face, and she is taking a long kiss of his lip, she is happily dozy... hence, methinks she is muchly talented, for that damsel is romantically rollicking with Krishna... [a pa 14-3]

cha.nchalakuNDaladalitakapolaa |
mukharitarasanajaghanagatilolaa || a pa 14-4

pa cChe- cha.nchala kuNDala dalita kapolaa mukharita rasana jaghana gati lolaa

a pa 14-4. cha.nchala+kuNDala= swaying, knobby ear-hangings, dalita+kapolaa= bumping, cheeks [she has]; mukharita+rasana= clinking, waist-strings with jingle-bells [which she has on her waist]; jaghana + gati + lolaa= hip, in its going [swinging,] swaying.

"Her knobby ear-hangings are bumping her cheeks, her waist-strings with jingle bells are clinking when her hip is swingingly swaying, while that damsel is rollicking romantically with Krishna... methinks she is muchly talented... [a pa 14-4]

dayitavilokitalajjitahasitaa |
bahuvidhakuujitaratirasarasitaa || a pa 14-5

pa cChe- dayita vilokita lajjita hasitaa bahu vidha kuujita rati rasa rasitaa

a pa 14-5. dayita+vilokita= by lover, when seen; lajjita= coyly; hasitaa= smiley; bahu+vidha + kuujita = in many, ways, cooed; rati+rasa= in courtship, joy; rasitaa= while enjoying. [NB. This has two imports unsaid in the poem, but derivable from treatises on romance, and they two are combined below.]

"When her lover sees her she is coyly, for she is aggressive like a man, and when not she triumphantly smiley, for her becoming an aggressor like a man, thus on enjoying courtship she is cooing in many a way... but, that damsel is rollicking romantically with Krishna... maybe she is muchly talented... [a pa 14-5]

vipulapulakapR^ithuvepathubha.ngaa |
shvasitanimiilitavikasadana.ngaa || a pa 14-6

pa cChe- vipula pulaka pR^ithu vepathu bha.ngaa shvasita nimiilita vikasata ana.ngaa

a pa 14-6. vipula+pulaka= with broad, tingles [she is]; pR^ithu+vepathu= wide, throbs [she is]; bha.ngaa= tarangaa= like waves [weaves also come and go, in wide and broad nature]; shvasita= [in courtship] with soughs; nimiilita= half-closed [shuts eyes]; vikasata+ana.ngaa= broadened, Love-god [rather, love for Krishna is broadened in her soul.]

"Like waves, broad tingles and wide throbs are coming and going on her body, but she soughs and shuts her eyes, as love in broadened in her soul... thus, that damsel is rollicking romantically with Krishna... maybe she is muchly talented... [a pa 14-6]

shramajalakaNabharasubhagashariiraa |
paripatitorasi ratiraNadhiiraa || a pa 14-7

pa cChe- shrama jala kaNa bhara subhaga shariiraa paripatita urasi rati raNa dhiiraa

a pa 14-7. shrama= by strain [in courting]; jala+kaNa= water, particles [sweat drops] bhara= filled with; subhaga+shariiraa= beautiful, bodied [one like, appearing; though her pearly pendants have swirled onto her back in grapple, her chest is filled with pearl-like sweat drops. So, when no ornament is there on her chest, it appears to have pearly ornaments - hence she is beatiful]; rati+raNa+dhiiraa= in courting, combat, challenger; pari+patita+urasi= overside, fallen [relaxedly,] on chest.

Owing to the strain of courting drops of sweat filled her chest thus she is a beauty, and owing to the same strain, that challenger in the courting combats has fallen overside of his chest relaxedly... she is muchly talented... that's why, that damsel is rollicking romantically with Krishna... [a pa 14-7]

Comment: This kind of posture is called hamsa liilaka bandha; naarii paada dvyayam dattvaa kaantasya uru yugo api | kaTim aandolayet aashu bandho ayam hamsa liilakaH || rati rahasya. and this needs no literal trasl., now.

shriijayadevabhaNitahariramitam |
kalikalushhaM janayatu parishamitam || a pa 14-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva bhaNita hari ramitam kali kaluSam janayatu parishamitam

a pa 14-8. jayadeva+bhaNita= by Jayadeva, uttered; shrii+hari+ramitam= Shri, Krishna's, gladdening [by a milkmaid]; kali+kaluSam= connected to Kali era, blemish; parishamitam+janayatu= completely subduing, may cause.

The episode of a milkmaid gladdening Shri Krishna, as Jayadeva utters it, this may cause a complete subdual to the blemishes in Kali Era... [14-8]

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dyutirayam tirayannapi vedanaam |
vidhuratiiva tanoti manobhuvaH
suhR^idaye hR^idaye madanavyathaam || 7-7

pa cChe- viraha paaNDu muraari mukha ambuja dyutiH ayaM tirayan api vedanaam vidhuH atiiva tanoti manobhuvaH suhR^it aye hR^idaye madana vyathaam

7-7. aye= oh, friend; ayam+vidhuH= this, moon; manobhuvaH+suhR^it= Love-god's, good friend [moon]; viraha= [my] anguish in dissociation; paaNDu= pale faced; muraari= Krishna's; mukha+ ambuja+dyutiH= face, lotus-like, its resplendence; vedanaam+tirayan+api= anguishes , covering up [abated,] even though; hR^idaye+madana+vyathaam+atiiva+tanoti= in heart, love's, anguish, muchly, intensifying [unabated.] [Explained below, vividly.]

"Oh, friend, this moon earlier had a pale face like that of the lotus-like face of Krishna, by which my anguish in dissociation was somewhat abated, waiting for him... but now, unabated is the palish silveriness of this very moon, as his friend Love-god is abetting him to take vengeance on me, as I am unmoving to Krishna, thus my anguish too, is muchly unabated... [7-7]

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aSTapadi - 15 - harirasamanmathatilakam
samuditamadane ramaNiivadane chumbanavalitaadhare |
mR^igamadatilakam likhati sapulakam mR^igamiva rajaniikare |
ramate yamunaapulinavane vijayii muraariradhunaa - iti dhR^ivam || a pa 15-1

pa cChe- samudita madane ramaNii vadane chumbana valita adhare mR^iga mada tilakam likhati sa pulakam mR^igam iva rajanii kare ramate yamunaa pulina vane vijayii muraariH adhunaa

a pa 15-1. he sakhii= of friend; sam+udita= well, uprisen [up surged]; madane= passion [in a girl]; chumbana+valita+adhare= for a kiss, swerved [turn sharply; change direction abruptly - she withdraws her face, primarily; in text as 'lalita aanane' then it is beautiful face for it will be kissed]; ramaNii+ vadane= a comely girl's, face; rajanii+kare+ mR^igam + iva= in night, maker [in moon,] deer, like; sa+pulakam= with, thrills [for the girl]; mR^iga+ mada + tilakam+ likhati= deer's, fat [musk,] mark [usu. on forehead,] making; [reprise] vijayii+muraariH= prizewinner [prized,] Krishna; adhunaa= presently; yamunaa + pulina + vane = River Yamuna's, on sand dunes, groves; ramate= is frolicking. upama - Her face is in simile with moon and tilaka, or mark with deer.

"Oh, friend, loo... he is swerving the face of a comely girl, in whom passion is up-surging, for a kiss, and like the deer mark in moon, he is making a mark with musk on her face with his kiss, while she thrills... thus that prized Krishna is presently frolicking on the sand dunes and in the groves of Yamuna River... [a pa 15-1]

ghanachayaruchire rachayati chikure taralitataruNaanane |
kurabakakusumam chapalaasushhamam ratipatimR^igakaanane || a pa 15 -2

pa cChe- ghana chaya ruchire rachayati chikure taralita taruNa aanane kuravaka kusumam chapalaa suSamam rati pati mR^iga kaanane

a pa 15-2. ghana+chaya+ruchire= clouds, gather, in sheen [he is sheeny like a cloudscape]; taralita= made to ripples [on seeing such a one riffle like thrills occur in girls]; taruNa+aanane= on a beauty's, face; rati+pati= Rati's, husband, [or lord of love - of Love-god]; mR^iga+kaanane= beast / deer, a forest of; chikure= in head hair; chapalaa+suSamam= scintillating, lightning [like]; kuravaka+ kusumam = Kuravaka [mehandi,] red flower; rachayati= decorating.

"He who is sheeny like a cloudscape, and on seeing whom riffles of thrills occur in girls, such a Krishna is decorating a red flower that is scintillating like lightning, in the braid of a beauty, in that forest where that beastly Love-god is on the prowl... [a pa 15-2]

Comment: In doing so, Krishna has forgotten Raadha for his continued staying in that forest where the brutal beast-like Love-god is still on the prowl. If this mR^iga is taken as deer, then the above vyaaaja ninda 'sarcasm in devotion' of Raadha is lost.

ghaTayati sughane kuchayugagagane mR^igamadaruchiruuSite |
maNisaramamalam taarakaapaTalam nakhapadashashibhuuSite || a pa 15-3

pa cChe- ghaTayati su ghane kucha yuga gagane mR^iga mada ruchira uuSite maNi saram amalam taarakaa paTalam nakha pada shashi bhuuSite

a pa 15-3. mR^iga+mada= deer, musk; ruchira+uuSite= shine, bestrewn [bedaubed, cosmetic]; su+ghane= highly massy, with clouds; nakha+pada= fingernail, dent [like]; shashi+bhuuSite= with [crescent] moon, decorated with; kucha+yuga+gagane= bosoms, twosome, on sky of [on overside]; amalam= impeccable; maNi+saram= gemmy [pearly,] pendant; taarakaa+paTalam [iva]= starts, cluster of [like pendant]; ghaTayati= adjusting. [Meaning said vividly as upama/simile is to be explained.]

"Oh, friend, now he is adjusting an impeccable pearly pendant on the overside of her two bosoms that shine like deer musk, that which is bedaubed on them... in doing so his fingernails are making crescentic dents on those bosoms... and that skyey bust appears to be a sky with two massy clouds and that pearly pendant as the star studded sky, and those crescentic dents as crescent moons... [15-3]

Comment: The comparison between crescentic dents and crescent moon is as said panca saayaka: artha indu samkaasham idam nakha kshatam artha indu kathitam samaanataH | kakshaa nitamba stana paarshva madhye daatavya etat karajam sadaa eva || - panca saayaka in treatise of romance, Five Arrows.

jitabisashakale mR^idubhujayugale karatalanaliniidale |
marakatavalayam madhukaranichayam vitarati himashiitale || a pa 15-4

pa cChe- jita bisa shakale mR^idu bhuja yugale kara tala nalinii dale marakata valayam madhukara nichayam vitarati hima shiitale

a pa 15-4. muraari= Krishna; jita+bisa+shakale= triumphant [than] lotus, stalks; hima+shiitale= snowy, cool; kara+tala= hand's, surface [with palms]; nalinii+dale= [like] lotus, leaves; mR^idu+ bhuja + yugale = softish, shoulders, a pair of; marakata+valayam= emerald, armlet; madhukara + nichayam [iva] = honey-makers [honey bees,] a swarm [alike]; vitarati= he is keeping [adjusting.]

"Now he is adjusting emeraldine armlets on the pair of her palms that liken to snowily coolish lotus leaves, while her shoulders are softish like lotus itself, and arms triumph over the tender stalks of lotuses, thus those emeralds in those armlets are alike a swarm of honeybees, hovering over that lotus-like girl... [a pa 15-4]

ratigR^ihajaghane vipulaapaghane manasijakanakaasane |
maNimayarasanam toraNahasanam vikirati kR^itavaasane || a pa 15-5

pa cChe- rati gR^iha jaghane vipulaapaghane manasija kanaka aasane maNimaya rasanam toraNa hasanam vikirati kR^ita vaasane

a pa 15-5. muraariH= Krishna; vipula+apaghane= on beamy, hip; manasija+kanaka+aasane= Love-god's, golden, throne; kR^ita+vaasane= rendered voluptuous [or, while she is enrobing her hips; or - as vaasana has many meanings= she has a desire to have him, or, she is made to undergo some thinking that bechanced during last birth; here she is rendered voluptuous will be matching because of the proximity of words of throne of Love-god etc;] rati+gR^iha+jaghane= lust, house homelike, on hip; maNimaya + rasanam = gem-studded, waist-strings; toraNa+hasanam= arched [festoons - as a welcome sign]; vikirati= strews around [because he could not tie that string on hip, because his mood changed as soon as he touched her broadly hip, and she too clings to him for his magic touch.]

Krishna is now trying to tie her gem-studded waist-strings like arched welcome festoons on her homelike beamy hip, for it homes lust and houses the golden throne of Love-god, but he had to strew it around, for both of them are subjected to sudden voluptuousness by that tenant-like king on the throne in that house, called Love-god... [15-5]

charaNakisalaye kamalanilaye nakhamaNigaNapuujite |
bahirapavaraNam yaavakabharaNam janayati hR^idi yojite || a pa 15-6

pa cChe- charaNa kisalaye kamala nilaye nakha maNi gaNa puujite bahiH apavaraNam yaavaka bharaNam janayati hR^idi yojite

a pa 15-6. kamala+nilaye= Lakshmi's, abode; nakha+maNi+gaNa+puujite [bhuuSite]= nails, jewels [like,] adored with; charaNa+kisalaye= feet, leaflets; hR^idi+yojite= on chest, on joining [on placing -or on think thus in his heart]; bahiH+apavaraNam= as outer, covering [outer, peripheral - because those feet are already rosy]; yaavaka+bharaNam+janayati= lac reddish colour, decoration, causing [he is making, painting.]

"On placing her leaflet like feet on his supine chest, that are the abode of Lakshmi, and that are adored with jewel like rosy nails, he is decorating them with reddish lac colour on the already rosy feet... [a pa 15-6]

ramayati sadR^isham kaamapi subhR^isham khalahaladharasodare |
kimaphalamavasam chiramiha virasam vada sakhi viTapodare || a pa 15-7

pa cChe- ramayati su dR^isham kaam api subhR^isham khalahaladhara sodare kim aphalam avasam chiram iha virasam vada sakhi viTapa udare

a pa 15-7. halahaladhara= plough wielder [plougher]; sodare= by brother of; kaam+api= someone, even [one nameless, fameless, run-of-the-mill girl]; su+dR^isham= good, eyes [she has, i.e., Krishna is hoodwinked by her mesmeric eyes]; subhR^isham= very hastily; ramayati= making merry [with her]; iha+viTapa+udare= here, in tree's, belly [inside arbour]; vi+rasam= without, spirit [futilely]; a+ phalam= without, fruit; chiram= for a long; kim+avasam= why, tarry; vada+sakhi= speak up, friend.

"When that plougher's brother is very hastily merrymaking with an anonymous girl, hoodwinked by her mesmeric eyes, why should I futilely and fruitlessly tarry inside an arbour for a long... speak up, oh, friend... [15-7]

Comment: The plougher's brother indicates Raadha's disdain for the lowbrow taste of Krishna, who takes delights in a bumpkin, leaving queen like herself. A farmer's brother can be a Farmer Jr., but will not be a charmer... better leave him, as he is... If iambs fit in - Crotchety, thy name is woman!

The plougher's brother indicates Raadha's disdain for the lowbrow taste of Krishna, who takes delights in a bumpkin, leaving queen like herself. A farmer's brother can be a Farmer Jr., but will not be a charmer... better leave him, as he is... And if iambs fit in - Crotchety, thy name is woman!

iha rasabhaNane kR^itahariguNane madhuripupadasevake |
kaliyugacharitam na vasatu duritam kavinR^ipajayadevake || a pa 15-8

pa cChe- iha rasa bhaNane kR^ita hari guNane madhu ripu pada sevake kali yuga charitam na vasatu duritam kavi nR^ipa jayadevake

a pa 15-8. rasa+bhaNane= blissful essence, saying; iha+kR^ita+hari+guNane= now, made [said,] Krishna's, praise song; madhuripu+pada+sevake = Krishna's, at feet, worshipper; kavi+ nR^ipa= poet's, king; jayadevake= by Jayadeva [by his saying]; kali+yuga+charitam= in Kali, era, treading; duritam= profanation; na+vasatu= not, dwells [not to be attached; come on... for it is experienceable, experience it oh, devotees... is ensuant.]

Let not the profanation that is treading its way in this Kali era be attached to the king of poets Jayadeva, for he is a worshipper at the feet of Krishna, further he is saying his 'experienceable blissful essence' in this praise song on Krishna... come on, experience it, oh, devotees... [a pa 15-8]

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naayaataH sakhi nirdayo yadi shaThastvam, duuti kim duuyase
svacChandam bahuvallabhaH sa ramate kim tatra te duushhaNam |
pashyaadya priyasa.ngamaaya dayitasyaakR^ishhyamaaNam guNaiH
utkaNThaartibharaadiva sphuTadidam chetaH svayam, yaasyati || 7-9

pa cChe- na ayaataH sakhi nirdayaH yadi shaThaH tvam duuti kim duuyase svacCha.ndam bahu vallabhaH saH ramate kim tatra te duuSaNam pashya adya priya sa.ngamaaya dayitasya akR^iSyamaaNam guNaiH utkaNTha aarti bharaat iva sphuTat idam chetaH svayam yaasyati

15-9. hè sakhi; duuti= oh, friend, my messenger; nir+dayaH= without, mercy; shaThaH = a philanderer; yadi+na+ayaataH= if, not, come; kim+tvam+duuyase= why, you, worry; saH +bahu+ vallabhaH= he has, many, sweethearts; svacCha.ndam+ramate= by his own volition, he takes delight; tatra= in that matter; kim+te+duuSaNam= why, your, belittling, disparage; adya= now; utkaNTha= ecstasy; aarti= anguish; bharaat+iva= filled with, as though; sphuTat +idam+chetaH= bursts, this, heart [of mine]; dayitasya+guNaiH+ aakR^iSya maaNam = by lover's, plus points, being attracted [magnetized] ; priya+ sa.ngam- aaya = with lover, to conjoin; svayam+yaasyati= on its own, [my soul] goes [merges in him]; pashya= you may see.

"Oh, friend, if that merciless philanderer has not turned up why you worry as my messenger... when he has many sweethearts and he takes delight in them by his own volition, then why do you disparage him... and when my heart is filled with anguish, brought by my ecstasy in waiting for him, this heart of mine appears to burst at anytime, for it is still being magnetized by his plus points, and if that happens my soul merges only in him, you may see it... [15-9]

Comment: In fact this girlfriend is sorry faced unable to see the plight of Raadha. But Raadha being as tongue-lasher, next only to Seetha of Valmiki, in a kind of identification she lashes her tongue at this girl. These messengers have a part to play when sent on delegation such delegations, unlike our present day ambassadors who always parrot out 'I will ask my govt. and xerox that reply to your govt....' . In Ramayana Hanuma burns Lanka after seeing Seetha. Krishna shows his Cosmic Body after the failure of peace talks in Bharata.

So also, this girl must have done something that is rendering her silent. Commentators bring another shade of meaning. Though its word-to-word translation is not given, the gist is like this: 1st stanza: you are worrying because you might have had an ungratified bout with him, unsayable to me. And you objectionably worry for my saying about him as a 'philanderer, merciless one' because he might have 'philandered' with you for he is too 'merciful.' 2nd stanza: I myself say that he has many sweethearts, and said this even previously. So you took chance to become one, though at present you are sent as my agent. 3rd and 4th stanzas: I don't mind his volitions and vacillations with your like, but I have none else than him from day one. So, when my heart bursts and soul merges in him, then you all put together have your butterflying and philandering... don't worry, just wait for it...

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aSTapadi - 16 - harinaaraayaNamadanaayaasam
anilataralakuvalayanayanena |
tapati na saa kisalayashayanena
sakhi yaa ramitaa vanamaalinaa - iti dhR^ivam || a pa 16-1

pa cChe- anila tarala kuvalaya nayanena tapati na saa kisalaya shayanena sakhi yaa ramitaa vanamaalinaa

a pa 16-1. sakhi= oh, friend; yaa= she [who is]; ramitaa= sated [gratify (desire, or a desirous person) to the full]; anila+tarala= by breeze, waved, ripply [billowy]; kuvalaya + nayanena = blue-lotus [like,] with eyes; vanamaalinaa= by Krishna; saa= she; kisalaya + shayanena = tender-leaves, on bed; na+tapati = not [never,] sears [cause (esp. emotional) pain or great anguish to]; [reprise: sakhi= oh, friend; yaa= she [who is]; ramitaa= sated; vanamaalinaa= by one who is garlanded with all-sanctifying basil leaves.

"She who is sated by that billowy blue lotus eyed Krishna, she never sears on any bed of leaflets... oh, friend... for, she is sated by one garlanded with basil-leaves... [a pa 16-1]

vikasitasarasijalalitamukhena |
sphuTati na saa manasijavishikhena || a pa 16-2

pa cChe- vikasita sarasija lalita mukhena - yaa ramitaa vanamaalinaa - sphuTati na saa manasija vishikhena

a pa 16-2. vikasita+sarasi+ja= bloomed, lake, born one [lotus like] lalita+mukhena= with attractive [rapturous,] face; [ellipt. yaa ramitaa vanamaalinaa = she who is sated]; saa+manasi+ja= she, with mind, born one [Love-god's]; vi+shikhena= with sharp, arrowheads; na+sphuTati= not [never,] shatters.

"She who is sated by that one with a bloomed lotus like rapturous face, Love-god's sharp arrowheads never shatters her... for, she is sated by one garlanded with basil-leaves... [a pa 16-2]

amR^itamadhuramR^idutaravachanena |
jvalati na saa malayajapavanena || a pa 16-3

pa cChe - amR^ita madhura mR^idu tara vachanena jvalati na saa malaya ja pavanena

a pa 16-3. amR^ita+madhura= ambrosial, lusciousness; mR^idu+tara= dulcet, finely; vachanena= by words; saa= she [yaa ramitaa]; malaya+ja+pavanena= in Mt. Malaya, born [hence, sandal scented, reeze; na+jvalati= never, singes.

"She who is sated by him whose words have ambrosial lusciousness and finely dulcified, she never singes in any sandal breeze... for, she is sated by one garlanded with basil-leaves... [a pa 16-3]

sthalajalaruharuchikaracharaNena |
luThati na saa himakarakiraNena || a pa 16-4

pa cChe- sthala jala ruha ruchi kara charaNena luThati na saa hima kara kiraNena

a pa 16-4. sthala+jala+ruha]= on land, water, born [i.e., lotuses born on ground rather than in lakes - dry land lotuses]; ruchi= brilliance [having]; kara+charaNena= arms, feet; saa= she [as above]; hima+ kara+kiraNena= by coolness, make [moon,] in his beams; na+luThati= never, welters.

She who is sated by him whose arms and feet have the brilliance of land lotuses, she never welters in cooling moonshine... for, she is sated by one garlanded with basil-leaves... [a pa 16-4]

sajalajaladasamudayaruchireNa |
dalati na saa hR^idi chiraviraheNa || a pa 16-5

pa cChe- sa jala jalada samudaya ruchireNa dalati na saa hR^idi viraha bhareNa

a pa 16-5. sa+jala= with water; jala+da= water, giver -cloud; samudaya= masses of; ruchireNa= he has their glitter; saa= she [as above]; hR^idi= in heart; viraha+bhareNa= grief of rift, by weight of; na+ dalati= never, rends.

"She who is sated by him whose glitter is like that of masses of clouds, her heart never gets rent by the weight of grief in rift... for, she is sated by one garlanded with basil-leaves... [a pa 16-5]

kanakanikaSaruchishuchivasanena |
shvasati na saa parijanahasanena || a pa 16-6

pa cChe- kanaka nikaSa ruchi shuchi vasanena shvasati na saa parijana hasanena

a pa 16-6. kanaka= gold's; nikaSa= a streak or line of gold made on a touchstone [but not the touchstone itself]; ruchi= in shine; shuchi+vasanena= all-purifying, by robes; saa= she [as above]; parijana= of people around; hasanena= their laughing of [a laughingstock]; na+shvasati= never, sighs for.

