lunes, 6 de septiembre de 2010

Karttikeya: The Celibate Warrior

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Sent: Wednesday, December 15, 2010 6:06 PM
Subject: Karttikeya: The Celibate Warrior

Karttikeya: The Celibate Warrior

Article of the Month - December 2010

Baby Karttikeya with His Six Mothers Out to Feed Him
Baby Karttikeya with His Six Mothers Out to Feed Him
Karttikeya, Shiva's elder son and the Commander-in-Chief of the army of Gods, born for eliminating Demon Taraka, is one of the strangest personalities of Indian myths. The day he was born he had the maturity of ages. When only seven days old, he led the army of gods against the mightiest of demons Taraka and killed him. He is known for observing complete celibacy so much so that the popular tradition in some parts of the country barred women from visiting his shrines for the same is believed to work desertion and destroy matrimonial life. Born of Shiva's seed fallen on the earth and hence named Skanda - fall, he was the son of many, the Earth's, on whose bosom the Shiva's seed fell, Agni's, who held it for some time, Ganga's, who bore it on her waters, Shara's, where Ganga deposited it and where it matured into a child, and Krittakasas', who found him first and fed from their breasts. Crying with hunger and for hands that took his charge the benevolent newborn was not without a sense of justice. He created six faces on his head - one face for one breast, for enabling all six Krittikasas to feed him simultaneously as they all strove to feed him first, and thus letting none be the second to any. Karttikeya is lauded for destroying all sins and all that is inauspicious and evil, redeeming from detriments and from every bondage, and for being highly auspicious, protective and goods-delivering, though with his images radiating with such energies that even the most ardent of his devotees can not look straight into his eyes he is also a deity who does not allow easy access. His benevolence is immense but these are rare austerities that alone lead to it. In north and central India most of his 'pithas' - the holy shrines dedicated to him, open for common masses just once a year mostly on the Karttika Purnima - the day of the full moon-night of Karttika, the eighth month of the Indian calendar and the month of Karttikeya's birth. It seems that the popular tradition has alternated Karttika Amavasya, the day of his birth, with Purnima, perhaps in consideration of the inauspicious nature of darkness and the auspicious nature of light for the birth of the Shiva's son could have only illumined the world and its entire darkness with its glow. Karttikeya is the only Indian divinity the month of whose birth, which is also the month of his exploits, has been named after him.


Not in natural course but by gods' manipulation Karttikeya was born for eliminating Tarakasura, a mighty demon with a boon of invincibility against all except one not older than seven days. Born of Varangi by Vajaranga, the son of Prajapati Kashyapa by his wife Danu, Tarakasura was in the line of Brahma. Kashyapa, Brahma's grandson, had twenty-one wives. All gods, called Adityas, were born of his first wife Aditi; and all demons, called Daityas, were born of his second wife Diti. Versions in texts widely vary in regard to his third wife Danu. The Mahabharata designates her as the demons' mother, while many texts, as that of the divine beings. This duality of textual sources suggests that Danu's sons comprised both aspects - being partly demon-like and partly like gods. Vajaranga, one of Danu's sons, also had evil aspect but wished to give it up. With a determined mind he undertook long penance aiming at appeasing Brahma and shedding off this evil aspect by his boon. Though he successfully accomplished his penance, the course of events forced him to continue with his evil mind as before. When out of his penance, he found Varangi, his wife, missing. He ultimately found her but only miserably weeping and upset. She disclosed how Brahma had harassed her and Indra tried to frighten her first as monkey by throwing away her ritual vessels, second time, as lion, and third time, by biting her on her leg as snake. Infuriated by Indra's mischievous treatment of his wife Vajaranga, determined to avenge Indra for his mischief, re-entered into more rigorous penance, and when Brahma appeared, he won from him the boon for a son who surpassed all gods, even Indra, in prowess. Exactly after twelve months his wife Varangi bore a son they named Taraka.
When merely seven days old, Taraka began practising penance. Pleased with it, Brahma appeared and granted him the boon that he would not be killed by anyone exceeding the age of seven days, the same as Tarakasura had when he entered into penance. The boon made Tarakasura atrocious and arrogant. He soon invaded all three worlds and conquered them. Under the effect of a curse by Parvati gods could not breed children. Hence gods could not give birth to a child that defeated Tarakasura. Besides, Tarakasura killed wherever a child was born. For appeasing him village folk began worshipping him, a tradition still followed in rural India's many parts. In the month of Karttika village girls make cow-dung images of Tarakasura, decorate them with shells, cowries and beads, and worship them for nine days with songs, offerings and lights.


