viernes, 9 de julio de 2010

A - Arundhati - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy (A - Asvamedha)

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S1 | S2 | T | U | V | Y | Z

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

Presented to the


by the






Law Booksellers. &c









(/liilauu. MADRAS III lIIGdlNBOTHAM AND CO (All rights reserved.) | MiCROFORA/IED L
LIBRARY C Registered under Act XXV op 1867

rtiimo AT Til AiTLVM rmiM, at wil thomas- 1871


No Student of Indian Literature, whether he has studied it in its ancient classic tongue, the Sanskrit, in which its earliest and most original works are written; or has derived his acquaintance with it from the scantier range of some modern Indian vernacular, but has felt the difficulties that arise from the frequent mention of mythical personages, places, and objects, whose very names are so utterly unknown to him that he often even fails to recognise that thej are proper names (oriental characters having no capital letters to indicate this) while of the facts concerning them he has little or no means of information. Hence he has to trust to such information as he can obtain from his Munshi - information mostly very imperfect and often quite incorrect. The course of many years' reading gives the desired knowledge, but it is acquired at the cost of much time, labour, and research - nearly all of which might be saved did any such work exist for the Indian student, as the classical learner has long had in his " Lempriere," and now has in the well-known and far superior Dictionaries of Dr. William Smith.

The Universities in India have placed the Sanskrit and some of the vernacular languages, in the same position a?; Professor Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, and his Chips from a German Workshop, have supplied much information, and many extracts of great value have been taken from those works. The articles on Hinduism contributed by Professor GOLDSTUCKER. to the English Cyclopaedia, and more especially to Chambers' Encyclopaedia, and the few parts of the Sanskrit Dictionary issued by the same learned author, have given to the world the fruits of great research, and the writer has availed himself of much new matter in the above publications.

Many other works might be specified which have added to the interest and utility of the present volume. Among others the following should not be omitted. Ancient and Mediaeval India, by Mrs. Manning. Indian Epic Poetry, by Professor Monier Williams. Handbook of Sanskrit Literature, by G. Small, M. A. Ziegenbalg's Manual of the Mythology of Southern India. Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. Colebrooke's Essays, &;c., &c. A complete list of the editions used will be found on another page.

In the Prospectus of this work published a year ago, the writer, in acknowledging that the Mythological legends of India had never commanded the attention accorded to those of Greece and Rome, expressed an opinion that this has arisen not only from the extravagant oriental imagination by which they are characterized, but chiefly from the fact that they have never yet been studied by Europeans in youth. There is no doubt that much of the charm of early Greek and Roman story belongs to the associations in the midst of which a knowledge of it was first acquired. The interest that educated Europeans feel in the classic tales of Greece and Rome may be traced to the familiarity acquired with them in the enthusiasm of youth, amid scenes and circumstances which stand out through life as bright phases of their existence.

The beauty, however, as well as the value, of the two great Epics of India, is now acknowledged. They are no longer regarded as worthless fictions or mere idle flights of imagination.* It is now admitted that these two heroic poems, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, contain "all that we can ever know of India's early history ;" and that notwithstanding their exaggerations, they bring before us a state of society, and a condition of thought and feeling, through which mankind has had to pass in pre- historic times. The people who figured in these early tales were men and women ' of like passions with ourselves' - animated by the same joys and hopes - depressed by the same sorrows and disappointments. It is consequently interesting to observe the traces they have left behind them their foot

"In the Ramayana all is pure measureless raving. An imagination which seems to combine the advantages of mania, superstition, and drunken-ness, is put a-going, makes a set of what it names worlds, of its own, and fills them with all sorts of agents; gods, sages, demi-gods, monkeys, and a numberless diversity of fantastic entities, at once magnified and distorted to the last transcendent madness of extravagance, - some additional monster still striding and bellowing into the hurly-burly, whenever the poet thinks it not sufficiently turbulent' and chaotic."- John Foster, Eclectic Jleview, Sept. 1810. prints on the sands of time" - to glean all we can from the records they have left us of what people used to think and say and do at a period so remote as to take our thoughts to the very infancy of the human race.

"Greatly as our times are distinguished by discovery and progress, we are yet continually reminded, amidst its changes, of that world of the Past out of which the Present is born. The century which has witnessed such onward strides of physical and political science, has also unlocked the secrets of the hieroglyphics of Egypt. Major Rawlinson is now giving a voice to dumb inscriptions upon Persian rocks; and in the same way, in India's mythic poetry, we become contemporaries with Greece's earliest history. The heroic times and youth of the race thus rise up in earth's later days, in startling contrast with our science and commerce, as if nature would expressly teach us that there lies a romance in the past which can never grow obsolete to man; and howsoever our civilization may change us, and under all the new developments of the human race, the memories of old ages will still survive and come back to us, like the stories of childhood among the sterner realities of manhood."

Bangalore, j GARRETT

August 15, 1871. |

Westminster Review, Vol. L, p, 62


Adelung's Historical Sketch of Sanskrit Literature, Oxford, 1832
Asiatic Researches, 11 vols,, London, 1812
Ainslie's Materia Indica, 2 vols., London, 1826
Balfour's Cyclopajdia of India, Madras, 1862. -
Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Sankya Philosophy. \ Benares and
Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Nyaya Philosophy. y Allahabad, Ballantyne's Lecture on the Vedanta. 1849 to 1852
Ballantyne's Tarka Sangraha.
Ballantyne's Christianity and Hindu Philosophy, London, 1859
Benares Magazine, 1851.
Buchanan's (F.) Journey through Mysore, &c., 3 vols., London, 1807.
Brande's Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art, 3 vols., London, 1 867
Bernier's Travels in India, 2 vols., 8 vo., London, 1826.
Bower's Chintamani, Madras, 1868.
Colebrooke's (H. T.) Miscellaneous Essays, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1837.
Carey's Ramayana, Serampore, 1806

Cox's Mythology of the Arjaan Nations, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1870

Calcutta Review, 35 volumes

Cudworth's Intellectual System of the Universe, 3 vols., 8vo., London

Chambers' Encyclopasdia, 10 vols

Dubois' Manners and Customs of People of India, quarto, London, 1817

Duff's India and Indian Missions, Edinburgh, 1841

Elliot's (H. M.) Memoir of the History, &c., of the Races of N. W. P. of India, by Beames, 2 vols., 1869

Elphinstone's History of India, 2 vols., London, 1843

Erskine's History of India, 2 vols., 1854

Elphinstone's Caubul, Account of, quarto, London, 1815

English Cyclopaedia

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1834

Frere's Old Deccan Days, London, 1870"
Goldstucker's Sanf*krit Dictionary, 6 parts
Grote's History of (Heece, 12 vols., 8vo., London, 1846-56
Griffith's Idylls fr(/ta the Sanskrit, London, 1866
Griffith's Scenes from ti'e Ramayan, Benares, 1870
Griffith's Ramay.'ui of VaUniki, vols. 1 and 11, Benares, 1870-71


Hauq's, Dr. Aitareya Brahmanam of the Rig Veda, 2 vols., Bombay, 1 863
Halhed's Code of Gentoo Laws, London' J 777
Hardy'3 (Spence) Eastern Monachism, London, 1850
Hardt's (Spence) Manual of Buddhism
IIeber's Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, 3 vols., 8vo., London, 1828
Hunter's Comparative Dictionary of the Non-Aryan Languages of India, quarto, 1869
Hunter's Annals of Rural Bengal, London, 1868
Jones', (Sir W.) Works, 13 vols., 8vo., London, 1807
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1835-45
Kennedy, Vans, Col., Researches into the Nature and Affinity of Ancient and Hindu Mythology, London, 1831
Marshman's History of India, 3 vols., London, 1867
Mill's History of India, by AVilson, 9 vols., London, 1858
Manning's, Mrs., Ancient and Mediaeval India, 2 vols., London, 1869
Moor's Hindu Pantheon, London, 1810
Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the
People of India, their Religion and Institutions, London, 1868, vol. i, 2d edition, vol. iii, 2d edition, 1868, vol. iv, 1863, vol. v, 1870
Muller's (Max) History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 1859
Muller's (Max) Chips from a German Workshop, 3 vols., 1868-70
Muller's (Max) Lectures on the Science of Language, 2 vols., 1866
Muller's (Max) Rig Veda Sanhita, London, 1869
Oriental Astronomer, a complete System of Hindu Astronomy, Jaffna, 1848
Sherring's Sacred City of the Hindus, London, 1868
Small's Handbook of Sanskrit Literature, London, 1866
Thomson's Translation of the Bhagavad-Gita, Hertford, 1855
Ward's View of the History, Literature and Mythology of the Hindus, 3 vols., London, 1822
Wheeler's History of India from the Earliest Times, 2 vols., London, 1867-69
Wilson's (II. II.) Vishnu Purana, quarto, London, 1840
Wilson's Works, by Dr. Rost and others, 10 vols., London, 1862-70
Wilson's Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus, 2 vols, London, 1835
Wilson's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, Calcutta, 1840
Williams' Indian Epic Poetry, London, 1863
Williams' English and Sanskrit Dictionary, London, 1851


A. S. L. Muller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature
A. 8 M, L Mrs. Manning's Ancient and Mediaeval India
H. P. Moor's Hindu Pantheon
H. S. L, Handbook of Sanskrit Literature
I. E, P, Williams' Indian Epic Poetry
O. S. T. Muir's Original Sanskrit Texts
F. P, Wilson's Vishnu Purana, the quarto edition unless where the-Svo, edition is specified


At page 218, line 19, for Glendoveefs read Glendoveers, At page 688, line 13, for assist read assert
At page 518, line 6, for Griffiths', read Griffith's

This mistake has occurred several times in connection with this name.



"A - Akara: (sáns. hindú). The first letter in the Sanskrit and all Indian Alphabets. A name claimed by Krishna as the Supreme Being, (Bhagavat Gita, Chapter X, verse 33) similar to the name Alpha given in the Book of Revelation to the Lord Jesus Clirist.

Abhasara: (sáns. hindú). The name of the thirteenth heaven of Buddhism.

Abhaya: (sáns. hindú). (Fearlessness) one of the sons of Dharma, see Vishnu Purana, p. 55.

Abhidhana Chintamani: (sáns. hindú). A vocabulary of the Jain doctrines written by Hemachandra, and described by Professor Wilson as one of great utility that may be relied on.

Abhidharmma.: (sáns. hindú). The third class of the sacred books of the Buddhists, which are called in Pali, the language in which they are written, Pittakattyan, from Pittakan, a basket or chest, and layo, three, the text being divided into three great classes. The Abhidarmma contain instructions which the Buddhists imagine to be addressed to the inhabitants of the celestial worlds. This is accordingly accounted the highest class of sacred books, and the expounders of it are to be held in the highest honor, for it contains 'pre-eminent truths, as the word itself implies. The books of which it consists are not in the form of sermons, but specify terms and doctrines, with definitions and explanations. The work contains seven sections. - Gardiner, Abhijit- A Yadava Chief, V. P., p. 436.

Abhimani: (sáns. hindú). The eldest son of Brahma: he was an Agni, and by his wife Swaba had three sons of surpassing brilliancy, Pavaka, Pavamana, and Suchi. They had forty-five sons, who, with themselves and Abhimani, constitute the forty-nine fires. V. P.

Abhimana: (sáns. hindú). lu Hindu philosophy means * selfish conviction.' See Colebrooke's Essays, Vol. I, p. 2-2.

Abhimanyu: (sáns. hindú). l, A son of Arjuna and Subhadra, renowned for his strength and valour. He was married to Uttara, the daughter of Raja Virata. He fought with distinguished valour on the first day of the great war; cutting down the insign in Bhishma's chariot. On the second day he slew a son of Duryodhana, and when attacked by the latter was rescued by Arjuna. On the thirteenth day of the war, he was commanded by Yudhishthira to charge the Kauravas who were drawn up in the form of a spider's web; he drove his chariot into the enemy's ranks and performed prodigies of valour, but was finally overpowered by six warriors and slain. His posterity through the line of his son Tankshita were the royal race of the lunar line at Hastinapura, (old Delhi); 2, A son of Chakshusha. V. P., 98.