"She who is sated by him whose all-purifying ochry robe that is akin in shine with pure golden streaks on touchstone, she will never sigh for her becoming a laughingstock among kith and kin... for, she is sated by one garlanded with basil-leaves... [a pa 16-6]

sakalabhuvanajanavarataruNena |
vahati na saa rujamatikaruNena || a pa 16-7

pa cChe- sakala bhuvana jana vara taruNena vahati na saa rujam ati karuNena

a pa 16-7. sakala+bhuvana+jana= in all, worlds, and their in-dwellers; vara+taruNena= best one, with bloom of youth; ati+karuNena= by his utmost, mercy [grace, unmerited favour of God]; saa= she [as above]; rujam= bodily pain [by separation]; na+vahati= never, endures.

"She who is sated by him who is the only best one with bloom of youth among all the in-dwellers in the triad of worlds, and the only one with utmost grace, she will never endure bodily pain of separation... [a pa 16-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitavachanena |
pravishatu harirapi hR^idayamanena || a pa 16-8

pa cChep- shrii jayadeva bhaNita vachanena pravishatu hariH api hR^idayam anena

a pa 16-8. anena= by this; jayadeva= by Jayadeva; bhaNita+shrii+vachanena= said, blest, sentences [import, songs - or bhaNita+milanena= said something about women conjoining with Krishna; or - anena+bhaNita = by chanting, or singing along these lyrics said by Jayadeva - will be the meaning] hariH+api= Krishna, even; pravishatu+hR^idayam= will enter, heart [the heart of Raadha, or in our hearts too, filling our hearts with love.]

On singing this song along these sonmgs that contain blest import, let Krishna enter the hearts of one and all, to fill them all with love. [a pa 16-8]

Comment: This one song seeds the concept of a-chintya-bheda-a-bhedaa bhaava 'unheeding differences or non-difference' you leap at Krishna...' so to say. This is also called Bengal school or gauDiya paddhati etc., and these days unheard is this name, thus it is relegated to a paddhati 'custom' rather than a darshana 'philosophy' though later to saDdarshana-s. Both this and advaita of Shankara are same, though the ways of both of its thinkers differ. Its practises are evident than its real name. This concept of Bengal school nominates Krishna as the ununderstandable Brahman of Shankara, as the ever-effulgent, ever-overflowing, ever-rising flood of rasa is in Krishna.

Better this philosophy be retained, though not with this too technical title, but with some suitable title, say premaadvaita, like that of Ramanuja's vishiSTaadvaita, in view of its loveable tenets.

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manobhavaanandana chandanaanila
prasiida re dakshiNa m.ncha vaamataam |
kshaNam jagatpraaNa nidhaaya maadhavam
puro mama praaNaharo bhavishhyasi || 7-11

pa cChe- manaH bhava aanandana chandana anila prasiida re dakshiNa mu.ncha vaamataam kshaNam jagat praaNa nidhaaya maadhavam puraH mama praaNa haraH bhavishhyasi

7-11. manaH+bhava= heart's, idea [love is heartfelt idea, it won't occur on much rumination - so, this is Love-god]; aanandana= you please [such Love-god as his friend]; chandana+ anila= sandal, breeze; re+dakshiNa= arè - tactful one [arè urè turè- are addressing in dissent, or in affection]; vaamataam+ mu.ncha= radicalism, your extremism, leave off; hè+ jagat + praaNa= hè, world's, life; kshaNam+ maadhavam= for a moment, Krishna be; mama + puraH + nidhaaya= my, before, on keeping; prasiida= be gracious [in wafting the lovable sandal breeze on Krishna, in order to make him come to me unbearable of that lovely breeze - otherwise]; praaNa+haraH+bhavishhyasi= life, stealer, you will become.][Meaning is stretched below.]

rè, tactful sandal breeze, think not that you alone are a tactful one for your being the friend of Love-god, but breeze around Krishna, still better a tactician, and see whether you can fetch and place him in my presence, restive for my separation, and then I address you hè, life of the world.... otherwise, it is you who becomes the stealer of my life, rather than a life-giver... think of it...

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ripuriva sakhiisa.nvaaso.ayam shikhiiva himaanilo
vishhamiva sudhaarashmiryasmindunoti manogate |
hR^idayamadaye tasminnevam punarvalate balaat
kuvalayadR^ishaam vaamaH kaamo nikaamanira.nkushaH || 7-12

pa cChe- ripuH iva sakhii sa.nvaasaH ayam shikhii iva hima anilaH viSam iva sudhaa rashmiH yasmin dunoti manaH gate hR^idayam adaye tasmin evam punaH valate balaat kuvalaya dR^ishaam vaamaH kaamaH nikaama nira.nkushaH

7-12. yasmin= which one [which Krishna]; manaH+gate= in [my] heart, having entered; ayam= his; sakhii+sa.nvaasaH= girlfriends, staying in their togetherness, flirting; ripuH + iva + dunoti = enemy, like, anguishing [me]; hima+anilaH= cool, breeze; shikhii+iva= tongues of fire, like [dunoti= agonising me]; sudhaa+rashmiH= nectarine, moonbeams; viSam+iva+ [dunoti ] = venom, like, [afflicting me]; tasmin= in him; a+daye= one without, mercy, merciless Krishna; evam+hR^idayam= this way, heart; balaat= vehemently; punaH= repeatedly; valate= swivelling; nikaama= persistent; nir+a.nkushaH= without, goad [unstoppable]; kaamaH = Love-god; kuvalaya+dR^ishaam= those with slanting, glances [winsome girls]; vaamaH = becoming leftist, extremist, a desperado.

"He who has entered my heart and abiding in it, is flirting with his girlfriends, and that is anguishing me like an enemy... cool breezes are agonising me like tongues of fire... nectarine moonbeams are afflicting me like venom... yet, my heart is repeatedly swivelling around such a merciless Krishna... this persistent and unstoppable Love-god is really a desperado to winsome girls, isn't so! [7-12]

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baadhaam vidhehi malayaanila pa.nchabaaNa
praaNaangR^ihaaNa na gR^iham punaraashrayishhye |
kim te kR^itaantabhagini kshamayaa tarangaiH
a.ngaani si.ncha mama shaamyatu dehadaahaH || 7-13

pa cChe- baadhaam vidhehi malaya anila pa.nch abaaNa praaNaan gR^ihaaNa gR^iham punaH na aashrayiSye kim te kR^itaa.nta bhagini kshamayaa tara.ngai rangaani si.ncha mama shaamyatu deha daahaH

7-13. hè malaya+anila= oh, sandal breeze; baadhaam+vidhehi= pain [vengeance,] wreck on me; pa.nch+abaaNa= oh, five, arrowed one - Love-god; praaNaan+gR^ihaaNa= lives, take [extricate, paca praaNaaH - pancha baaNaaH]; punaH+gR^iham+na+aashrayiSye= again, home, not, wish to fall back on; kR^ita= made as, rendered as; a.nta= antakaH, Ender, Yama's; bhagini= sister [oh, River Yamuna, you now appear to be rendered as a sister of life ending Yama]; kshamayaa+kim= of your patience, nonchalance, is of what use; tara.ngaiH + mama + angaani= with your ripples, my, limbs; si.ncha= drench, make wet [no suicidal tendency is apparent please, for this is a stubborn girl]; mama+deha+daahaH +shaamyatu= my, body, heat, let dampen [make less forceful.]

"hè, sandal breeze wreck your vengeance on me, hè, Love-god extricate my five-lives with your five arrows, for unwished is my falling back on my home... hè, River Yamuna, you too seem to have become a sister of life-ending Yama by your nonchalance, of what use is it... drench my limbs with your ripples, thus let my body heat dampen... [7-12]

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radhaayaashkitam vilokya hasati svairam sakhiimaNDale |
vriiDaaca.ncalama.ncalam nayanayoraadhaaya raadhaanane
svaadusmeramukho.ayamastujagadaana.ndadaayana.ndaatmajaH || 7-14

pa cChe- praataH niila nicolam acyutam uraH sa.mviita piita a.mbaram radhaayaaH cakitam vilokya hasati svairam sakhii maNDale vriiDaa ca.ncalam a.ncalam nayanayoH aadhaaya raadha aanane svaadu smera mukhaH ayam astu jagat aana.ndadaaya na.nda aatmajaH

7-14. praataH= in early morning; niila+nicolam= black, blanket [of Raadha]; acyutam= at Krishna [who wrapped it around him]; piita+a.mbaram= ochry [silk dress of Krishna]; sa.mviita+ radhaayaaH = is wrapped around]; uraH= at Raadha's bust; cakitam [yathaa tathaa]= in order to confuse; vilokya= on seeing; sakhii+maNDale= her friends, circle; svairam + hasati = teasingly, laughing; sati= that being so; raadha+aanane= on Raadha's, face; vriiDaa = coyly; ca.ncalam+ nayanayoH = fluttering, of eyes; a.ncalam= ends, slanting glances; aadhaaya = on keeping; svaadu+ smera + mukhaH= lovely, smiling, faced one; ayam+na.nda+ aatmajaH= he, that Nanda's, son; jagat+ aana.ndadaaya+astu= for world's, delightful, let him be. [Meaning amplified for a verbal picture.]

In early morning when Raadha and Krishna are coming out of their love resort, Krishna is wrapped in Raadha's black blanket, and Raadha's bust is wrapped with Krishna ochry silks. On seeing this, her friend's circle started to laugh teasingly in order to confuse her. That being so, Krishna with coyly fluttering eyes kept on his slanting glances on Raadha in a 'what-to-do-now' attitude. Hence, let that lovely and smiley-faced son of Nanda be delightful to the entire world. [7-14]

iti giitagovinde vipralabdhaavarNane naaganaaraayaNo naama saptamaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 7th chapter, called nagara naaraayaNaH - Shifty Krishna, in giita govindam of Jayadeva.


Chapter [Sarga] 8 - Apologetic Krishna


Krishna appears before Raadha from out of thin air, on the next day morning. But Raadha, on seeing his appearance and apologetic look, starts her raves and raves at him.

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atha kathamapi yaaminiim viniiya smarasharajarjaritaapi saa prabhaate |
anunayavachanam vadantamagre praNatamapi priyamaaha saabhyasuuyam || 8-1

pa cChe- atha katham api yaaminiim viniiya smara shara jarjaritaa api saa prabhaate anunaya vachanam vadantam agre praNatam api priyam aaha saabhyasuuyam

8-1. atha= then; katham+api= somehow, even; yaaminiim= night [that which has four quarters and is to be spent with an uncertainty, means - with the problem of separateness]; viniiya= [somehow] spent; smara+shara+jarjaritaa+api= Love-god's, by arrows, battered, even though; saa= she, Raadha; prabhaate= in morning; agre= before [her Krishna appeared in her fore]; anunaya+vachanam+vadantam= with apologetic, words, speaking; praNatam+api = praying with adjoined palms, even though; priyam= to her lover [Krishna]; aaha= [she] spoke; saabhyasuuyam= with jealousy [petulantly.]

Then, somehow on spending an un-spendable night with her problem of aloneness, and even though she is battered by the arrows of Love-god, but in the morning when somehow Krishna revealed himself in her fore, and though he started speaking with apologetic words, and even with his palm-fold, she that Raadha spoke to him petulantly. [8-1]

Comment: Now she becomes khaNDita naayika one among eight kinds of poetic heroines, who speaks disparagingly on noticing her man spent time with other heroines.

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aSTapadi - 17- lakshmiipatiratnaavali -
rajanijanitagurujaagararaagakSaayitamalasanimesham |
vahati nayanamanuraagamiva sphuTamuditarasaabhinivesham ||
harihari yaahi maadhava yaahi keshava maa vada kaitavavaadam
taamanusara sarasiiruhalochana yaa tava harati viSaaadam dhR^ivam || a pa 17-1

pa cChe - rajani janita guru jaagara raaga kaSaayitam alasa nimesham vahati nayanam anuraagam iva sphuTam udita rasa abhinivesham hari hari yaahi maadhava yaahi keshava maa vada kaitava vaadam taam anusara sarasiiruha lochana yaa tava harati viSaadam

a pa 17-1. rajani+janita= night, caused; guru+jaagara= by much, waking; raaga= reddened / with red colour cosmetic [of your love]; kaSaayitam= a little reddened [your eyes]; alasa+ nimesham= weakly, wink; udita+rasa+abhinivesham= sprang up [buoyancy,] in romance [enjoying shR^ingaara,] expertise; tava+nayanam+sphuTam+vahati= your, eyes, clearly, bear [those marks]; anuraagam+iva= interestedness [in her alone,] as though; yaahi+ maadhava= away with you, Krishna; maa+vada+ kaitava+ vaadam = don't, tell, feign = archaic - invent an excuse etc, dialogue; sarasiiruha+lochana= oh, lotus-like, eyed one [ here, the pair of eyes are luring, lure-eyed one ; taam+anusara= her, tag along; yaahi+keshava= be off, Keshava [one with beautiful head hair, one who is interested in lovely women that adore their hairdos beautifully]; yaa+harati+viSaadam= she who, takes away, your woe; hari hari= oh god, oh god - oh boy, oh boy [in disdain; this is a catchword of those days, made available by the poet as he has not said this poem for kings, queens, or courtiers. This is still retained in Indian vocabulary, in forms like - hai rè hai, vaarè vaa, ayoyo, aDeDe, raamaraama... etc., as an expression of disdain, disgust, or sorry.]

"Your buoyant eyes that ever express your expertise in your self-indulgence in romances, are now weakly winking, and reddened both by the night-caused nightlong waking, and by the reddish colour of facial-cosmetic of your lover, hence they now clearly bear the mark of your interestedness in her alone... away with you, hè, Krishna, you with your lotus-like luring eyes... tag along her alone, who takes your woe away... be off, Keshava, and tell no feign dialogue to me - oh boy, oh boy... [a pa 17-1]

Comment: Then he is about to concoct something like 'I was searching for you sleeplessly, and I searched nightlong, hence my eyes are reddish... but... yet... that...' and then Raadha cuts in to rap out the following.

kajjalamalinavilochanachumbanavirachitaniilimaruupam |
dashanavasanamaruNam tava kR^iSNa tanoti tanoranuruupam || a pa 17-2

pa cChe - kajjala malina vilochana cu.mbana virachita niilima ruupam dashana vasanam aruNam tava kR^iSNa tanoti tanoH anuruupam

a pa 17-2. hè kR^iSNa= oh yeah?, Krishna; kajjala+malina= by mascara, besmirched; vilochana+ cu.mbana = eyes, by kissing; virachita+niilima+ruupam= besmeared, blackness, air of; dashana+vasanam= teeth, covering [lips]; aruNam= reddish [lips]; tava+tanoH+tanoti= to your, [colour of] body, enriching; reprise - yaahi+maadhava... yaa+harati+ viSaadam= as above.

"Oh, yeah? Krishna, by kissing her eyes that are besmirched by mascara, some blackness is besmeared on your reddish lips, thus those lips with an air of blackness are enriching your body colour, that is already blackish... go off, oh boy... oh boy... [17-2]

vapuranuharati tava smarasa.ngarakharanakharakshatarekham |
marakatashakalakalitakaladhautalipireva ratijayalekham || a pa 17-3

pa cChe - vapuH anuharati tava smara sa.ngara khara nakha rakshata rekham marakata shakala kalita kala dhauta lipiH eva rati jaya lekham

a pa 17-3. tava+vapuH= your, body; smara+sa.ngara= Love-god's, war [warring in love-war]; khara + nakhara+kshata+rekham= sharp, fingernail, chafes, streaks; marakata+shakala= on emeralds, pieces of; kalita= carved; kala dhauta lipiH= with golden streaks; rati jaya lekham = in love affairs, of victory [merit,] certificate; anuharati+iva= resemble, like.

"Your body is chafed with streaks of sharp fingernails, and they resemble the golden streaks carved on the pieces of emeralds, in your certificate of merit in love affairs... then you must be warring in love-war... go off, oh boy... oh boy... [17-3]

charaNakamalagaladalaktasiktamidam tava hR^idayamudaaram |
darshayatiiva bahirmadanadrumanavakisalayaparivaaram || a pa 17-4

pa cChe - charaNa kamala galat alakta siktam idam tava hR^idayam udaaram darshayati iva bahiH madana druma nava kisalaya pari vaaram

a pa 17-4. idam+udaaram= this, broad [or, bounteous]; tava+hR^idayam= your, chest; charaNa+ kamala = from feet, lotuses; galat+alakta+siktam= slid, red feet-paint, wet with; madana+druma= Love-god, [called] tree; nava+kisalaya+parivaaram= new, tender leaves, whorled with; darshayati+iva+ bahiH= showing, as though, at outside.

"Because this bounteous chest of yours is wet with the red feet-paint slid from some lotus-footed girl, it appears like an all-embracing tree like Love-god in side that chest, but now showing itself from out of that chest, whorled with new tender leaves... so you must be at love-war... go off, oh boy... oh boy... [17-4]

Comment: The simile is between coppery red leaflets of tree and reddish foot-paint of girls, and between the love-giving Krishna, and shade/comfort giving tree. If a tree is wetted many times, it will bear leaves anew. If love is satiated it bears newer fruits. This posture is called krodha bandha - vaatsaayana the main treatise on aesthetic romance.

dashanapadam bhavadadharagatam mama janayati chetasi khedam |
kathayati kathamadhunaapi mayaa saha tava vapuretadabhedam || a pa 17-5

pa cChe- dashana padam bhavat adhara gatam mama janayati chetasi khedam kathayati katham adhunaa api mayaa saha tava vapuH etat abhedam

a pa 17-5. bhavat+adhara+gatam= your, lip, gone in; dashana+padam= tooth, foot [bite]; mama +chetasi+janayati+khedam= in my, heart, causing, agony; api+adhunaa= even, now; tava+ vapuH= your, body; mayaa+saha= me, along with; etat= all this [said, alleged singleness]; a+bhedam= un, separated [entity of Radhamaadhavatvam; mama cetasi= my, heart]; katham+ kathayati= how, says it.

"The tooth-bite abiding on your lip is causing agony in my heart, even now how can my heart say to me that we are allegedly unseparated, bodily... go off, oh boy... oh boy... [17-5]

Comment: Some heavy-duty Philo on 'oneness of Radhakrishna' is imbued in this one stanza. This gives root to one viewpoint called darshana - a cintya bheda a bheda bhaava generally - heedless of difference and non-difference - in supreme soul and individual soul, while the Philo thinking prior to this was manifoldly different. Then the argument is - 'though your lip is bitten, I feel pain in it, for we two may be different bodily but one in soul - a bheda/non-difference . 'I have bitten my lip so ecstatically, hence I don't feel pain' - a bheda . 'Your lip is bitten, not mine' bheda/difference . 'Though your lip is bitten, I feel that mine too is bitten - bheda-a-bheda - difference, yet non-difference. So go the endless arguments, understandably. Philosophising all this, at this level of understanding the wordsmithy of Jayadeva, would be futile.

bahiriva malinataram tava kR^iSNa mano.api bhaviSyati nuunam |
kathamatha va.nchayase janamanugatamasamasharajvaraduunam || a pa 17-6

pa cChe - bahiH iva malina taram tava kR^iSNa manoH api bhaviSyati nuunam katham atha va.nchayase janam anugatam asama shara jvara duunam

a pa 17-6. tava+manoH+api= your, heart, even; bahiH+iva= outside, like [like your body]; malina+ taram= grimy, higher in degree [grimier]; nuunam= definitely; bhaviSyati= will be [seems to be]; atha [samprashna]= why because [otherwise]; asama+ shara= Love-god's, by arrows; jvara= with fever; duunam = agonised; anugatam+janam= following, people [your adherents, admirers]; katham+vanchayase = how, you let down kR^iSNa= hè, Krishna [be off.]

"Even your heart seems to be grimier than your begrimed body, definite is that, otherwise how can you let down your own admirers, agonised in the fever caused by Love-god's arrows? Away with you Krishna, oh boy... oh boy... [17-6]

bhramati bhavaanabalaakavalaaya vaneSu kimatra vichitram |
prathayati puutanikaiva vadhuuvadhanirdayabaalacharitram || a pa 17-7

pa cChe - bhramati bhavaan abalaa kavalaaya vaneSu kim atra vichitram prathayati puutanika iva vadhuu vadha nirdaya baala charitram

a pa 17-7. bhavaan= you are; bhramati= you roam; vaneSu= in forests [in Brindavan]; abalaa+ kavalaaya = womenfolk, to wolf down; kim+atra+vichitram= what, therein, surprise [unsurprising it is]; puutanika+iva= Putana [the killing of demoness,] as with; vadhuu+vadha= women, in killing; nirdaya= merciless; baala+charitram+prathayati= childhood, legends, explains.

"You roam in Brindavan only to wolf down womenfolk, unsurprising is that, as with the killing of demoness Putana in your childhood, merciless legends of your childhood explain that you are an women killer... Away with you, oh boy... oh boy... [17-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitarativa.nchitakhaNDitayuvativilaapam |
shR^iNuta sudhaamadhuram vibudhaa vibudhaalayato.api duraapam || a pa 17-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva bhaNita rati va.nchita khaNDita yuvati vilaapam shR^iNuta sudhaa madhuram vibudhaa vibudha aalayataH api duraapam || 8-2

a pa 17-8. hè vibudhaaH= oh, literati; sudhaa+madhuram= [than] nectar, nectareous; vibudha= gods; aalayataH+api= abode of, even from; dur+aapam= impossible to get; jayadeva+bhaNita+ shrii[suukti ] = by Jayadeva, said, promising [song]; rati+va.nchita= from intimacy, cheated; khaNDita+ yuvati+ vilaapam = disregarded, heroine's, lament; shR^iNuta= be listened.

"Oh, literati, that promising song said by Jayadeva, that which is nectareous than nectar, and an impossible one to get even from the heaven, and that says about 'a disregarded heroine' cheated form intimacy, may be listened... [17-8]

Verse Locator

tavedam pashyantyaaH prasaradanuraagam bahiriva
priyaapaadaalaktachchhuritamaruNachchhaayahR^idayam |
mamaadya prakhyaatapraNayabharabhangena kitava
tvadaalokaH shokaadapi kimapi lajjaam janayati || 8-3

pa cChe- tava idam pashyantyaaH prasarat anuraagam bahiH iva priyaa paada alakta cCuritam aruNa cChaaya hR^idayam mama adya prakhyaata praNaya bhara bhangena kitava tvat aalokaH shokaat api kim api lajjaam janayati

8-3. hè kitava= you beguiler; tvat+aalokaH= [such as you are,] on your, appearance; priyaa+ paada+alakta+ cCuritam= [your] love's, with her feet's red paint, bedaubed [chest, thereby]; bahiH+prasarat +anuraagam= out, flowing, [your] fondness [for her]; iva [sthitam]= as though [it appears]; pashyantyaaH= on seeing; tava+idam+aruNa+cChaaya+hR^idayam= your, this, red, coloured [covered,] chest; mama+prakhyaata+praNaya+bhara= for me, [mine] highly renowned, love's, weight [here, a weighty primacy]; bhangena=owing to shattering; adya= now; shokaat+api= from grief, than; kim+api= what, even [to say]; lajjaam+janayati= disgrace, causing.