Themselves disabled by Parvati's curse gods looked to Shiva who alone could breed a child that would kill Tarakasura. To convince Shiva for it was, however, far more difficult. After his marriage, he was engaged in love with Parvati and even after a hundred (the Shiva Mahapurana puts it as 'thousand') 'divya' years - two-third of Brahma's total life-span, he had not come out of it. Though afraid of annoying Shiva, the gods reached him and prayed for stopping his act of love and beget a child who would kill Tarakasura for by his atrocities their very existence was in peril. In the hundred years long union in love his seed had already matured. Shiva agreed but wanted to know who would hold his seed when it discharged. After all options were rejected gods suggested Shiva to let it fall on the Earth. The Shiva Mahapurana acclaims that it matured and fell and it was only after it that Vishnu asked Brahma to think how the Shiva's seed could be used for fulfilling the objective of gods. In any case, when Shiva's seed fell, its heat scorched her and to redeem herself of it she prayed Agni to take its charge.
Agni - The God of Fire
Agni - The God of Fire
Now the legend takes two lines. According to one, Shiva's seed, consumed and burnt by Agni when he took it from Earth and held it for five thousand years, turned into ashes taking the form of a white hill, and then, a forest. The legend ends abruptly; however, the forest of white ashes corresponds to Sharavana - the forest of white grass of the myth's other version. As this other version has it, by the power of Shiva's seed that he had consumed Agni began losing his glow. He made protest to gods as it was on their solicitation that he had taken its charge. Gods directed Agni to seek Brahma's guidance. When on his way to Brahma Agni met Ganga. He expressed to Ganga his inability to bear Shiva's seed any more but could not give it up fearing that it would burn the entire cosmos. Agni hence prayed Ganga for taking over its charge assuring her that she would have a noble son by it. Ganga, perhaps not knowing its power, asked Agni to throw it into her waters which Agni instantly did. By holding it for five thousand years Agni's flesh, blood, skin, hair, eyes, all had assumed the gold-like colour giving Agni the Hiranyaretas - gold-hued, epithet.
Ganga held Shiva's seed for another five thousand years but with its burden becoming unbearable wished to get rid of it. She approached Brahma and sought from him solution to her problem. She narrated to him the whole incidence and also that despite being unbearable she had been holding it for five thousand years. Hearing her story Brahma advised her to go to the mountain Udaya, meaning 'rise' as it was from behind it that the sun rose. There is around it a Sharavana, a forest of Sharas - white reeds, as large as a hundred crore of 'yojanas' - a measurement of length, one 'yojana' being about ninety-six miles. He advised her to deposit Shiva's seed into it. He prophesied that after ten thousand years a male child would be born of it. As directed, Ganga deposited the foetus at Sharavana through her mouth. Lustre of Shiva's seed transmitted into all things, trees, animals, birds, and even rocks and soil with the result that the entire forest dyed in gold.
The Shiva Mahapurana has a slightly different version of the legend's this part. When Shiva's seed fell on Earth Agni consumed it taking a pigeon's form. As in all that Agni consumed gods had their share a part of Shiva's seed too passed into the bodies of gods and they began parching with its heat. They rushed to Shiva, prayed him for redeeming them of its heat, and as he advised, vomited it out. The seed so vomited gathered and turned into a huge mountain rising to Heaven's height. Gods were thus redeemed of it but Agni was not. Instead, Agni was commanded to install it in some virtuous woman.
While wandering with it Agni encountered the wives of Seven Sages. The lustre of Shiva's seed that Agni contained fascinated them all except Arundhati, one of the wives of the Seven Sages. All six wished that they had the seed into their wombs and instantly through their body-hair it entered into their bodies. After their husbands learnt that their wives had in their wombs the seed of someone other than them, they abandoned them. The seed no sooner than it entered their wombs began burning them with its heat. In great distress they gave it up on the Himalayas. However, with its heat it soon began destroying Himalayas and hence the great Mountain too discarded it into Ganga. Not able to bear it for long Ganga deposited it into the grove of Sharavana where after ten thousand years it matured into a child that was no other than Karttikeya.
The child that emerged from Sharavana after ten thousand years, finding no one around, cried piercing the sky with his thunderous voice, perhaps, out of hunger or for someone to take him. The child's cry drew the attention of six Krittikas passing across. They rushed to the child. Though his presence in a lone forest astonished them, an impulse of love moved them and their breasts began oozing with milk. Each longed to feed him first. The child looked at them one after the other and each time there grew on his head a new face. Thus, he had six faces and all six Krittikas fed him with their breasts simultaneously, all six being first in feeding him.


By calculation of time Brahma learnt that the child whose birth the gods had long awaited was born. The Shiva Mahapurana acclaims that after Parvati learnt that the child by Shiva's seed was born she summoned all gods and asked each one about the child's whereabouts. All except Vayu, Moon and Twilight expressed ignorance. Vayu, the first to reach Sharavana where the child was born, informed that Shiva's seed had transformed into a handsome child; Moon revealed the child was taken to Badrikashrama by six Krittikas; and, Twilight added that Krittikas had named the child Karttikeya after their name. Parvati immediately proceeded to Badrikashrama. The Brahma-context of the myth has wider acceptance. Brahma told Agni about the child's birth. Taking a fast goat - his mount, Agni proceeded to Sharavana where Krittikas had the child. On way Agni met Ganga who knew from him about the child's birth. She countered Agni's claim for the child for he had discarded the seed into her waters and it was her who catered it. Hence the child belonged to her, not to Agni. While this heated argument was going on, Vishnu happened to pass that way. He heard both sides and advised them to go to Shiva as he alone could settle it. Agni and Ganga went to Shiva and represented to him their cases. Hearing about the birth, Shiva, overwhelmed with joy, called Parvati and told her all about it. Parvati laid her claim over the child. Born of Shiva's seed matured in his union with Parvati the child belonged as much to them.
Descent of Lord Shiva and Family from Kailash
Descent of Lord Shiva and Family from Kailash
All claims appeared to be alike genuine. Hence when Agni and Ganga asked him as to whom the child belonged, Shiva declared that the claims could be settled only after he saw the child. Hence, Shiva, Parvati, Agni and Ganga proceeded to Sharavana where they saw the child in the Krittikas' lap. Shiva then instructed all to await and see whom the child first saw but the child read their minds and to delude them assumed by his 'yogic' powers four bodies to look at them all simultaneously. The tradition identifies these four forms of the child as Kumara who looked at Shiva, Vishakha who looked at Parvati, Shakha who looked at Ganga, and Naigameya who looked at Agni. Each of Shiva, Parvati, Agni and Ganga felt that the child looked only at him or her and felt sure of obtaining him. Krittikas alone were unhappy for they were sure to lose the child they had fed from their breasts. Not in a position to argue, they only asked Shiva if Sanmukha - the child having six faces, was his son. Shiva quietly answered : 'with Karttikeya as his name the child was their (Krittikas') son; as Kumara, Ganga's; as Skanda, Parvati's; as Guha, his own; as Mahasena, Agni's; and, as Sharavana, Sharavana's'. Shiva declared that with rare 'yogic' powers he would be a great 'yogi', and as he had six faces, the world would know him also as Sanmukha.
Around then Brahma, Vishnu and other gods also reached Sharavana. Delighted they saw the child and expressed their gratitude to Shiva for making Agni his instrument for serving the purpose of gods. Overwhelmed with joy Shiva told gods to ask for whatever they desired. Gods prayed him to let the child kill Tarakasura. They informed him that a ceremony to crown Sanmukha as the Commander-in-chief of the army of gods was held at Aujasa tirtha at the banks of Saraswati in Kurukshetra and prayed him to bless it with his presence. In a grand ceremony at Kurukshetra the child was designated as the gods' Army Chief. According to some texts the ceremony was held at Baikuntha. The ceremony was held on the fifth day of Karttika-Shukla - the bright fortnight of Karttika. Born on Amavasya on the fifth day of Karttika-Shukla he was six days old. Correspondingly, next day when he killed Tarakasura he was seven days old. Consecration rites were performed by Shiva and Vishnu with waters of seven holy seas. The Mahabharata acclaims that sage Vishvamitra was presiding priest for consecration rituals to include his 'yajnopavit' ceremony. After his consecration Parvati was the only one to have the child in her lap and kiss him. Now their Chief other divine powers, even Shiva, Agni, Ganga and all, maintained a respectful distance.