Abhiras: (sáns. hindú). l, An ancient race of people inhabiting the NorthWest of India: they are mentioned in the Maha Bharata, the Ramayana, and in the V. P., but nothing is known of their history; 2, The name of a dynasty referred to in the V. P. supposed to liave reigned in Magadha, b. c. 200.

Abhutarajasas: (sáns. hindú). A class of gods of the fifth Manwantara.

Abhyudaya: (sáns. hindú). Offerings to the progenitors of an individual and of mankind, which form part of a religious ceremony on an occasion of rejoicing or an accession of prosperity. See Vriddi Sradda.

Abja: (sáns. hindú). The father of Visala who became incarnate as Narayana.

Aborigines: (sáns. hindú). In all the large jungles and hilly tracts of country throughout India there exist thousands of human beings in a state not very different from that of the Germans as described by Tacitus nearly two thousand years ago. These primitive races are the ancient heritors of the whole soil, from all the rich and open parts of wliich they were expelled by the Hindu.

These non- Aryan races have always been misrepresented and oppressed. The early Sanscrit writers depicted " the forest tribes ns black noseless demons, of small stature and inarticulate speech." In tbo two great epics and in the Purunas they are termed Rakshashas.

" During the struggle between the worn-out Sanscrit civilization and the impetuous prime of Islam, the Hindus discovered the value of the aboriginal races. Many chiefs of noble Aryan blood maintained their independence by such alliances; others founded new kingdoms amongst the forest peoples. To this day some of the tribes exhibit a black original section living side by side with a fairskinned composite kindred, sprung from the refugees; and the most exalted Hindu princes have to submit to a curious aboriginal rite on their accession to the throne. It was stated before the Royal Asiatic Society in 1852 that the investiture of the Rajput Rajah of Nerwar is not complete till one of his purely aboriginal subjects, a Mina, paints a round spot on his forehead with blood freshly drawn from the toe of another Mina. Without this formal recognition his non- Aryan subjects could not be depended upon; when once it has been performed their fidelity has never been known to waver. They form the treasury and palace guards, hold the personal safety of the prince entirely in their hands, and supply the sole escort to whom he entrusts the honor of his daughters when they go abroad. The Ranah of Udayapur, cited by General Briggs as the highest in rank of all the sovereigns in India, renders the same homage, however ill it may comport with his caste and personal dignity, to the traditions of his aboriginal subjects.

Before he ascends the throne his forehead must first be marked with the blood of a Bhil. The Hiuduized chieftains of Central India, receive investiture by the blood of a pure Kol; and so strong a hold has this ceremony on the minds of the people, that amongst the Cheris - once a great tribe, who defended themselves with honor against Shere Shah and the imperial army, now reduced to five or six families, - the head of the little community is still installed under the title of Rajah, with the token of the round spot of warm aboriginal blood.

" But it is not the Hindus alone that have proved the loyalty of these neglected races. Scarcely a single administrator has ruled over them for any length of time, without finding his prejudices conquered, and his heart softened, and leaving on record his sorrow for their present condition, and his belief in their capabilities for good.

They are faithful, truthful and attached to their superiors, writes General Briggs, ready at all times to lay down their lives for those they serve, and remarkable for their indomitable courage.

These qualities have been always displayed in our service. The aborigines of the Carnatic were the sepoys of Clive and of Coote.

A few companies of the same stock joined the former great Captain from Bombay, fought the battle of Plassey in Bengal, and laid the foundation of our Indian empire. They have since distinguished themselves in the corps of Pioneers and Engineers, not only in India, but in Ava and Afghanistan, and in the celebrated defence of Jelalabad. An unjust prejudice has grown up against them in the armies of Madras and Bombay, where they have done best service, produced by the feelings of contempt for them, existing among the Hindu and Mahomedan troops. They have no prejudices themselves, are always ready to serve abroad, and embark on board ship, and I believe no instance of mutiny has ever occurred among them." '* Other testimonies are quoted by the same writer from equally high authorities all showing that the truthfulness and fidelity of these despised races are most satisfactorily established.

Their condition, after many centuries of suffering, is now likely to be improved. Their character and claims are beginning to be understood. It is seen too how they may be utilized by being made to take the place of English soldiers. " In interest, in race, in religion, in habits of life, they are cut off" from the Hindus and Mussulmans by a gulf of whoso breadth the people of Christian can form no idea; and their ethnical repugnance is kept in a constant glow by the remembrance of ancient wars and recent wrongs." By extensively employing these tribes as a military police and "as soldiers, we should not only relievo the English population of a burden, but we should offer a livelihood to brave predatory peoples wliora the stern order of British rule has deprived of an important source of subsistence."* See Bhils, Bhateeas, Gonds, Ghtirkas, etc. W. W. Hunter, Preface to Non-Aryan Dictionary.

Achara: (sáns. hindú). A name of Siva. A name of Vishnu. BRAHM, the Supreme BEING, (in this sense it is sometimes Mas.) The word also means eternal beatitude, or exemption from further transmigration. Also religious austerity or moral merit.

Acharas: (sáns. hindú). Observances of caste and order. The V. P. contains a complete and systematic description of the Acharas, or personal and social customs and obligations of the Hindus. See Chapter VIII et seq.

Acharya: (sáns. hindú). The term Acharya sometimes means a priest; but its most usual meaning is a spiritual guide or preceptor, one who invests the student with the sacred thread, and who instructs him in the law of sacrifices, and the mysteries of religion.

Achyuta: (sáns. hindú). A common name of Vishnu: meaning " the imperishable."

Achyuta: (sáns. hindú). Krishnananda Nithi, author of a commentary on the Siddhanta Kalpataru, called Krishnalankara.

Adbhuta: (sáns. hindú). The Indra of the ninth Manwantara.

Adharma: (sáns. hindú). A son of Brahma - the husband of Falsehood (Mrisha) and the father of Hypocrisy and Deceit; (Dambha and Maya). From them descended Covetousness, Wrath, Slander, Fear, &c.

Adharma: (sáns. hindú). l. Unrighteousness; all behaviour contrary to the Sruti and Smriti, or religious and legal institutions.

2. In philosophy, according to the Nyaya and Vaiseshika: moral demerit, the result of doing what is forbidden, the peculiar cause of pain, one of the twenty-four qualities united with substance. According to the Sankhya, one of the changeable dispositions of the mind, which being the efficient cause, makes the soul migrate into an animal, a deer, a bird, a reptile, a vegetable, a mineral. According to the Buddhistic doctrine it is the consequence of upadana or exertion of body or speech. According to the Jains it is that which causes the soul in general to continue embarrassed with body, notwithstanding its capacity for ascent and natural tendency to soar.

3. As a personification, Adharma occurs in the Puranas as one of the Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma; his wife is Him (mischief) on whom he begot Anrita (falsehood) and Nikriti (immorality) or according to others, Mrisha (falsehood) and his children Dambha (hypocrisy) and Maya (deceit) who were adopted by Nirriti (misfortune). Adharma is also mentioned as one of the eighteen servants of the sun. V. P.

1. Adhidaiwata - " The Supreme Being in his personality, considered as a deity, and therefore the Supreme Being in his relation to the gods. This includes the two parts, the essence of spirit, and matter, called (a) Adhyatma, the essence of spirit, the origin of souls, and the Supreme Being in his relation to man or individual soul; (h) Adhibhuta, the material essence, or the Supreme Being in his relation to matter.

2. The one indivisible (akshara); that is, the universal energy called indivisible, as contrasted with individual souls {kshard).

3. Adhiyajnay the Supreme Being as Vishnu or Krishna, a manifest object of worship, and therefore the Supreme Being in his relation to religion." - J. C. Thomson.

Adhipurusha: (sáns. hindú). The presiding spirit of the Universe - descended from Vishnu.

Adhiratha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Satyakarman, one of the kings of Anga. He found Kama in a basket on the banks of the Ganges, where he had been exposed by his mother Pritha.

Adhogati: (sáns. hindú). The Jains believe that below this world there is a world called Adhogatia the Abyss, the nethermost hell, above which there are seven infernal worlds; and above these again are ten PavanalokaSf purifying worlds, (Purgatories) above which is this world of earth .

Adhosiras: (sáns. hindú). One of the divisions of the Hindu Hell (or Naraka) in which persons are punished for bribery. V. P.

Adhyaropa: (sáns. hindú). A technical term used in the Vedanta system of Hindu Philosophy, meaning " erroneous imputation" - an allegation that the Unreal is the Real. One of the four Requisites to the study of the Vcdauta is, *' the discrimination of the eternal substance from the transient." This is the discerning that God is the eternal substance, and that all else is non-eternal. To understand this fully the Adhyaropa or erroneous imputation must be refuted.

Adhyatma : (sáns. hindú). The ministers of the Soul. A technical phrase in the Sankhya philosophy. Thirteen instruments or ministers of the soul are enumerated, each of which has a " province" and " presiding deity," viz:

1 - Intellect is a minister of the soul, *' Whatever is to be understood" is its proviace; Brahma is its presiding deity.

2 - Self-consciousness is a minister of soul; Whatever is to be believed is its province, Rudra is its presiding deity.

3 - Mind is a minister of soul; Whatever is to be resolved on is its province, The moon is its presiding deity.

4 - The hearing is a minister of soul, Whatever is to be heard is its province; The Ether is its supernatural presiding power.

5 - The touch is a minister of soul. Whatever is to be touched is its province; The air is its supernatural presiding power.

6 - The sight is a minister of soul. Whatever is to be seen is its province; The sun is its presiding deity.

7 - The taste is a minister of soul. Whatever is to be tasted is its province; Varuna (the god of waters) is its presiding deity.

8 - The smell is a minister of soul, Whatever is to be smelled is its province; The earth is its supernatural presiding power.

9 - The voice is a minister of soul, Whatever is to be uttered is its province; Saraswati (or Fire) is its presiding deity.

10 - The hands are ministers of soul, Whatever is to be grasped is their province; Indra is their presiding deity.

11- The feet are ministers of soul, Whatever is to be gone over is their province; Vishnu is their presiding deity.

12 - The organ of excretion is a minister of soul. Whatever is to be excreted is its province; Mitra is its presiding deity.

13 - The organ of generation is a minister of soul, What is to be enjoyed is its province; Prajapati is its presiding deity. - Ballantyne.

Adhyatma Ramayana : (sáns. hindú). A spiritualized version of the Ramayana, being an abridgment of the story, the authorship of which is attributed to the mythical Vyasa, in which the whole has been spiritualized, and every conflicting incident either explained or omitted, whilst the greatest stress has been laid upon the character of Rama as a - " saviour and deliverer." - Wheeler.

Adhyatmika : (sáns. hindú). In the Sankhya philosophy. The pain which arises from any of the Adhyatma or instruments of soul.

Adhvarya priests : (sáns. hindú). The third class of priests at sacrifices, who had to prepare the sacrificial ground, to adjust the vessels, to procure the animals, and other sacrificial oblations, to light the fire, to kill the animal, and do all the manual labor.

Adi: (sáns. hindú). The first. A name given to the Bramha Purana, containing ten thousand stanzas.

Adina : (sáns. hindú). The son of Sahadeva, celebrated in the wars between the demons and the gods.

Aditi: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the gods. At the churning of the ocean, Aditi received the car-rings then produced, which were given her by Krishna.

Her history, with that of the other daughters of Daksha, is regarded by Professor Wilson as an allegorical personification of AstronomicHl phenomena. ** The thoughts of primitive humanity were not only dillcrent from our thought!?, l)ut different also from what we think their thoughts ought to have been. The poets of the Veda indulged freely in theogonic speculations without being frightened by any contradictions. They knew of Indra as the greatest of gods, they knew of Agni as the god of gods, they knew of Varuna as the ruler of all; but they were by no means startled at the idea that their Indra had a mother, or that their Agni was born like a babe from the friction of two fire-sticks, or that Varuna and his brother Mitra were nursed in the lap of Aditi." (Max Muller). " Aditi is an object of frequent celebration in the Rig-veda, where she is supplicated for blessings on. children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness." (Muir.)

'Aditi, an ancient god or goddess, is in reality the earliest name invented to express the Infinite; not the Infinite as the result of a long process of abstract reasoning, but the visible Infinite, visible by the naked eye, the endless expanse, beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky. If we keep this original conception of Aditi clearly before us, the various forms which Aditi assumes, even in the hymns of the Veda, will not seem incoherent." - (Muller.)