"You beguiler, on your appearance with a chest bedaubed by the red foot-paint of your love, where that red paint appears to be your fondness for her, outflowing from out of that chest, and on seeing this otherwise red coloured chest, the primacy of that highly renowned love of mine with you is shattered, thereby, to say nothing of grief, a disgrace is causing in me... what more can be said... [8-3]

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stha.mbhaakarSaNadR^iptiharSaNamahaama.ntraH kura.ngiidR^ishaam |
bhra.nshaH ka.msaripossamarpayatu vashshreyaansi va.mshiiravaH || 8-4

pa cChe - antaH mohana mauli ghuurNana calat mandaara vibhra.mshana stha.mbha akarSaNa dR^ipti harSaNa mahaa ma.ntraH kura.ngii dR^ishaam dR^ipyat danava duuyamaana diviSat durvaara duHkha aapadaam bhra.nshaH ka.msa ripoH samarpayatu vaH shreyaansi va.mshii ravaH

8-4. kura.ngii+dR^ishaam= for those who have deer like glances, for beauties; antaH+ mohana= innerly [within heart of hearts,] faint [ecstasizes]; mauli+ghuurNana= head, by nodding; calat+ mandaara+vibhra.mshana= moving, mandaara flower, sliding down; sthambha + akarSaNa+ dR^ipti+harSaNa= spellbinding, magnetising, agonising, gladdening; mahaa+ mantraH=supreme, hymn; dR^ipyat+danava+duuyamaana= self-conceited, demons, scorching ; diviSat+ durvaara+duHkha+aapadaam= for gods, unrelieved, woeful, impediments; bhranshaH = one destructive to; ka.msa= Kamsa [the evil king]; ripoH [+kamsa+daanava]= enemy [of Kamsa and other demons];' va.mshii+ravaH= Mohana Vamshi flute, fluting; vaH+ shreyaansi+ samarpayatu = to you all, riches, will endow [in mms shreyaamsi+ vipolayatu it is the same meaning, but when said vyapohatuvo.ashreyaamsi = vaH a shreyaamshi vyapohayatu = all your problems be relieved by that flute notes.]

That which ecstasies the hearts of hearts of deer-eyed beauties, that which makes his head to nod, by which nodding vermilion mandara flowers slide down, that which is a supreme hymn with spellbinding, magnetising, agonising, gladdening effects, that which is scorching to self-conceited demons, and that which is destructive to the unrelieved woeful impediments of gods in destructing Kamsa, the evil king, thereby the only enemy of demons, that fluting tunes of that Divine Flute Mohana Vamshi, shall endow riches to you all. [8-4]

Comment: The spellbinding, magnetising, agonising, gladdening effects, called mohana, vashiikaraNa, maaraNa, sthambhana, aakarSaNa are deducible from the treatises of aesthetic romance.

iti giitagovinde khaNDitaavarNane vilakshyalakshmiipatirnaama aSThamaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 8th chapter, called vilaksha/vilakshya lakshmiipatiH - Apologetic Krishna, in Gita Govindam of Jayadeva.


Chapter [Sarga] 9 - Unpretentious Krishna

Raadha's friend admonishes her for her misdemeanour with Krishna, though he is somewhat unpretentiousness.

Verse Locator

taamatha manmathakhinnaam ratirasabhinnaam viSaadasampannaam |
anuchintitaharicharitaam kalahaantaritamuvaacha sakhii || 9-1

pa cChe - taam atha manmatha khinnaam rati rasa bhinnaam viSaada sampannaam anuchintita hari charitaam kalahaantaritam uvaacha sakhii

9-1. atha= then; manmatha+khinnaam= by Love-god, rendered helpless [worsted]; rati+rasa+ bhinnaam = love's, longing for savour, wrecked [or, separated from having it]; viSaada+sampannaam= woe, wealthy; anu+chintita= continually, thinking; hari+charitaam= Krishna's, demeanour; kalahaantaritam = to kalahaantarita - one among eight types of poetic heroines - 'sorry-after-squabble' heroine; taam= to her, that Raadha; sakhii= girlfriend; uvaacha= advised.

Then to Raadha, who is by now worsted by Love-god, whose savour for love is just wrecked, hence she is wealthy in her woes, yet who is continually thinking about Krishna's demeanour, to such a 'sorry-after-squabble' heroine of Krishna, her girlfriend advised. [9-1]

Comment: The mood of this kalahaantarita 'sorry-after-squabble' heroine will be like this: praaNeshvaram praNaya kopa [bhareNa] bisheSa bhiitam | yaa caaTukaaram avadhiirya visheSa vaagbhiH | sa.mtapyate madana vahni shikhaa sahasrasaiH | baaSa aakula ca kalahaa.ntarita hi saa syaat || One who lashes her tongue at her lover with many possible synonyms for a single misdeed, till the point of his helpless leaving, and then she starts unilateral repentance, wet with tears and wearying for his reappearance. In this mood the hero is anukuula obliging fellow, heroine as above, and the friend duuti a harbinger-cum-prognosticator.

Verse Locator

- ama.ndamuku.ndam -
harirabhisarati vahati madhupavane |
kimaparamadhikasukham sakhi bhavane |
maadhave maa kuru maanini maanamaye -dhR^ivam || a pa 18-1

pa cChe - hariH abhisarati vahati madhu pavane kim aparam adhika sukham sakhi bhavane maadhave maa kuru maanini maanam aye

a pa 18-1. hè maanini=vain, proud - cocky; ayè= you, girlie [Raadha]; maadhave= about Maadhava [ maa= Lakshmi's, dhava = husband - don't think that he belongs to Lakshmi alone, he is yours too]; maanam+maa+kuru= cockiness, don't, do; madhu+pavane+vahati= autumnal, breeze while breezing; hariH= Krishna; abhi+sarati= towards [your preset place] comes; [reprise] hè+sakhi= o, dear; bhavane= in home, in your realm, [or, bhuvane= in your realm of love]; aparam+adhika+sukham+kim= to boot, better, elatedness, what [is it, or you have.]

"You, cocky girlie, don't show off your cockiness, for Krishna comes to you when the autumnal breeze breezes... O, dear, what better rapt you've at home, to boot... [a pa 18-1]

taalaphalaadapi gurumatisarasam |
kim viphaliikuruSe kuchakalasham || a pa -18-2

pa cChe - taala phalaat api gurum ati sarasam kim viphalii kuruSe kucha kalasham

a pa 18-2. taala+phalaat+api+gurum= palm, fruit, than, heavier; ati+sa+rasam= much [plethoric,] with, juice; kucha+kalasham= bosoms, pot-like [jaatyaikavacanam, common nouns]; kim+viphalii+kuruSe= why, fall into disuse, you make.

"Heavier than palm-fruits, plethoric in juice are these pot-like bosoms of yours, why do make them fall into disuse... O, dear, what better rapt you've at home, to boot... [a pa 18-2]

Comment: This comparison has some illustration about nature, apart from just romance. Palm tree, as all know, is the tallest fruiting tree, and its fruits, not dates, are therefore supposed to be the loftiest among all fruits, both height wise and their content wise. They fruit palm juice in a three-eye sap sockets, and that juice is poor man's much liked cool drink in summer. It instantaneously reduces body heat, minus any side effects, and hence, the palm fruits are praiseworthy for a cooling effect. If these are left unused, for want of some toddy taper, or a climber to go to such a height, as they are 'not-so-easy- to-get' variety, they become stony and fall. Even then, they will be put to use by burning them in grass, for eating its kernel, which has no such medicinal effects. This is in mundane variety of understanding poet's words in commonplace parlance.

The other sense attached to such anga pratyanga varNana 'limb by limb poetising' - it is to be said, whenever a female deity or goddess is pictured, it doesn't go without such descriptions, because a mother is identifiable by bust by the offspring, which was once useful for its birth. Minus them he is nowhere. In Lalita Sahasra naama, such mother is said to have 'stony breasts...' kaThina sthala maNDalaa... meaning - let millions and millions take birth; this nature somehow nourishes them, for her mamma knows no wizening effect. So, let us give nature its own due.

kati na kathitamidamanupadamachiram |
maa parihara harimatishayaruchiram || a pa 18-3

pa cChe - kati na kathitam idam anupadam achiram maa parihara harim atishaya ruchiram

a pa 18-3. hè maaninii= O, cocky girl; atishaya+ruchiram= surpassingly, delectable; harim= Krishna be; maa+parihara= don't, shun away; idam= this [word, little talk]; a+chiram= not, long before [just now]; kati= how many times; anu+padam= at each, step; na+kathitam= not, said [by me, of course.]

"O, cocky girl, don't shun that Krishna, for he is surpassingly delectable, and how many times I haven't said this little talk, just now and on each and every step of yours... [a pa 18-3]

Comment: Yet, Raadha goes on refusing Krishna... for she is an emblem of happiness for Krishna hlaadinii shakti, and a symbol of unquenchable desire, like nature. Krishna will always be trying to quench it, but rarely nature gets satisfied, and demands him to be always with him, instead of incarnating himself now and then, to see her or her wellbeing. Krishna's appearance and disappearance in raasa liila, the ronde dance, in Brindavan symbolises with god's periodic visitation to earth. When it is said, that god created whole universe, in any ism, why he or his messengers chance only upon earth? Why don't they go to Mars, Moon, or to some Black Hole? That too, in India he has to come personally without sending some of his deputies. Because, that so-called Nature, hlaadini shakti, is only here on this Blue Dot, however querulous she might be. So, instead of remarrying that nature with that god, let us give her, her own due.

kimiti viSiidasi rodiSi vikalaa |
vihasati yuvatisabhaa tava sakalaa || a pa 18-4

pa cChe- kim iti viSiidasi rodiSi vikalaa vihasati yuvati sabhaa tava sakalaa

a pa 18-4. kim+iti+viSiidasi= why, this way, you lament; vi+kalaa+rodiSi= less, lustre [lacklustre, namby-pamby] you wail; vi+hasati= verily, laughing at; tava+sakalaa= your, all; yuvati+sabhaa= girls, guild [a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, here milkmaids.]

"This way, why do you lament and wail, you namby-pamby, all of your girlfriends in our guild are laughing at you, really... [a pa 18-4]

Comment: Nature's, say this earth's worrying, weeping, and wailing for the arrival of that Ultimate onto her is as old as Fish Incarnation. Every time he comes here, does some tricks and gets out as soon as his feats are over. But she wants him to be with her, and he escapes from her on politely feigning something, and all this comes mean - you be in your place, I'll be in my place, but I come to you only, only to go from your proximity, as Jean-Paul Sartre prefers to say:L'existence précède et commande l'essence, Existence precedes and rules essence. This is the Indian type of vyaavhaarika, paaramaarthika satta a colleague at loggerheads, of his 'Being and Nothingness.'

sajalanaliniidalashiitalashayane |
harimavalokya saphala nayane || a pa 18-5

pa cChe - sa jala nalinii dala shiitala shayane harim avalokya saphala nayane

a pa 18-5. sa+jala= with, water [or, mR^idula= softish]; nalinii+dala= lotus, petals; shiitala+ shayane= cool [refreshing,] on bed; harim+avalokya= at Krishna, contemplate; [then only you will become; sa+phala+nayane= with, fruit, your eyes will be [or, one with fructified eyes, for she had once seen him.]

"Contemplate on Krishna, who is on a freshening bed of moist lotus petals, then your eyes comes to fruition... [a pa 18-5]

Comment: You are that lotus bed, serving as his sustainment. See that way with your third eye, then only you realise your being is not different form that of his.

janayasi manasi kimiti gurukhedam |
shR^iNu mama vachanamaniihitabhedam || a pa 18-6

pa Che- janayasi manasi kim iti guru khedam shR^iNu mama vachanam aniihita bhedam

a pa 18-6. kim+iti= why, this way; guru+khedam= heavy, sadness; manasi+janayasi= in heart, you give raise; shR^iNu+mama+vachanam= listen, to my, words; aniihita= unwished for [unenviable,] bhedam= having inequality [among you too -finishing line, without broadening vyaaakhya.]

"Why you give raise to a heavy sadness in your heart this way, listen to my words that contain an unenviable inequality among you two... [18-6]

harirupayaatu vadatu bahumadhuram |
kimiti karoSi hR^idayamatividhuram || a pa 18-7

pa cChe- hariH upayaatu vadatu bahu madhuram kim iti karoSi hR^idayam ati vidhuram

a pa 18-7. hariH+upayaatu= Krishna, comes [to you]; vadatu+bahu+madhuram= speaks, much, melodiously; kim+iti+karoSi+hR^idayam= why, this way, you render, your heart; ati+vidhuram = muchly, wrench.

"Krishna comes to you, talks to you much melodiously, then why you wrench your heart this much... [a pa 18-7]

Comment: This and the above 'inequality' statements have some bearing to the sayings of Bhagavad Gita, more so aatma samyamna yoga of it. Don't sit thinking 'he' and 'me' - a-cintya-bheda-a-bheda - for none knows what connection exists between the Ultimate and the later.

shriijayadevabhaNitamatilalitam |
sukhayatu rasikajanam haricharitam || a pa 18-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva bhaNitam ati lalitam sukhayatu rasika janam hari charitam

a pa 18-8. jayadeva+bhaNitam= by Jayadeva, said; ati+lalitam= very, subtle; shrii+hari+ charitam= providential, Krishna's, allegory; sukhayatu+rasika+janam= give bliss, to revelling, people [in his lore.]

Let the allegory of providential Krishna, said by Jayadeva, be blissful to the revellers in his lore... [a pa 18-8]

Verse Locator

snigdhe yatparuSaasi yatpraNamati stabdhaasi yadraagiNi
dveSasthaasi yadunmukhe vimukhataam yaataasi tasminpriye |
tadyuktam tadvipariitakaariNi tava shriikhaNDacharchaa viSam
shiitaa.nshustapano himam hutavahaH kriiDaamudo yaatanaaH || 9-3

pa cChe- snigdhe yat paruSaa asi yat praNamati stabdhaa asi yat raagiNi dveSasthaa asi yat unmukhe vimukhataam yaataa asi tasmin priye tat yuktam tat vipariitakaariNi tava shriikhaNDa charchaa viSam shiitaa.nshuH tapanaH himam hutavahaH kriiDaa mudaH yaatanaaH

9-3. yat= by which reason; tasmin+priye= that, lover; snigdhe [sati]= when friendly; paruSaa+ asi= unfriendly, you are; yat= by what; praNamati= he adjoins his palms at you, to appease; stabdhaa+asi= uncommunicative [unappeasable,] you are; yat= by which; raagiNi= he is inclined in you; dveSasthaa +asi= disinclined, you are; yat= by what reason; unmukhe= he is pro-faced [favourable]; vimukhataam +yaataaasi= face turned away [disfavour,] you go into a state; tat= by that reason alone; hè vipariita kaariNi= oh, intemperance, causer of - intemperate Raadha; tava= to you; shriikhaNDa+ charchaa= sandal-paste, body cream; viSam = [becoming] venom; shiitaa+anshuH= one with cool, beams - moon; tapanaH= burner - [becoming as] sun; himam= snow; hutavahaH= [becoming as] fire; kriiDaa+mudaH= in romantic games, cheers; yaatanaaH = [becoming as] tortures; yuktam= meetly.

"By which reason you are unfriendly when that lover of yours is friendly, unappeasable when he is appeasing, disinclined when he is inclined, and your falling into disfavour when he is favourable... oh, intemperate Raadha, by that intemperance of yours, your sandal-paste skincare becoming a venom, cooling moon as a scorching sun, snow as a fire, cheers in romantic sport as hellish tortures, is meetly. [9-3]

Verse Locator

aanamrairmakuTendraniilamaNibhissa.ndarshite.ndi.ndiram |
shrii govindapadaaravi.ndamashubhaskandaayavandaamahe || 9-4

pa cChe- saandra aananda purandara aadi diviSat bR^indaiH amanda aadaraat aanamraiH makuTa indra niila maNibhiH sa.ndarshita indindiram svacChandam makaranda sundara milat mandaakinii meduram shrii govinda pada aravi.ndam ashubha skandaaya vandaamahe

9-4. a+manda+aadaraat= by his not, slowed [by his alacritous,] fondness; saandra+ aananda = with utmost, exultation; purandara+aadi= Indra, et al; diviSat+bR^indaiH= by heavenly, droves; aanamraiH+makuTa= with reverently bent, crowns; indra+niila+maNibhiH = by sapphire, blue, gems in those crowns; sa.ndarshita+indindiram= shown, swarms of honey bees; svacChandam= at will; makaranda= honey; sundara+milat= lovelily, meeting [river flowing]; mandaakinii= by River Ganga; meduram= overspread [bathed with]; shrii+govinda+ pada= Shri Krishna's, feet; aravi.ndam= lotus feet; a+shubha= bad, fortunes; skandaaya= for ruination; vandaamahe= let us pray.

At whom heavenly droves like Indra et al come owing to his alacritous fondness for them, having come they reverently bend their crowns before him, thereby the sapphire blue gems in their crowns appear to be the swarms of honeybees hovering on honey-like water of River Ganga, flowing at her will and bathing his feet, thus for the ruination of bad fortunes let us pray at that lotus-like feet of Shri Krishna. [9-4]

iti giitagovinde kalahaantaritaavarNane mandamukundo naama navamaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 9th chapter, called mugdhamukundam - Unpretentious Krishna, in Gita Govindam of Jayadeva.


Chapter [Sarga] 10 - Tactful Krishna

Krishna appears before Raadha from thin air, and finding her somewhat lessened in her recalcitrance, he starts to pull the wool over her eyes, tactfully. But she is still reticent.

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atraantare masR^iNaroSavashaadasiima niHshvaasanissahamukhiim sumukhiimupetya |
savriiDamiikshitasakhiivadanaam dinaante saanandagadgadapadam harirityuvaacha || 10-1

atra antare masR^iNa roSa vashaat asiima niHshvaasa nissaha mukhiim sumukhiim upetya sa vriiDam iikshita sakhii vadanaam dina ante sa aananda gadgada padam hariH iti uvaacha

10-1. atra= at there; antare= in the mean while; hariH= Krishna; dina+ante= day, at end of -that evening; masR^iNa= with precipitated [hot-headed, excited]; roSa+vashaat= indignation, owing to; a+siima= not, within bounds, boundless; niHshvaasa= with suspires; nissaha +mukhiim= helplessly, face having; sa+vriiDam= with, shy; [sa vriiDaam...upetya - 'Krishna came shyly' can also be said]; iikshita+sakhii+vadanaam= seeing, her friend's, face; su+mukhiim= one with lovely, face - to her; upetya= came near; sa+aanandam= with, rejoice; gad+gada+padam= [but] with, quavering, words; iti+uvaacha= this way, said.

In this meanwhile on that evening, when she is with a helpless face with boundless suspires, and when she is seeing her friend's face with a 'whatamitodo' look, for she is hotheaded owing to indignation, Krishna came near of such lovely faced Raadha, though rejoicingly, but spoke these words, quaveringly. [10-1]

Verse Locator

aSTapdi - 19 - caturacaturbhujaraagaraajica.ndodyotitam -
vadasi yadi ki.nchidapi dantaruchikaumudii harati daratimiramatighoram |
sphuradadharasiidhave tava vadanachandramaa rochayatu lochanachakoram ||
priye chaarushiile priye chaarushiile mu.ncha mayi maanamanidaanam
sapadi madanaanalo dahati mama maanasam dehi mukhakamalamadhupaanam
priye chaarushiile priye chaarushiile - dhR^ivam || a pa 19-1

pa cChe- vadasi yadi ki.nchit api danta ruchi kaumudii harati dara timiram ati ghoram sphurat adhara siidhave tava vadana chandramaa rochayatu lochana chakoram priye chaaru shiile mu.ncha mayi maanam a nidaanam sapadi madana analo dahati mama maanasam dehi mukha kamala madhu paanam

a pa 19-1. chaaru+shiile= o, sweet one, by your heart - rather, o, my sweetheart; priye= o, dear; mayi= on me; a+nidaanam= without, cause; maanam= petulance [choler]; mu.ncha= release - cast off; sapadi= presently; madana+analaH= love's, fire; dahati= burns; mama+ maanasam= my, bosom; mukha+kamala= face, lotus's [or say, lotusy]; madhu+paanam+dehi= nectar, lend me; ki.nchit+api+vadasi= a bit, at least, you say; yadi= even if [that talk of yours contain good or bad of mine, then your lips open and your teeth sparkles, with that sparkling]; tava+ danta+ruchi+kaumudii= of your teeth [called,] beautiful, moonshine; ati+ghoram= highly, horrendous; dara+timiram= dark [tenebrous,] gloom [melancholy, not tamas - darkness, Krishna cannot have tamas, word obsolete now, unlike dara haasam]; harati= steals; tava+ vadana+candra maaH = your, face, [called] moon; lochana+chakoram= [to my] eyes, [called] cakora birds; sphurat= scintillating; adhara+siidhave= lips, with nectar; rochayatu= let them [eyes called birds] cheer up.

"O, dear... now lend me nectar from your lotusy face... or, say at least a bit of it... or, even if you say good or bad of me, but say it... then that moonshine from the sparkle of your teeth steals the highly tenebrous gloom in me... o, sweetheart, let the cakora birds called mine eyes cheer up with nectar from those scintillating lips on your moony face... o, dear sweetheart, cast off causeless choler on me, for the fire of love burns by bosom... [a pa 19-1]

satyamevaasi yadi sudati mayi kopinii dehi kharanakhasharaghaatam |
ghaTaya bhujabandhanam janaya radakhaNDanam
yena vaa bhavati sukhajaatam || a pa 19-2

pa cChe - satyam eva asi yadi sudati mayi kopinii dehi khara nakha shara ghaatam ghaTaya bhuja bandhanam janaya rada khaNDanam yena vaa bhavati sukha jaatam

a pa 19-2. su+dati= o, toothily dear; tvam= you; satyam+eva= truly, that way; mayi+ kopinii+yadi+asi= on me, furious, if, you are; dehi= give; khara+nakha+shara+ ghaatam = sharp, fingernails, arrow, gashes; [if you are dissatisfied with it]; ghaTaya+bhuja+ bandhanam = splice, your arms, to shackle me; [even if your are dissatisfied with such an incarceration, then]; janaya+rada+ khaNDanam= cause, teeth, tearing; vaa= or else; yena= by which [punishment for my misdeeds, you feel happy, that you give; I tell these tricks as my mother tricked me this way and fastened me to a grindstone, cart etc in my childhood - now do the same, of course, with different items]; sukha+jaatam+bhavati= happiness, causes, in you, those [punishments that will be cuasing such happiness.]

"O, toothily dear, if you are that way truly furious of me, gash me with you arrowy fingernails ... if not, splice your arms to shackle me down... if not, tear me with your teeth... or, make do in whichever way you feel happy... howsoever o, sweetheart, cast off causeless choler on me... [a pa 19-2]

tvamasi mama bhuuSaNam tvamasi mama jiivanam tvamasi bhavajaladhiratnam |
bhavatu bhavatiiha mayi satatamanurodhini tatra mama hR^idayamatiyatnam || a pa 19-3

pa cChe- tvam asi mama bhuuSaNam tvam asi mama jiivanam tvam asi bhava jaladhi ratnam bhavatu bhavatii iha mayi satatam anurodhini tatra mama hR^idayam ati yatnam

a pa 19-3. tvam+asi+mama+bhuuSaNam= you, are, to me, ornament [grace - 3 an attractive feature]; tvam+asi+mama+jiivanam= you, are, to me, existence, or quintessence [metaphysics ens]; tvam+asi= you, are; bhava+jaladhi+ratnam= [for the temporal] world, ocean-like, jewel [not only my jewel, but being with me you will be the lone jewel of love, in this ocean-like, unnavigabe world]; iha+mayi= here, in my respect [in this somatic world; elliptic: praNate= while I pray, or sue you]; bhavatii+anurodhini+bhavatu= you may, be gracious to me [as against - virodhinii - one at loggerheads]; tatra= in that matter; mama+ hR^idayam+satatam= my, heart is, ever; ati+yatnam= more, effortful.