Filled with fresh hopes only the other day gods challenged demons for war. Accepting the challenge 'asuras' - demons, under the leadership of mighty warriors like Tarakasura, Mahishasura, Banasura among others, entered the battle-field and a fierce battle ensued. Initially, the army of gods moved under the leadership of Indra and then Virabhadra and even Vishnu entered the fray but the mighty Tarakasura and other demon chiefs had not to exert much in defeating and disabling them. Finally, riding a majestic chariot Karttikeya emerged and took the charge of the battle on the gods' side.
The Battle Between Lord Karttikeya and Tadaka
The Battle Between Lord Karttikeya and Tadaka
Seeing a child in the battle-field the arrogant Tarakasura laughed and ridiculed him and also the gods. The conceited demon even tried to frighten Karttikeya by a fresh offensive meditating that a mere child he would just flee for life. It was however contrary. The calm and composed Karttikeya raised his bow, fixed an arrow on it and shot. In his attempt at defending himself from the volley of arrows that his bow showered Tarakasura's attack was completely foiled. With his arrows Karttikeya pierced every part of Tarakasura's body and killed him.


Karttikeya with His Two Consorts
Karttikeya with His Two Consorts
Except that she has been sometimes seen as a symbolic name of gods' army that he commanded, Devasena, a term meaning 'army of gods', is the unanimously accepted name of Karttikeya's wife. He had by her three sons : Shakha, Vishakha and Naigameya, though in some texts they have been alluded to as his mere manifestations. The Mahabharata alludes to Vishakha as emerging out of the wound that Indra caused by hitting him at his back with his thunderbolt. In variation from this scriptural position, in the South Indian tradition of popular art Karttikeya as Murugan is often represented as having two consorts named Valli and Devayani. On the pattern of Riddhi and Siddhi, the consorts of his younger brother Ganesh, Valli and Devayani too represent riches, prosperity and worldly accomplishment. In scriptural tradition Devayani has been alluded to as the wife of Yayati and the daughter of Sukracharya, the preceptor of demons.

As the Mahabharata has it, Devasena was one of the two daughters of Daksha Prajapati, the other being Daityasena. One day, when outing around Mount Manas, sometimes referred to as Manas Sara - pond, Keshi, a demon, saw them and craved for their love. Daityasena agreed to become his wife but Devasena refused. When Keshi tried to obtain her by force, she cried for help drawing Indra's attention who came to her rescue. After a bitter fight Keshi fled with Daityasena. When asked, Devasena introduced her as the daughter of Daksha and thus Indra's cousin. She desired to have a husband who defeated gods, demons and Gandharvas. Unable to find such one in the whole world, Indra consulted Brahma who prophesied that a son born to Agni would befit Devasena as her husband. Hence, when Karttikeya was born and had accomplished his primary objective, gods prayed Shiva to let Skanda be the Devasena's husband.


Scriptures are replete with tales of the prowess and benevolence of Karttikeya. Once Indra received reports of the birth of a child who was as effulgent as the rising sun emerged in all likeliness for dislodging him from his position. In consultation with other gods he decided to remove the child from his way. Though a mere child, he engaged Indra into a pitched battle forcing him to hurl on him his mightiest weapon 'vajra' - thunderbolt. It hit him on his back but instead of doing him any harm there emerged from where it hit him a youth endowed with rare lustre. Texts name him as Vishakha. Clad in the armour of gold and with a number of weapons held in his hands he charged at Indra. (According to some texts, Indra hit Karttikeya thrice, on his left, right, and chest, and each time there emerged a warrior. These three warriors are mentioned as Shakha, Vishakha and Naigameya.) Frightened Indra fled for life. However, the child pardoned him for his arrogance. Encouraged by his benevolence Indra with other gods submitted to him and solicited for taking over as king of gods. However, Karttikeya declined and assured to serve the gods' cause remaining under him. Gods, however, persuaded him to be the Commander-in-Chief of their army. Karttikeya is known for piercing the Mountain Krauncha. Krauncha, a demon, who tried to delude sage Agastya, was transformed into a mountain by his curse. The mountain became known as Krauncha. When appeased, sage Agastya provided that the demon would be redeemed of the curse when Skanda, the son of Shiva, cleft the mountain into parts. It is said that after his consecration as the gods' army chief Karttikeya shot at Mountain Krauncha the 'shakti' - a mighty arrow that Agni had given him for assessing its power. With a furious roar the Mountain broke into pieces and there emerged out of it a mighty demon. As another version of the legend has it, in the course of his battle against Tarakasura, one of the demon warriors Banasura, the son of Mahabali, fled from the battlefield and hid somewhere inside the Mountain Krauncha. For eliminating Banasura Karttikeya hurled his 'shakti' on the Mountain and crushed it. With whatever the immediate end Karttikeya liberated the demon Krauncha.
The legend of the Brahmin named Narada powerfully reveals Karttikeya's benevolence. Narada was performing a 'yajna' - sacrifice, but before the rites were complete someone stole away his sacrificial goat. Fearing the ire of gods invoked during the 'yajna' but not propitiated with offering the poor Brahmin was terribly upset. He rushed to Karttikeya for help in recovering his goat. Karttikeya consoled the Brahmin and deployed his trusted attendant Virabahu for searching it. Virabahu searched around the entire earth but the goat was not found. He however found that the goat was taken to Baikuntha. Karttikeya reached Baikuntha, caught hold of the goat, and when it defied he mounted it and brought it to the Brahmin. He handed him the goat but told that it was inappropriate for sacrifice and also that he should go home and his 'yajna' would be accomplished by his grace without sacrificing it.


After he killed Tarakasura gods' fear and Parvati's excessive love not only made him slightly arrogant but also much interested in women. When words reached Parvati's ears, for bringing him to the right path she infused herself in all women with the result that in every woman's face Karttikeya saw the face of his mother. Remorseful for his sins and misconduct he took the vow of celibacy and declared that then onwards he would treat every woman as his own mother. Completely alienated and detached from them for women his shrines were considered as inappropriate for they were believed to only cause alienation. In many parts womenfolk even today avoid visiting his shrines.


The Mahabharata, as also other texts, give a long list of his names and epithets. Most of them, such as Tarakari - destroyer of Taraka, Sanmukha, one with six faces, Vishakha, having many arms, Agneya, born of Agni, among others, are suggestive of some body feature, acts he performed, or the source of his origin. However, in northern and central India he is known primarily as Skanda, Kumara or Karttikeya, in Maharashtra, as Khandova, and in South, as Subrahmanya or Murugan also spelt as 'Murukan'. Khandova is one of the main deities of Maharashtra. In South, Murugan has in the worship tradition a place second to none except Balaji, his own father. A Brahmin clan devoted to Subrahmanya got its Subramanian name after him. Besides that Murugan is worshipped as the benevolent protector, in South Indian socio-religious growth he is in the root of every cultural change. In north Karttikeya is not now as popular a deity as his brother Ganesh but, if his sculptures are indicative, he was one of the earliest and the most popular deities of Hindu pantheon right since the beginning of the Common Era for his votive sculptures begin pouring in on a massive scale right from Kushana period, that is, the first-second century of the Common Era. The early eleventh century Dulhadeva temple at Khajuraho was dedicated to Karttikeya.