Dr. Muir, in an elaborate article, discusses the following points:

" Aditi as the mother of the Adityas." " Is Aditi ever identified with the sky ?" " Aditi seems to be distinguished from the earth."

" Aditi may be a personification of universal nature." " Aditi as a forgiver of sin." "Aditi's position sometimes subordinate."

In the two epics, and in the Bhagavata Purana, Aditi is described as the wife of Kasyapa, and the mother of Vishnu in his dwarf incarnation: " An older authority however, the Vaj-sanhita, gives quite a different account of the relation of Aditi to Vishnu, as it represents her to be his wife. In the following passage of the Tattiriya-sanhita also she is similarly described.

' Supporter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, sovereign of this world, wife of Vishnu, may the all-embracing and powerful Aditi, filling us with vigour, be auspicious to us (abiding) in her lap."- Muir, 0. S. T., Vol. F, p. 53.

Aditya: (sáns. hindú). The Sun, called also Surya, (and Vivaswat) the chief of the gods at a very early period. The twelve solar dynasties, or personifications of the sun under a different name and sign of the zodiac in each month of the year, are called Adityas. They belong to a period before the time of the Vedas, when the worship of the elements, particularly of the sun, was first enriched and extended by fancy. The name, Adityas, is a matronymic from Aditi. The various stories related of the sun, or of the Adityas, will be given in connection with the histories of the demi-gods to which they refer. Vishnu is called chief of the Adityas. - See Appendix.

Adoption : (sáns. hindú). If a married brahman is without male issue he .is required to procure a son by means of adoption. He must have a son to perform his obsequies, or believes he would be excluded from happiness after death. So prevalent is this notion amongst the Hindus that women who have only daughters will themselves find their husbands a second wife, notwithstanding all the inconveniences involved. " The adopted son wholly renounces all claim on the property of his natural father, and acquires an unlimited right of succession to all that belongs to his adopted father. From him he is entitled to maintenance and education, as if he were his own son; and to receive, through his means, the advantages of the Triple cord, and of being settled in marriage. The adopted son is obliged, on his part, to take care of his acquired parents in their old age, and attend to their funeral when they die. He farther enters into the Gotra or lineage of him by whom he is adopted; and is considered as descended from the same ancient stock. When the ceremonies of adoption commence the new parents perform one which is held to be the most important and essential of any, by tying round the loins of the youth that little string which every male child in India (not an outcast) is ceremoniously invested with at the age of two or three years. If the ceremony has been previously performed by the natural parents, the adopting ones break the cord, in token of dissolving the Gotra from which the child descended; and put in a new one in sign of being called to theirs.

On this, as in all other solemn occasions, their first care is to select an auspicious day, by the help of astrology. The child adopted in.'iy be a lelative or not, but must be of the same caste." - Dubois.

Adrika: (sáns. hindú). The Mother of Vyasa. " The muni Parasara, havin ocasion to cross over from one side of the Ganges to the other bank, employed a ferry boat, rowed by a fisherman's daughter, towards whom he felt an attraction ; the consequence of which was the birth of a son. A Tamil version of the Bharatam enigmatizes the matter, by stating that Vyasa was born from a fish ; but the Sanskrit original, not remarkable for fastidiousness, states the case with all simplicity."—Taylor.

Adrisyanti : (sáns. hindú). The wife of Sakti, and mother of Parasara, which see.

Advaita : (sáns. hindú). The name of a school of philosophy and theology, established by Sankaracharya, founder of the monasterium of Sringeri, near the Tumbiidra river. The system regards the Supreme spirit and the human spirit as one; in degradation through ignorance, and re-absorbed on obtaining true wisdom. It regards the world as an illusion; all external objects as different forms of the one deity, besides whom there exists nothing else. As gold is one, though in various forms, as money, ear-rings and other ornaments, so the one sole existent deity is found in all the various forms that appear to exist around us. " The Vedanta of Vyasa, which considered all existing beings and things to be an evolution of deity, and the deity in and throughout all beings and things, was, by Sankaracharya, drawn out to the full consequence; which is, that the soul of man is a part of deity, not different; the body is a temporary prison; on its decease the soul flows into deity, as air in a closed earthen vessel, when this is broken, flows into the common atmosphere. It does not, however, appear that the idea of deity, on this system, philosophically includes personality; but means the supreme universe. It leans towards the female energy system; of matter (or nature) being the great spontaneous mother. Sankaracharya discoursed freely of Siva and Parvati, and wrote hymns to both; maintaining, besides, the oneness of Bramha, Vishnu and Sivar There are many treatises in Tamil, Telugu and Canarese, on the Adwaita philosophy, which seems to have been made a special study in the south more than the north of India.

Advaitananda : (sáns. hindú). The author of a commentary on the Vedanta; and preceptor of Sadananda who wrote the Vedanta Sutra. Nothing ccrluin i" known as to the time when he lived.

Adyas : (sáns. hindú). One of the five classes of gods prevailing in the sixth Manwantara, of which period Chakshusha was the Manu.

Agada : (sáns. hindú). One of the eight branches into which medical science is divided by the Hindus. Agada treats of the best antidotes to Poisons.

Agama : (sáns. hindú). A divine system of doctrine.

Agastya : (sáns. hindú). A great sage whose hermitage was situated in a beautiful locality, on the borders of a forest near the Vindhya mountains. Rama, with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana, paid the sage a visit, which is thus narrated in the Ramayana; " As they went they beheld the trees of the forest in full flower, surrounded by climbing plants, broken by the trunks of sportive elephants, enlivened with playful monkeys, and vocal with joyous birds. Rama, as he viewed the beautiful wilderness, said to his brother Lakshmana: - " The hermitage of Agastya appears in view; this is the abode of that sage who freed the southern quarter from the Rakshasas; at whose command the Vindhya mountain forbore to rise higher in the sky; who drank up the sea abounding in crocodiles and great fishes; who was entreated by the gods, with Indra at their head, to destroy the Danavas: O Lakshmana, here will I spend the remainder of my exile: Here the perfect men, the great sages, cast off their old bodies, and ascend in new bodies to heaven on chariots as resplendent as the sun."

Agastya presented Rama with the bow of Vishnu, the arrow of Brahma, two inexhaustible quivers and a scimitar; also with a superb coat of mail which had been given to the sage by Indra.

The Ramayana gives the following legend of Vatapi and llwala who were destroyed by Agastya: - " In former times, two cruel Rakshasas, the devourers of Brahmans, resided here, and their names were Vatapi and llwala, and llwala was accustomed to assume the form of a Brahman, and speak the sacred tongue, and invite the Brahmans under pretence of solemnizing a Sraddha:

Tlicu his broHicr Vatapi assumed the form of a ram, and was consecrated for the liacrificc by Ilwala; and when the Brahmans had eaten the ram, Ilwala called to his brother to come forth, and Vatupi came forth out of the stomachs of the Brahmans, bleating like a sheep, and tearing his way through their bodies. Thousands of Brahmans were thus destroyed, when Agastya came to this spot, and accepted the invitation to a Sraddha; and Agastya had not eaten for many years, and he devoured the whole of Vatapi in the form of a ram, and then prayed to Ganga; and the goddess appeared in his aims dish, and he touched the water, and pronounced her divine name: Then when Ilwala called on his brother to come forth, Agastya laughed and said: - ' Your brother has been eaten by me in* the form of a ram and has now gone to the abode of Yama, and for him there is no coming forth :' Ilwala in a rage began to assail Agastya, but was immediately consumed by the fire which flashed from the eyes of the sage: This hermitage, which formerly belonged to the two Rakshasas, is now inhabited by the brother of Agastya." Goldstucker writes, " Agastya was the reputed author of several hymns of the Rig Veda. He is represented as of short stature, and is said by some to have been born in a water jar. He is also mentioned as one of the oldest medical authors, considered as the civilizer of the south and as the regent of the star Canopus."

Agastya : (sáns. hindú). A celebrated Tamil author, who is considered by Dr. Caldwell to have lived in the 6th century, b. c, but the Tamuliaus assign a much earlier date.

Agathamma : (sáns. hindú). One of the tutelary goddesses of Madras.

Aghorahanta : (sáns. hindú). The Priest of Chanumda, a terrific goddess' in the drama of Malati and Madhava.

Aghori, or Aghorapanthi: (sáns. hindú). The original Aghori worship seems to have been that of Bevi in some of her terrific forms, and to have required even human victims for its performance. Inimitation of the formidable aspect under which the goddess was worshipped, the appearance of her votary was rendered as hideous as possible, and his wand and water-pot were a staff set with bones and the upper half of a skull: the practices were of a similar nature, and flesh and spirituous liquors constituted, jit will, the diet of the adept.

" The regular worship of this sect has long since been suppressed, and the only traces of it now left are presented by a few disgusting wretches, who, whilst they profess to have adopted its tenets, make them a mere plea for extorting alms. In proof of their indifference to worldly objects, they eat and drink whatever is given to them, even ordure and carrion. They smear their bodies also with excrement, and carry it about with them in a wooden cup, or skull, either to swallow it, if by so doing they can get a few pice; or to throw it upon the persons, or into the houses of those who refuse to comply with their demands. They also for the same purpose inflict gashes on their limbs, that the crime of blood may rest upon the head of the recusants; and they have a variety of similar disgusting devices to extort money from the timid and credulous Hindu. They are fortunately not numerous, and are universally detested and feared." - Wilson, Vol. /, p. 234.

Agneya : (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the eighteen Puranas. (See Agni Purana.)

Contenido - Contents

Agneyastram : (sáns. hindú). The name of the fiery weapon given by Aurva to Sagara, and with which he conquered the barbarians who had invaded his patrimonial possessions.

Agneyi : (sáns. hindú). The wife of Uru, a descendant of Dhruva, and mother of six excellent sons, Anga, Sumanas, Swati, Kratu, Angiras and Siva.

Agni: (sáns. hindú). " The deity of Fire, one of the most ancient and most sacred objects of Hindu worship. As such, Agni is considered as the mediator between men and gods, as protector of mankind and their home, and as witness of their actions; hence his invocation in all solemn occasions, at the nuptial ceremony, &c. He is one of the eight Lokapalas, or guardians of the world, and especially the Lord of the south-east quarter. He appears in the progress of mythological personification as a son of Angiras, as a king of the Pitris or Manes, as a Marut, as a grandson of Sandila, as one of the seven sages during the reign of Tamasa, or the fourth Manu, as a star, and as a Rishi or inspired author of several Vaidic hymns."* (GOLDSTUCKER)

He is generally described as having two faces, three legs and seven arms, of a red or flame color, and riding on a ram. Before him is a swallow-tailed banner on which a ram is also represented.

He is described by others as a corpulent man of a red complexion, with eyes, eyebrows, head and hair, of a tawny color, riding on a goat. From his body issue seven streams of glory, and in his right hand he holds a spear. Agni is the son of Kusyapa and Aditi. His consort or Sakti is Swaha, a daughter of Kasyapa. Brahman priests are ordered to maintain a perpetual fire; and in the numerous religious ceremonies of the Hindus Agni is commonly invoked.

The god is sometimes figured with a forked representation of fire issuing from his mouth; and sometimes with seven tongues of fire. (See Colebrooke's Essays.)

Agni, like Indra, is sometimes addressed as the one great god who makes all things, sometimes as the light which fills the heavens, sometimes as the blazing lightning, or as the clear flame of earthly fire. The poets pass from one application of the word to another with perfect ease, as conscious that in each case they are using a mere name which may denote similar qualities in many objects.

There is no rivalry or antagonism between these deities. Agni is greatest, Varuna is greatest, and Indra is greatest: but when the one is so described, the others are for the time unnoticed, or else are placed in a subordinate position. Thus Agni is said to comprehend all other gods within himself, as the circumference of a wheel embraces its spokes ;* and not unfrequeutly Indra is said to be Agni, and Agni is said to be Indra; while both alike are Skambha, the supporter of the world.

Hence the character of the god is almost wholly physical. The blessings which his worshippers pray for are commonly temporal.