"You are my grace, ens, and a jewel for this temporal world... hence, here in this unnavigable somatic world I sue you to be gracious to me, for my heart is ever effortful in that matter... [a pa 19-3]

Some notes on these lines are at the end of this song.

niilanalinaabhamapitanvitavalochanam dhaarayatikokanadaruupam |
kusumasharabaaNabhaavenayadira.njayati kR^iSNamidametadanuruupam || a pa 19-4

pa cChe- niila nalina aabham api tanvi tava lochanam dhaarayati kokanada ruupam kusuma shara baaNa bhaavena yadi ra.njayati kR^iSNam idam etat anuruupam

a pa 19-5. priyè= oh, dear; tava= your; kucha+kumbhayoH+upari= bosoms, pot-like, on overside; maNi+ma.njarii= set of gems, gem chest pendant, a cluster of sapphires; sphuratu= let glitter [with the pinkness of your eyes reflected on them]; tava+hR^idaya+desham= your, chest, place [bust]; ra.njayatu= [if] it delights [me, one with sapphirine in hue, such as I am; where the comparison of bosoms with pots suggests puuNa kumbha, puurNa kalasha, and gemmed pendant manjari to auspicious garlands used before the start of any auspicious ritual, here that ausoiciuous event is the union of Raadhakrishan; elliptic yadi= if - used to say yadi tava hR^idaya desham, mama hR^idaya desham ranjayatu= if your bust with blue-gems pendant delights me on its contact with my indigo-blue chest]; tava+rashanaa+api= your, girdle strings with tinkle bells, even; ghana+jaghana+maNDale= on curvy, hip, areas [waistline; then in that bustle]; rasatu= make tintinnabulations; manmatha+nidesham+ ghoSayatu = Love-god's, bidding, let it repeatedly announce.

"O, dear, let that cluster of sapphire gems on your pot-like bosoms be glittering with the pinkness of your eyes, and with such gems if your bust delights me on its contact with my indigo-blue chest, and in that bustle even that girdle strings with tinkle bells on your curvy waistline will repeatedly announce the bidding of Love in their tintinnabulations... [a pa 19-5]

sphuratu kuchakumbhayorupari maNima.njarii ra.njayatu tava hR^idayadesham |
rasatu rashanaapi tava ghanajaghanamaNDale ghoSayatu manmathanidesham || a pa 19-5

pa cChe - sphuratu kuchakumbhayoH upari maNi ma.njarii ra.njayatu tava hR^idaya desham rasatu rashanaa api tava ghana jaghana maNDale ghoSayatu manmatha nidesham

a pa 19-4. hè tanvi= o, svelte Raadha; niila+nalina+aabham= blue, lotus, in hue; api= though; tava+lochanam= your, eyes; kokanada+ruupam+dhaarayati= pink-lotus, effect, they bear; idam= tava kopa locanam= these, ireful eyes of yours; kusuma+shara+baaNa+bhaavena = flower, arrow shooter's [Love-god's pink lotus arrow] arrow, with rendition; kR^iSNam= one who is in indigo-blue [maam api= me, too]; ra.njayati+yadi= you delight, if; [or, ra.njayasi yadi - will be used by some]; etat+anuruupam= all this [ire, fury and pinkness of yours,] will be most becoming.

"O, svelte Raadha, though your eyes will be in the hue of blue-lotuses, they now bear a pinkly effect of pinkish lotuses in all their ire... albeit, if they render themselves as the one and only pink lotus arrow of Love, and shoot to delight me, to render me with my indigo-blue hue as the very pink of love... then all this ire, eyes, and their pink will be most becoming... [a pa 19-4]

sthalakamalaga.njanam mamahR^idayara.njanam janitaratira.ngaparabhaagam |
bhaNamasR^iNavaaNi karavaaNi caraNadvayam sarasalasadalaktakaraagam || a pa 19-6

pa cChe- sthala kamala ga.njanam mama hR^idaya ra.njanam janita rati ra.nga para bhaagam bhaNa masR^iNa vaaNi karavaaNi caraNa dvayam sarasa lasat alaktaka raagam

a pa 19-6. hè masR^iNa vaaNi= o, one with melodious, voice [mellisonant] Raadha; sthala+ kamala= land, lotuses [terrene lotus, that grows on ground]; ga.njanam= gainsays; mama+ hR^idaya+ra.njanam= my, heart, delight; janita= while causing [I can make them more excellent on the stage in the play of passion]; rati+ra.nga= play of passion, on the stage [ranga= literally, adeptness, expertise in arts; unless one is adept he/she cannot go on the stage]; para bhaagam= excellence [both feet will have mutually excellent splendour, excellently adept in footwork while on the stage of love]; caraNa+dvayam= foot, couple of; sarasa= passionately; lasat= shining; alaktaka= lac, rosy cosmetic of foot; [some mms sagana galada lakta] raagam= crimsoned; [yadi= if]; karavaaNi= I [can] do; [if I can maquillage [= applying makeup] to your feet with crimson lac, the red cosmetic of feet, you will be delighted, hence]; bhaNa= what-do-you-say [or, what-d'ye-say - after how-d'ye-do.]

"O, mellisonant Raadha, those that gainsay land-lotuses are the delighters of my heart, and I can maquillage them with crimson red foot-cosmetic, then they will be mutually excellent, splendorous, and adept in footwork on the stage in the play of passion, that which will be delightful to you, what-d'ye-say... [a pa 19-6]

smaragaralakhaNDanam mama shirasimaNDanam dehi padapallavamudaaram |
jvalatimayidaaruNomadanakad anaanalo haratutadupaahitavikaaram || a pa 19-7

pa cChe- smara garala khaNDanam mama shirasi maNDanam dehi pada pallavam udaaram jvalati mayi daaruNaH madana kadana anaaH haratu tat upaahita vikaaram

a pa 19-7. hè preyasi= o, love; mama+shirasi+maNDanam= on my, head, [a distinctive] ornament [motif]; udaaram= glory [resplendent majesty or magnificence; great beauty]; smara+garala+khaNDanam = Love-god's, venom, dissevers [antivenin, antivenom]; [tava= your]; pada+pallavam= foot, tender-leafy; [mama shirasi= on my, head]; dehi= give, [with stressed dha - dhehi= place, keep; dhayati, dhiita - to kiss, to suckle]; mayi= in me; daaruNaH = intolerable; madana= Love-god's; kadana= kadanam kaluSe taape - vishva kosha, scorching, not war]; analaH= fire [other mms aruNah= reddish like flame]; jvalati= burning;tat+upaahita = to that [fire of Love-god's scorching,] connective to; vikaaram= disquietude, desperateness etc., abnormalities; haratu= let [those feet] spirit away; [or straightly, tread my body to tread on that Love-god, to tread out his fire.]

"O, love, that tender-leafy foot of yours is an antivenin to the venom of Love-god, place it on my head, and make it my motif and my glory... for, that scorching fire of Love-god is burning me intolerably... hence, tread my body to tread on that Love-god, to tread out his fire and its abnormalities... [a pa 19-7]

itichaTulachaaTupaTuchaarumuravairiNo raadhikaamadhivachanajaatam |
jayatijayadevakavijayadevakavibhaaratiibhuuSitam maaniniijanajanitanitaatishaatam || a pa 19-7

pa cChe- iti chaTula chaaTu paTu chaaru mura vairiNaH raadhikaam adhi vachana jaatam jayati jayadeva kavi bhaaratii bhuuSitam maaninii jana janita ati shaatam

a pa 19-8. iti= this way; chaTula= cute [caTulaH sundare cale - dhraNi nighaNTu]; chaaTu = with words easy and dear to remember - catchy; paTu= endearing words - canny; chaaru= charming words; maaninii+jana+janitam= in women, folk, caused; shaatam= with comfort; jayadeva+kavi+bhaaratii+bhuuSitam= by Jayadeva, poet's, poetry, adorned with; [or, jaya padmaaavatii ramaNa jayadeva kavi bhaaratii bhaNitam ati shaantam - in other mms]; mura vairiNoaH= of Krishna; raadhikaam+adhi= Raadha is, made as target; vachana+ jaatam= words, cluster of; ati+jayati= highly, winning [highly thrilling.]

This way, let the words of Krishna targeting Raadha adorn the poetry of poet Jayadeva, and be comforting to womenfolk, and because they are cute, catchy, canny, and charming, let they remain highly thrilling... [a pa 19-8]

Comment: If Bhagavad Gita ca be understood in a trice without any help of commentaries, this chapter too is understandable, indepth. Otherwise we should be content with its prima facie meaning. In this song apparently unnecessary or commonplace words seem to be encrusted; either by original poet or in this work, and at end he foreordains them to be highly thrilling. In saying such a loose construct 'you're my ornament, you're my existence, you're my jewel...' or 'keep your feet on my head... tread over me...' etc., can we possibly attach some laxity to the poet's thought? Not so. This song is loaded with Philo of the then egging and revolting method of raadhamaadhava tradition. Some of it can be incorporated here, but at the cost of lusciousness of this song, and owing to many dissensions - it is skipped. Usually separated lovers get all oddities in their behaviour, to the level of delirium and swooning. The sandal-breezes becomes venom and the Love-god the serpent, and then the eagle has to come to scare the snake. And comparing heroine's feet, if compared to the claws of eagle, as some technical parison it, will be OK, but becomes too much, called aakshepa ruupaka, and Jayadeva as a writer of the treatise on aesthetics of poetry, called candraaloka may not incorporate such words. In this book, chapters are named as mayuukha-s in which the items discussed are prathama mayuukha: kaavya hetu, lakshaNa, ruuDhi, yaugika kathana; next, chapters and their subjects are: dvittiya mayuukha: doSa varNana; tR^itiiya mayuukha: dasha vidha visheSa lakshaNa niruupaNa; caturthaH; dasha guNa nirvacana; pancama: shabda artha alankaara parisankjhyaana. None later to Jayadeva bothered about the ideas given in the third chapter. This book or details about it may be available in magnum opuses of aacaarya sushiila kumar de, or that of Dr. Shankaran et al, or in some archives, as all will just extol Jayadeva, but none makes his works available to enthusiasts.

Verse Locator

parihara kR^itaantanke sha.nkaa.mtvayaasatatamghana
stanajaghanaya.a.akraante svaante paraanavakaashini |
vishati vitanoranyo dhanyo nako.api mamaa.mtaram
praNayini pariira.mbhaara.mbhe vidhehi vidheyataam || 10-3

pa cChe - parihara kR^ita aantanke sha.nkaam tvayaa satatam ghana stana jaghanayaa aakraante svaante paraa anavakaashini vishati vitanoH anyaH dhanyaH na kaH api mam a.ntaram praNayini pariira.mbha aara.mbhe vidhehi vidheyataam

10-3. hè kR^ita+aantanke= o, one who surmised, some doubt [jealous or, having grief about my infidelity]; pari+hara+sha.nkaam= completely, give up, your doubt; ghana+stana+ jaghanayaa= by one who has massy, bosom, hips; tvayaa= [such as you are,] by you; satatam= always; paraa= to others [other heroines]; an+avakaashini= no, room [on your making no room]; sva+ante= in my, interior - in my heart of hearts; aakraante sati= pervading, while; vi+tanoH+anyaH= one without, body - bodiless Love-god, other than;dhanyaH++kaH+api= fortunate one, who will be; mam= in my; a.ntaram+na+vishati= heart, not, enters; praNayini= oh, dear; pariira.mbha= embrace [pl note in - parirambhaNa - there is no sound of heaviness of her breasts]; aara.mbhe= in starting of; vidheyataam= as befitting deed [or, kainkarya pradiiyataam = accord me bondage, thraldom]; vidhehi= grant me [or, enthral me.]

"O, jealous Raadha, completely give up your doubt about my infidelity, while you with your bosomy bust and rotund hip are always pervading my heart of hearts, making no room to others, who is that 'other' fortunate one to enter it, excepting that Love-god for he is formless... hence, o, dear, grant me thraldom and start enthralling me, with an embrace... [10-3]

Comment: In this poem kaavya linga - alankaara; naayika - prauDha; naayaka - pragalbha; vipralambha sR^ingaare - priyaa sanga siddhi Now, this boy changes his tune and starts entreating her, as though he is temporarily disloyal, where disloyalty is temporary every time.

Verse Locator

mugdhe vidhehi mayi nirdayadantada.nsha dorvallibandhanibiDastanapiiDanaani |
chaNDi tvameva mudamudvaha pa.ncabaaNa chaNDaalakaaNDadalanaadasavaH prayaanti || 10-4

pa cChe- mugdhe vidhehi mayi nirdaya danta da.nsha doH valli bandha nibiDa stana piiDanaani chaNDi tvameva mudam udvaha pa.ncabaaNa chaNDaala kaaNDa dalanaat asavaH prayaanti || 10-4

1-4. mugdhe= sva hita avaj~na= o, coyest Raadha; mayi= [if think I have dalliance] in me; vidhehi= subject [me to]; nir+daya= without, mercy; danta+da.nsha= teeth, slashes; doH = arms; valli= fibrillar; bandha= snares; nibiDa+stana+piiDanaani= oppressive, bosom, squeezes; chaNDi= o, shrew; asavaH+prayaanti= lives, started to leave; pa.nca+baaNa= one who wields five, arrows - Love-god; chaNDaala= [here] cruel, fellon; kaaNDa= by arrows; dalanaat= cleavage of; tvam+eva+mudam= you, alone, happiness; ut+vaha= on, carry [carry on, continue to be happy.]

"O, coyest Raadha, should you think that some dalliance is in me, then mercilessly subject me to slashes of teeth, snares of your fibrillar arms, squeezes of your oppressive bosoms... o, shrew, now my lives have started to leave, for arrows of that felonious Love-god are cleaving, be happy when they leave... [10-4]

Comment: In this naayaka - anukuula; naayika - mugdha; rasavat - alanakaara; guNa - praasaada; riiti - vaidarbhi; In the next step, according to vaastaayana nyaaya the hero tries to bring round the heroine, by flattering her beauty.

Verse Locator

shashimukhi tavabhaatibha.ngurabhruuH yuvajanamohanakaraalakaalasarpii |
tadutaviSabha.njanaayayuunaam tvadadharashiidhushudaivasiddhama.ntraH || 1-5

pa cChe- shashi mukhi tava bhaati bha.ngura bhruuH yuva jana mohana karaala kaala sarpii tat udita viSa bha.njanaaya yuunaam tvat adhara shiidhu shuda eva siddha ma.ntraH

1-5. hè shashi+mukhi= o, moon, faced one; tava= your; ba.ngura+bhruuH= curvy, eyebrows; yuva+jana= for young, people; mohana= swooning; karaala+kaala+sarpii+bhaati= dangerous, black, cobra, shines forth [like that of]; tat= from it [from cobra like eyebrow]; udita+viSa+ bha.njanaaya= spewed out, poison, to antidote; yuunaam= for youths [bitten by such love-cobra]; tvat+adhara= your, lip's; shiidhu= intoxicant like; shuda+eva= nectar, alone; siddha+ ma.ntraH= self-manifested, chant.

"O, moonfaced Raadha, your curvy eyebrow is shining forth like a dangerous black cobra that makes anyone to swoon, and your lips' intoxicating nectar alone is the antidote to such a poison spewed out by such cobra like eyebrow, like a self-manifested mystic chant... [10-5]

Comment: Other hymns yield results after much chanting and painful practice. But the lovely nectar of her lips spills out in a spell without those many practises or hardships, for she is an embodiment of love.

Verse Locator

vyathayati vR^ithaa maunam tanvi prapaJNchaya pa.nchamam
taruNI madhuraalaapaistaapam vinodaya dR^iSTibhiH |
sumukhi vimukhiibhaavam taavadvimu.ncha na mu.ncha maam
svayamatishayasnigdho mugdhe priyi.ayamupasthitaH || 10-6

pa cChe- vyathayati vR^ithaa maunam tanvi prapa.nchaya pa.nchamam taruNI madhura aalaapaiH taapam vinodaya dR^iSTibhiH sumukhi vimukhii bhaavam taavat vimu.ncha na mu.ncha maam svayam atishaya snigdhaH mugdhe priyaH ayam upasthitaH

10-6. hè tanvi= o, curvaceous Raadha; vR^ithaa+maunam= pointless, muteness; vyathayati+maam= despairing, me; hè taruNI= o, damsel; madhura+aalaapaiH= with sweet, words; prapa.nchaya= spread out [communicate, talk freely]; pa.nchamam= in fifth note [like koel]; dR^iSTibhiH+taapam= by [favouring] looks; vi+nodaya= to side, cast; hè sumukhi= o, gracious faced one; vi+mukhii+bhaavam= tuned away, faced [ungracious,] notion [sumukhi cannot become a vimukhi or durmukhi]; taavat+vimu.ncha= all that, cast off; na+mu.ncha+ maam= don't, leave off, me; hè mugdhe= you, blasé girl; atishaya+snigdhaH= with abounding, passion; ayam+priyaH= that, lover of yours; svayam+upasthitaH= personally, is in your presence [he is now self-manifest.]

"O, curvaceous Raadha, despairing is your pointless muteness... o, damsel, talk melodious words freely and in fifth note like koel... cast off all that ungracious notion for yours is a graceful countenance, and don't leave me in lurch... o, blasé girl, he who has abounding passion, that lover of yours is presently self-manifest... [10-6]

Comment: In this naayaka - anukuula; guNa - prasaada; vR^itti - vaidarbhi; giiti - maaagadhi; alankaara - yathaa sa.nkhya; vR^itaa - hariNi 'Until the time of arrival you make fuss about my non-attendance, and when I am present you turn away your face... girlish caprice... isn't it!'

Verse Locator

bandhuukadyutibaandhavo.ayamadharaH snigdho madhuukacChaviH
gaNDashchaNDi chakaasti niilanalinashriimochanam lochanam |
naasaatyeti tilaprasuunapadaviim kundaabhadaanti priye
praayastvanmukhasevayaa vijayate vishvam sa puSpaayudhaH || 10-7

pa cChe - bandhuuka dyuti baandhavaH ayam adharaH snigdho madhuuka cChaviH gaNDaH chaNDi chakaasti niila nalina shrii mochanam lochanam naasaa atyeti tila prasuuna padaviim kunda aabha daanti priye praayaH tvat mukha sevayaa vijayate vishvam sa puSpaa ayudhaH

10-7. hè chaNDi= o, ireful one[ ayam= this [tava= your]; adharaH= lips; bandhuuka+ dyuti+baandhavaH= Bandhuuka blood red flower, in resplendence, relative of [by this the blood draining arrow of Manmatha, Love-god is said]; snigdhaH+gaNDaH= soft, cheek's [colour]; madhuuka+cChaviH+chakaasti= Madhuuka, pale yellow coloured flowers, shine, outshines [by this paling and dulling flower arrow of Love-god is said]; lochanam= eyes [colour]; niila+ nalina+shrii= black, lotuses', splendour; mochanam= carry off [by this the maddening effect caused by Love-god's blue lotus is said]; hè kunda+aabha+daanti= o, jasmine, whitely whitish hue, your teeth [with this the whitening, blanching jasmine arrow of is said, as the sparkle of teeth is lost]; hè priye= o, dear; naasaa= by nose's [colour]; tila+ prasuuna= gingelly flowers', children - flower's buds; padaviim= their status; ati+eti= over, stepping [transcending; by this the draavaNa shakti -desiccating power of Love-god's arrow is said; and on seeing that, it appears that all those flowery arrows are used on you to render you to this state]; saH= he, [who was rendered bodiless by God Shiva Love-god]; puSpaa+ ayudhaH = flower, weaponed Love-god; tvat+mukha+ sevayaa= your, face, on adoring; vishvam+vijayate+praayaH= world, victorious, perhaps.

"O, ireful dear, your should-have-been rosy lips turned red and look like the relatives of blood red flowers of Bandhuuka... that way, your soft blushing cheeks at one time are now palish and outshine the shine of pale yellow flowers of Madhuuka, and your gullible wide eyes are now wide-eyed and carry off the bluesy splendour of blue-black lotuses, and oh, dear with sparkly teeth, your teeth are now sparkless like the hue of whitely white jasmine flowers, and oh, dear your nose is transcending the lacklustre colour of gingelly flowers, by this I surmise that perhaps the Love-god is victorious on all the world, only after adoring your face... [10-7]

Verse Locator

dR^ishau tava madaalase vadanamindumatyujjvalam
gatirjanamanoramaa vidhutara.mbhamuurudvayam |
ratistava kalaavatii ruchirachitralekhe bhruvau
aho vibudhayauvatam vahasi tanvii pR^ithviigataa || 10-8

pa cChe- dR^ishau tava madaalase vadanam indum ati ujjvalam gatiH jana manoramaa vidhuta ra.mbham uuru dvayam ratiH tava kalaavatii ruchira chitralekhe bhruvau aho vibudha yauvatam vahasi tanvii pR^ithvii gataa

10-8. hè tanvii= o, comely Raadha; tava+dR^ishau+mada+alase= your, eyes, by passion, dozy [second meaning - Madaalasa is the name of one celestial apsara, courtesan in Indra's heaven. So, in heaven there is one Madaalasa, but here in you, yourself plus that Madaalasa are appearing]; vadanam+indum+ati+ujjvalam= your face, for moon, superbly, shining [your face is making the moon to highly shine; 2nd meaning: there is one courtesan called Indumati]; gatiH+jana+manaH+ramaa= your gait, for people, heart, pleasing -or, breathtaking [2nd meaning - another celestial namely Manorama]; uuru+dvayam+vidhuta +ra.mbham= thighs, two, confute, [beauty of] soft, solid, yet very light thigh-like stems of banana plant [2nd meaning - the famous court dancer Rambha, in the quartet of Rambha, Urvasi, Menaka, Tilottama - in Indra's court]; tava+ratiH= your frolicking; kalaa+vatii= artistry, having [has artistic features like haava, bhaava, kilikincita, moTTaayita, bibboka, and the like expressions] bhruvau+ruchira= eyebrows, enchanting; chitra+ lekhe= astounding, marks [of foliages painted with erasable tattooing on face, hands, chest and on other visible parts; 2nd meaning - Citralekha is another courtesan]; tvam+pR^ithvii+ gataa = you, on earth, though entered [present]; vibudha+yauvatam+vahasi= celestial, damsels' [beauty,] nearing; aho= what a surprise.

"O, comely Raadha, your eyes are dozy with passion, your face makes the moon to shine superbly, your gait is breathtaking to people, both your thighs confute the softness and lightness of thigh-like stems of banana plants, and your frolicking is artistic with nuances of tone, depth, spirit and ardour of expressions, your eyebrows are enchanting like the painted foliage designs, and though you are an earthling you bear the look of celestial beauties... surprising! [10-8]

Comment: Here many tend to give the names of celestial courtesans as main import. Raadha is no courtesan, and even if she were to be such, she has none other than Krishna to court with. It is said that when the main import mukhya artha is undecipherable, then you go by lakshaNa allegorical meaning, but not to arrive at secondary or lexical, or apparent meaning gauNa artha, and here that rule is specific. Though the poet uses these names, and though the vaacaka lupta upama 'metaphor minus comparing word' is suggestive, in view of absence of commonality anugaami dharma of 'courtesan-ship in Raadha...' these are to be left off. Ultimately the utter flattery of this boy reduces to 'you are beauteous like celestials...' where heaven of Indra is said as a first class waiting room on a railway platform, and when the merit is counted down, one has to vacate it though he holds a ticket kshiiNe puNye martya lokaaH pravishanti... , and because the main characters are drawn from somewhat higher realms, than the platform-like Indra's heaven, secondary meanings do not imply. This song's metre is pR^ithvii vR^itta and the poet uses it not for pun, but again makes use of that name as an object in the poem.