Mahabharata Shiva Maha Purana
Brahmanda Purana
Skanda Purana
Padma Purana
Vayu Purana
Puranic Encyclopedia
Prachina Charitra Kosha
Shrimaddevi Bhagavatanka, 2008 and 2009, Gita Press Gorakhapura
Kalidasa : Kumara Sambhava
Vanamali : Lilas of the Sons of Shiva
Fred W. Clothey : The Many Faces of Murukan
Hank Heifrtz : The Origin of the Young God
S. K. Ramachandra Rao : Durga Kosha
Shakti M. Gupta : Karttikeya, the Son of Shiva
Shanti Lal Nagar : Skanda-Karttikeya

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Sent: Monday, November 15, 2010 3:38 PM
Subject: Who Wrote The Vedas? Are They Eternal?


Who Wrote The Vedas? Are They Eternal?

Article of the Month - November 2010

For those bathing in the shower of their grace and delighting in their wisdom, the Vedas are but a manifest form of God's compassion. Containing knowledge on subjects beyond the domain and reach of human intellectual capability, the mere word Veda itself sends up a thrill through the spine, and there arises from the bottom of one's heart a feeling of immense gratitude and affection for the Divine Creator from whose breath have emerged these guiding words of wisdom.
The depth of the faith people have in the Vedas is amazing. This is not restricted to India where such a faith is universal, expressed one way or the other. Even in foreign lands we see many men and women diligently trying to establish Vedic traditions in their native places. It is obvious that there is no penalty for them for not following the Vedic rules; even then, they continue to work hard to try and obey them. The roots of the Vedas are thus too deep and tenacious to be judged only summarily.
Why do people have so much respect for the Vedas? If it had been our direct experience that following them would invariably lead to material happiness and not obeying would definitely lead to sorrow, perhaps this deep respect would have been justifiable as an act of fear and awe. However, it is not so. We cannot establish any direct connection between material happiness and following the Vedas. On the contrary, we see many societies which have no contact with the Vedas but are materially more prosperous. Even amongst the followers, prosperous people may not have much faith and people with immense faith may not be prosperous at all. In fact, many times we see people with faith facing many difficulties in their lives. In this way, we see that faith in the Vedas and acting according to their instructions do not appear to have any direct connection with material prosperity. Given the modern way of living, obsessed as it is with the material aspects of life, it is surprising that the allegiance to the Vedas still continues, ingrained in us in an unexplained, deep-rooted manner.

What is the Reason for this Supreme Faith in the Vedas?

The reason is simple enough: The Vedas are not man made. It is impossible to associate any human being with their authorship. Then who made them? Before proceeding logically to establish the authorship of the Vedas, let us remember one simple definition: God is one who is responsible for all those things for which we are not responsible. Therefore, Vedas must be the work of God. However, many find it difficult to believe this. Towards this end, the following objections are raised:
Objection: Vedas contain both prose and poetry; therefore, whoever composed these should be deemed their author.
Reply: But we have never heard any composer's name being associated with the Vedas.
Doubt: Maybe people have forgotten their names because the composers lived a long time back.
Valmiki and Vyasa
Valmiki and Vyasa

Resolution: The Sanskrit poet Kalidasa who lived more than 2000 years ago is well known as the author of the play Abhijnana Shakuntala. The name of Vyasa, who lived more than 5000 years ago, is on the lips of every Indian child as the author of the Mahabharata. Valmiki, whose date is so ancient that it is not known to anybody, is widely known as the author of the Ramayana, and his birthday is celebrated throughout India even today with much fanfare. How is it possible that only the author of the Vedas is not known, and that tradition has never ever ascribed authorship of the Vedas to anybody at all?

Objection: Even in the case of folk songs sung throughout India, no one knows the author. For simply this reason, you cannot claim that these folk songs too are not a creation of man (Apourusheya).
Resolution: There is a world of difference between the Vedas and folk songs. Folk songs are not only very short in length but also very short lived unlike the Vedas. They do not conform to grammar rules. Sometimes they do not even have a formal structure. Many a times they are light hearted and banter-like in nature. However the Vedas are vast and deep, and have a profound structure. Therefore, there is no scope for comparison here.
Doubt: But every hymn of the Vedas contains in its beginning the name of a sage (Rishi) who composed it, along with the name of the god eulogized in that particular hymn and also the meter (chhanda) in which the hymn is composed.
Reply: The Rishis cannot be the composer of the hymns because of the following reasons:

Musical Structure of the Vedas:

Consider music of very famous Indian composers like Purandaradasa (around 1500 AD), and Tyagaraja (1800 AD). They have composed songs in various ragas (musical modes) and tala (rhythms). However, within this short period of time, both the mode and rhythm of their compositions have undergone a sea change. Indeed, such a change has not taken place in the musical structure of the Vedas.
There are six aspects in the musical structure of the Vedas:
a). Varna: The actual alphabets.
b). Swara: The musical notes.
c). Matra: The extension of a letter during its pronunciation.
d). Bala: The stress of an alphabet.
e). Sama: A special rendering.
f). Santana: A non-stop recitation over a certain length.
Consider for example the Matra. It is defined by the duration of a peacock's sound. Recently, acousticians have recorded Vedic recitation from traditional pundits and also notes of the peacock. On comparison, the intervals coincide upto an accuracy of nanoseconds. That is, the musical structure has remained unchanged since time immemorial. This would have been impossible if the Vedas had been the composition of human beings.