In the earlier hymns he is generally addressed as the fire, which to mortal men is an indispensable boon; in the more developed ceremonialism of later times he is chiefly concerned with the ordering of the sacrifice.

"As the special guardian and regulator of sacrifices Agni assumes the character of the Hellenic Ilestra, and almost (Muir) attains the majesty of the Latin Vesta. He is the lord and protector of every house, and the father, mother, brother and son of every one of the worshippers. During life he shields men from harm, and at death he becomes the Psycho ponipos, as conveying the * unborn part' of the dead to the unseen world."

2. Agni is also the name of a star in the tail of the planetary porpoise.

Agni Purana: (sáns. hindú). This Purana derives its name from its having been communicated originally by Agni, the god of Fire, to the Muni Vasishtha (Vasishtha), for the purpose of instructing him in the two-fold knowledge of Brahma. By him it was taught to Vyasa, who imparted it to Suta; and the latter is represented as repeating it to the Rishis at Naimisharanja. The contents of different copies vary from fourteen to sixteen thousand stanzas. The early chapters of the work describe the Avataras, and in those of Rama and Krishna avowedly follow the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Other portions contain instructions for the performance of religious ceremonies - chiefly mystical forms of Saiva worship. There are also chapters descriptive of the earth and the universe, the duties of kings, &c., much of which has obviously been taken from the Vishnu and other Puranas. On these accounts Professor Wilson regards it as a comparatively modern work, without " legitimate claims to be regarded as a Purana," and only " valuable as embodying and preserving relics of antiquity."

Agnibahu: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sons of Priyavrata and Kamya, famous for strength and prowess. It is said of him in the V. P., that when he adopted a religious life, he remembered the occurrences of a prior exlRtence, and did not covet dominion, but diligently practised the rites of devotion, wholly disinterested, and looking for no reward.

Agnidhra: (sáns. hindú). The brother of the above, was made by his father king of Jambudwipa, and had nine sons who are enumerated and more or less celebrated in the Puranas.

Agnihotra: (sáns. hindú). A burnt offering, or libation of clarified butter on sacred fire.

Cox, Mythology of Aryan Natioui.

Agnishtoma: (sáns. hindú). l, A son of the Manu Chakshusha; 2, the name of a sacrifice produced from the eastern mouth of Brahma, along with the Gayatri, and the Rig Veda. V. P., 42.

Agnishwattas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Pitris, a divine race inhabiting celestial regions of their own. This class consists of those householders who when alive did not maintain their domestic fires, nor offer burnt sacrifices. Some of the Puranas identify the Agnishwattas with the seasons. V. P., p, 239.

Agnivarchas: (sáns. hindú). One of Suta's scholars, who became a celebrated teacher of the Puranas.

Agnivarna: (sáns. hindú). A prince whose name occurs in various Puranas; but little more is known of him beyond his being a descendant of Rama.

Agrahara: (sáns. hindú). A village granted tobrahmans by government free, or at a favorable assessment; there are three kinds, viz: -

1 . Sarvamanya - rent free.

2. Jodi - partially rent free.

3. Trishvega - one-third part of the produce is given for rent.

Agrahayana: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the lunar months.

Agrasya: (sáns. hindú). The first day of the Hindu year which falls on the new moon in March. A feast goes on for three days at this period - the new year's day festival.

Ahalya: (sáns. hindú). The wife of the rishi Gautama, of whom the following legend is related: One day when the sage was absent from his dwelling, the mighty Indra passed by, and burned with an impure passion for the wife of Gautama; he entered the hut in the disguise of the sage, and began to enti-eat Ahalya; and Ahalya, knowing him to be the Raja of the celestials, in the wantonness of her heart yielded to his desires. Then the sovereign of the gods left the hermitage, but at that moment Gautama entered, and he was invincible even to the gods, through the power of his austerities. Perceiving him, Indra was overwhelmed with sadness; and the sage, beholding the profligate lord of gods in his disguise, thus addressed him in words of dreadful anger: - ' O depraved wretch, assuming my form you have perpetrated this greal crime ! Therefore from this momcut do you become a eunuch !' The great sage then: pronounced this curse upon his wife Ahalya: - ' sinful wretch, for thousands of years shall you remain in the forest, abandoned by all' and invisible to all, until Rama, the son of Dasaratha, shall enter here, and you from beholding him shall be cleansed from all sin,, and again approach me without fear/ With these words the illustrious Gautama abandoned this hermitage, and performed religious austerities on the summit of the Himalaya mountains.

Having heard this holy legend, Rama entered the hermitage preceded by Viswamitra; and at that moment, Ahalya was released' from her curse, and became visible to all; smU a shower of flowers fell from heaven, and divine music was heard ia the sky. Then the illustrious Gautama, beholding with divine eye that his consorfe was cleansed from all sin, repaired again to his hermitage; and having paid due honors to Rama, he engaged in sacred austerities with his purified spouse. And Rama proceeded to Mithila with his brother and Viswamitra. - It is said that Indira means the sun, and Ahalya, the night; and as the night is seduced and ruined by the gun of the nwraing therefore is Indra called the paramour of Ahalya.

Ahankara: (sáns. hindú). Consciousness, or Egotism. The sense of Ahankara, says Professor Wilson, cannot be very well rendered by any European term. It means the principle of individual existence that which appropriates perceptions, and on which depend the Motions, I think, I feel, I axa. It might be expressed by the proprositiou of Descartes reversed. ' Sum, ergo cotigo, sentio,' &c. The equivalent Loyed by Mr. Colebrooke, egotism, has the advantage ef an analogous etymology. In the S4nky" Sanky, Karika three varieties ef Ahankara are described. From the first kind proceed the senses from the third the unconscious elements; both kinds being equally inert of themBelves, are rendered productive by the co-operation of the second, the energetic modification of Ahankara, which is therefore said to be the origin both of the sentics and the elements. Colloquially Ahankira" is still in common use throughout India in the sense of pride, or great conceit.

Ahar: (sáns. hindú). Day. One of the fornii: of Bramha during the work of Cicatiou. V. P., p. 10.

Ahikshetra: (sáns. hindú). The capital of the northern portion of Pancbala, "upposed to be the same as Adis&thi-"s in Ptolemy.

Airavata: (sáns. hindú). The king of elephants, pt'oduced fi'om the churning of the ocean, and taken by Iitdra, who subsequently used it as his vehicle. The name has been derived from Iravat " watery," and supposed to allude to the north, as the quarter whence rain comes, or to the original idea of a cloud, in which Indm as the king of clouds, is mounted, and thei'efoi-e caUed his elephant. Professor Wilson
refers it to the fact of his being produced from the watery ocean; 2, Airavata is also the name of the north portion of the sun*s path araong the lunar asterisms; 3, The ijame of a celebrated serpent with many heads, one of the progeny of Kadt'u*

Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda: this wwk contains the earliest speculations of the Brahma"s on the meaning of the Sacrificial Prayei'S, and on the origin, performance, and meaning of the Rites of the Vedic Religion. It consists of forty Adyhayas.

Translated and edited by Dr. Martin Haug, 2 Vols. \2 mo., Bombay, 1863.

Aitareya -Aranyaka : (sáns. hindú). A commentaiy ow th-e begiuHing of the Eig Veda. It is ascribed to Mahidasu the son of Itara.

Aja: (sáns. hindú). The unbonu A name of Bramha; of Siva; of Vishnu; also of Kama, or Capid. Aja is also the proper name of a mythical prince, the son of Raghu, and father of Dasaratha. This prince forms the subject of the first and longest of Mr. Griffiths' beautiful Idylls from the Sanscrit. The story is taken from the Raghuvansa of Kalidasa. (See Raghu.) The childhood and youth of Aja are described in glowing terms, and in due course he was sent by his father to the Swayamvara of the princess Indumati Devi, daughter of the Raja of Vidarblia. On his way thither while resting in the heat of the day, the encampment was disturbed by a wild elephant which Aja ordered to be shot. Oa beiag pierced by an arrow a figure of great splendour issued from the body of the elephant; and standing in mid-air thus spoke: " Aja Maharaya, I was formerly a gandharva, but for mocking a holy rishi was ourBed to be born in an insane elephant; but on my begging for mercy was told I should be released by the son of Raghu Maharaja, called Aja, when on his way to be married." He then gave Aja the arrows used by the gandharvas and instructed him in the use of them.

On arriving at the capital of Yidarbharaya he was treated with great respect, and was selected from amongst all the assembled princes by the fair Indumati Devi, who intimated her choice by herself placing the garland on the neck of Aja. In the contests that ensued with the other disappointed suitors Aja obtained a complete victory by means of the arrows received from the gandharva.

He then returned to his father's kingdom, with his lovely bride; succeeded to the throne, and reigned wisely and well for many years.

After the birth of his distinguished son Dasaratha (father of Rama) his beloved wife Indumati Devi was killed by the fall of Narada's garland, when asleep in an arbor of the summer palace.

On Dasaratha's attaining his majority Aja is said to have ascended to Indra's paradise, leaving his body between the rivers Ganges and Sarayu.

Ajagava: (sáns. hindú). The bow of Mahadeva which fell from the sky, at the birth of Prithu, with celestial arrows and panoply from heaven.

Ajaka: (sáns. hindú). l, A descendant of Pururavas, the son of Sumanta (or according to others of Sunaha) and grandson of Jahnu; 2, A king of Magadha of the line of Pradyota.

Ajamadha: (sáns. hindú). l, A son of Suhotra and author of vaidic hymns; 2, The twenty-sixth king of the lunar dynasty; 3, A surname of Yudhishthira, the friend of Aja.

Ajamidha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Hastin, the founder of the celebrated city of Hastinapura, finally ruined by the encroachments of the Ganges, but vestiges of which were lately to be traced along the river nearly in a line with Delhi, about 60 miles to the east.

Ajanta: (sáns. hindú). A river in the hills below the river Tapti, to the north of Bombay. *' In this ravine, somewhere about the first century of our era, Buddhists began to excavate architectural caves. There are twenty-six in all, and of these twenty-two are conventual abodes, whilst the remaining four are Chaitya halls or places of worship," A. and M. I., p. 401. A full description of these caves is given in Fergusson's History of Architecture. It is seen from the costume carefully represented in the pictures at Ajanta, that the Hindus still dress in the fashion that then prevailed; and which was described by the Greeks who accompanied Alexander the Great to India, as consisting of two cloths, one reaching to the middle of the leg, whilst another is folded around the shoulders. The cloth is described as being made from wool which grows in trees.

AjapaS: (sáns. hindú). Sons of Kardama, Pitris of the Vaisyas, called also Kavyas and Suswadhas.

Ajapashya: (sáns. hindú). A surname of Bajivalochana, the son of Swefakarna; his sides were black like the skin of certain goats, when he was drawn out of the water, after having been found exposed by his mother and purified by two sons of Sravishta.

Ajavithi: (sáns. hindú). A division of the lunar mansions;

Ajigarta: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana. He lived in the forests with his three sons Sunapuchha, Sunahsepha and Sunolangula. He sold his son Sunahsepha to be offered as a sacrifice, showing that the Brahmans at that early period were familiar with the idea of human sacrifices. " If we accept the Aryan origin of Ajigarta, the seller and butcher of his own son, it is important to remark how great a difference there must have been between the various Aryan settlers in India * * * *.

Yet there remains the fact that, with all the vaunted civilization of the higher Aryan classes, there were Aryan people in India to whom not only a young prince could make the offer of buying their children, but where the father offered himself to bind and kill the son whom he had sold for a hundred cows,"*

Ajita: (sáns. hindú). A form of Vishnu. " The unequalled energy of Vishnu combining with the quality of goodness, and effecting the preservation of created things, presides over all the Manwantaras, in the form of a divinity." V. P., p. 264.

* Max MUller, A. S. L., p. 415.

Ajita: (sáns. hindú). Unconquered; unexcelled. - 1, The proper name, of several gods and persons, viz., Vishnu, Siva; 2, Oae of the seven Rishis who preside during the reign of the fourteenth Manu; S, A name of Maitreya or a future Buddha; 4, The second of the Arhats or Jaina saints of the present Avasarpini; 5, The attendant of the ninth Jaina Arhat; 6, A descendant of Ikshwaku and a son of Jiiasatru by Vijaya.