Verse Locator

sa priitim tanutaam hariH kuvalayaapiiDena saartham raNe
raadhaa piinapayodharasmaraNakR^itku.mbhena sa.mbhedavaan |
yatra svidyatimiilatikshaNamapi kshipra.mtadaalokanaat
ka.msasyaalamabhuujjitam jitamiti vyaamohakolaahalaH || 10-9

pa cChe- sa priitim tanutaam hariH kuvalayaapiiDena saartham raNe raadhaa piina payodhara smaraNa kR^it ku.mbhena sa.mbhedavaan yatra svidyati miilati kshaNam api kshipram tat aalokanaat ka.msasya alam abhuut jitam jitam iti vyaamoha kolaahalaH

10-9. raNe= in war; raadhaa+piina+payodhara+smaraNa+kR^it= Raadha's, bosomy, bust, reminiscence, [Krishna] on making [on reminiscing, when he is in war with Kamsa and while he is confronting an attacking elephant]; ku.mbhena= with elephantoid forehead; kuvalayaapiiDena = named as the same KuvalayaapiiDa [kuvalaya= rotund forehead, aapiiDa= severely jabs - a warring elephant]; saartham= along [with that elephant]; sa.mbhedavaan= when encountering it; yatra= where, or he who is that Krishna is; svidyati - svedana = sweats; api= even; kshaNam= for a moment; miilati= be with half-closed eyes; tat+aalokanaat+ kshipram = that [Krishna's pausing combat,] on seeing, immediately; alam+jitam+jitam= enough, he is conquered, he is conquered; iti= thus; ka.msasy+vyaamoha+ kolaahalaH +abhuut= Kamsa's, foolish, brouhahas, were there; saH+hariH= such a, Krishna; priitim+ tanutaam= blitheness, may make happen.

When Krishna is in war and confronting with the elephant of Kamsa, namely KuvalapiiDa, with its unassailable jabbing forehead, he sweated to see that forehead, and his eyes are half-closed for a moment, as that forehead resembles the bosomy bust of Raadha, and Raadha danced on his memory, and on seeing that backtracking Krishna, Kamsa made foolish brouhahas, shouting 'enough, Krishna is conquered... he is conquered...' let such Krishna, who retraces his steps at the very memory of lovely Raadha, make our lives blithesome. [10-9]

iti giitagovinde chaturachaturbhujo naama dashamaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 10th chapter, called caturacaturbhuja - Tactful Krishna, in Gita Govindam of Jayadeva.

Chapter [Sarga] 11 - saanandadaamodaram

Now Raadha approaches Krishna, somehow reconciling herself about Krishna's frolicking with other maids, at the persuasion of her girlfriends. There are many variations in mms of this one chapter in India, and hence the verses found more may be taken as regional insurgencies.

Verse Locator

suchiramanunayena priiNayitvaa mR^igaakshiim
gatavati kR^itaveshe keshave ku.njashayyaam |
rachitaruchirabhuuSaam dR^ishhTimoshhe pradoshhe
sphurati niravasaadaam kaapi raadhaam jagaada || 11-1

pa cChe- suchiram anunayane priiNayitvaa mR^iga akshiim gatavati kR^ita veshe keshave ku.nja shayyaam rachita ruchira bhuuSaam dR^iSTi moSe pradoSe sphurati niravasaadaam kaapi raadhaam jagaada

11-1. kR^ita+veshe+keshave= on making getup, [on befittingly dressing up,] Krishna; su+chiram+ anunayena= for a long, coaxing; priiNayitvaa= on gladdening; mR^iga+akshiim= fawn, eyed Raadha; gatavati+ku.nja+shayyaam= having gone, in bower's, couch [awwaiting her]; dR^iSTi+moSe+ pradoSe+sphurati sati = eye, stealing [dimming,] late evening, when gleaming; rachita+ruchira+ bhuuSaam= on decorating, very tasty, decorations; nir+ avasaadaam = to one without, sinking mood - Raadha; kaapi= someone, another milkmaid; raadhaam+jagaada [idam]= to Raadha, said, [this way.]

On coaxing Raadha for a long time and gladdening her Krishna dressed up in a befitting manner to receive her, and awaited her on a couch in a bower, and Raadha too, when the eye-dimming duskily late evening is gleamy, decorated herself with a black smock-frock like dress and black blanket, and suchlike befitting apparels required in meeting her lover, and to such a un-dispirited Raadha, some milkmaid spoke in this way. [11-1]

Comment: Some other milkmaid encourages Raadha when her dispiritedness is alleviated by Krishna, as she was so reluctant to others so far. This episode is the reported speech of other milkmaids and that of the poet, in explaining how a coyly girl is abashed to meet her man on the first day, and such scenes are usual even to day at nuptials.

Verse Locator

aSTa padi 20 - shriiharitaalaraajijaladharavilasitam -
virachitachaaTuvachanarachanam charaNe rachitapraNipaatam |
sa.mprati ma.njulava.njulasiimani kelishayanamanuyaatam ||
mugdhe madhumathanam anugatamanusara raadhe - dhR^ivam || a pa 20-1

pa cChe- virachita chaaTu vachana rachanam charaNe rachita praNipaatam sa.mprati ma.njula va.njula siimani keli shayanam anuyaatam mugdhe madhu mathanam anugatam anusara raadhe

a pa 20-1. hè mugdhe = oh, naively girl; virachita= one who has made; chaaTu+ vachana +rachanam= cloying, words, crafty one [one who coaxed and combed you with crafty words]; sa.mprati+charaNe+rachita+praNipaatam= presently, at [your] feet, who made, salutation; ma.njula+va.njula+siimani= heart-stealing, Vanjula plants [a bower,] in areas of; keli+ shayanam+anuyaatam= disporting, bed, gone onto; anu+gatam= in tow, follower [your seeker]; raadhe= oh, Raadha; anu+sara= in tow, go [you seek]; madhu+mathanam= Madhu the demon, he who humbled - Krishna.

"Oh, naively girl, he who has coaxed and combed you with his crafty words, he who paid his devoirs to your feet, he is there on the bed of disport in the areas of heart-stealing bowers, hence, you seek him, for that Krishna is the seeker of yours... [20-1]

Comment: The word iha and the foot kuru muraare m.ngala shataani is unseen in northern Nagara mms. And many words and expressions in this song vary with that of Northern mms.

ghanajaghanastanabhaarabhare darama.ntharacharaNavihaaram |
mukharitamaNima.njiiramupaihi vidhehi maraalanikaaram || a pa 20-2

pa cChe- ghana jaghana stana bhaara bhare dara ma.nthara charaNa vihaaram mukharita maNi ma.njiiram upaihi vidhehi maraala nikaaram

a pa 20-2. ghana+jaghana= one with massy, hips; stana+bhaara+bhare= bust's, massy, burdened with; dara+ma.nthara+charaNa+vihaaram= little, slowly, feet's, going [saauntering] mukharita+maNi+ ma.njiiram= with tinkling, by gemmed, anklets; upaihi= go near [approach]; vidhehi= make happen; maraala +nikaaram= swans [clucking,] meaningless.

"Oh, Raadha, massy is your hipline, burdened is your bust with equally massy bust, hence let your feet saunter a little and slowly, then let those feet tinkle the gemmy anklets, and let those tinkles make the clucks of swans meaningless, thus you approach him, for he seeks you... [a pa 20-2]

Comment: This time is appropriate to seek Krishna because swans will be clucking at this time, and the tinkles of anklets will be drowned in those clucks, which others may not decipher, excepting Krishna, the seeker. Further, swans' clucks, rather their voicing than ducks clucking, are an auspicious omen kR^iSNa anusarvaasu api darshanena hamsasya shabdena ca kaarya siddhiH – vasanta raajiiya grantha that too, more auspicious when putting one's best foot forward.

shR^iNu ramaNiiyataram taruNiijanamohanamadhuripuraavam |
kusumasharaasanashaasanavandini pikanikare bhaja bhaavam || a pa 20-3

pa cChe- shR^iNu ramaNiiya taram taruNii jana mohana madhu ripu raavam kusuma sharaasana shaasana vandini pika nikare bhaja bhaavam

a pa 20-3. hè mugdhe= [here] unknowledgeable, ignorant girl; ramaNiiya+taram= pleasurable, higher in degree [best possible]; taruNii+jana+mohana= damsel, folks of, [that which] amuses; madhu+ ripu+ raavam= Madhu's, enemy's, musicality of flute; [if it is madhupa viraavam; madhupa= honeybees, viraavam= humming then it is hearing only the humming of bees, but not the flute of Krishna; so the madhupa is honeybee called Krishna, for that bee swills the honey of flower called Raadha] shR^iNu= hark to; kusuma+ sharaasana= flowers, arrow wielder - Love-god's; shaasana+vandini= by order of, minstrels; pika+nikare= in koels, flight of; bhaavam+bhaja= idea, you get.

"O, ignorant girl, hark to the best possible musicality of Krishna's flute, that which amuses flocks of damsels, and hark to the flight of koels, that sing by the order of Love-god with the same musicality, as though they are the minstrels of Love-god, thus you get an idea in this ambience, and seeks him for he seeks you... [a pa 20-3]

anilataralakisalayanikareNa kareNa lataanikurambam |
preraNamiva karabhoru karoti gatim pratimu.ncha vilambam || a pa 20-4

pa cChe- anila tarala kisalaya nikareNa kareNa lataa nikura.mbam preraNam iva karabhoru karoti gatim prati mu.ncha vilambam

a pa 20-4. karabha= measure from tip of last finger to wrist, palmful, thick; uuru= having thighs; lataa+nikura.mbam= climber-plants, whole of [ensemble of]; anila+tarala= by wind, wavy; kisalaya+ nikareNa= by tender leaves, bunches of; kareNa+preraNam+iva= with hand, encouraging, as though; karoti= they do; gatim+prati+vilambam= going, about, delay; mu.ncha= cast off.

"O, thick-thighed girl, the wind is waving the ensemble of climber plants, and the ensemble of their tender leaves look as though their hands, encouragingly waving at you to go, hence cast off the delay about your going to him... and seek him for he seeks you... [a pa 20-4]

Comment: The breezing and trees' tender leaves etc., have good omen while setting out on a purposeful journey. vaame madhura vaak pakshii vR^ikshaH pallavito agrataH | anukuulo vahan vaayuH prayaaNe shubha suucakaH – shakuna shaastra 'birds singing on left, seeing trees with just born leaves, breezes breezing the way set out, all these are good omens for a journey...'

sphuritamana.ngatara.ngavashaadiva suuchitahariparira.mbham |
pR^icCha manoharahaaravimalajaladhaaramamum kuchaku.mbham || a pa 20-5

pa cChe- sphuritam ana.nga tara.nga vashaat iva suuchita hari pari ra.mbham pR^icCha manohara haara vimala jala dhaaram amum kucha ku.mbham

a pa 20-5. hè mugdhe= you ignorant girl; ana.nga= by Love-god's; tara.nga+vashaat+iva= purls, owing to control [in tide-ripped,] as if; sphuritam= fluctuating crabwise; suuchita= indicating; hari+pari+ ra.mbham= Krishna's, spiral, embrace; manohara= pleasant; haara= pearly pendants; vimala+jala+ dhaaram = immaculate, water [streams,] purling; amum+kucha+ ku.mbham= this, bosoms, pot-like; pR^icCha= ask them [the bosoms.]

"You ignorant girl, those pleasant pearly pendants now appear to be purling streams of immaculate waters, for they are spirally fluctuating on your bosoms, as if tide-ripped in the purls of Love-god, ask them whether they indicate a spiralling embrace of Krishna bechances or not... [a pa 20-5]

Comment: The simile/metaphors used here are between:– waves – pearl-pendants; purls of love – purl-like motion of pendant on heaving bosoms; water spills only if brook/stream is full; love spill only when it is bosom-full; stream with full immaculate water – bosoms with plethoric pristine love; pot like bosoms – streams with pot and pots of water; Love-god's activity is seasonal – longing for love is time oriented; and the upsurge and getting tide-ripped is common to both water and love.

When it is said ananga taranga it is construed that Raadha is rasa tarangiNi a purl of essence of enjoyable, blissful love purl of Krishna, where purl is a stream of a brook etc., flowing with a swelling, swirling motion and babbling sound. She too is a single stream of loveliest love essence. And when the bosoms of women surge with passion, of course in with a righteous intention, then the swell of bosoms portend a definite embrace from their loved men. nityam naaryaaH stane kampaH priya sangama suucakaH – shakuna shaastra Then Raadha may say 'stop all this orthodox nonsense, how can I go to him when all of you are eyeing at me, am I shameless or what?' for this that girlfriend replies now on.

adhigatamakhilasakhiibhiridam tava vapurapi ratiraNasajjam |
chaNDi rasitarashanaaravaDiNDimamabhisara sarasamalajjam || a pa 20-s6

pa cChe- adhigatam akhila sakhiibhiH idam tava vapuH api rati raNa sajjam chaNDi rasita rashana rava DiNDimam abhisara sarasam alajjam

a pa 20-6. hè mugdhe= you ignorant girl; tava+idam+vapuH+api= your, this, body, even; rati+ raNa+sajjam= passion, battle of, primed for; adhigatam+akhila+sakhiibhiH= familiar, to all, girlfriends; hè chaNDi= you wildcat; rasita+rashana+rava+DiNDimam= thrumming, waist-strings' tinkle bells', by sound, drumming like sound paraspara virodhaa alankaara where delicate tinkling of 2mm bells of waist-strings magnified a war drum beats- to say 'become a love-warrior']; a+lajjam= without, embarrassment - unembarrassed; sa+rasam= with, romance; abhi+sara= towards [him,] you make move.

"You ignorant girl, even this body of yours is primed for the battle of passion, and it is familiar to all your girlfriends, hence you wildcat, make a move towards him to the rhythm of the belling sound of your waist-strings like a love-warrior, be unembarrassed but be romantic... [a pa 20-6]

smarasharasubhaganakhena kareNa sakhiimavala.mbya saliilam |
chala valayakvaNitairavabodhaya haramapi nijagatishiilam || a pa 20-7

pa cChe- smara shara subhaga nakhena kareNa sakhiim avala.mbya saliilam chala valaya kvaNitaH avabodhaya haram api nija gati shiilam

a pa 20-7. hè mugdhe= you innocent girl; smara+shara+ subhaga+nakhena= Love-god's, arrows [like,] beautiful, fingernails; kareNa+sakhiim+ avala.mbya= hand of, girlfriend, hanging on; sa+liilam= with, grace; chala= you move; valaya+ kvaNitaH+nija+gati+ shiilam= round silver bracelets', by clanging, your, movement's [approach,] way of; avabodhaya+ haram+ api= make known, to Krishna, even.

"You innocent girl, move gracefully hanging on to your girlfriend, by your hand that has beautiful fingernails on par with Love-god's arrows, and let the way of your approach be known even to Krishna, by the way of the clanging of your bracelets... [a pa 20-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitamadhariikR^itahaaramudaasitavaamam |
harivinihitamanasaamadhitiSThatu kaNThataTiimaviraamam || a pa 20-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva bhaNitam adharii kR^ita haaram udaasita vaamam hari vinihita manasaam adhitiSThatu kaNTha taTiim aviraamam

pa 20-8. adharii+kR^ita= flat, made to – flattened out; haaram= pearl-pendants; udaasita= smoothed out [outdoes]; vaamam= tortuousness; jayadeva+ bhaNitam= Jayadeva, said song; shrii suukti= auspicious, saying; hari= in Krishna; vinihita= embedded; manasaam= those that have such hearts [steadfast o Krishna's disports]; kaNTha+taTiim= [on their] throats, on the banks [riverbanks of a river like throat are lips – on the tips of lips of adorers]; a+viraamam = without, remitting; adhitiSThatu= preside over.

Let this auspicious song said by Jayadeva, that which outdoes the pendants of pearls, for the song is strung up with more soothing words than pearls, and that which has no tortuosites in outlining the sports of Raadhakrishna, preside over the lips of adorers of Krishna, unremittingly... [a pa 20-8]

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akshNornikshipada.njanam shravaNayostaapichChaguchChaavaliim
muurdhni shyaamasarojadaama kuchayoH kastuurikaapatrakam |
dhuurtaanaamabhisaarasa.mbhrama juSaam viSva~njiiku.nje sakhi
dhvaantam niilanicholachaaru sudR^ishaam pratya.ngamaali.ngati || 11-3

pa cChe- akshNoH nikshipat a.njanam shravaNayoH taapi.nchCha guchCha aavaliim muurdhni shyaama saroja daama kuchayoH kastuurikaa patrakam dhuurtaanaam abhisaara sa.mbhrama juSaam viSvak niku.nje sakhi dhvaantam niila nichola chaaru sudR^ishaam pratya.nga aali.ngati

11-3. sakhi= oh, friend; akshNoH+a.njanam= in eyes, mascara; shravaNayoH= at sides of ears; taapi.nchCha= black flowers'; guchCha= bunches; aavaliim= strings of; muurdhni= on forehead; shyaama+saroja+daama= black, lotuses, chaplet; kuchayoH= on bosoms; kastuurikaa = black musk's; patrakam= leafage designs; nikshipat= while keeping [decorating]; niila+ nichola= black, blanket; chaaru+dhvaantam= delightful, shade of night; dhuurtaanaam= for coquettes; abhisaara+sa.mbhrama+juSaam= going to their lovers, with flurry, muddled up; su+dR^ishaam= good, glanced - girls with sidelong-glances; prati+a.nga= each, limb; niku.nje= in bowers; viSvak= everywhere; aali.ngati= embracing.

"Oh, friend, the shade of night is decorating her eyes with mascara, ear-sides with black Tamala flowers, forehead with the chaplets of black lotuses, bosoms with leafage designs of black musk, and thus this delightful shade of night, gleaming like a black covering blanket, is embracing each limb of coquettish girls with sidelong-glances, everywhere in bowers... [11-3]

Verse Locator

aabaddharekhamabhito ruchima.njariibhiH |
etattamaaladalaniilatamam tamishram
tatpremahemanikaSopalataam tanoti || 11-4

pa cChe- kaashmiira gaura vapuSaam abhisaarikaaNaam aabaddha rekham abhito ruchi ma.njariibhiH etat tamaala dala niila tamam tamishram tat prema hema nikaSa upalataam tanoti

11-4. kaashmiira+gaura+vapuSaam= saffron, ocherish [i.e., in kumkum's colour,] with bodies [complexioned]; abhisaarikaaNaam= those that go towards a preset place of lover [coquettes treading towards their lovers]; abhitaH= around; ruchi+ma.njariibhiH= glints, clusters of [manimanjariibhiH= by the cluster of gems]; aabaddha+rekham= trussed up, streaks; tamaala+ dala= like black Tamala leaves; niila+tamam= black, more than; etat+ tamishram= this, dark of night; tat= for that, [love for Krishna]; prema= [for his] love; hema= for gold; nikaSa= on touchstone; upalataam= streaked line; tanoti= let [this dark night] enrich.

Let this dark of night with its more black Tamala leaves be a touchstone of gold for deciding the love for Krishna, trussed up with many a streaked line of glinting clusters of gold streaks on it, where those streaks are the saffrony ocherish complexioned coquettes treading towards their lovers. [11-4]

Subtext: While voluptuous women tread towards their lovers in night, their ornaments give out glints at the smallest possible light, thus making their golden yellow complexion more striking on the black background of night, like a streak of pure gold on a touchstone among other streaks, thus if Raadha, in all her love for Krishna, ventures to tread the darkness, called ignorance, she shines forth like a loveable streak of pure gold.

Verse Locator

ma.njiiraka.nkaNamaNidyutidiipitasya |
dvaare niku.njanilayasyaharim niriikshya
vriiDaavatiim atha sakhiim iyam ityuvaaca || 11-5

pa cChe- haaraa avalii tarala kaa.nchana kaa.nchii daama ma.njiira ka.nkaNa maNi dyuti diipitasya dvaare niku.nja nilayasya harim niriikshya vriiDaavatiim atha sakhiim iyam iti uvaaca

11-5. haaraa+avalii+tarala= pearl-pendants, cluster of, their central jewel; kaanchana+ kaanchii daama = golden, waist-string; manjiira= anklets [keyuura= bicep-lets]; ka.nkaNa= bracelets; maNi= jewels; dyuti= by resplendence of [these ornaments]; diipitasya= brightened [by his self-refulgence]; niku.nja+nilayasya+dvaare= bowery, abode's, entryway; harim+ niriikshya= at Krishna, on making eyes at; vriiDaavatiim= one who is bashful, Raadha; sakhiim = at such girlfriend; iyam= this girlfriend-cum- messenger; atha+iti+ uvaaca = then, this way [in next song,] spoke; the meaning of this is amplified.

On reaching the preset place to meet Krishna, Raadha found him at the very entryway of his abode of bower, which is brightened by his self-refulgence, as well by the jewels in his ornaments, like the central jewel in the cluster of his pearl-pendants, jewels in anklets, bracelets, and golden waist-string, and then on making eyes at him she became bashful, and then to such a bashful Raadha, this friend-cum-messenger spoke in this most celebrated song that follows. [11-5]

Verse Locator

- aSTa padi 21 - saana.ndadaamodara prema druma pallavam -
ma.njutaraku.njatalakelisadane | iha vilasa ratirabhasahasitavadane ||
pravisha raadhe maadhavasamiipamiha - kuru muraare m.ngala shataani - dhR^ivam || a pa 21-1

pa cChe- ma.nju tara ku.nja tala keli sadane iha vilasa rati rabhasa hasita vadane pravisha raadhe maadhava samiipam iha - kuru muraare m.ngala shataani

a pa 21-1. raadhe= O, Raadha; iha= in here, in this bower; maadhava+samiipam+ pravisha = to Krishna's, nearby, enter; hasita= made to smile, [not laughing as in dicts., what made her to smile? next -] rati+rabhasa= intimacy, in ecstasy - this ecstatic state made her to smile; vadane = wearking such a such a simpering smile on her face; ma.nju+tara= enrapturing, highly; ku.nja+ tala= bower's, span, stretch, area [ this word 'tala' is usually translated as surface, ground of bower, meaning that 'Raadha you lay down on the ground of bower' - better this may please be stopped, and let it be said as the realm of your lover's bower' without ruining Raadha stature]; keli+sadane= disport, mansion of; vilasa = you rejoice; iha+kuru+m.ngala+shataani+muraare= now, make happen [accords,] graces, in hundreds [manifold,] oh Krishna - for Raadha came to you.

"Enter in here Raadha, for your face wears a simpering smile in the ecstasy for intimacy, draw nigh of Krishna to rejoice, in the highly enrapturing realm of your lover's bower, and a mansion of his passional disports as well, and thereby let Krishna accord manifold graces... enter Raadha, into the enrapturing realm of your lover... [a pa 21-1]

Comment: The word iha and the foot kuru muraare m.ngala shataani are unseen in northern Nagara mms. And many words and expressions in this song vary with that of Northern mms.

navabhavadashokadalashayanasaare | vilasa kuchakalashataralahaare
pravisha raadhe maadhavasamiipamiha - kuru muraare m.ngala shataani - || a pa 21-2

pa cChe- nava bhavat ashoka dala shayana saare vilasa kucha kalasha tarala haare pravisha raadhe maadhava samiipam iha kuru muraare m.ngala shataani

a pa 21-2. kucha+ kalasha= on bosoms, pot-like [bulging bosoms]; tarala+haare= tossing, one having pendants; [raadhe= O, Raadha]; nava+bhavat+ashoka+dala= newly, sprouting, Ashoka flowers', petals; shayana+saare= on couch, the best; vilasa= rejoice yourself; [respite: pravisha raadhe maadhava...shataani= as above.]

"O, Raadha with tossing pendants on your bulging bosoms, rejoice on the best couch of petals of newly sprouting Ashoka flowers... hence, enter into the enrapturing realm of your lover... [a pa 21-2]

kusumachayarachitashuchivaasagehe | iha vilasa kusumasukumaaradehe || a pa 21-3

pa cChe- kusuma chaya rachita shuchi vaasa gehe iha vilasa kusuma sukumaara dehe

a pa 21-3. kusuma+sukumaara+dehe= flower-like, exquisite, one with such physique; kusuma+ chaya+rachita= flowers, heaps of, made with; shuchi= clean [meaning that this cottage is unsullied by another heroine previously]; vaasa+gehe= living, house [bedchamber]; iha+vilasa= now, you rejoice.