The Vastness of the Vedas

There is another reason to draw this conclusion. The Vedas are unimaginably vast. Patanjali, the founder of Yoga, whose date even by the harshest critics is never placed after the birth of Christ, has written a monumental work on grammar called the 'Mahabhashya'. There he gives a bibliography of the Vedas. He laments that in his time there remained only 21 branches of the Rigveda, 31 of the Yajurveda, 1000 of Samaveda, and 9 of the Atharvaveda. In each of these branches there are further four divisions each called: Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishad. Out of these branches in vogue 2000 years ago, we now have remaining today only the following: 1 in Rigveda, 3 in Yajurveda, 2 in Samaveda, and 2 in Atharvaveda, a grand total of eight. In order to recite all these existing 8 branches, it needs about 300 hours. So, to recite the Vedas that existed at the time of Patanjali would have required about 40,000 hours. This is too much immense and cannot be the creation of any one individual.
Doubt: This is true; however, the Vedas are not the creation of a single person. There may have been several composers accounting for their vastness. Do we not see the same thing in the Internet today, what with its billions of pages, authored by millions of people over an extended period of time?
Resolution: This statement is not correct because it gets refuted in the light of the fact that though the Vedas are so vast, there is not a single contradiction in them. Had they been the creation of several people belonging to different places and composed at different times, there should have been contradictions. It is a universal experience that no two human beings agree on all issues at all times.
Objection: What you are saying is not true. There are lots of contradictions in the Vedas. At one place it is said, "Never give up karma", at another "Give up karma". One says, "The world came from vacuum". Another doubts this by saying "How can the world come from vacuum?" At a third place it is said, "The world came from God". These are certainly contradictions.
Resolution: This objection is not valid. Consider the following example:
A man walking outside a house heard a ladies' sound from within: "Son, please drink milk, it is very good for your health. Do not insist on eating this fried potato, it is not good". In the evening, going by the same way he heard the same woman's voice: "Why are you insisting on milk? What is in it except water? Potatoes are ready, eat them". At another time he heard her saying: "You are continuously sitting and studying. Go out and play for sometime". Later he heard her say: "Why are you always playing here and there like an idle dog? Sit down and study. If you go outside again, I will thrash you".
These statements are certainly contradictory. Hearing them one can conclude that there are many people in the house who have a lot of difference of opinion between them and that the lady who has spoken these words is very quarrelsome. Your conclusion about the Vedas is also like this. The moment you encounter such statements in the Vedas it would be immature to straightaway label them as contradictory.
The correct thing obviously would be to compare the contexts in which the various statements have been made, and only then venture to interpret them. For example, in the above illustration, after investigation it turned out that the woman was dissuading a small child from eating fried potatoes and insisting on him to take milk, while a grown up child was being offered potatoes. One studious boy was being encouraged to go out and play, while an errant one was being forced to sit down and study. Interpreted in this contextual way, everything falls beautifully into place and there remains no contradiction at all.
Similarly in the Vedas, karma is prescribed for those who have attachment to the body. Those who have no attachment are advised to give it up. The statement that the world came out of nothing is only a metaphor to signify that the root cause of the world is extremely subtle. Therefore, the descriptions are to be understood as different levels of clarity. This is there in every field of knowledge. In science too, don't we first tell the child that the electron goes around the nucleus in circles. It is only after a certain stage that the more complicated concept of probability path is explained. It is the same here. Therefore, we assert that there are no contradictions in the Vedas.
Scientific Truths in the Vedas:
Another reason why the Vedas cannot be man made is that many of the very recent and remarkable discoveries of science are already mentioned in them. Some crucial examples are as follows:
1). What came first, the seed or the tree? After a lot of investigations botanists have found out that the tree appeared first. Based on this, they have even evolved methods of growing a tree straight through a part of the tree instead of through the seed. This is what is called 'Tissue Culture'. Now, notice a mantra in the Chandogya Upanishad: "It is only the tree which is the seed of the tree. So also, the bird is the seed of the bird, and not the egg".
This means that in the process of creation it was the tree that appeared first, rather than the seed. While commenting on this mantra the great Shankaracharya asks the following question: "When it is a matter of common observation that it is the seed which is the seed of the tree, how can the Vedas say that the tree is the seed of the tree?"
Shankaracharya and Disciples
Shankaracharya and Disciples

Then he replies, giving a heuristic proof of the Vedic statement: "Yes, if the Vedas depended on our intelligence, they could not have made the statement. But remember, the Vedas are an independent source of knowledge. Moreover, don't we see that many plants are born without seeds, though no seed is born without a plant? Therefore, we cannot doubt the Vedic statement". What the big scientists have discovered after a lot of investigation with great effort, has been casually mentioned in the Vedas.

2). The Atharvaveda and the Puranas assert that there are seven islands in the world. From our present knowledge we know that these are Eurasia, Africa, South America, North America, Australia, Greenland and Antarctica. Till the year 1911 however, only six islands were known to the world. Antarctica was discovered only on 14th December 1911. Then how can the Vedas which certainly existed before 1911 say that there are seven islands in the world? The only answer to this question is that God who created the seven islands certainly knew this and therefore He could tell it through the Vedas.
There are several other secrets of nature which have come to sight only recently through scientific discoveries, but are already mentioned in the Vedas. Talented scientists with their penetrating intelligence have made these discoveries with unparalleled efforts through subtle experiments. How is that the Vedas speak about them? It would be ridiculous to say that the Rishis wrote them after conducting experiments or analyzing them by inference. By inference is it possible to say that there are seven islands on the earth? This number cannot be arrived at by any logic. Therefore, the only satisfactory explanation is that the One who is responsible for this creation is also responsible for the Vedas.
Objection: The information mentioned in the Vedas is not always scientifically accurate. At one place in the Vedas it is said that the world is flat, which is obviously against the facts.
Answer: Can you please tell where exactly in the Vedas does this statement occur?
Objector: I have not seen it, but many people say this.
Resolution: We too have heard this kind of speculation before. However, nowhere in the Vedas have we come across any such statement anywhere. In this context it is very important to observe that the earth is often called in the Vedas as 'bhu-mandala', which obviously means circular or spherical. In fact, the cosmos itself is termed as 'brahmanda', meaning it is oval or egg-shaped. The Vedas are not only precisely accurate in the information they provide, but also there is impeccable effectiveness in the method they use to disseminate their wisdom. Additionally, the remarkable feature of the Vedas is that even though they dwell on issues beyond the comprehension of the human mind, nevertheless, all their assertions are verifiable either through inference or actual experience.
In the foregoing discussion, it has been demonstrated logically that the Vedas could not have been composed by human beings. The reasons are five:
1). The author's name is not known.
2). Their musical structure is unaffected over time.
3). They are very vast.
4). They have no contradictions in spite of their vastness.
5). Recent discoveries have already been mentioned in them.
If the Vedas are not man made, then the questions are "Who is responsible for them? And how do we come to know of them"?
The answer according to the Vedas is:
God creates the world in the following sequence: akasha (sky), vayu (air), agni (fire), jala (water), prithvi (earth), plants, seeds and finally human beings and animals. This creation lasts for one kalpa (4.32 billion years), and then it goes into dissolution before being created again. This cycle of creation and dissolution is eternal.
The Seven Seers (Sapta-Rishis)
The Seven Seers (Sapta-Rishis)

In each creation, the human beings born in the beginning are those who were immensely spiritually evolved in the previous creation. For example in the present creation these are Manu, his wife Shatarupa, the seven sages (Sapta-Rishis) and many others.