Ajitas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities whose history is thus given. In the beginning of the Kalpa twelve gods named Jayas were created by Brahma, as his deputies and assistants in the creation. They, lost in meditation, neglected his commands; on which he cursed them to be repeatedly born in each Manwantara till the seventh. In the first they became Ajitas, Ajnana- A technical term used in the Vedanta system, meaning " ignorance," which the Vedantists declare is a somewhat that is not to be called positively either entity or non-entity - not a mere negation but the opponent of knowledge, consisting of the three fetters. According to the Naiy&yikas ajnana is merely the non-existence, or negation, {abhava) of j nana. To deny this the writer calls it bJdva, implying that it is not abhava.

Akali: (sáns. hindú). (Immortals). Zealots of the Sikh religion, soldiers of God, who with their blue dress and bracelets of steel, claimed for themselves a direct institution by Govindh Singh. They combined warlike activity with the relinquishment of the world, and became the armed guardians of Amritsir. It cost Ranjit Singh much time and trouble to reduce them to order.

Akanithaka: (sáns. hindú). The name of the twenty-second heaven of Buddhism.

Akasa: (sáns. hindú). Ether, the medium of sound. A very important * element' in the philosophy of the Puranas. See V. P,, p. 16, 17.

Akasavani: (sáns. hindú). A divine manifestation, in which the deity is heard but not seen.

Contenido - Contents

Akrura: (sáns. hindú). The son of Swaphalka and Gandini who took charge of the celebrated Syamantaka jewel from Satadhanwan, when he was pursued by Krishna; and' through the virtue of that gem there was no dearth nor pestilence in the whole country. When Krishna discovered that the precious jewel was in Akrura's possession he desired him to retain it; Akrura, thus urged, afterwards wore it publicly round his neck, where it shone with dazzling brightness; and he moved about like the su", wearing a garland of light, Akrura conveyed Krishna and Rama, when youths, to Mathura, where Krishna performed some of his great exploits.

Akshst: (sáns. hindú). A son of the great giant Ravana, who was slain by Hanuman.

Akshata: (sáns. hindú). Grains of rice tinged with a reddish hue, placed by the husband on the head of the infaitt after the ceremony of Arati, and after the women have retired.

Akskohini: (sáns. hindú). An Army consisting of 109,350 infantry; 6o,610 cavalry; 21,870 chariots; and 21,870 elephants.

Akuli: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the priests of the Asuias. It was lie who with another priest of the same class called Kilata, obtained permission from Manu to sacrifice for him, and took for the victim first a buM of Manuas into which an Asura-slaying voice had entered.

When it had been slaughtered the voice departed out of it and entered into Manu's wife Manavi. " Wherever they hear her speaking, the Asuras and Rakshasas continue to be destroyed ia. consequence of her voice. The Asuras said: ' She does us yet more mischief; for the human voice speaks more.' Kilata and Akuli said, 'Manu is a devout believer: let us make trial of him V

They cam" and saici to him * Manu let us sacrifice for thee !' * With what (victim) ?' be asked. * With this (thy) wife,' they replied, *Be it so,' he answered. When sliie had been slaughtered the voice departed out of her and entered into the sacrifice and the sacrificial vessels. Thence they were unable to expel it. This is the Asura-slaying voice which speaks out (when the two stones are struck with the mmya, as a part of the ceremonial). Wretched become the enemies of that mau for whom, when he knows this, they cause this voice here to reverberate."* (Muir's 0. S. T,, vol. 1, p. 189)

Akuti: (sáns. hindú). 1, The second daughter of Svayambhuva Manu and his wife Saturupa, the first pair. She was ' graced with loveliness and exalted merit.' She was married to Ruchi, and had twins.

Yajna and Dakshina, who afterwards became husband and wife, and had twelve sons, the deities called Yamas. Dr. Muir remarks that the word is found in the Rig Veda with the signification of *' will" or " design ;" but appears to be personified in a passage of the Taittiriya Brahmana, where it is said. " L-a was the wife of the creators. Akuti kneaded the oblation." O. S. T., Vol. 1, p. 73. 2, Also the name of the wife of Chakshush.

Aldika: (sáns. hindú). King over the earth for sixty thousand and sixty hundred years; this protracted existence was enjoyed through the favor of Lopamudra, and having lived till the period at which the curse on Kasi terminated, he killed the Rakshasa Kshemaka by whom the city had been occupied after it was abandoned by Divodasu, and caused the city to be re-inhabited.

Alaka: (sáns. hindú). The Himalayan residence of Kuvera the god of riches.

It is termed in the " Cloud Messenger" the City of the Blessed; and is described as unmatched for lovely girls, who learn to choose the flowers that suit them best.

" The amaranth, bright glory of the spring; The lotus gathered from the summer flood; Acacias taught around their brows to cling; The jasmine's fragrant white their locks to stud; A.nd bursting at thy rain the young Kadamba bud."*

Alakananda: (sáns. hindú). One of the four great branches of the river Ganges, which was carried by Siva upon his head for a hundred years; and was the river which raised to heaven the sinful sons of Sagara, by washing their ashes.

Alambana: (sáns. hindú). The exercise of the Yogi while endeavouring to bring before his thoughts the gross form of the Supreme Being.

It also means the silent repetition of prayer.

AUama Prabhu: (sáns. hindú). Among the Vira Saivas a lesser incarna tion, (Griffiths' Translation) or form of Siva. He appears to have been a Brahman, who acted in close concert with the elder Basava; whether as a primary instigator, or subsequent accomplice, is not clear. But he became Basava' s guru or spiritual adviser, and, as such, was concerned in the revolution at Kalyanapuri, in which the king Bijala was slain, and a new religion established. The Brabhu liiiga lila is a popular poem, in Telugu, and composed expressly in order to magnify the great excellencies of AUama prabhu as a form of Siva and especially his chastity, that resisted all the fascinations of the tdmasa guna or evil portion of Parvati; which became incarnate as a woman, Maya or Frans, in order to tempt him. " In the Basava puranam AUamh prahhu is stated to have travelled about, and especially to Sri Sailam in Telingana, performing various wonders, and possessed of a body invulnerable. No record of the manner of his death has been observed." - ( Taylor.)

There is a good abstract of Prabhu-linga lila, by C. P. Brown, in the Catalogue Raisonne, vol. 2, p. 838.

AUoo: (sáns. hindú). A raw hide used by the Rajputs to cover themselves when they assert their claim to a disputed piece of land.

Aluvar: (sáns. hindú). Rulers; twelve heads and original leaders of the Vaishnava faith in the Peninsula only. They were born in various places, and lived in different times. To understand their oflSce and importance the reader must be apprized that the Saiva system first obtained a hold and influence in the Peninsula; and, in some instances, by exterminating the Buddhists or Jains who preceded them. The Vaishnavas, on their coming, had not only to deal with a rude and savage people, following superstitious customs, some of which continue to the present day, but also had to contend with the astute and powerful Saivas already in possession; and sometimes in the way of public disputation- as at Villiputtur in the Pandya kingdom, at Uriyur in the Chola kingdom, and at Sri Permattur in the Tondamandalam. These, or others, were engaged in translating portions of the Vedas into Tamil poetry, now known as the Tiru-morhi or sacred word. Different books exist, containing in all many thousand stanzas, said to indicate the idiom of foreigners. Twelve individuals, distinguished in these or other ways in the first establishment of Vaishnavism, were named Aluvar; and are regarded with high veneration by modern votaries. An approximation towards deification has been assigned, by metaphorically viewing them as incarnations of Vishnu's arms, ornaments, or attendants. Their names in order are - 1, Poyalvar; 2, Puthatalvar; 3, Peyalvar; 4, Tirumal Peyalvar; 5, Namalvar; 6, Kulasec'haralvdr; 7, Periyalvar; 8, Tirupanalvar; 9, Tirumangayalvar; 10, Tondamalvar; 11, Yempramanar, or Yetiraja, or Ramanujdchiiya; 12, Kurattdlvar. - Taylor .

Amara Kosha: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated Sanscrit Vocabulary which is found in a more or less perfect state in all Indian languages. Like most other Sanscrit Dictionaries it is arranged in verse to aid the memory. Synonymous words are collected into one or more verses, and placed in fifteen different chapters, which treat of as many different subjects. The sixteenth contains a few homonymous terms arranged alphabetically, in the Indian manner, by the final consonants. The seventeenth chapter is a pretty full catalogue of indeclinables, which European philologists would call adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, but which Sanscrit grammarians consider as indeclinable nouns. The last chapter of the Amara ICosha is a treatise on the gender of nouns. See Colebrooke's Essay on the Sanscrit and Pracrit Languages.

Amara Sinha: (sáns. hindú). The author of the Amara Kosha. He was also an eminent poet, and one of the nine gems, as these poets were termed, who were the ornaments of Vicramaditya's court.

Unfortunately he held the tenets of a heterodox sect, and his poems perished in the persecutions fomented by intolerant philosophers against the persons and writings of both Jainas and Buddhists.

Amara vati: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Indra, built by Visvakarma, the architect of the gods. It is described as 800 miles in circumference, and 40 miles high. Its pillars are composed of diamonds; its thrones of pure gold; it is surrounded with gardens and fountains, while music and dancing entertain the celestial inhabitants. There is a ruined town called Amara vati on tJie banks of the river Kistua containing numerous antiquities in the form of sculptures, all of Buddhist origin. Sir Walter Elliot and Mr. Fergusson made considerable explorations there. The ruined Dagoba whence the relics were taken was on a mound of 150 feet diameter, now converted into a tank. It is called Dipaldinna, the Mound of Light.

Amavasya: (sáns. hindú). The day of * conjunction,' just before new-moon - a fast day for all brahmans.

Amba: (sáns. hindú). The eldest daughter of the Raja of Kasi. She was taken with her two sisters by Bhishma, when he conveyed them away from the Swayamvara to be the wives of Raja Vichitravirya.

But on the day when the marriage was to be performed, Amba said that her father had already betrothed her to the Raja of Salwa, and prayed that she might be sent to him. Bhishma accordingly sent her under a safe conduct, to the Raja of Salwa, and Amba related how she had been carried away, and had now come to fulfil her betrothal; but the Raja of Salwa said, " You have entered the dwelling of a strange man and I will not take you to be my wife ;" and ordered his servants to drive her from the city: she went into the jungle and perished miserably. (Maha bharata) Another legend says she was born again as a man named Sikhandin and slew Bhishma the author of all her misfortunes.

Amba and Ambika: (sáns. hindú). Names of Parvati, the wife of Siva.

Ambi and Ambalika: (sáns. hindú). The sisters of Amba, who became the two widowed wives of Vichitravirya, on whom the Muni Vyasa begot Dritarashtra and Fdndie. See Vyasa.

Ambarisha: (sáns. hindú). l, The son of the great monarch Mandhatri.

He had fifty sisters, all of whom were married to the sage Saubhari; 2, The name of several other princes mentioned in the Puranic histories.

Ambhansi: (sáns. hindú). A mystic term for the four classes of beings, gods, demons, men, and pitris. It means literally * waters.'

Ambha Matha: (sáns. hindú). a Jaina goddess, still worshipped in various parts of India. The ruins of many beautiful temples erected to her may be seen in the high hills of Marwar.

Ambea: (sáns. hindú). The mother of the Kurus, - a race of heroes or demigods related to the Pandus.

Amitabha: (sáns. hindú). The Lord of the Munis, a deity in the Buddhist Pantheon.

Amogavarsha: (sáns. hindú). The Jain king of Kanchi, or Tondamanda1am, at the end of the ninth century of the Christian era. The principal Jain Puranas are supposed to have been written in his reign, by the king's spiritual preceptor Jina Sena Acharya.

Amogha Siddha: (sáns. hindú). The remover of the ills of the Kali age; a deity in the Buddhist Pantheon to whom prayers are made and offerings addressed. - Wilson.