"O, one with flower-like exquisite build, rejoice in the clean bedchamber made up with heaps of flowers... enter into such an enrapturing realm of your lover... [a pa 21-3]

calamalayavanapavanasurabhishiite | vilasa madanasharanikarabhiite || a pa 21-4

pa cChe- cala malaya vana pavana surabhi shiite iha vilasa madana shara nikara bhiite

a pa 21-4. madana+shara+nikara+bhiite= Love-god's, arrows, group of, one who is scared so far; cala= move in; malaya+vana+pavana= sandal, wood's, breeze; surabhi+shiite= fragranced, cooled [bower, which is afresh in fragrance, but not redolent of any early time love of Krishna]; iha+vilasa= in here, you rejoice.

"Oh, you who are scared by the group of five flowery arrows of Love-god, move into the bower, fragranced and cooled by the breezes from the woods of sandalwood, to rejoice... [a pa 21-4]

vitatabahuvallinavapallavaghane | vilasachiramalasapiinajaghane || a pa 21-5

pa cChe- vitata bahu valli nava pallava ghane iha vilasa chiram alasa piina jaghane

a pa 21-5. alasa+piina+jaghane= husky, burly, one having a such a hips; vitata= verily intertwined; bahu+valli= with many, climber plants; nava+pallava+ghane= new, leaflets, mass of; iha= in here, this bower; vilasa+chiram= rejoice for a long time.

"O, Raadha, with your burly, husky hips, enter into this bower verily intertwined with many a climber-plant and with mass of new leaflets, and in her you rejoice for a long... [a pa 21-5]

madhumuditamadhupakulakalitaraave | vilasa kushumasharasarasabhaave || a pa 21-5

pa cChe- madhu mudita madhupa kula kalita raave iha vilasa kushuma shara sarasa bhaave

a pa 21-6. kushuma+shara= flowery, arrows - wielder, Love-god, passionate; sa+rasa= with, romance; bhaave= having such a mood; [other mms - madana rasa rabhasa bhaava; madana shara rabhasa bhaave etc] madhu= with honey [swilling]; mudita= gladdened; madhupa+kula= honeybees, swarms of; kalita+raave= blent, with humming; iha+vilasa= in here, you rejoice.

"O, Raadha with passionate romantic mood, enter this bower that is blent with the humming of swarms of honeybees that are gladdened by swilling honey... in here you rejoice... [a pa 21-6]

madhutaralapikanikaraninadamukhare | vilasa dashanaruchiruchirashikhare || a pa 21-7

pa cChe- madhu tarala pika nikara ninada mukhare iha vilasa dashana ruchi ruchira shikhare

a pa 21-7. dashana= of teeth; ruchi= brightness; ruchira= charming; shikhare= edge of teeth [one whose teeth edges sparkle brightly when her lip is half open; or, dashana ruchi= teeth's, brightness; rucira= beautiful; shikhare= rubies according to shaashvata nighaNTu: pakva daaDima biija aabhaam maaNikyam shikharam viduH madhu= in vernal season [on chewing tender leaves]; tarala= fluttering; pika= koels; nikara= flocks of; ninada= [with lustful] callings; mukhare= in reverberation; iha+vilasa= in here, you rejoice.

"O, Raadha with bright sparkle on teeth edges, enter in here where it is reverberating with the lustful callings of koels that have just chewed tender leaves in this vernal season... in here you rejoice... [a pa 21-7]

vihitapadmaavatiisukhasamaaje | bhaNati jayadevakaviraaje || a pa 21-8

pa cChe- vihita padmaavatii sukha samaaje bhaNati jayadeva kavi raaja raaje iha vilasa || 11-6

a pa 21-1. raadhe= O, Raadha; iha= in here, in this bower; maadhava+samiipam+ pravisha = to Krishna's, nearby, enter; hasita= made to smile, [not laughing as in dicts., what made her to smile? next -] rati+rabhasa= intimacy, in ecstasy - this ecstatic state made her to smile; vadane = wearking such a such a simpering smile on her face; ma.nju+tara= enrapturing, highly; ku.nja+ tala= bower's, span, stretch, area [ this word 'tala' is usually translated as surface, ground of bower, meaning that 'Raadha you lay down on the ground of bower' - better this may please be stopped, and let it be said as the realm of your lover's bower' without ruining Raadha stature]; keli+sadane= disport, mansion of; vilasa = you rejoice; iha+kuru+m.ngala+shataani+muraare= now, make happen [accords,] graces, in hundreds [manifold,] oh Krishna - for Raadha came to you.

"Enter in here Raadha, for your face wears a simpering smile in the ecstasy for intimacy, draw nigh of Krishna to rejoice, in the highly enrapturing realm of your lover's bower, and a mansion of his passional disports as well, and thereby let Krishna accord manifold graces... enter Raadha, into the enrapturing realm of your lover... [a pa 21-1]

Comment: The word iha and the foot kuru muraare m.ngala shataani is unseen in northern Nagara mms. And many words and expressions in this song vary with that of Northern mms.

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tvaam chittenachiram vahannayamatishraanto bhR^isham taapitaH
kandarpeNa ca paatumichChati sudhaasa.mbaadhabi.mbaadharam |
asyaa.nkam tadala.nkuru kshaNamiha bhruukshepalakshmiilava
kriite daaseva upasevitapadaa.mbhoje kutaH sa.mbhramaH || 11-7

pa cChe- tvaam chittena chiram vahan ayam ati shraa.ntaH bhR^isham taapitaH ka.ndarpeNa ca paatum ichChati sudhaa sa.mbaadha adharam asya a.nkam tat ala.nkuru kshaNam iha bhruu kshepa lakshmii lava kriite daasa iva upasevita pada a.mbhoje kutaH sambhramaH

11-7. ayam+chiram+tvaam+chittena+vahan= he, for a long time, you, by heart, while bears; ati+shraa.ntaH= much, tired out; ka.ndarpeNa+bhR^isham+taapitaH+ca= [therefore] by Love-god, highly, scorching him [as that Love-god prowls only for such helpless lovers]; [therefore] for nectar, damaging, [your] small red cucumber like, lower lip [your roseate lips and their nectar outclasses, surpasses the heavenly nectar]; paatum+ichChati= to drink, he cherishes; tat= therefore; asya+a.nkam+kshaNam+ ala.nkuru= his, in flank, for a moment, lend the grace [of your body]; [Raadha may ask ' took my words amiss, how can I be with him... for that, the girlfriend is saying]; [tava] bhruu+ kshepa+ lakshmii+lava+kriite= [your] eyebrow, movement's, richness, least, buyable [he is buyable by the richness of the least raise of your eyebrow; something like - simoniacal - the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges, e.g. pardons or benefices]; daasa+iva= servant, like a; upasevita+pada+a.mbhoje= reverenced, [your] feet, lotus-like [he reveres your lotusy feet like a servant]; iha= in this matter; sambhramaH+kutaH= hesitation, where is.

"His heart is much tired out while bearing you in it, therefore Love-god is highly scorching him, therefore he cherishes to drink nectar of your roseate lips that transcends the heavenly nectar, therefore lend the grace of your body on his flank, at least for a moment... where is the question of your hesitation when he is buyable by the richness of the least raise of your eyebrow... he reveres your lotusy feet like a servant... believe me..." [11-7]

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saa sasaadhvasasaana.ndam govi.nde lolalochanaa |
si.njaanama.njuma.njiiram pravivesha niveshanam || 11-8

pa cChe- saa sa saadhvasa sa anandam govinde lola lochanaa si.njaana ma.nju ma.njiiram pravivesha niveshanam

11-8. govinde+lola+lochanaa= on Krishna, fluttery, eyes [eying Krishna with sidelong-glances]; saa= she that Raadha; sa+saadhvasa= with, fear [here - doubt]; sa+anandam= with delight; si.njaana= clanging; ma.nju= charming; ma.njiiram= making anklets [she slowly sneaked in, in doing so her anklets are clanging to her footwork, indicating her entrance - dancers delight]; pravivesha+niveshanam= entered, disporting bower.

Then Raadha with her sidelong-glances on Krishna, and with a doubt and delight, entered that disporting bower, and while her anklets clanged in tune with her stepping. [11-8]

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- aSTa padi - 22 - saana.ndagovinda raaga shreNi kusuma aabharaNam -
jalanidhimiva vidhumaNDaladarshanataralitatu.ngatara.ngam |
harimekarasam chiramabhilaSitavilaasam
saa dadaarsha guruharSavasha.nvadavadanamana.nganivaasam |
hirim eka rasam- nivaasam - dhR^ivam || a pa 22-1

pa Che- raadhaa vadana vilokana vikasita vividha vikaara vibha.ngam jala nidhim iva vidhu maNDala darshana taralita tu.nga tara.ngam harim eka rasam chiram abhilaSita vilaasam saa dadaarsha guru harSa vasha.nvada vadanam ana.nga nivaasam

a pa 22-1. eka+rasam= with single, [passionate] emotion [towards Raadha]; chiram+ abhilaSita+ vilaasam= for long time, desired, frolicking [with Raadha]; guru+ harSa+ vasha.nvada+vadanam= high, ecstatic happiness, went under control of, [his face]; ana.nga+ nivaasam= [aggregate] bodiless love, abode of; raadhaa+vadana+vilokana= Raadha's, face, on seeing; vikasita+vividha+vikaara+ vibha.ngam = unfolded, various, change of [passional] attitudes, as ripples [in many kinds of undulating emotions]; vidhu+maNDala+ darshana= moon's, sphere, on appearance of; taralita+tu.nga+ tara.ngam = flurried, high, tides; jala+ nidhim +iva= water, treasure [ocean,] like; saa= she that Raadha; dadaarsha= saw at; harim= at Krishna.

He who is with a single passional emotion towards Raadha alone, and he who desired to frolic with Raadha for a long time, and who is an abode of aggregate love, and whose face now went under the control of high ecstatic happiness on seeing Raadha, unfolding many an undulating passional emotions like ripples, similar to an ocean in which high tides flurry on the appearance of moon, Raadha saw at such Krishna. [a pa 22-1]

haaramamalatarataaramurasi dadhatam parirabhya viduuram |
sphuTataraphenakada.mbakara.mbitamiva yamunaajalapuuram || a pa 22-2

pa cChe- haaram amala tara taaram urasi dadhatam parirabhya viduuram sphuTa tara phena kara.mbitam iva yamunaa jalapuuram

a pa 22-2. amala+tara+taaram+haaram= pure, higher [purest,] having pearls, pendant; urasi+ viduuram= on chest, lengthy; parirabhya= bracingly [close on his chest]; dadhatam= wearing; sphuTa+ tara= clear, higher [clearest]; phena+ + kara.mbitam= foam, mass of [bubbles,] merging; yamunaa+jala+puuram+iva= River Yamuna, water, course, like; saa= she that Raadha; dadaarsha= saw at; harim= at Krishna.

He who is wearing lengthy pendants of purest pearls close on his sappharine chest, that look like the mass of white bubbles merging in the course of sappharine waters of River Yamuna, at such a Krishna Raadha saw. [a pa 22-2]

shyaamalamR^idulakalevaramaNDalamadhigatagauradukuulam |
niilanalinamiva piitaparaagapatalabharavalayitamuulam || a pa 22-3

pa cChe- shyaamala mR^idula kalevara maNDalam adhigata gaura dukuulam niila nalinam iva piita paraaga patala bhara valayita muulam

a pa 22-3. shyaamala+mR^idula+ kalevara+ maNDalam= sapphirine, satiny, body, around; adhigata+gaura+dukuulam= possessed [wearing,] ochreish, silk cloth; piita+paraaga+patala= yellowish, pollen, a collection of; bhara+ valayita +muulam= remarkably, spiralled, on stem; niila+nalinam+iva= blue-black, lotus, like [sthitam = avialable, standing.]

Around his sapphirine satiny body he is wearing an ocherish silk cloth, with that he looks like a black lotus, at whose stem a collection of yellowish pollen is remarkably spiralled, Raadha saw at such blue-black-lotus-like Krishna. [a pa 22-3]

taraladR^iga.nchalachalanamanoharavadanajanitaratiraagam |
sphuTakamalodarakhelitakha.njanayugamiva sharadi taDaagam || a pa 22-4

pa cChe - tarala dR^ik a.nchala chalana manohara vadana janita rati raagam sphuTa kamala udara khelita kha.njana yugam iva sharadi taDaagam

a pa 22-4. tarala+dR^ik+a.nchala+chalana= moving, eye, edges [Raadha with sidelong glances,] by casting [such glances]; manohara+vadana+ janita+rati+raagam= delightful, face, caused [showing,] for intimacy, interestedness; sharadi= in autumn; sphuTa+kamala+ udara= unfolded, lotus, in belly; khelita+ kha.njana+yugam= playing, small birds, couple of; taDaagam +iva [sthitam]= lake, like [standing.]

On Raadha's casting sidelong glances, his delightful face is showing an interestedness for intimacy; hence he is like a lake in autumn, wherein a couple of small birds are playing in the belly of an unfolded lotus, Raadha saw at such Krishna. [a pa 22-4]

vadanakamalaparishiilanamilitamihirasamakuNDalashobham |
smitaruchiruchirasamullasitaadharapallavakR^itaratilobham || a pa 22-5

pa cChe- vadana kamala parishiilana milita mihira sama kuNDala shobham smita ]ruchi ruchira samullasita adhara pallava kR^ita rati lobham

a pa 22-5. vadana+kamala+parishiilana= [Raadha's face, as well as Krishna's face] like lotus; to check [as a lotus unfolds when sun comes]; milita= inclusive of [having]; mihira+sama+ kuNDala+ shobham= suns, equal to, knobby ear-hangings, splendour; smita+ruchi= smile's, by resplendence; ruchira= agreeable; samullasita= enthusiastic [to swill nectar from Raadha's lips]; adhara+pallava+ kR^ita= lips, leaflet like, made [showing]; rati+lobham= for intimacy, longing.

His lotus like face has knobby ear-hangings, equal in splendour of many suns, that have come to check the lotus like face of Raadha, and the agreeable resplendence of his smile on his leaflet like lips is showing his longing for intimacy, and he is enthusiastic to swill the nectar from Raadha's lips, and Raadha saw at such Krishna. [a pa 22-5]

shashikiraNachChuritodarajaladharasundarasakusumakesham |
timiroditavidhumaNdalanirmalamalayajatilakanivesham || a pa 22-6

pa cChe- shashi kiraNa chChurita udara jala dhara sundara sa kusuma kesham timira udita vidhu maNdala nirmala malaya ja tilaka nivesham

a pa 22-6. shashi+kiraNa+chChurita= by moon, beams, brightened; udara= centrally; jala+ dhara= water, bearing [black cloud]; sundara+sa+kusuma+ kesham = charming, [inlaid] with, flowers, head-hair; timira+udita= from sombre [sky,] uprisen; vidhu+maNdala = moon's, orb like; nirmala= spotless; malayaja+ tilaka+ nivesham= sandal paste, forehead mark, kept [on forehead.]

Alike a black watery cloud centrally brightened by moonbeams, his charming head-hair inlaid with flowers, and his blue-blackish forehead is marked with a spotless white sandal paste, that itself is like the uprising orb of moon on sombre sky, and Raadha saw at such Krishna. [a pa 22-6]

vipulapulakabharadanturitam ratikelikalaabhiradhiiram |
maNigaNakiraNasamuuhasamujjvalabhuuSaNasubhagashariiram || a pa 22-7

pa cChe- vipula pulaka bhara danturitam rati keli kalaabhiH adhiiram maNi gaNa kiraNa samuuha samujjvala bhuuSaNa subhaga shariiram

a pa 22-7. vipula+pulaka+bhara+danturitam= broad, thrilling, filled with, uneven [muddling on]; rati+keli+kalaabhiH= by passionate, play [immediately,] by arts; a+dhiiram = not, firm [disquieted]; maNi+gaNa= gems, clusters of; kiraNa+samuuha= with their rays, collection of; samujjvala+ bhuuSaNa= well brightened, ornaments; subhaga+shariiram= with auspicious [with a halo around him,] build [he is self-refulgent.]

He who is muddling on with broad thrilling sensations, he who is disquieted to immediately all known arts of passionate play is self-refulgent with the collection of rays from the cluster of gems in a halo around his auspicious build, and at such haloed Krishna. [22-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitavibhavadviguNiikR^itabhuuSaNabhaaram |
praNamata hR^idi suchiram vinidhaaya harim sukR^itodayasaaram || a pa 22-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva bhaNita vibhava dviguNii kR^ita bhuuSaNa bhaaram praNamata hR^idi suchiram vinidhaaya harim sukR^ita udaya saaram

a pa 22-8. hè vaishNavaaH= oh, adorers of Vishnu; shrii= the auspicious saying; jayadeva+ bhaNita= by Jayadeva, said; vibhava= by its glory; dviguNii+kR^ita= doubly, made; bhuuSaNa +bhaaram= Krishna's decorations', weight [i.e., Krishna has his own divine ornaments that are doubly enriched by poet's words in this song, which also serve as his ornament, poet is further adding ornament to his chosen god]; sukR^ita+ udaya= merit, for the onset of; saaram= [Krishna is the] essence; harim+hR^idi+suchiram+ vinidhaaya+ praNamata= let Krishna be, in hearts, for a long time, firmly keeping, you all revere.

O, the adorers of Vishnu, this glorious and auspicious song rendered by Jayadeva is doubling the weight of Krishna's jewels, for every word is yet another ornament to him, hence keep Krishna firm in you hearts and revere him with this song for a long time, as he alone is the essence to set out merit. [a pa 22-8]

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atikramyaapaa.ngam shravaNapathaparyantagamana
prayaasenevaakshNostaralatarabhaavam gamitayoH |
idaaniim raadhaayaaH priyatamasamaalokasamaye
papaata svedaambuprasara iva harSaashrunikaraH || 11-10

pa cChe- atikramya apaa.ngam shravaNa patha paryanta gamana prayaasena iva akshNoH tarala tara bhaavam gamitayoH idaaniim raadhaayaaH priyatama samaaloka samaye papaata sveda ambu prasara iva harSa ashru nikaraH

11-10. idaaniim= presently; raadhaayaaH+akshNoH= Raadha's, eyes [glances]; apaa.ngam+ atikramya = edge of eyes, on crossing over; shravaNa+ patha+paryanta= ears, in the path of, up to [ears]; gamana +prayaasena+iva= in going, by strain of; tarala+tara= fluttering, much; bhaavam+ gamaitayoH = such sensation, entered; priya+tama= loveable, most; samaaloka+ samaye= at gazing, time; harSa+ ashru+nikaraH= happy, tears, heaps of; sveda+ambu+prasara + iva= sweat, drops, flowing, as if [her ears strained and sweated to see him because of his self-refulgence]; papaata= [tears] fell.

Presently Raadha's glances have crossed over the edges of eye-sockets, widening along the path unto ears so as to reach ears, as to use a wide-angle, and in that strain they felt much fluttering sensation, and on gazing her most loveable lover with such wide-eyes adoration heaps of happy tear flows have fallen, as though her glances strained and sweated to see him at a long last time. [11-10]

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bhajya.ntyaastalpaantam kR^itakapaTakaNDuutipihita
smitam yaate gehaadbahirapihitaaliiparijane |
priyaasyam pashyantyaaH smaraparavashaaakuutasubhagam
salajjaa lajjaapi vyagamadiva duuram mR^igadR^ishaH || 11-11

pa cChe- bhajya.ntyaaH talpaa.ntam kR^ita kapaTa kaNDuuti pihita smitam yaate gehaat bahiH api hitaalii parijane priya aasyam pashyantyaaH smara shara samaakuula subhagam sa lajjaa lajjaa api vyagamat iva duuram mR^iga dR^ishaH

11-11. hitaalii+parijane+yaate= well-wishers, friends, when went away; gehaat+bahiH= from house [bowers,] to outside; kR^ita+kapaTa+kaNDuuti= on making, pretence, of itching; pihita+ smitam= concealing, smile; talpa+antam+bhajya.ntyaaH= bed's, edge, on reaching; smara+ paravasha+ aakuuta= Love-god, controlled, thinking [when body language is changed when possessed by love]; subhagam+priya+aasyam+pashyantyaaH= auspicious, dear one's, face, on seeing; mR^iga+dR^ishaH= fawn, eyed Raadha's; lajjaa+api= prudery, even; sa lajjaa+ iva= became prudish, as if; duuram= far way; vyagamat= [vi ava gamat]= went away [left her off.]

When her well-wishing friends have gone away from that bower, concealing her happy smile under the pretence of some itching she neared the edge of bed, and on seeing her dear one's auspicious face her body language is changing as she is possessed by Love-god, and even the prudery of that fawn eyed Raadha became as though effected by a bit of prude and left her off. [11-11]

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saana.ndam na.ndasuunurdishatuparataram
raadhaamaadhaayabaahvorvivaramanudhR^iDham piiDayanpriiti |
yogaat tu.ngautasyaa urojaavatanuvaratanornirgatau
maasmabhuutaam pR^iSTam nirbhidyatasmaadbahiritivalitagriivamaalokaya.ntaH || 11-12

pa cChe- saana.ndam na.nda suunH dishatu parataram samma.ndam ma.nda ma.ndam
raadhaam aadhaaya baahvoH vivaram anu dhR^iDham piiDayan
priiti yogaat tu.ngau tasyaa urojau atanu vara tanoH nirgatau maa smabhuutaam
pR^iSTam nirbhidya tasmaat bahiH iti valita griivam aalokaya.ntaH

11-12. ma.nda+ma.ndam= slowly, slowly; raadhaam+baahvoH+vivaram+anu= Raadha is, arms, in the middle, towards [his chest]; aadhaaya= on taking; priiti+yogaat+dhR^iDham+ piiDayan= fondness, added, tightly, on hugging; atanu+vara+tanoH+tasyaaH= slender, best, bodied, of her; tu.ngau+ urojau= jutting, bosoms; pR^iSTam+nirbhidya = [his] back, piercing; bahiH+tasmaat+ nirgatau= to outside, of that [back,] coming out; maa+smabhuutaam+ iti= not, to happen that way, thus; valita+ griivam [yathaa tathaa ]= [quickly] turning, neck [as if to check, mischevously]; aalokaya.ntaH= seeing [his back]; na.nda+suunH= Nanda's, son; saana.ndam= with happiness; parataram+samma.ndam+ dishatu= highest, happiness, [to us] let him give.

Then, on taking Raadha into his arm-fold, with added fondness in tightly hugging her, he felt as though the jutting bosoms of that slender bodied Raadha have come out of his back piercing chest and back, and saying to himself 'it should not have happened... have they come our of my back - really...' and to check himself he quickly turned his head from Raadha to looking at his back, mischievously, and let such a mischievous Krishna with all his happiness to be in togetherness with Raadha, accord all of us all the happiness. [11-12]

Verse Locator

jayashriivinyastairmahita iva ma.ndaarakusumaiH
svayam si.ndhureNadviparaNamudaamudrita iva |
bhujapiiDa kriiDaahatakuvalayaapiiDakariNaH
prakiirNaasR^igbi.ndurjayati bhujada.nDo murajitaH || 11-13

pa cChe- jayashrii vinyastaiH mahita iva ma.ndaara sukumaiH svayam si.ndhureNa dvipa raNa mudaa mudrita iva bhuja piiDa kriiDa hata kuvalayaapiiDa kariNaH prakiirNa asR^ik bi.nduH jayati bhuja da.nDaH mura jitaH

11-13. prakiirNa+asR^ik+bi.nduH= bestrewn, blood, drops; jayashrii+vinyastaiH= by Prosperity of Victory, kept [sprinkled]; ma.ndaara+kusumaiH+mahita+iva= with Mandaara [red flowers used in worships,] flowers, worshipped, as if; dvipa+raNa+mudaa= with elephant, warring, happy; svayam+ si.ndhureNa+mudrita+iva= by himself, with red victory powder, imprinted, as if; bhuja+ piiDa+ kriiDa= by hand, grip, sport; hata+kuvalayaapiiDa+ kariNaH= killed, Kuvalayaapida, named elephant; mura+ jitaH= Mura's, conqueror [Krishna]; bhuja+ da.nDaH+jayati= shoulder, blade, be victorious [many evils.]