These people, unlike us, remember their past by the grace of God. They also remember by His grace the Vedas that they themselves had learnt in their previous lives. They give birth to children some of whom are of high prowess who too remember some part of the Vedas. Further, these Rishis also teach the Vedas to later generations. In this way, the Vedas come to our knowledge. Such a Rishi is called a seer, i.e. one who sees the mantra (mantra-drishta). Their names appear in the beginning of each hymn, along with the name of the god the hymn is addressed to and the meter in which it is composed. Vishwamitra, one of the seven Sapta-Rishis, is the seer of the famous Gayatri Mantra. Can anybody ever suggest that Vishwamitra is the creator of the Gayatri Mantra? Thus, it is obvious that these sages are not the composers of the hymns and this is the reason why devotion to the Vedas continues intact; they are but God's explicit communication to humans.

References and Further Reading:

  • Bharati, Swami Paramananda. Foundations of Dharma. Bangalore 2008.
  • Bharati, Swami Paramananda. Lectures on Vedanta (80 MP3 Files).
  • Bharati, Swami Paramananda. Vedanta Prabodh: Varanasi, 2010.

This article is based almost entirely on the teachings of Param Pujya Swami Paramanand Bharati Ji.

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----- Original Message -----
Sent: Thursday, December 02, 2010 3:12 PM
Subject: New Artworks for December 2010.

New Additions for December 2010

Thangka Paintings

Kumari Japanese Buddha Goddess Tara Five Dhyani Buddhas Panel
Goddess Kumari Japanese Buddha Goddess Tara Five Dhyani Buddhas

Shakyamuni Buddha Mandala Kundalini Chakras Mahaparinirvana of Buddha at Kushinagara (Large Thangka) Kalachakra Mandala  (Large Thangka)
Shakyamuni Buddha Mandala Kundalini Chakras Mahaparinirvana of Buddha at Kushinagara (Large Thangka) Kalachakra Mandala


Hindu Sculpture

Baby Krishna Lord Vishnu A Classical,  Composite Image of Shiva and Parvati Hayagriva Avatara of Lord Vishnu Sheshshayi Vishnu
Adorable Krishna An Aesthetically Pleasing Lord Vishnu A Classical, Composite Image of Shiva and Parvati Rare Image of Hayagriva Avatara of Lord Vishnu Sheshshayi Vishnu
Goddess Kali
Kamadhenu The Wish-Fulfilling Divine Cow Karttikeya with His Two Consorts
Fine Nataraja Goddess Kali Kamadhenu The Wish-Fulfilling Divine Cow Karttikeya with His Two Consorts

Folk Paintings

Kalamkari Paintings
Back after a long time, Unique Paintings made with a pen.
Gita Upadesh Devi Durga Tree of Life with Perched Peacocks
Gita Upadesh Devi Durga Tree of Life

Phad Paintings from Rajasthan
Also known as mobile temples.
Pabu Ji Ki Phad Rama Lila Part I Life of Krishna
Pabu Ji Ki Phad Rama Lila Life of Krishna

Sculptures from Nepal

Multi-Armed Dancing Ganesha from Nepal The Ten Syllables of the Kalachakra Mantra Wall Hanging Plate with Ashtamangala Symbols and Animals of Tibetan Astrological Calendar Special Dorje from Nepal
Multi-Armed Dancing Ganesha The Ten Syllables of the Kalachakra Mantra (Wall Hanging Plate) Special Dorje


Rupture Rose Sari with Flowers Embroidered with Silver Thread and Sequins Multi-Color Sari with Batik Print Flowers Sky-Blue Sari with Parsi Embroidered Flowers on Border Dark-Green Sari with Parsi Embroidered Flowers on Border Apricot-Orange Sari with Floral Print and Bootis
Rupture Rose Sari Embroidered with Silver Thread Multi-Color Sari with Batik Print Flowers The Blue Sky Dark-Green Sari in Georgette Apricot-Orange Sari

Plain White Kanjivaram Sari with Temple Border Tri-Color Sari from Kolkata with Patola Print Golden Banarasi Sari with Beadwork and Sequins Multi-Color Crepe Sari with Floral Print
Plain White Kanjivaram Sari with Temple Border Tri-Color Sari from Kolkata with Patola Print Golden Banarasi Sari with Beadwork and Sequins Multi-Color Crepe Sari

Hindu Paintings

Shiva Dancing Krishna Arranges Radha's Hair (Shringar) Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva Worship the Great Goddess Kumbhakarna's Lunch (From the Ramayana)
Dancing Shiva Krishna Arranges Radha's Hair Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva Worship the Great Goddess Kumbhakarna's Lunch (From the Ramayana)

Buddhist Sculpture

Crowned Medicine Buddha Parinirvana Buddha Folding Temple of Buddha (Back Side Engraved with Scenes from Life of Shakyamuni)
Unique Medicine Buddha with Crown Parinirvana Buddha Folding Temple of Buddha


Stoles and Shawls

Midnight-Blue Stole with Ari-Embroidered Flowers in Silver and Sequins Peach Stole from Kashmir with Floral Floral Embroidery Multi-Color Scarf with Wild-Life Print Plain Pink Pure Pashmina Shawl with Intricate Kashmiri Sozni Embroidery by Hand on Borders
Midnight-Blue Stole with Ari-Embroidered Flowers in Silver and Sequins Peach Stole from Kashmir Multi-Color Scarf with Wild-Life Print Plain Pink Pure Pashmina Shawl with Intricate Sozni Embroidery by Hand

Turquoise-Blue Jamdani Stole from Kashmir with Dense Floral Embroidery All-Over Pink and Beige Printed Silk-Pashmina Stole from Nepal Mustard and Pink Reversible Jamawar Stole with All-Over Woven Paisleys Khaki Stole with Embroidered Beads and Sequins
Turquoise-Blue Jamdani Stole Pashmina Stole from Nepal Jamawar Pure Silk Stole Stole in Khaki

Mughal Paintings

Fine Paintings by Navneet Parikh of Jaipur.
Suhaag Raat (The First Night) Prince Playing Dandia The Kite Workshop
Suhaag Raat (The First Night) Prince Playing Dandia The Kite Workshop

Wood Carvings

Bhumisparsha Buddha Dhyana Buddha
Bhumisparsha Buddha Buddha in the Dhyana Mudra


Rabari Shoulder Bag from Kutch Made by Hand Block-Printed Jhola Bag from Ranthambore Mahagony Leather Handbag from Ajmer with Ari Embroidery on Satchel
Rabari Shoulder Bag from Kutch Made by Hand Block-Printed Jhola Bag from Ranthambore Leather Handbag from Ajmer