Amrita: (sáns. hindú). Ambrosia. The beverage of immortality. It was produced at the churning of the ocean, a legend with which all Hindus are familiar, and is said to have occurred in the following way; When the gods were overcome by the Danavas, they fled for refuge to Vishnu and sought his protection and advice. Hari, the creator of the universe, being thus prayed to by the prostrate divinities, smiled, and thus spake with renovated energy, " Oh gods, I will restore your strength. Do you act as I enjoin ? Let all the gods, associated with the Asuras, cast all sorts of medicinal herbs into the sea of milk; and then taking the mountain Mandara for the churning-stick, the serpent Vasuki for the rope, churn the ocean together for Ambrosia; depending upon my aid. To secure the assistance of the Daityas, you must be at peace with them, and engage to give them an equal portion of the fruit of your associated toil; promising them that by drinking the Amrita that shall be produced from the agitated ocean, they shall become mighty and immortal. I will take care that the enemies of the gods shall not partake of the precious draught; that they shall share in the labor alone.".

" Being thus instructed by the god of gods, the divinities entered into alliance with the demons, and they jointly undertook the acquirement of the beverage of immortality. They collected various kinds of medicinal herbs, and cast them into the sea of milk, the waters of which were radiant as the shining clouds of autumn. They then took the mountain Mandara for the staff; the serpent Vasuki (see Ananta) for the cord; and commenced to churn the ocean for the Amrita. The assembled gods were stationed by Vishnu at the tail of the serpent; the Daityas and Danavas at its head and neck. Scorched by the flames emitted from his inflated hood, the demons were shorn of their glory; whilst the clouds driven towards his tail by the breath of his mouth, refreshed the gods with revivifying showers. In the midst of the milky sea, Hari himself, in the form of a tortoise; served as a pivot for the mountain, as it was whirled around. The holder of the mace and discus was present in other forms amongst the gods and demons, and assisted to drag the monarch of the serpent race: and in another vast body he sat upon the summit of the mountain.

With one portion of his energy, unseen by gods or demons, he sustained the serpent king; and with another infused vigour into the gods.

*' From the ocean, thus churned by the gods and danavas, first uprose the cow Surabha, the fountain of milk, and curds, worshipped by the divinities, and beheld by them and their associates with minds disturbed, and eyes glistening with delight. Then, as the holy Siddhas in the sky wondered what this could be, appeared the goddess Varuni (the deity of wine,) her eyes rolling with intoxication. Next, from the whirlpool of the deep, sprang the celestial Parijata tree, the delight of the nymphs of heaven, perfuming the world with its blossoms. The troop of Apsarasas, the nymphs of heaven, were then produced, of surprising loveliness, endowed with beauty and with taste. The cool-rayed moon next rose, and was seized by Mahadeva: and then poison was engendered from the sea, of which the snake gods (Nagas) took possession.

Dhanwantari, robed in white, and bearing in his hand the cup of Amrita, next came forth; beholding which, the sons of Diti and of Danu, as well as the Munis, were filled with satisfaction and delight. Then, seated on a full-blown lotus, and holding a waterlily in her hand, the goddess Sri, radiant with beauty, rose from the waves. The great sages, enraptured, hymned her with the song dedicated to her praise. Viswavasu and other heavenly quiristers sang, and Ghirtachi and other celestial nymphs danced before her. Ganga and other holy streams attended for her ablutions; and the elephants of the skies, taking up their pure waters in vases of gold, poured them over the goddess, the queen of the universal world. The sea of milk in person presented her with a wreath of never-fading flowers; and the artist of the gods (Viswakarma) decorated her person with heavenly ornaments. Thus bathed, attired, and adorned, the goddess, in the view of the celestials, cast herself upon the breast of Hari, and there reclining, turned her eyes upon the deities, who were inspired with rapture by her gaze. Not so the Daityas, who, with Viprachitti at their head, were filled with indignation, as Vishnu turned away from them, and they were abandoned by the goddess of prosperity (Lakshmi).

" The powerful and indignant Daityas then forcibly seized the Amrita-cup that was in the hand of Dhanwantari: but Vishnu, assuming a female form, fascinated and deluded them; and recovering the Amrita from them, delivered it to the gods. Sakra and the other deities quaffed the Ambrosia. The incensed demons, grasping their weapons, fell upon them; but the gods, into whom the Ambrosial draught had infused new vigour, defeated and put their host to flight, and they fled through the regions of space, and plunged into the subterraneous realms of Patala. The'gods thereat greatly rejoiced, did homage to the holder of the discus and mace, and resumed their reign in heaven. The sun shone with renovated splendour, and again discharged his appointed task; and the celestial luminaries again circled, in their respective orbits. Fire once more blazed aloft, beautiful in splendour; and the minds of all beings were animated by devotion. The three worlds again were rendered happy by prosperity; and Indra the chief of the gods, was restored to power." (V. P., p. 77.) The legend as given in the Ramayana may be found in Carey's Translation, Vol. I, p. 410 - and that of the MahaBharata in Sir C. Wilkins' Bhagavat Gita - Bangalore edit., p. 105.

Anabhitra: (sáns. hindú). A proper name of; 1 , A prince of the solar race, a descendant of Sagara, son of Nighna and brother of Raghu, the fifty-second king of Ayodhya; 2, a son of the king Kroshtu or Kroshtri by Gandhari and father of Sini or, according to others, a grandson of Vrishni, son of Sumitra by Madri and brother to Sini; or, again, a grandson of Dhrishta, son of Sumitra, &c.

Anadi-chitta-para-meshti: (sáns. hindú). Eternal intellectual heavenly dweller; the Jain name of the Supreme Being, the Lord of all, who dwells in Moksha-loha the world of bliss.

Ananganu: (sáns. hindú). A name of Cupid, the Hindu god of love.

Ananta: (sáns. hindú). Infinite. Called also Sesha or Vasuki. The king of the Nagas, a race of serpents which inhabit Patala. He belongs purely to the Pui-anic period, and is described as haying a thousand hooded-heads, on the foreheads of which was inscribed the sign called Swastika, the mystic cross which betokens good fortune. He is clothed in purple and wears a white necklace. In one hand he holds a plough, in the other a pestle. At the end of each kalpa he vomits a venomous fire which destroys all creation. He bears the universe on his head and produces earthquakes whenever he yawns. On his body Vishnu reposes, during the intervals of creation, and is sheltered by his hoods which stretch out above him like a canopy. He proved a very useful personage at the churning of the ocean; the gods seizing his tail and the demons his head, they twisted him round Mount Meru, and thus formed a churn on a large scale. - J. C. Thomson.

Ananta: (sáns. hindú). l, A name of Vishnu or Krishna; 2, a name of Baladeva, the elder brother of Krishna; 3, a name of Siva; 4, a name of Rudra, in an Upanishad of the Atharvana veda; 5, a name of Sesha, the chief of the Nagas or serpent race as described above: the couch and constant attendant of Vishnu; 6, a name of Vasuki, another king of the serpents, the brother of the former; 7, a name of one of the Viswadevas; 8, the name of the fourteenth of the twenty-four Arhats or Jaina deified saints of the present Avasarpini; 9, the name of a king of Kashmir; 10, a proper name common to several authors, &c.

Ananda Giri: (sáns. hindú). A Sanscrit author who lived about the 10th century and wrote several works which are still extant and of some value: among them aie the Sankara Dig Vijaya, the Life of Sankaracharya, &c.

Anaranya: (sáns. hindú). A venerable patriarch whose daughter Pushkarani, was mother of the Manu Chakshusa.

Anasuya: (sáns. hindú). Charity. The daughter of Daksha and wife of Atri, celebrated for her piety and virtue. Atri introduced her to Sita, to whom she gave an ointment to render her " beautiful for ever."

Andakataha: (sáns. hindú). The shell of the mundane egg. Beyond the sea of fresh water is a region of twice its extent, where the land is of gold, and where no living beings reside. Thence extends the Loka-lolia mountain, which is 10,000 yojanas in breadth, and as many in height; and beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountain all around; which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of the egg.

Andhaka: (sáns. hindú). A proper name of: 1, a demon, a son of Kasyapa and Diti with a thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and feet, and called Andhaka, because he walked like a blind man although he saw very well; in his attempt to take away the Parijdta tree of Swarga he was slain by Siva; 2, a grandson of Kroshtri, and son of Yuddhajita, who together with his brother Vrishni is the ancestor of the celebrated family of the Andhaka- Vrishnis; 3, a grandson of Vrishni (the brother of Andhaka), and son of Swaphalka by Gandini; 4, a son of Sattwat, belonging to the same family, by Kausalya; 5, a son of Bhima (of the same family) and father of Revata. (The foregoing lineage, 2-5, is taken from the Harivansa. In the Linga Purana an Andhaka is a son of Nahusha who, according to other Puranas, is the ancestor of Kroshtri; in the Kurma Purana an Andhaka is a son of Ansa and father of Sattwata, while in the Vishnu P. a prince of that name is mentioned as the son of Sattwata who is apparently the same as the Sattwat of the Hariv.); 6, The name of a Muni (in the Padma Purana.) .

Andhra kings, dynasty of, celebrated in the south of India from a very early period. Professor Wilson makes it commence about 20 years B.C., though they might not have established their authority in Magadha until the first centuries of the Christian era. They are noticed by Pliny.

Contenido - Contents

Andhra Dipaca: (sáns. hindú). An old and very good Dictionary of the Telugu language, by Mamidi Vencaya.

Andhra: (sáns. hindú). The Sanscrit Dame for the Telugu language. Audhra is the ancient name of Teliugana, the Telugu couutiy.

Andrajatias: (sáns. hindú). The same as Andhras, the Telugu people, or inhabitants of Telingana, formerly called Gentoos.

Anga: (sáns. hindú). A name of a minor Dwipa, peopled by Mlechchhas who worship Hindu divinities; 2, A country in the neighbourhood of Bhagulpur. It is the scene of several of the legends of the Ramayana. A dynasty of Buddhist Rajas reigned at Anga about the second century of the Christian era under the name of Karnas; and it is thought that the Brahmanical compilers of the Mahabhirata wished to establish a mythical connection between the Kama who fought in the great war, and the Kama Rajas of Anga who flourished at a much later period.

Anga: (sáns. hindú). The eldest of the six sons of Uru, a descendant of Dhruva, of the family of Atri. Anga who had by his wife Sunitha, only one son named Vena, whose right arm was rubbed by the Rishis for the purpose of producing from it progeny. (See Prithu.) .

Angada: (sáns. hindú). A son of Lackshmana, king of Angadi, and brother of Rama; 2, the son of Vali, who was installed Yuvaraja of Kishkindha; 3, a son of Gada by Vrihati.

Anganyasa karanyasa: (sáns. hindú). The mantras used in the early morning by Brahmans, with certain motions of their fingers, and touching various parts of their bodies.

Angaja: (sáns. hindú). (Lust). A son of Brahma. The virtues and vices are represented as the progeny of Bramha.

Angaraka: (sáns. hindú). A Rudra. There are eleven well-known Rudras, lords of the three worlds; but each one of the eleven has many appellations in the different Puranas.

Angaras: (sáns. hindú). One of the peoples enumerated in the V. P.

Angas: (sáns. hindú). There are six Angas, or subsidiary portions of the Vedas, viz: - Siksha, rules for reciting the prayers, the accents and tones to be observed j Kalpa, ritual; Vyakarana, grammar; Nirukta, glossarial comment; Chhandas, metre; and Jyotish, astronomy.

The four Vedas, the six Angas, with Mimansa, theology; Nyaya, logic; Dharma, the institutes of law, and the Puranas, constitute the fourteen principal branches of knowledge, 5

Angiras: (sáns. hindú). A Prajapati who married Smriti (memory) one of the daughters of Daksha. He is the reputed author of many vaidik hymns, but is mentioned also in a subsequent period as one of the inspired legislators of India, and as the author of an astronomical work. " The various legends connected with his life seem to have been occasioned by the word Angiras coming from the same radical as, and its sound recalling that of Agni, fire (q. v.) .

Hence we find Angiras sometimes either as an epithet or as the father of Agni, and the saint himself connected chiefly with such hymns as are addressed to Agni, to Indra or to deities of a kindred description: a portion of the fourth Veda, the Atharvan, reports him also as an expounder of the Eramhavidya (q. v.) or the sacred knowledge that had been imparted to him by Satyavaha, a descendant of Bharadvaja. Though Angiras, as may be concluded from his name being connected with the authorship of a great portion of the sacred Hindu literature, appears to have been one of the oldest civilizers of India, no historical date is to be obtained from the epic or puranic literature where the vaidik legends of his life are merely amplified; there he is named as one of the Prajapatis or progenitors of mankind, engendered, according to some by Manu, according to others by Brahma himself, either with the female half of his body or from his mouth, or from the space between his eyebrows. As such he is considered also as one of the seven Rishis who preside over the reign of the first Manu, or Svayambhuva.