When Krishna was warring he twisted the trunk of an elephant named Kuvalayaapiida, whirled and killed it. Then its blood drops are bestrewn on his hand. Then the Prosperity of Victory, deified form of Goddess Lakshmi insofar as victories are concerned sprinkle red flowed used in worships on Krishna, and Krishna happy as he is to war with an elephant seemed ho have imprinted on his hand red powder used in the worship of victorious combatants. Let such all-conquering arms of Krishna be victorious on many evils.

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raadhaayaahR^idipalavalemanasijakriiDaikara.ngasthale |
ramyorojasarojakhelanarasitvaadaatmanaH khyaapayan
dhyaaturmaanasaraajaha.msanibhataa.mdeyaanmuku.ndomudam || 11-14

a cChe- saundarya eka nidheH ana.nga lalanaa laavaNya liilaa juSaH raadhaayaaH hR^idi palavale manasi ja kriiDaa eka ra.nga sthale ramya uroja saroja khelana rasitvaat aatmanaH khyaapayan dhyaatuH maanasa raaja ha.msa nibhataam deyaat muku.ndaH mudam

11-14. saundarya+eka+nidheH= for grandeur, single, treasure trove; ana.nga+lalanaa= Love-god's, wife [Rati Devi]; laavaNya+liilaa+juSaH= [such Rati Devi's] body language, bodily gestures [as in dance poses,] added with; raadhaayaaH of Raadha; manasi+ja= mind, born [for passion]; kriiDaa= for playing; eka+ra.ngasthale= single, stage of performance; hR^idi+ palavale = heart, called lake; aatmanaH= he [Krishna]; ramya+uroja+saroja= charming, bosoms, called lotuses; khelana= while plyaing with; rasitvaat= one who enjoyed that bliss; dhyaatuH= to the meditators [on him]; maanasa= heart/lake called Maanasa Sarovar; raaja+ ha.msa= kingly swan; nibhataam= similitude; khyaapayan= while establishing; muku.ndaH+ mudam+deyaat= Krishna, gladness, let accord.

She who is a single treasure trove for the grandeur, added with the body language and bodily gestures of the wife of Love-god, called Rati Devi, famous for her beauty, and she who is the single stage for the performance of Krishna's love dance, and let Krishna disport with the lotuses called the bosoms of Raadha, in the heart called lake of such Raadha's heart, himself becoming a kingly swan in similitude, let him also play in the lake-like contemplative minds of his devotees, and thus let Krishna accord gladness to on and all. [11-14]

iti giitagovinde saana.ndadaamodaro naama ekaadashaH sargaH

Thus, this is the 11th chapter, called saanandadaamodara - Delighted Krishna, in Gita Govindam of Jayadeva.

Chapter [Sarga] 12 - Exultant Krishna

At last Raadha meets Krishna, and Krishna who is waiting for a long time for Raadha gladdens on her coming thus yields himself to every wish of hers. They thus unite themselves to keep everything united.

Verse Locator

gatavati sakhiibR^inde.amandatrapaabharanirbhara
smaraparavashaakuutasphiitasmitasnapitaadharam |
sarasamanasam dR^ishhTvaa hR^iSTaam muhurnavapallava
prasavashayane nikshiptaakshiimuvaacha hariH priyyaam || 12-1

pa cChe - gatavati sakhii bR^inde amanda trapaa bhara nirbhara smara paravasha aakuuta sphiita smita snapita adharam sarasa manasam dR^iSTvaa hR^iSTaam muhuH nava pallava prasava shayane nikshipta akshiim uvaacha hariH priyyaam

a pa 23-1. hè kaamini= oh, loving Raadha; kisalaya+shayana+tale= on tender leafy, bed, surface of; charaNa +nalina+vinivesham+kuru= [delicate] feet, lotuses, placement, to make; suvesham= well arranged [bed]; tava+pada+pallava+vairi= your, feet's, tender leaves, an adversary[of any delicacy];idam= this [bed]; paraabhavam+anubhavatu= adversity, let suffer; hè raadhe= oh, Raadha; adhunaa+anugatam= presently, disposed [to you]; naaraayaNam = he who is the mover of beings, basis of living beings, or, who is a receptacle of water, rasa] Krishna ; kshaNam+anusara= for a while, follow.

"Place your lotus like delicate feet on the delicate surface of the tender leafy bed, oh, loving Raadha, thus let this well-arranged bed for its delicacy suffer an adversity, as your more delicate tender leaf like feet are the adversaries of any delicacy... thus, oh, Raadha, follow the mover of beings for a while, as he is well-disposed to you... [a pa 23-1]

Verse Locator

aSTa padi 23 - madhuripuvidyaadharaliilam
kisalayashayanatale kuru kaamini charaNanalinavinivesham |
tava padapallavavairiparaabhavamidamanubhavatu suvesham |
kshaNamadhunaa naaraayaNam | anugatamanusara raadhe -dhR^ivam || a pa 23-1

pa cChe - kisalaya shayana tale kuru kaamini charaNa nalina vinivesham tava pada pallava vairi paraabhavam idam anubhavatu suvesham kshaNam adhunaa naaraayaNam anugatam anusara raadhe

a pa 23-1. hè kaamini= oh, loving Raadha; kisalaya+shayana+tale= on tender leafy, bed, surface of; charaNa +nalina+vinivesham+kuru= [delicate] feet, lotuses, placement, to make; suvesham= well arranged [bed]; tava+pada+pallava+vairi= your, feet's, tender leaves, an adversary[of any delicacy];idam= this [bed]; paraabhavam+anubhavatu= adversity, let suffer; hè raadhe= oh, Raadha; adhunaa+anugatam= presently, disposed [to you]; naaraayaNam = he who is the mover of beings, basis of living beings, or, who is a receptacle of water, rasa] Krishna ; kshaNam+anusara= for a while, follow.

"Place your lotus like delicate feet on the delicate surface of the tender leafy bed, oh, loving Raadha, thus let this well-arranged bed for its delicacy suffer an adversity, as your more delicate tender leaf like feet are the adversaries of any delicacy... thus, oh, Raadha, follow the mover of beings for a while, as he is well-disposed to you... [a pa 23-1]

karakamalena karomi charaNamahamaagamitaasi viduuram |
kshaNamupakuru shayanopari maamiva nuupuramanugatishuuram || a pa 23-2

pa cChe- kara kamalena karomi charaNam aham aagamitaa asi viduuram kshaNam upakuru shayana upari maam iva nuupuram anugati shuuram

a pa 23-2. viduuram= long-way-off; aagamitaa+asi= [by me] arrived, you are [at me; hence]; aham+kara+kamalena= I will, with hands, lotus like; charaNam+karomi = feet, I mend [or, taking caraNa maham as single unit = caraNa= feet's; maham= worship= I worship your feet]; maam+iva= me like; anugati+shuuram+ nuupuram= in following, an expert - faithful follower, her anklet follows her very sincerely without slipping off, hence that anklet is to be taken care of; shayana+upari+ kshaNam+ upakuru= bed, on surface, for a while, place it.

I made you to arrive at me from long-way-off, hence I with my lotus like hands mend the strain of your feet, and hence place those feet on the surface of bed, to give rest to your anklets, for they are the faithful followers of yours, like me... [a pa 23-2]

vadanasudhaanidhigalitamamR^itamiva rachaya vachanamanukuulam |
virahamivaapanayaami payodhararodhakamurasi dukuulam || a pa 23-3

pa cChe- vadana sudhaa nidhi galitam amR^itam iva rachaya vachanam anukuulam viraham iva apanayaami payodhara rodhakam urasi dukuulam

a pa 23-3. vadana= from [your] face; sudhaa+nidhi= nectar's, treasure of - moon; galitam+ amR^itam + iva= slither, nectar, like [sthitam= available before me]; rachaya+anukuulam+ vachanam= make [say something,] heartening, words; [tava= on your]; urasi= on bust; payodhara+ rodhakam= for bosoms, [here] covering; [ellipt] payodhara= for swelling bosoms; rodhakam= obstructing, bridle like; dukuulam = piece of cloth; viraham+iva= [your] anguish in separation, like; apanayaami= I am detaching; [a love's bosoms will be swelling when she is anguishing in separation for her lover.]

"Say something Raadha, and let heartily nectarean words slither from that moonlike face yours... and this piece of your breast cloth which so far served as a bridle on your swelling bosoms, this I am removing along with your anguish in separation from me... hence, follow the mover of beings for a while, as he is well-disposed to you... [a pa 23-3]

priyaparira.mbhaNarabhasavalitamiva pulakitamatiduravaapam |
madurasi kuchakalasham viniveshaya shoshhaya manasijataapam || a pa 23-4

pa cChe- priya parira.mbhaNa rabhasa valitam iva pulakitam ati duravaapam mat urasi kucha kalasham viniveshaya shoSaya manasija taapam

a pa 23-4. priya+parira.mbhaNa= lover, for tight embrace; rabhasa+valitam+iva= bustle, added, as if; pulakitam= thrilling; ati+duravaapam= highly, unbearable [bulging]; kucha+ kalasham= bosoms, pot-like; mat+urasi+viniveshaya= on my, chest, keep; shoSaya+manasija+ taapam= lessen, Love-god's, scorching.

"Those highly bulging bosoms of yours now look as if a bustling is added to them for a tight embrace of lover, hence, keep them on the chest of mine to lessen the scorch of Love-god... [a pa 23-4]

adharasudhaarasamupanaya bhaamini jiivaya mR^itamiva daasam |
tvayi vinihitamanasam virahaanaladagdhavapuSamavilaasam || a pa 23-5

pa cChe- adhara sudhaa rasam upanaya bhaamini jiivaya mR^itam iva daasam tvayi vinihita manasam viraha anala dagdha vapuSam a vilaasam

a pa 23-5. bhaamini= oh, dear; adhara+sudhaa+rasam+upanaya= lip's, nectarean, essence, get me [let me get]; tvayi+vinihita+manasam= in you, kept [hinged one,] with heart; viraha+anala+ dagdha+ vapuSam = separation, fire, burnt, with body; a+vilaasam= without, blithe; mR^itam+ iva= dead one, like, [sthitam= available, lingering one]; daasam+jiivaya= devotee, let live.

"Oh, dear, let me get the nectarean essence of your lips, as my heart is hinged on you, my body is burnt with the fire of our separation, and I am lingering on like a deadpan without any blithesomeness, hence let your devotee live... [a pa 23-5]

shashimukhi mukharaya maNirashanaaguNamanuguNakaNThanidaanam |
shrutiyugale pikarutavikale mama shamaya chiraadavasaadam || a pa 23-6

pa cChe- shashi mukhi mukharaya maNi rashanaa guNam anuguNa kaNTha nidaanam shruti yugale pika ruta vikale mama shamaya chiraat avasaadam

a pa 23-6. hè shashi mukhi= oh, moon, faced one; anuguNa= in tune with; kaNTha+nidaanam= throat's, voicing [utterances]; maNi+rashanaa+guNam= jewelled, waist-strings, chains; mukharaya= let sound, let tinkle [ by this a vipariita surata called - hamsa liila is said]; pika+ ruta+vikale= koels, by callings, roughened; mama+shruti+yugale= in my, ears, pair of; chiraat= for a long time; avasaadam= sinking sensation; shamaya= pacify.

"Oh, moonfaced Raadha let the chains of bejewelled waste-strings of yours tinkle in tune with your utterances, and let the long time sinking sensation in the pair of my ears, caused and roughened by the callings of koels, be pacified by your utterances... [a pa 23-6]

maamativiphalarushhaa vikaliikR^itamavalokitumadhunedam |
miilitalajjitamiva nayanaM tava virama visR^ija ratikhedam || a pa 23-7

pa cChe- maam ati viphala ruSaa vikalii kR^itam avalokitum adhunaa idam miilati lajjitam iva nayanam tava virama visR^ija ratikhedam

a pa 23-7. ati+viphala+ruSaa= with highly, unavailing, anger; vikalii+kR^itam+maam+ avalokitum= agitated one, made as, at me, to see; [tava= your]; idam+nayanam= this, eye; adhunaa+lajjitam+iva= presently, shying, as if; miilati= closing, down casting; virama= leave [that downcast glance]; visR^ija+ rati khedam= leave off, disquietude in love.

"You made me an agitated soul with your highly unavailing anger, and to see me, an agitated one, your eyes are presently downcast their glances... but, leave that downcast glance and leave off disquietude in love... [a pa 23-7]

shriijayadevabhaNitamidamanupadanigaditamadhuripumodam |
janayatu rasikajaneshhu manoramaratirasabhaavavinodam || a pa 23-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva bhaNitam idam anupada nigadita madhu ripu modam janayatu rasika janeSu manorama rati rasa bhaava vinodam || 12-2

a pa 23-8. shrii+jayadeva+bhaNitam= auspicious [saying,] Jayadeva, said by; anu+pada= in every, foot; ni+gadita= emphatically, said; madhu ripu= Krishna's; modam= gladness; idam= this song; rasika janeSu= among romantic, people; manorama= heart-pleasing; rati rasa bhaava vinodam = romantic enjoyment mood of, merriment; janayatu= let cause.

"This auspicious song rendered by Jayadeva emphatically lays down in each foot about what causes gladness to Krishna, hence let this song heart-pleasingly romanticise the moods of romantic people... [a pa 23-8]

Verse Locator

pratyuuhaH pulakaa.nkureNa nibiDaashleSanimeSeNa ca
kriiDaakuuta vilokite adhara sudhaa paane kathaa narmabhi |
aanandaadhigamena manmathakalaayuddhe.api yasminaabhuut
udbhuutassatayorbabhuuvasurataara.mbhaH priya.mbhaavukaH || 12-3

pa cChe- pratyuuhaH pulaka a.nkureNanibiDa aashleSa nimeSeNa ca kriiDa aakuuta vilokite adhara sudhaa paane kathaa narmabhi aananda adhigamenamanmatha kalaa yuddhe api yasmin aabhuut udbhuutaH saH tayoH babhuuva surata ara.mbhaH priya.m bhaavukaH

12-3. This verse is titled as surataarambha candra haasam : yasmin= wherein [in which romance]; nibiDa+aaSleSa= in tight, embrace; pulaka+ a.nkureNa= hair, sprouts [thrills of body, or by the word sprout, a blade of grass coming in between them in their embrace, is a hurdle]; kriiDa+aakuuta+vilokite= in sports, intentionally, while seeing [at each other]; nimeSeNa + ca= by winking, also; adhara+sudhaa+paane= lips', nectar, while swilling; kathaa+ narmabhiH= tales, secret; manmatha+kalaa+yuddhe+api= Love-god's, art, war of; aananda+ adhigamena= in pleasure, deriving; pratyuuhaH+aabhuut= obstacles, occurred; saH= that; tayoH = to two of them, Raadha Krishna; udbhuuta+surata+ aara.mbhaH= bechanced, starting of romance; priya.m+bhaavukaH+babhuuva= highly, desirable, they became.

In which romance some obstacles have occurred, like body thrills while in tight embrace, or winking while intently looking at each other, or when telling a secret tale while swilling the nectar of lips, or even in deriving pleasure during the art of love-war, those obstacles too, have become highly desirable onesto both of them, for they are brief separations in union. [12-3]

Verse Locator

dorbhyaam sa.myamitaH payodharabhaareNaapiiDitaH paaNijaiH
aaviddho dashanaiH kshataadharapuTaH shroNitaTeanaahataH |
hastenaanamitaH kace.adharamadhusya.ndena sammohitaH
kaantaH kaamapitR^iptimaapatadaho kaamasya vaamaagatiH || 12-4

pa cChe- dorbhyaam sa.myamitaH payodhara bhaareNa aapiiDitaH paaNijaiH aaviddho dashanaiH kshataa adhara puTaH shroNi taTena aahataH hastena aanamitaH kace adhara madhu sya.ndena sammohitaH kaantaH kaam api tR^iptim aapa tat aho kaamasya vaamaagatiH

12-4. This verse is titled as kaama tR^ipta kaaminiii haasam : dorbhyaam+samyamitaH = by both arms, fastened;payodhara+bhareNa+aapiiDitaH=by bosoms, weight, burdened; paaNi +jaiH= by hand, born ones - nails; aaviddhaH= scratched; dashanaiH+ kshataa+adhara+ puTaH = by teeth, bitten, lips, edges; shroNi+taTena= river, banks [riverbank like hips]; aahataH = pounded;hastena+anamitaH+kace= by hand, pulled, hair; adhara+madhu+syandena + sammohitaH = lips, honey [liquor,] by flow of, bemused; kaantaH= lover [Krishna]; kaam+api = somewhat, something - unsayable; tR^iptim+aapa= satisfaction, he got; tat= thereby; aho +kaamasya+vaamaa+gatiH= aho, Love-god's, left [hence, what an unspeakable deviant] behaviour.

Fastened by both arms, burdened under bosoms' weight, scratched by nails, bitten by teeth at lips, pounded by riverbanks like hips, pulled by head-hair by hand to bend face to pour liquor-like honey of lips... huh... even if tortures of love are many, her lover is deriving some unsayable satisfaction... aho, unspeakable is the deviant behaviour of Love-god... isn't so? [12-4]

Comment: The torture imposed on a slave, like fastening, overburdening under weight, lashes and scratches, pulling head hair etc., is imposed in respect of god, as that punishment can be imposed by any his devotee, for that god will be found and catchable after a long time search.

Verse Locator

vaamaa.nke ratikelisa.nkularaNaara.mbhetayaa saahasa - praa
yam kaa.ntajayaayaki.nciduparipraara.mbhiyatsa.mbhramaat |
niSpandaa jaghanasthalii shithilitaaa dorvallirutkampitam
vaksho militamakshi pauruSarasaH striiNaam kutassidhyati || 12-5

pa cChe- vaama a.nke rati keli sa.nkula raNa aara.mbhe tayaa saahasa praayam kaa.nta jayaaya ki.ncit upari praara.mbhi yat sa.mbhramaat niSpandaa jaghana sthalii shithilitaaa dorvalliH utka.mpitam vaksho militam akshi pauruSa rasaH striiNaam kutaH sidhyati

12-5. This verse is titled as pauruSa rasa prema vilaasham : yat= by which reason; vaama+a.nke= from left, flank; tayaa= by her; rati+keli+sa.nkula raNa+aara.mbhe= love, sports, huddle, war, started; kaa.nta+jayaaya= lover, to conquer; sa.mbhramaat= frenziedly [or, ecstatically]; saahasa+praayam= venturing, overbearingly; upari+ki.ncit+praara.mbhi= on him, for a while, commenced; [tat= by that reason]; jaghana+ sthalii+niSpandaa= hips, area, unmoved; dorvalliH+shithilitaaa= tendril like arms, caved in; vakshaH+utka.mpitam= bust, throbbed [breathless]; akshi+militam= eyes, drooped; striiNaam= for women; pauruSa+rasaH = manly, mood [intrusiveness]; kutaH+sidhyati= from where, accessible.

By which reason she rose from his left flank, and commenced huddle of love-war on him for a while like a sport in a frenzied, venturing, and overbearing manner, aiming only to conquer her lover, for that reason alone, unmoved is her hip, tendril like arms caved in, bust throbbed breathlessly, and her eyes drooped... wherefrom women can attain manly intrusiveness! [12-5]

Verse Locator

tasyaaH paaTalapaaNijaa.nkitamuro nidraakaSaaye dR^ishau
nirdhauto.adharashoNimaavilulitaH srastaaH srajomuurdhajaaH |
kaanciidaama darashlathaa.ncalamiti praatarnikhaatairdR^ishoH
ebhiH kaamasharaistadadbhutamabhuut patyurmanaH kiilitam || 12-6

pa cChe- tasyaaH paaTala paaNija a.nkitam uro nidraa kaSaaye dR^ishau nirdhautaH adhara shoNimaa vilulitaH srastaaH srajaH muurdhajaaH kaa.ncii daama dara shlatha a.ncalam iti praataH nikhaataiH dR^ishoH ebhiH kaama sharaiH tat adbhutam abhuut patyuH manaH kiilitam

12-6. This verse is titled as kaamaadbhuta abhinava mR^igaanka lekham : tasyaaH+ uraH= her, chest; paaTala+paaNija+a.nkitam= by red, fingernails, scratched [by this redness, the red flower called paaTala, one of the flower-arrows of Manmatha, is cited dR^ishau+ nidraa + kaSaaye= eyes [eyeballs,] by sleeplessness, reddened by this redness, the red lotus arrow of Love-god is cited adhara+ shoNimaa+nirdhautaH= lips, redness, washed out by this redness, the red mehendi, a red flower from the plant that gives leaves to reddened decoration to palms, is said. The flower of this plant is another arrow of Love-god muurdha jaaH+vilulitaH = head hair, tousled; srastaaH+srajaH= slithered, sprays of flowers; kaa.ncii daama+dara+ shlatha + a.ncalam= golden waist-strings, a little, slipped, at edges by this gold of waistband the golden coloured flower arrow, the fifth arrow of Love-god is cited ; iti= this way; praataH= in early morning; dR^ishoH+nikhaataiH= in glances, shafted; ebhiH+kaama+ sharaiH = by these, Love-god's, arrows; patyuH+manaH= husband's [Krishna's,] heart; kiilitam = torn; tat+adbhutam+abhuut= that, a wonder, happened again.

Her chest bore red scratches scratched with red fingernails, and her eyes reddened by sleeplessness, roseate colour of lips is washed out, hair tousled, flower-sprays in bun slithered, golden waist-string loosened and dangling, all owing to the shafts of Love-god... but when her husband caught sight of such an arrow-stuck love on the next morning, those very same arrows presently stuck in her body are now shafted and stuck in his eyes... isn't it not doubly wondrous... [12-6]

Comment: One mms said to contain one more verse after this, reading:

tvaam apraapya mayi svayamvaraparaam kshiirodatiirodare |
sha.nke su.ndari kaalakuuTam apiban muuDho mR^iDaanii patiH |
ittham purva kathaabhiH asya manao nikshipya vaamaa.ncalam |
taadhaayaaH stanakorakoparicalan netro hariH paatu vaH ||

Verse Locator

vyaakoshaH keshapaashastaralitamalakaiH svedamokshaukapolau
kliSTaa bi.mbaadharashriiH kucalasharucaahaaritaahaarayaSTiH |
kaa.nciikaantirhataashaa stanajaghanapada.mpaaNinaacChadyasadyaH
pashya.ntii satrapaa.ntadapi vilulitaa mugdhakantirdhinoti || 12- 7

pa cChe- vyaakoshaH kesha paashaH taralitam alakaiH sveda mokshau kapolau kliSTaa adhara shriiH kucala sharucaa haaritaa haara yaSTiH kaa.ncii kaantiH hata aashaa stana jaghana pada.m paaNinaa aacChadya sadyaH pashya.ntii satrapaan tat api vilulitaa mugdha kantiH dhinoti

12-7. vyaakoshaH+kesha+paashaH= unloosened, hair, braids; taralitam+alakaiH= moving [unruly,] hair locks sveda+mokshau+kapolau= sweat, releasing, cheeks; kliSTaa+ + adhara+shriiH= faded, red, lips, splendour; kucala sharucaa= pot-like bosoms [luxury ]; haaritaa+haara+yaSTiH= stolen, by pearly, pendants [the lustre of pearly pendants is submerged in her body colour, as there is no bodice]; kaa.ncii+kaantiH+hata+aashaa= waist-string's, brilliance, marred, at hope; stana jaghana pada.m= bust, waist, places; sadyaH= then; paaNinaa+aacChadya= by hands, covering; pashya.ntii+satrapaan= glancing, embarrassedly; mugdha+kantiH= one with beautiful, resplendence; saa = she that Raadha; tat+ vilulitaa+api= by that, untidy, even; dhinoti= gladdening [Krishna.]