Tantric Sculpture

Goddess Kali Ardhanarishvara (Shiva Shakti) Shri Ganesha with Shakti
Goddess Kali Ardhanarishvara (Shiva Shakti) Shri Ganesha with Shakti

Bedspreads and Cushion Covers

More than 50 New Additions.
Multi-Color Bedcover from Kutch with Mirrors and Antique Thread Work Woven Reversible Jamawar Bedspread with Stylized Paisleys Light-Brown Round Table Cover from Barmer with Embroidery and Mirrors Light-Blue Bedspread with Ikat Weave Hand-Woven in Pochampally
A Huge Range from Kutch (Gujarat) Warm, Pure Wool Bedspreads Table Covers with Mirrors Ikat Bedcovers

Ritual Items

Wick Lamp with Elephant Head Handle (Price Per Pair) Set of Two Deeplakshmi
Wick Lamps Set of Two Deeplakshmi


Wholesale Lots

More than 50 New Additions.
Lot of Five Embroidered Rosary (Mala) Bags from Vrindavan Assorted Lot of Five Multi-Colored Vintage Sari Skirts with Patchwork and Mirrors
Embroidered Rosary (Mala) Bags from Vrindavan Sari Skirts


Fifteen Fabulous New Necklaces.
Ruby Necklace Coral and Turquoise Necklace Multi-color Faceted Tourmaline Necklace
Ruby Necklace
Coral and Turquoise Necklace Tourmaline Necklace



Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Coral and Turquoise Designer Pendant Rutilated Quartz Oval Pendant with Garnet
Rainbow Moonstone Pendant Coral and Turquoise Designer Pendant Rutilated Quartz Oval Pendant with Garnet


Faceted Rose Quartz and Pearl Earrings Lapis Lazuli Earrings Faceted Peridot Shower Earrings
Rose Quartz and Pearl Hoops Lapis Lazuli Earrings Faceted Peridot Shower Earrings

Finger Rings

Rose Quartz Ring Rainbow Moonstone Ring Mahakala 
              Coral and Turquoise Ring
Dragon Ring Faceted Lemon Topaz Ring Redstone Ring


Labradorite Bracelet Rainbow Moonstone Bracelet
Labradorite Bracelet Rainbow Moonstone Bracelet

Carnelian Bracelet Faceted Citrine Bracelet
Carnelian Bracelet Faceted Citrine Bracelet

Hindu Jewelry

Sterling Surya Ring Om (AUM) Pendant Ganesha Pendant
Sterling Surya Ring Om (AUM) Pendant Lord Ganesha


Buddhist Jewelry

Manjushri - The Bodhisattva of Wisdom
Savior Goddess Green Tara Pendant
Prayer Wheel Pendant Buddha Pendant Crystal Dorje Pendant
Manjushri - The Bodhisattva of Wisdom Savior Goddess Green Tara Pendant Prayer Wheel Pendant Buddha Pendant Crystal Dorje Pendant

Om Mani Padme Hum Cuff Bangle Mahakala Pendant
Om Mani Padme Hum Cuff Bangle Mahakala Pendant

Gemstone Beads

Faceted Garnet Briolette Pink Opal Beads
Faceted Garnet Briolette Pink Opal Beads
Faceted Fossil Briolette (Price Per Piece) Faceted Turquoise Briolette
Faceted Fossil Briolette Faceted Turquoise Briolette


Anklets and Toe Rings

Sterling Toe Ring (Price Per Pair)
Ethnic Toe-Rings from Rajasthan

Beauty and Health Care

Now available medicines from Arya Vaidya Shala, the legendary Ayurveda people from Kerala
Mahakukkutamamsa Tailam Kutajarishtam Chitrakasavam
Tailam Arishtam Asavam

Herbal Beauty Products
Neha Herbal Mehandi (Natural Coloring with Nature's Goodness) Pediglow Foot Care Kit Kara  - Refreshing Facial Wipes With Aloe Vera & Mint Oil Dabur Uveda - Moisturising Face Wash Bio Margosa (Shampoo & Conditioner)
Henna Pediglow Foot Care Kit Herbal Based Wipes Moisturising Face Wash Herbal Shampoos and Conditioners

Traditional Oils
Himani Navratna Oil - Lite
Navaratna Oil

Special Teas
Tulsi - Sweet Lemon Tea Tulsi - Sweet Rose Tea
Tulsi - Sweet Lemon Tea Tulsi - Sweet Rose Tea

View the complete range of Health and Beauty Products at:


CDs and DVDs

More than a 150 New MP3s, CDS and DVDs have been included.
Shiv Upasana (Stutis & Stotras On Lord Shiva)(MP3) Ustad Fateh Ali Khan (Timeless Music from Pakistan) (Audio CD) Mantras for a Happy Marriage - Power of Mantras (Audio CD) Shilpa's Yoga - An Introduction to Dynamic Free Flow Yoga Practice (DVD)
Hindu: The World's largest Collection of Hindu Audio and Video Indian Classical Music Music Therapy: Healing and Nourishing Music Yoga

Bazaar (DVD): The Marketplace Best of Abida Parveen (Sufi Ghazal and Traditional Folk Songs) (MP3) Bhaav Tarangini - A Unique Expression of 'Abhangs' (Audio CD) Shakti - Invoke the Goddess of Power & Benevolence… (Audio CD)
Bollywood: The Best of Indian Cinema on DVD and Blue Ray Sufi: A Unique Collection of Sufi Music Indian Dance Tantra: More than a 100 Tantric CDs

The Mahabharata: A Divine History of Ancient India

Hindu Bookstore

Sacred Complex of the Guruvayur Temple; The Cosmology of the Bhagavata
Purana; Death and Reincarnation; Gita for Everyone; Hanuman Kosa (In Two
Volumes); Song of the Soul: Namokar Mantra and the Science of Sound;
Laghu-bhagavatamrta of Srila Rupa Gosvami; Music Rituals in the Temples of
South India; 16 Hindu Samskars; Sri Gaudiya Kanthahara: A Necklace of
Vaisnava Verse; Bitten by the Black Snake: The Ancient Wisdom of Ashtavakra
and 101 Tales of Wisdom.
The Life and Times of Baba Ramdev

Ramayana by Kamala Subramaniam; Saundaryalahari of Sri Shankara Bhagavatpadacharya with Ten Commentaries (In Sanskrit Only); Mahabharata by C. Rajagopalachari (53rd Edition); Vedanta for Beginners; They Spoke With God: Saints of Tamizhaham; The Science of Enlightenment; The Ramayan of Valmiki; The Life and Times of Baba Ramdev; Hindu Names For Girls; The Penguin Book of Hindu Names.