He is called, besides, the priest of the Gods, the Lord of the Sacrifice, &c. Sometimes he is considered as a son of Uru by Agneyi, the daughter of Agni. His daughters are the Richas (or vaidik hymns) and also Sasvati, Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka, Anumati; his sons are Samvarta, the manes called Havishmats, Utathaya, Brihaspati, Markandeya; his wives, Smriti (traditional science), two daughters of Daksha, Swadha and Sati, and Sraddha, the daughter of the sage Kardama. As an astronomical personification he is Brihaspati himself, or the regent of the planet Jupiter and presides over the sixth year of the cycle of sixty years." - Goldstucker.

Angirasas: (sáns. hindú). Warrior priests. These who were kshatryas by birth, the heads of the family of Rathinara, were called Angirasas (sons of Angiras) and were brahmans as well as kshatryas. " This affords an instance of a mixture of character, of which several similar cases occur. Kshatryas by birth become brahmans by profession, and such persons are usually considered as Augirasas, descendants or followers of Angiras, who may have founded a school of warrior priests." - Wilson.

Anila: (sáns. hindú). (Wind) Vasu. The deities called Vasus, because, preceded by fire, they abound in splendour and might, are severally named Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhava (fire), Anila (v\'ind), Anala (fire), Pratusha (daybreak) and Prabhasa, (eight); 2, The son of Tansu and father of Dushyanta; 3, A Rakshasa.

Anima: (sáns. hindú). A superhuman faculty, or the possession of a divine influence to be attained by austere devotion; or the faculty of assuming an atomic, subtle, invisible, supreme condition of existence, supposed to be attainable by men through a course of austerities, attended with magical rites, in honor of Siva and Parvati.

Aniruddha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Pradyumna. He is described as " a powerful and gallant prince, who was fierce in fight, an ocean of prowess, and the tamer of his foes." He was beloved by Usha, daughter of Bana. Her companion Chitralekha, being endowed with magic power, set off through the air to Dwaraka, and returned bringing Aniruddha along with her to the palace of Bana. The guards discovering him there with Usha reported it to the king, who sent a body of his followers to seize the prince; but the valiant youth slew his assailants, on which Bana advanced against him and endeavoured to kill him. Finding however that Aniruddha was not to be subdued by prowess, he brought his magical faculties into the conflict, by which he succeeded in capturing the Yadu prince and binding him in serpent bonds. When Aniruddha was missed from Dwaraka, and the Yadavas were enquiring of one another whither he had gone, Narada came to them and told them he was the prisoner of Bana. Krishna immediately summoned Garuda, who came with a wish, and mounting upon him, along with Bala and Pradyumna, he set off for the city of Bana, A great battle then took place in which Krishna with his discuss lopped away the thousand arms of Bana, and would have killed him but for the interference of Siva on his behalf. Krishna then went to the place where Aniruddha was confined. The fetters that bound him were destroyed, being blasted by the breath of Garuda; and Krishna, placing him, along with his wife Usha, on the celestial bird, returned with Pradyumua and Rama to Dwaraka." V. P. Professor Wilson thinks that the legend describes a serious struggle between the Saivas and Vaishnavas in which the latter were victorious.

Contenido - Contents

Anjaka": (sáns. hindú). One of the Danavas, a son of Viprachitti, of the families of the Daityas.

Anjan: (sáns. hindú). The second elephant of Indra.

Anjana: (sáns. hindú). A serpent with many heads, one of the progeny of Kadru, V. P., V. I" c. 21.

Anrita: (sáns. hindú). Falsehood, son of Adharma, (vice) married to Nikriti, they had two sons, Bhaya (fear) and Naraka (hell), and twins ta them two daughters, Maya (deceit) and Vedanu (torture), who became their wives. In the Bamayana, Anrita is the name of one of the mystical weapons delivered by Rama to Viswamitra.

Ansa : (sáns. hindú). One of the twelve Adityis. V. P., p. 122.

Ansuman: (sáns. hindú). A mythical raja pf the solar race, the son of Asamanj, and father of Dilipa. He was the grandson of Sagara, who was sent by him to recover the sacrificial steed, Ansumat having arrived at the place of the great Rishi, Kapila, prayed to him and so propitiated him, that the saint gave up the horse and predicted his future greatness. Sagara on recovering the steed completed his sacrifice.

" Prince Ansuman, the strong and brave Followed the rede Suparna gave, The glorious hero took the horse, And homeward quickly bent his course." - Giiffiths.

Ansaumti: (sáns. hindú). A river mentioned in the Rig Veda, on the banks of which Krishna the Dasyu was conquered by Raja Rigiswan.

Antacharas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Border tribes, mentioned in the V. P.

Antariksha: (sáns. hindú). A Vyasa, son of Kinnara, the arranger of the Vedas in the thirteenth Dwara. The great Rishis are said in the v. P. to have arranged the Vedas twenty-eight times, a list is given of the twenty-eight Vyasas of the present Manwantara; 2, A king of the family of Ikshwaku, a son of Kinnara and father of Suvarna.

Anu: (sáns. hindú). A. son of Yayati who was made by his father king of the North to govern as viceroy under his younger brother Puru, whom he appointed supreme monarch of the earth.

Anubhavamrita: (sáns. hindú). A vairdgya treatise, which exists only in the Dravidian languages, and appears to be entirely unknown in other parts of India. Dr. Ballantyne informed the writer in 1852 that none of the pandits in the Benares College knew of the work: it contains a treatise on the Upanishads, - a sort of exposition of Pantheism - shows that the existence of a material world cannot be proved - that all is Maya - recommends retirement from domestic life and meditation, in order to the soul's purification and final beatitude.

Anugraha: (sáns. hindú). The eighth creation, which possesses both the qualities of goodness and darkness. This seems to have been taken from the Sankya philosophy, and is described in the Padma, Linga, and Matsya Puranas. It is the creation of which we have a notion, or to which we give assent (anugraha) in contradiction to organic creation, or that existence of which we have sensible perception.

Anugraha-sarga: (sáns. hindú). A technical phrase meaning " Benevolent Nature," one of the Aphorisms of the Sankhya Philosophy as stated in the Compendium of Principles. " Benevolent creation" it is said consists of the production of external objects from the five subtile elements, viz., of sound, tangibility, colour, savour, odour. Bramha perceiving these (the senses) to be destitute of a sphere of action, created external objects, or *' benevolent nature."

Anuhlada: (sáns. hindú). Son of Hiranyakasipu, and brother of the wise Prahlada, the angmenter of the Daitya race (Prahlada.)

Anukramanis: (sáns. hindú). Systematic indices to various portions of the ancient Yaidic literature. The most perfect Anukramani is that of the Sanhita of the Rig Veda. It is ascribed to Katyayana, an author chiefly known by his works in the Yajur Veda and Sama Veda. Its name is Sarvanukramani, i, e., the index of all things.

It gives the first words of each hymn, the number of verses, the name and family of the poets, the names of the deities and the metres of every verse. Max Müller fixes the date of Katyayana's writing in the latter half of the fourth century, b. c.

Anula: (sáns. hindú). A female Buddhistic Arhat or saint who is renowned for having introduced the Buddhistic religion into Lanka or Ceylon in the time of the king Asoka; she was the wife of Mahanaga, the younger brother of Mahendra and received the dignity of a female Arhat from Sanghamitra, the sister of Mahendra; 2, A queen of Ceylon renowned for her profligacy. She was the wife of Koranga, the brother of Mahaktila-mahatishya, whom she killed by poison as well as his son Tishya and four paramours whom she married in succession. A second son of Mahakula, Kalakanatishya, revolted at last against her and caused her death in the year 41 b. c. - Goldstucker.

Anumati: (sáns. hindú). One of the four daughters of Angiras; the first day of the moon's wane. The four daughters are the four phases of the moon, V. P., p. 83. The goddess of the day when the moon is in the third and fourth quarters.

Anuradha: (sáns. hindú). - A. lunar mansion in Jaradgavi. For an explanation of the divisions of the celestial sphere, see V. P., p. 226.

Anushtubh. : (sáns. hindú). - metre from the northern mouth of Brahma, along with the Sama Veda, &c., V. P., p. 42; 2, A name of Saraswati.

Anuvatsara: (sáns. hindú). Fourth cyclic year. Fifteen dajas of thirty Muhurttas, each is called a Paksha (a lunar fortnight); two of these make a month, two months a solar season, three seasons a northern or southern declination (Ayana); and these two compose a year. Years, made up of four kinds of months, are distinguished into five kinds; and an aggregate of all the varieties of time is termed a Yuga or cycle. The years are severally called Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara. This is the time called a yuga.

Anyadesya: (sáns. hindú). The name given to words derived from foreign languages.

Apa: (sáns. hindú). One of the deities called Vasus. (See Anila.)

Apamurtti: (sáns. hindú). One of the sinless sons of Atri.

Apana: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten winds which brahmans believe to be lodged in the body; this one resides in the region of the navel, and forces out the solid and liquid secretions.

Apara: (sáns. hindú). A technical term in the Sankhya philosophy, denoting that kind of mental acquiescence or indifference which arises from the reflection that sensual objects perish in consequence of enjoyment, and that there is a feeling of pain or trouble when they perish.

Aparagodama: (sáns. hindú). (In Buddhistic Cosmogony.) One of the four dwipas or continents, in shape like a round mirror, and seven thousand Yojanas in breadth, to the west of the Mahameru which is in the centre of the earth.

Aparajita: (sáns. hindú). 1, One of the eleven Eudras; 2, A name of Siva and of Vishnu; 3, A name of Durga.

Aparna: (sáns. hindú). A name of Uma, a daughter of Himavat and Mena, so called because she did not even eat a leaf during her performance of religious austerities.

Apaspati: (sáns. hindú). A son of Uttanapada, and brother of Dhruva, q. v.

Apastamba: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated writer, author of the Samayacharica sutras. The precise period at which he lived is not known, but his writings are much valued.- A. S. L,, p. 206.

Apava: (sáns. hindú). A name of the Prajapati Vasishtha. "As" says Professor Wilson, " he performs the office of Brahma, he should be regarded as that divinity, but this is not exactly the case. Apava becomes two-fold, and in the capacity of his male half begets offspring by the female." V, P., p. 52.

Appamanabha: (sáns. hindú). The name of the twelfth heaven of Buddhism.

Appamana Subha: (sáns. hindú). The fifteenth heaven of Buddhism.

Apratishtha: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas or hells, of which twentyeight are enumerated. They are called the awful provinces of the kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture.

Apsarasas: (sáns. hindú). The name given to the nymphs of heaven created by Brahma in the commencement of the Kalpa. They are also said to have been produced from the whirlpool of the deep, of surprising loveliness. In some of the Puranas they are called the daughters of Kasyapa and Muni. The Apsarasas are of two kinds: Laukika, " worldly," of whom thirty-four are specified; and Daivika or divine, ten in number; the latter furnish the individuals most frequently eugaged in the interruption of the penances of holy sages. There are also fourteen Ganas - or troops of Apsarasas, bearing peculiar designations as Ahutas, "&;c. " Originally these deities seem to have been personifications of the vapours which are attracted by the sun, and form into mist or clouds: their character may be thus interpreted in the few hymns of the Rig Veda where mention is made of them. At a subsequent period when the Gandharva of the Rig Veda, who personifies there especially the fire of the Sun, expanded into the Fire of Lightning, the rays of the moon and other attributes of the elementary life of heaven, as well as into pious acts referring to it, the Apsarasas become divinities which represent phenomena or objects both of a physical and ethical kind, closely associated with that life; thus in the Yajurveda sunbeams are called the Apsarasas, associated with the Gandharva who is the sun; Planets are termed the Apsarasas connected with the Gandharva Fire; Constellations are the Apsarasas of the Gandharva Wind, &c., &c. In the last Mythological epoch when the Gandharvas have saved from their elementary nature merely so much as to be musicians in the paradise of Indra, the Apsarasas appear among other subordinate deities which share in the merry life of Indra's heaven, as the wives of the Gandharvas, but more especially as wives of a licentious sort, and they are promised therefore, too, as a reward to heroes fallen in battle when they are received in the paradise of Indra; and while, in the Rig Veda, they assist Soma to pour down his floods, they descend in the epic literature on earth merely to shake the virtue of penitent sages, and to deprive them of the power they woukl otherwise have acquired through unbroken austerities."- Qoldstucker, Sans. Diet, Aptoryama - A sacrificial rite produced from Bramha's northern mouth, V. P. " The Aptoryam is the seventh or last part of the Jjotishtoma, for the performance of which it is not essentially necessary, but a voluntary sacrifice instituted for the attainment of a specific desire. The literal meaning of the word would be in conformity with the Fraud hamanorama ' a sacrifice which procures the attainment of the desired object." ' - Goldstucker.