Her braid unloosened, hair-locks unruly, cheeks sweating, red splendour of lips faded, hue of pearl-pendants merged with body colour, hopeless is the golden brilliance of waist-string, and such a Raadha then started to glance embarrassedly, covering her bust and hips with hands and arms, and though 'that' rendered her that untidy, she is gladdening Krishna with her own beautiful resplendence. [12-7]

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iiSanmlitadR^iSTi mugdhavilasatsiitkaaradhaaraavashaat
avyaktaakulakelikaakuvikasadda.ntaa.mshudhautaadharam |
shaa.ntastabdhapayodharam bhR^ishapariSva.ngaatkura.ngiidR^ishau
harSotkarSavimuktanissahatanordhanyodhayatyaananam || 12-8

pa cChe - iiSat milita dR^iSTi mugdha vilasat siitkaara dhaaraa vashaat avyakta aakula keli kaaku vikasat da.nta a.mshu dhauta adharam shaa.nta stabdha payodharam bhR^isha pariSva.ngaat kura.ngii dR^ishau harSa utkarSa vimukta nissaha tanoH dhanyaH dhayati aananam

12-8. dhanyaH= he [that Krishna is] highly merited soul; harSa+utkarSa+vimukta+ nissaha+ tanoH= by gladness, by ecstasy, released, impatient, with such a physique [physique of Raadha]; kura.ngii+ dR^ishau = one with deer like, glances; iiSat+milita+dR^iSTi= a little, closed, sight; mugdha+vilasat+ siitkaara+dhaaraa+vashaat = girlish, elating, sighs, series, controlled; avyakta+aakula+keli+kaaku= unclear, flurried, in sport, murmurs; vikasat+da.nta+ a.mshu+dhauta+adharam= brightening, teeth's, glitter, washed, lower lip; aananam= a face [having such a glittering teeth]; bhR^isha+pariSva.ngaat= by tight, hugging; shaa.nta+stabdha +payodharam= silenced, quietened, bosoms; dhayati= one who swills [kisses] such a beauty.

Krishna tightly embraced the deer-like glanced Raadha who is released from the ecstatic impatience owing to her gladness to meet Krishna and whose bosoms are silenced and quietened, little closed are her eyes, a series of girlishsighs are controlling her, she is emitting unclear and flurried murmurs, and her face is awash with the gleam of sparkles of her teeth, hence he who kissed such a beauteous face that Krishna is the highly merited soul. [12-8]

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atha sahasaa supriitam surataa.ntesaanitaantakhinnaa.ngii |
raadhaa jagaada saadaramidamaana.ndena govi.ndam || 12- 9

pa cChe- atha sahasaa supriitam surata ante saa nitaanta khinna a.ngii raadhaa jagaada saadaram idam aana.ndena govi.ndam

12-9. atha= then; saa+raadhaa= she, that Raadha; surata+ante= act, at end of; nitaanta +khinna+a.ngii= absolutely, tired, with limbs; sahasaa= quickly [for, she cannot be in that shabby condition, and she is now helpless to decorate herself with a presentable getup]; supriitam+govi.ndam= to gladdened, Govinda; aana.ndena= with [her own] gladness; idam= this sentence; saadaram+jagaada= with tenderness, said.

Then, she that Raadha, whose limbs are absolutely tired after the act, quickly said this to the gladdener of all beings, namely Govinda, intermingling her own gladness.

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aSTa padi -24- supriitapiitaa.mbarataalashrNi -
kuru yaduna.ndana cha.ndanashishiratareNakareNapayodhare |
mR^igamadapatrakamatra manobhavama~Ngalakalashasahodare |
nijagaada saa yaduna.ndane
kriiDati hR^idayaana.ndane - dhR^ivam || a pa 24-1

pa cChe- kuru yadu na.ndana cha.ndana shishira tareNa kareNa payodhare mR^iga mada patrakam atra manobhava ma~Ngala kalasha sahodare nijagaada saa yadu na.ndane kriiDati hR^idaya ana.ndane

a pa 24-1. saa= she that Raadha; hR^idaya+ana.ndane= to hearts, delighter [Krishna]; yadu + na.ndane= Yadu clan's, delight [Krishna]; kriiDati= when he is disporting, enjoyiong [archaic. relaxation]; ni+jagaada= insistently, spoke; hè yadu na.ndana= o, Yadu's son [Krishna ]; cha.ndana= sandal-paste shishira+tareNa= dew, [cooler] than; kareNa= with palms; mano bhava= mind born one, Love-god's [place of]; ma~Ngala+kalasha+sahodare= auspicious, vessel's, co-birthed [where these vessels are two, one - full with nectar brought by Dhanvantari during the churning of Milk Ocean, and some drops of which fell on earth when Garuda was bringing it, thereby those drops sprinkled on herbs and plants, making them useful for medicinal use; the other - Goddess Lakshmi herself as she emerged out of the same ocean. As a symbolic representation for Lakshmi Devi, a vessel decorated with sandal paste, anong with water, milk, leafs, sacred rice etc, will be arranged in the first instance of any worship. Here, Raadha is identifying herself as a co-born one to Lakshmi from Milky Ocean, or with the vessel of nectar brought by Dhanvantari]; atra+payodhare = there, on those [nectarous] bosoms; mR^iga+mada= musk-deer's, fat- musk; patrakam= foliage; kuru= make, paint.

When Krishna is enjoying himself she that Raadha insistently spoke this to the delighter of hearts and the clan of Yadu, "paint musky foliages on my bosoms, the abode of Love-god, and the co-born ones to auspicious vessel, O the delight of Yadu's clan, paint on them with your own palms that are cooler than the sandal-paste... [a pa 24-1]

Comment: In all these bits of songs Krishna is addressed as a makeup artist, or a hairdresser, or as a painter etc. It does not matter. Heroes are supposed to know how women decorated, paint faces, dress etc., because they are supposed to be experts in all sixty-four arts catuH shaSTi kalaa prapuurNa. In Ramayana when Kaika gives a dress usable for forest dwelling to Seetha, Seetha is at loss to understand as to how to wear it. Then Rama winds that sari around her detailing how to secure it, before all women in palace-chambers, who are jerking tears for the misfortune bechganced on the topmost princes like Seetha.

And in audios or dances on this song, we will be usually listening nijagaa dha saa instead of nijagaada saa i.e., adding a stress to dha that stress is a singer's or dancer's delight, to make a heel tap in dance movement with that stress.

alikulaga.njanama.njanakam ratinaayakasaayakamochane |
tvadadharachu.mbanala.mbitakajjala ujjvalaya priya lochane || 24-2

pa cChe- ali kula ga.njanakam a.njanakam rati naayaka saayaka mochane tvat adhara cu.mbana la.mbita kajjala ujjvalaya priya lochane

a pa 24-2. hè priye= o, dear; rati+naayaka= love, hero [Love-god]; saayaka+mochane= arrows, that release [i.e., that which release sidelong-glances as effective a Love-god's arrows, my eyes]; tvat+adhara+ cumbana+lambita= by your, lip, while kissing, dangled [stippled]; kajjala= mascara; lochane= on such eyes; ali+kula= honeybees, swarms of; ga.njanam= that belies; a.njanakam= mascara; ujjvalaya= brighten up.

"My eyes release sidelong-glances that are akin to the arrows of Love-god, but when you kissed them their mascara is stippled, Oh, dear, brighten them up, with such mascara that belies the blackness of swarms of honeybees... [a pa 24-2]

nayanakura.ngatara.ngavikaasaniraasakare shrutimaNDale |
manasijapaashavilaasadhare shubhavesha niveshaya kuNDale || a pa 24-3

pa cChe- nayana kura.nga tara.nga vikaasa niraasa kare shruti maNDale manasija paasha vilaasa dhare shubha vesha niveshaya kuNDale

24-3. shubha+vesha= oh, auspiciously, attired one; nayana+kura.nga= eyes, [called] deer; tara.nga +vikaasa= springing, encouraging [freeness]; niraasa+kare= hopeless, makers; manasija+paasha+ vilaasa+ dhare= Love-god's, reins, with an air, bearing; shruti+maNDale= on ear, areas [lobes]; kuNDale+ niveshaya = knobby earrings, restore.

"My ears make the springing freeness of my deer-like glances of my eyes hopeless by reining them, O auspiciously attired one, restore knobby earrings on those ears that bear an air of Love-god's reins... [24-3]

bhramarachayam racahaya.ntamupari ruchiram suchiram mama sanmukhe |
jitakamale vimale parikarmaya narmajanakamalakam mukhe || a pa 24-4

pa cChe- bhramara chayam racahaya.ntam upari ruchiram suchiram mama sanmukhe jita kamale vimale parikarmaya narma janakam alakam mukhe

24-4. hè kamala aanana= O, lotus-faced Krishna [ellipted from next song]; jita+kamale+vimale = conquered [more,] lotus [in full bloom,] in immaculacy; mama+ mukhe+ upari= my, face, over; suchiram= always; bhramara+chayam= honeybees, swarms of; racahaya.ntam= crafted, designed [iva sthitam= as if, staying]; narma+janakam= lure, causing; ruchiram+alakam= beautiful, hair-locks; sanmukhe= before me [standing before me, so that I can be in your close proximity - proximity is the wish than adjusting hair-locks]; parikarmaya= make [readjust.]

"My face is more immaculate than a lotus in full boom and it always had luring and beautiful hair-locks crafted like swarms of honeybees, O, lotus-faced one, readjust them standing before me... [24-4]

mR^igamadarasavalitam lalitam kuru tilakamalikarajaniikare |
vihitakala.nkakalam kamalaanana vishramitashramashiikare || a pa 24-5

pa cChe- mR^iga mada rasa valitam lalitam kuru tilakam alika rajanii kare vihita kala.nka kalam kamala anana vishramita shrama shiikare

24-5. kamala anana= oh, lotus faced one' vishramita= lulled; shrama+shiikare= strain's, drops - sweat drops; alika rajanii kare= on forehead [called,] moon; mR^iga mada+rasa+valitam [tilakam]= with musk's, liquid, rubbed in [cinnabar paste]; vihita+kala.nka+kalam= having, blotch, phase of moon; tilakam+ lalitam +kuru= mark on forehead, beautifully, you make [repaint.]

"My forehead is moonlike and on it sweat-drops are lulled by now, and by rubbing cinnabar paste in liquefied musk, O, lotus-faced one, beautifully repaint my forehead mark, like that of the blotch on the face of moon... [24-5]

Comment: The comparison is in between the face of Krishna and Raadha. A lotus is an opposer of moon, but moon blemishes that lotus as and when they face each other. Here too, she is saying 'though my moonlike face is an opponent to lotuses, retain my blotch on my forehead, and be smiley like a lotus...'

mama ruchire chikure kuru maanada maanasijadhvajachaamare |
ratigalite lalite kusumaani shikhaNDishikhaNDakaDaamare || a pa 24-6

pa cChe- mama ruchire chikure kuru maanada maanasija dhvaja chaamare rati galite lalite kusumaani shikhaNDi shikhaNDaka Daamare

24-6. hè maanada= oh, adorable one; ruchire= cute one; maanasija+dhvaja+ chaamare= Love-god's, on flagstaff, pennon; rati+galite= in love-play, scrambled up; lalite= pretty; shikhaNDi+ shikhaNDaka= peacock's, plumage; Daamare= threatens; mama+chikure= in my, braid bun; kusumaani+kuru= flowers, you deck.

"My bun is cute like the pennon on the flagstaff of Love-god, but that is scrambled up in love-act, oh, adorable one, you deck flowers in that pretty bun that threatens the beauty of peacock's plumage... [24-6]

sarasaghane jaghane mama sha.mbaradaaraNavaaraNakandare |
maNirashanaavasanaabharaNaani shubhaashaya vaasaya sundare || a pa 24-7

pa cChe- sarasa ghane jaghane mama sha.mbara daaraNa vaaraNa kandare maNir ashanaa vasana aabharaNaani shubhaashaya vaasaya sundare

24-7. hè shubhaashaya= oh, one with auspicious aims [or, shubha+aa+shaya = one in whose hands all good fortunes are]; sarasa= burly [or, one with romantic zeal]; ghane= big one; sha.mbara= Shambara the demon; daaraNa= in ripping; vaaraNa= elephant - [the elephant of Love-god that ripped a demon named Shambara - elephantine]; kandare= slope of mountain; sundare= picturesque; mama+jaghane= my, on buttocks, on hips; maNi+rashanaa= bejewelled, waist-strings; vasana= dresses; aabharaNaani= ornaments; vaasaya= decorate.

"My hips are big and burly and will be like the picturesque and elephantine mountain-slopes, oh, one with gracing hand, decorate them with dresses and bejewelled ornaments, and waist-strings... [24-7]

Comment: Again the word LOINS is used here by some in translating jaghana, while jaghana is lexically buttock. If some modesty is required to say 'buttocks', as many abhor terms like 'buttocks, behinds, and bottoms...' in their sycophant westernisation, this may be said as it nearest part 'hips'. We are asked to do so in Kalidas' Ritu samhaaram, and we obliged it, to not to become too pedantic. But bringing hind parts to front to say her 'loins are like elephantine caves...' how far it is ethical? Any reader may examine in any word to see whether Raadha opened up her loins, or at least said about them. This work Gita Govinda already carries a mark of kshudra kaavya , why the other Indian pundits add some more to it? Perhaps, this may be owing to the reason of ruination of romantic arts, or due to the burial of Bharata Muni or Vaastaayana, or romance in living itself.

Here the stress used by the poet is for reminding nature's curvaceous beauty, but not the contours of a personified goddess or deity. It is necessary to identify Raadha with whole Nature, and Krishna with the delighter of that Nature, as none else can satisfy her.

shriijayadevavachasi ruchire hR^idayam sadayam kuru maNDane |
haricharaNasmaraNaamR^itakR^itakalikalushhabhavajvarakhaNDane || a pa 24-8

pa cChe- shrii jayadeva vachasi ruchire hR^idayam sadayam kuru maNDane hari charaNa smaraNa amR^ita nirmita kali kaluSa jvara khaNDane

24-8. he Krishna; ruchire= delicate [mellowly]; maNDane= [sahR^ihadya hR^idayaiH]= decorative [like the central ruby on chest pendant]; hari+charaNa+smaraNa= Krishna, on feet, meditating; amR^ita+ nirmita= by that nectar, built up; kali+kaluSa+jvara+khaNDane= Kali era, impurities, fevers caused by it, eradicator of; jayadeva+vachasi= Jayadeva, said by; shrii= auspicious saying; hR^idayam+sadayam+kuru= your heart, benign, you make.

Oh, Krishna, you make your heart benign to listen the auspicious saying rendered by Jayadeva, which is built up with the nectar derived from the meditation on the feet of yours, and which is an eradicator of fevers caused by the impurities of Kali Era... [24-8]

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rachaya kuchayoH patram chitram kuruSva kapolayoH
ghaTaya jaghae kaa.nchiima.ncha srajam kabariibhare |
kalaya valayashreNiim paaNau pade kuru nuupurau
iti nigaditaH priitaH piitaambaro.api tathaakarot || 12-11

pa cChe- rachaya kuchayoH patram chitram kuruSva kapolayoH ghaTaya jaghae kaa.nchiim a.ncha srajam kabariibhare kalaya valaya shreNiim paaNau pade kuru nuupurau iti nigaditaH priitaH piitaambaraH api tathaa akarot

12-11. hè Krishna; kuchayoH+patram+rachaya= on bosoms, foliages, you paint; kapolayoH + chitram+ kuruSva= on cheeks, a design called citraka, you make; jaghae+ kaa.nchiim +ghaTaya= on hips, waist-strings, you fasten; kabariibhare+srajam+a.ncha= in bun, spray of flowers, clip; paaNau+valaya+ shreNiim +kalaya= at wrists, armlets, array of, slip on; pade+kuru+nuupurau= at feet, you arrange, two anklets; iti= this way; nigaditaH= on who is said by her; priitaH= gladdened; piitaambaraH= one clad in yellow silks; api= even he; tathaa + akarot= that way, he did.

When Raadha said this way to Krishna, "paint foliages on my bosoms, make designs on cheeks, fasten waist-strings on hips, clip sprays in bun, slip on an array of armlets at wrists, arrange anklets at ankles...' even Krishna is gladdened and did whatever she said. [12-11]

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yadgaa.ndharvakalaasu kaushalamanudhyaanam ca yadvaishhNavam
yacChR^i.ngaaravivekatatvaracanaakaavyeSu liilaayitam |
tatsarvam jayadevapaNDitakaveH kR^ishhNaikataanaatmanaH
saaanadaaH parishodhaya.ntu sudhiyaH shriigiitagovidataH || 12-12

pa cChe- yat gaa.ndharva kalaasu kaushalam anudhyaanam ca yat vaiSNavam yat shR^i.ngaara viveka tattva racanaa kaavyeSu liilaayitam tat sarvam jayadeva paNDita kaveH kR^iSNa ekataana atmanaH sa aanadaaH parishodhaya.ntu sudhiyaH shrii giita govidataH

12-12. sudhiyaH= oh, sagacious ones; yat= which; gaa.ndharva+kalaasu+kaushalam= in music, arts, expertise; yat= which; vaiSNavam+anudhyaanam+ca= Vaishnavaite, way of thinking, also; yat= which; shR^i.ngaara= romantic [narration of vipralambha, sambhoga shR^ingaara]; viveka+tattva= discrimination, actuality; racanaa [sahita - madhyama pada lopi]= a rendering having all such; kaavyeSu= in [this] treatise; liilaayitam= incorporated; tat+sarvam= that, all; kR^iSNa+ekataana+ atmanaH= on Krishna, concentrating, soul; jayadeva+paNDita+kaveH= by Jayadeva, pundit, by poet; shrii+giita+govidataH= from shrii, Gita, Govinda poem; sa+aanadaaH+parishodhaya.ntu= with, gladness, may be evaluated.

Oh, sagacious people, that which expertise of poet and pundit Jayadeva in the way of thinking of Vaishnavaites, expertise in musical arts, discrimination between just romanticization of humanly characters, and telling apart that romance is also a godsend gift to humans, where Vishnu is the first one to relish the taste of romance, and where this Universe is his romantic feigning, and Jayadeva's telling it in its actuality are incorporated and rendered by Jayadeva, let all such things be evaluated in this treatise Shri Gita Govindam. [12-12]

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shriibhojadevaprabhavasya raamaadeviisutashriijayadevakasya |
paraasharaadipriyavargakaNThe shriigiitagovidakavitvamastu || 12-13

pa cChe- shrii bhojadeva prabhavasya raamaadevii sutaH shrii jayadevakasya paraashara adi priya varga kaNThe shrii giita govida kavitvam astu

12-13. shrii+bhojadeva+prabhavasya= Shri, Bhojadeva, offspring of; raamaadevii+ sutaH = Ramadevi's, son; shrii jayadevakasya= Jayadeva's; shrii giita govida= Shri Gita Govinda; kavitvam = poetry [songs]; paraashara+adi+priya+varga+kaNThe+astu= Parashara, other, dear, ones, on throat [on tongue,] let it abide.

Jayadeva being the offspring of Shri Bhojadeva and Ramadevi let his song giita govindam abide on the tongues of Parashara and other friends. [12-13]

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saadhvii maadhviika ci.ntaanabhavatibhavatashsharkare karkasha.asi
draakshe drakshya.ntiketvaam amR^itamR^itamasi kshiiraniira.mrasaste |
maaka.nda kra.ndakaa.ntaadharadhara na tulaam gacChayacChantibhaavam
yaavacChR^igaarasaaramshubhamivajayadevasyavaidagdhyavaacaH || 12-14

pa cChe- saadhvii maadhviika ci.ntaa na bhavati bhavataH sharkare karkashaa asi draakshe drakshya.nti ke tvaam amR^ita mR^itam asi kshiira niira.m rasaH te maaka.nda kra.nda kaa.nta adhara dhara na tulaam gacCha yacChanti bhaavam yaavat shR^igaara saaram shubham iva jayadevasya vaidagdhya vaacaH

12-14. maadhviika= oh, white flower that yield flower-wines; bhavataH+ci.ntaa= your, thinking [that you alone are the soft intoxicant]; saadhvii+na+bhavati= good, not, it becomes; sharkare+karkashaa+ asi= o, sugar, bitter, you are; draakshe= o, grapes; tvaam+ke+ drakshyanti = you, who will see; amR^ita+mR^itam+asi= o, nectar, dead, you are; kshiira= o, milk; te+ rasaH+niira.m= your, taste, is water; maaka.nda+kra.nda= o, sweet mango fruit, you wail; kaa.nta+adhara= o, damsel's, lip; tulaam+na+dhara= balance, do not, bear; gacCha= get away [from my path to Hari]; jayadevasya+ vaidagdhya+vaacaH= Jayadeva's, crafty, sayings; shubham+iva= auspiciousness, like; yaavat+ shR^igaara+saaram+bhaavam+yacChanti= all, romantics, essence, a concept, giving.

O, white flower of soft wine, your thinking that you alone are the toxicant is unbefitting as Jayadeva's poetry is here... o, sugar, you are embittered... o, grape, who will see you from now on... o, undying, un-deadening nectar, dead you are... o, milk, watered is your taste... o, sweet mango fruit, bewail from now on... you, the lip of damsel, under-balanced is your sweetness , hence get away from my path to Hari... thus, like the auspiciousness, Jayadeva's crafty sayings will also accord all the essences of romantics. [12-14]

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ittham kelitatirvihR^itya yamunaakuule samam raadhayaa
tadromaavalimauktikaavaliyuge veNiibhramam bibhrati |
vyaapaaraaH puruSottamasyadadatusphiitaam mudaam sampadam || 12-15

pa cChe-ittham keli tatiH vihR^itya yamunaakuule samam raadhayaa tat romaavali mauktika aavali yuge veNii bhramam bibhrati tatra ahlaada kuca prayaaga phalayoH lipsaavatoH hastayoH vyaapaaraaH puruSottamasya dadatu sphiitaam mudaam sampadam

12-15. ittham= this way; yamunaakuule= on Yamuna, riverbanks; keli+tatiH= disports, many of them; samam+raadhayaa= along with, Raadha; vihR^itya= while pleasure tripping; tat= that [Raadha's]; romaavali= curly hairlocks; mauktika+aavali= pearls, pendants; yuge= a pair; veNii+bhramam= stream, illusion [illusion as they are the streams of Ganga, Yamuna]; bibhrati = while he [Krishna is] getting; tatra= in that [in those streams of happiness]; ahlaada= pleasant; kuca= bosoms; prayaaga phalayoH= banyan fruits; lipsaavatoH= interested [to catch them]; puruSottamasya+hastayoH= Krishna's, hands; vyaapaaraaH= in such activity; sphiitaam +mudaam= heightened, with gladness; sampadam+dadatu= riches, let grant.

This way while Krishna is pleasure tripping on the riverbanks of Yamuna in many a disport with Raadha, and while he is adjusting her hairlocks and pearly pendants, he got an illusion that those pendants are like the river streams of Ganga or Yamuna, and on seeing a pair of large fruits floating in those streams, he thought them to be Raadha's bosoms and tried to rescue them. While Krishna hands are engaged in such an activity with gladness, let those hands gladly accord all riches to one and all. [12-15]

iti jayadeva giitagovide supriitapiitaa.mbaro naama dvaadashaH sargaH - itthamidam kaavyam paripuurNam

Thus, this is the 12th and completing chapter, called supriita piitaambaraH - Exultant Krishna, in Gita Govindam of Jayadeva.

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