Srimad Bhagavatam - Sarartha Darsini Commentary by Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakkura - Canto 5 (Volume 4)

Hindu Names For Girls; Songs of the Gurus - From Nanak to Gobind Singh; Srimad Bhagavatam - Sarartha Darsini Commentary by Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakkura - Canto 5 (Volume 4); History of Jainism (3 Volumes); The Book Of Demons (Including A Dictionary of Demons in Sanskrit Literature); Isa Upanishad (A Study of the Universal Law Dharma from the Karma Mimamsa Perspective); Beyond Shirdi Stories of the Living Presence of Sai Baba and Open the Door Jnanesvara.

Nature's Wonder Plant - Aloe Vera

Alternative Medicine

Principles & Practice of Ayurvedic Rheumatology; Wheat Grass Juice - The
Elixir of Life; Aloe Vera - Aloe Vera; Miraculous Morning Walk - The Only
Way to Complete Health (Easiest Way to Loose Weight); Better Sight Without
Glasses; Food That Heal and Miracles of Naturopathy & Yogic Sciences.

Cultivating a Daily Meditation (Dalai Lama XIV)

Buddhist Bookstore

Cultivating a Daily Meditation (Dalai Lama XIV); Essence of Buddhism: Teachings at Tibet House by Kyabgon Sakya Trizin Rinpoche; Eurasian Mythology in the Tibetan Epic of Ge-sar; Three Texts on Madhyamaka (gser mdog panchen shakya mchog idan 1428-1507); Three Texts on Madhyamaka (gser mdog panchen shakya mchog idan 1428-1507); Our Festivals: Buddha Jayanti; Tao-Sheng's Commentary on the Lotus Sutra: A Study and Translation and Tao-Sheng's Commentary on the Lotus Sutra: A Study and Translation.

Yoga for Cancer - Esoteric, Yogic & Dietary Remedies

Yoga Bookstore

Miracles of Naturopathy & Yogic Sciences and Yoga for Cancer - Esoteric, Yogic & Dietary Remedies.

Saturn - The King Maker

Tantra Bookstore

Your Stars & Married-Life; Saptarishis Astrology (As Read in 96 Countries); Numerology for Lovers; Hindu Astrology and Saturn - The King Maker.

Theory and Practice of Angikabhinaya (In Bharata Natyam)

Performing Arts Bookstore

Theory and Practice of Angikabhinaya (In Bharata Natyam); Khayal Vocalism Continuity within Change and My Name is Gauhar Jaan! The Life and Times of a Musician - With CD.

Learn Tamil in 30 Days

Language and Literature Bookstore

Learn Tamil in 30 Days; Hundred Tamil Folk and Tribal Tales; The Penguin Book of Classical Indian Love Stories and Lyrics; The Pancatantra (Penguin Books); Kadambari; English - Telugu Dictionary; English - Malayalam Dictionary; Wit and Humour in Colonial North India; The Word is Sacred Sacred is the Word: The Indian Manuscript Tradition; A History of Urdu Literature; The Oxford India Tagore : Selected Writings on Education and Nationalism; Truth Love & a Little Malice (An Autobiography) by Khushwant Singh; R.K. Narayan A Writers Nightmare and The Complete Adventures of Feluda by Satyajit Ray.

Devakinandan Khatri's Chandrakanta: A Classic of Indian Literature
The Caterpillar Who Went on a Diet and Other Stories; Tenali Raman; Rajmohan's Wife by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay; Ardhakathanak (A Half Story); The Penguin Book of Schooldays: Recess; Kabir: The Weaver's Songs; Rabindranath Tagore Boyhood Days; Laugh with Laxman; The Prosody of Pingala - A Treatise of Vedic and Sanskrit Metrics with Applications of Vedic Mathematics; Voices in the Back Courtyard - Punjabi Short Stories; A Letter from India (Cotemporary Short Stories From Pakistan); Devakinandan Khatri's Chandrakanta: A Classic of Indian Literature and Texts in Context Traditional Hermeneutics In South Asia.

Heritage of Rajasthan: Monuments and Archaeological Sites

Indian History Bookstore

Heritage of Rajasthan; 101 Kerala Delicacies; Prehistory and Protohistory of India-An India (Palaeolithic-Non-Harappan Chalcolithic Cultures); Windows to World's Religions; Windows to World's Religions; Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan by James Tod (Abridged); Mahatma Gandhi A Historical Biography; Moguls of Real Estate; Baji Rao the Warrior Peshwa; India Divided by Rajendra Prasad; The Prophet of Peace (Teachings of the Prophet Muhammad); The Family and the Nation and The Essential Andhra Cookbook.

AKBAR The Mighty Emperor

The Other Indians (A Political and Cultural History of South Asians in America); The Great Divide: India and Pakistan; Traitor Shobasakthi; Anatomy of An Abduction: How the Indian Hostages in Iraq Were Freed; Akbar The Mighty Emperor; A Flag, A Song and A Pinch of Salt: Freedom Fighters of India; Words of Freedom Ideas of a Nation by Various Indian Freedom Fighters and Ghaffar Khan: Nonviolent Badshah of the Pakhtuns.

The Puffin History of India For Children Volume 2 (1947 to the Present)

Celebrating Delhi; Indian Army Vision 2020; Jaipur Nama Tales From The Pink City; The Puffin History of India For Children; The Puffin History of India For Children; Confessions of a Thug by Philip Meadows Taylor; Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi; Multiple City: Writings on Bangalore; Jangalnama Travels in a Maoist Guerilla Zone Satnam; Milestones: A Memoir by Indrani Jagjivan Ram and Writings on Mumbai.

Unique Art of Warli Paintings

Art and Architecture Bookstore

Unique Art of Warli Paintings; Chitra-Pothi: Illustrated Palm-Leaf Manuscripts from Orissa; The Word is Sacred Sacred is the Word: The Indian Manuscript Tradition; Namaste Nepal: Textiles; Islamic Art: The Past and Modern and Indian Sculpture: Towards the Rebirth of Aesthetics.

Dishonoured by Philosophers - Upamana in Indian Epistemology

Indian Cinema Bookstore

Star Dust (Vignettes from the Fringes of the Film Industry); Leela: A Patchwork Life by Leela Naidu; Close - Up: Memoirs of a Life on Stage & Screen by Zohra Segal and Melodrama and the Nation: Sexual Economies of Bombay Cinema 1970 - 2000.

Sher Shah (Able Statesman, Brave Warrior)

Sociology and Anthropology Bookstore

India on Television (How Satellite News Channels Have Changed the Way We
Think and Act) and Middle-Class Moralities (Everyday Struggle Over Belonging
and Prestige in India.

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