martes, 27 de abril de 2010

Nyäya, Nyäya-çästra



Añadida el 30 de marzo

Añadida el 30 de marzo

Nyäya - the philosophy dealing with a logical analysis of reality, also known as nyäya-darçana. This system of philosophy was founded by Mahaåñi Gautama (see Gautama in the Glossary of Names). The nyäya-darçana accepts sixteen principles: 1) pramäëa (evidence; the means to obtain factual knowledge), 2) prameya (that which is to be ascertained by real knowledge), 3) saàçaya (doubt about the point to be discussed), 4) prayojana (a motive for discussing the point in question), 5) dåñöänta (citing instances or examples), 6) siddhänta (demonstrated conclusion of an argument), 7) avayava (component parts of a logical argument or syllogism), 8) tarka (persuasive reasoning), 9) nirëaya (deduction, conclusion, or application of a conclusive argument), 10) väda (thesis, proposition, or argument), 11) jalpa (striking disputation or reply to defeat the argument of the opposition), 12) vitaëòä (destructive criticism; idle carping at the assertions of another without attempting to prove the opposite side of the question) 13) hetv-äbhäsa (fallacy; the mere appearance of a reason), 14) chala (deceitful disputation; perverting the sense of the opposing party’s words), 15) jäti (logic based merely on false similarity or dissimilarity), and 16) nigraha-sthäna (a weak point in an argument or fault in a syllogism).

According to nyäya-darçana, misery is of nineteen types: the material body, the six senses including the mind, the six objects of the senses, and the six transformations – birth, growth, production, maintenance, dwindling, and death. In addition to these, happiness is considered as the twentieth form of misery because it is simply a transformed state of distress. The naiyäyikas, adherents of the nyäya-darçana, accept four types of evidence: pratyakña (direct perception), anumäna (inference), upamäna (comparison), and çabda (the authority of the Vedas).

The nyäya-darçana accepts the existence of eternal infinitesimal particles known as paramäëu. These, they claim, are the fundamental ingredients from which the creation has sprung. But in order for the creation to take place, there is need of an administrator who is known as Éçvara, Çré Bhagavän. Bhagavän creates the world by setting the atomic particles in motion. Like these atomic particles, Éçvara is eternal and without beginning. Although the naiyäyikas accept the existence of Éçvara, they do not believe that He personally carries out the creation. He is merely the primeval cause. By His desire, the atoms are set into motion whereupon they create all the subtle and gross elements from which the creation comes about.

According to the nyäya-darçana, the jévas are innumerable, eternal, and without beginning. The naiyäyikas do not think that the jévas are of the nature of consciousness, but that they are only substantive entities which may be associated with intellectual, volitional, or emotional qualities as a result of a proper combination of causes and conditions. The nyäya-darçana advocates that the jéva and Éçvara are two entirely separate truths. The jéva’s material existence is due to karma. The creation occurs under the influence of karma, and within the creation the jévas suffer the reactions of their karma. Éçvara’s sole function is to set the creation in motion and to reward the results of karma.

The naiyäyikas say that the jéva can attain liberation from material existence through philosophical knowledge of the sixteen principles.

They define mukti as complete cessation of material misery.

There is no factual happiness in mukti. In this liberated condition the jéva is as if unconscious.

Nyäya-çästra - the çästras dealing with a logical analysis of reality.

The precepts of nyäya are mostly explained through analogies drawn from an analysis of common objects such as a clay pot (ghaöa) and a piece of cloth (paöa), so these words are repeatedly encountered in discussions of nyäya.


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