Aradhya: (sáns. hindú). The name of a class of Brahmans who recede somewhat from the extreme tenets of the Vira Saivas, and tend somewhat towards the Vaishnavas. Basava was originally an Aradhya brahman, though in the Purana bearing his name the sect is spoken of very contemptuously.

Araga: (sáns. hindú). - Sun. When Vishnu assumes the character of Rudra, the destroyer, and descends to reunite all creatures wjth himself, he enters into the seven solar rays which dilate into seven suns - the name of the first is Araga.

Aranyakas: (sáns. hindú). " The Treatises of the Forest." So named, as Sayana informs us, because they had to be read in the Forest.

" It might almost seem," says Max Müller, " as if they were intended for the Vanaprasthas only, people who, after having performed all the duties of students and householders, retire from the world to the forest, to end their days in the contemplation of the deity." In some instances the Aranyakas form part of the Brahmanas and thus share the authority of Sruti or revelation.

Part of one however is ascribed to a human author Asvalanyaka.

Another part is quoted by Sayana as being a Sutra work of Saunakas. The Aranyakas pre-suppose the existence of the Brahmanas, and may be regarded as an enlargement upon them.

The chief interest which they possess at the present moment consists in their philosophy. The philosophical chapters, termed Upanishads, are almost the only portion of Vedic literature extensively read to this day. The Vedanta, the Sankya, the Vaiseshika, the Nyaya and Yoga philosophers, all appeal to the Upanishads in support of their tenets. " Traces of modern ideas are not wanting in the Aranyakas, and the very fact that they are destined for a class of men who had retired from the world in order to give themselves up to the highest problems, shows an advanced, and an already declining and decaying society, not unlike the monastic age of the Christian world." - Max Muller, A. S. L., Chap. II.

Arati, Alati: (sáns. hindú). A ceremony on the birth of a brahman child.

The Abbe DuBois thus describes it: " Upon a plate of copper they place a lamp, made of a paste from rice-flour. It is supplied with oil and lighted. The married women, but not widows, for their presence would be unlucky, take hold of the plate with both hands, and raising it as high as the head of the person for whom the ceremony is performed, describe in that position a number of circles with the plate and the burning lamp.

Sometimes, in place of the rice lamp, they fill the plate with water, colored red with a mixture of saffron and other ingredients; and with this describe their circle, raising it as high as the head of the person who is the object of the ceremony.

The intention of this ceremony is to avert fascination by the eye, and to prevent the accidents which arise out of I know not what evil impression occasioned by the jealous looks of certain persons.

The credulity of the Hindus respecting this sort of injury is carried to excess: and it is for that reason that the ceremony of the dj-ati, which is considered to have the virtue of preventing the effect of those glances, is so common and so universal among the Hindus, and especially among persons of high rank, who, being more observed and having more enemies than private individuals, are more exposed to the evil influence of malevolent or jealous looks.

When such persons therefore appear in public, the first thing that is done on their return home, is to perform this ceremony of the arati over them, as an antidote to the ill-designed looks which may have been cast upon them. P'or the same reason princes have the ceremony repeated several times in a day.

This sort of superstition or idle observance is by no means peculiar to the Hindus. I have seen cantons in France, (and I suppose it is not different in many other countries,) where the people were scarcely less infatuated. I have known decent villagers who would not have dared to show their young children to people they did not know, or to persons of bad appearance, lest their invidious or ill-boding look should occasion some mischief to befall them." - Manners and Customs of the Hindus.

Arbudas: (sáns. hindú). The people about Mount Abu in Guzerat - called Arbuda in the Puranas.

Contenido - Contents

Archish: (sáns. hindú). (Flame). The wife of Krisaswa, and mother of Dhumaketu (comet).

Ardra: (sáns. hindú). A lunar mansion in Gajavithi. The path of the sun and other planets amongst the lunar asterisms is divided into three portions or Avasthanas, northern, southern and central, called severally Airavata, Jaradgava and Vaiswanara. Each of these again is divided into three parts or Vithis. Each of these Vithis contains three asterisms.

Argha: (sáns. hindú). - gift indicating great respect, such as fruit and flowers, or milk and honey, which are offered to an idol, or to a brahman, or to a bridegroom on his wedding day.

Ahrat: (sáns. hindú). 15 A king of southern Karnataka who was converted by Rishabha; 2, A name of a deified sage among the Jainas.

Arhatas: (sáns. hindú). A- name applied to the Jains, q. v.

Arishta: (sáns. hindú). A demon who in the forai of a savage bull came one evening to the spot where Krishna and the Gopis were dancing together. His color was that of a cloud charged with rain, he had vast horns; and his eyes were like two fiery suns, his tail was erect, his dewlap hung low, and he was a terror to the herds. The herdsmen and their women were exceedingly frightened, and called aloud on Krishna, who came to their succour, without any fear.

He waited the near approach of the bull, when he seized him by the horns and pressed his sides with his knees. Tearing off one of the horns he beat the fierce demon with it till he died, vomiting blood from his mouth. The herdsmen then praised Krishna; 2, A daughter of Daksha, and wife of Kasyapa. V. P.

Arishtancmi: (sáns. hindú). 1 A Prajapati, who married four daughters of Daksha; 2, A name of Kasyapa. His daughter Kesini became the wife of Sagara.

Arjuna: (sáns. hindú). The third of the five sons of Pandu by his wife Kunti or Pritha, who, however, received amatory visits from the gods Dharma, Vayu and Indra, who are therefore put forward as the real fathers of Yudhishthira, Bbima and Arjuna, in erder to give these heroes a divine origin. Arjuna is therefore called the son of Indra. He was taught the use of the bow by Drona, and was his best loved pupil: this excited the jealousy of his cousin Duryodhana, and ultimately led to the banishment of the Pandavas from Court. Arjuna appeared at the exhibition of arms at Hastinapura, where he performed marvellous feats in archery, swordplaying, whirling the chakra, and throwing the noose. At the Swayamvara of Draupadi, Arjuna was disguised as a brahman, and succeeded in hitting the golden fish after all the Rajas had failed; he was at once acknowledged by Draupadi as the victor; she threw the garland round his neck, and permitted him to lead her away according to the rule of the Swayamvara. Draupadi became the wife of the five brothers; each had a house and garden of his own, and Draupadi dwelt with each of them in turn for two days at a time; and it was a law amongst them that if a brother entered the house of another brother, whilst Draupadi was dwelling there, he should depart out of the city and go into exile for twelve years.

It happened that this rule was inadvertently violated by Arjuna, who went into exile in consequence. He was accompanied by many brahmans, and visited many sacred places. At Hurdwar a damsel named Ulupi, the daughter of Vasuki, the Baja of the Nagas, saw Arjuna and besought him to espouse her, and he abode with her many days.

After this he visited the countries of the south, and in the Mahendra mountain saw Parasu Rama from whom he obtained some excellent weapons. In the city of Manipura, Chitrangada the daughter of the Raja, saw Arjuna and desired him for her husband. They were married on the condition that any son she might have should remain to succeed to the Raj of Manipura. She gave birth to a son who was named Babhru-vahana. After a residence there of three years Arjuna took leave of his wife and son and proceeded on his travels.

The next place to which he went was Prabhasa near Dwaraka. Here he was met by Krishna, who gave orders that the city of Dwaraka should be dressed out with flowers and banners and every sign of rejoicing. Krishna gave a great entertainment to all tho chieftains and their Indies, on the beautiful hill of Raivataka, Arjima was smitten with the charms of Subhadra, the sister of Krishna. In a few days they were married by the contrivance of Krishna, and when the twelve years of exile were accomplished Arjuna departed with his wife Subhadra for the city of Indraprastha. His brothers received him with gladness and Draupadi was soon reconciled to Subhadra.

Arjuna's elder brother, the Raja Yudhishthira, determined to perform the great sacrifice called the Rajastiya. This was successfully accomplished, but it revived the old feud between the Kauravas and Pandavas. Duryodhana invited his kinsmen to a gambling match, seeking by under-hand means to deprive Yudhishthira of his Raj. - (See Yudhishthira.)

In the course of the second exile of the Pandavas, Aijuna *' by the advice of his mythical grandfather Vyasa, for the sake of performing such penances as should propitiate the gods, and induce them to grant him celestial weapons which would ensure him the victory over Duryodhana and the Kauravas. -On reaching the Mandara mountain he heard a voice in the sky calling upon him to stop; and Indra appeared in all his glory, and promised to give him the divine weapons provided he succeeded in propitiating the god Siva. Arjuna then entered upon a course of austerities so severe that Siva was perfectly gi'atified, but proved the valour of his worshipper by taking upon himself the form of a mountaineer and engaging Arjuna in single combat. Arjuna, unable to make any impression upon his enemy, at length discovered the deity, and prostrated himself at the feet of Siva; upon which Siva gave him one of his most powerful weapons. Subsequently the gods of the four quarters of the universe - Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Kuvera - presented themselves to Arjuna, and respectively furnished him with their own peculiar weapons. Arjuna was then carried away in Indra's chariot to the city of Amaravati, which is the heaven of Indra. There he spent many years in practising the use of arms; and at length was sent by Indra to make war against the Daityas of the sea.

The mythic account of Arjuna's wars against the Daityas of the sea, is also worthy of notice if only as a creation of the imagination. On approaching the coast in a chariot which flew through the air, Arjuna beheld the sea rising in vast heaps, and saw ships laden with rubies, and fishes and tortoises as large as mountains.

He blew his war shell and the Daityas trembled with fear, but in return they sounded their drums and trumpets so loudly that the monsters of the deep leaped above the waves. Thousands of Daityas rushed upon him, but he uttered powerful mantras as he discharged his arrows, and kept them all at bay. They rained fire, water, and mountains upon him, but he triumphed in the end and slew them all. Then the women came out screaming like, cranes, but Arjuna passed them by and entered the city, where he saw chariots with ten thousand horses of the colour of peacocks.

Meantime the women were terrified at the rolling of his chariot, and fled to their houses, whilst the noise of their ornaments resembled the falling of stones upon a mountain. After this victory Arjuna returned to Indra, and was rewarded with great praises; and the sovereign of the gods presented him with a chain of gold and a diadem, and with a war-shell which sounded like thunder."

After these extravagant myths Arjuna is said to have been in the service of Raja Virata, as teacher of music and dancing, until the expiration of the thirteen years of exile. When negotiations took place for the restoration of the Pandavas, Arjuna exerted himself to win over Krishna to their side; and Krishna promised to drive his chariot in the war which ensued. It was then that the celebrated dialogue known as the Bhagavat Gita, took place.

On the first day of the war Arjuna fought with Bhishma: on the following day he rallied the Pandavas after they had been repulsed by Bhishma, and the latter reluctantly engaged in a second combat with him. He also rescued his son Abhimanyu from Duryodhana.

In another terrible conflict with Bhishma the latter was mortally wounded. Arjuna was afterwards challenged by Susarma and his four brethren: contrary to the advice of Yudhishthira he accepted the challenge, defeated Susarma and his brethren; fought Susarma a second time in another locality; and during his absence his son Abhimanyu was slain by six of the Kaurava chieftains. Arjuna was overpowered with grief when he heard this, and vowed to take the life of Jayadratha before the setting of the morrow's sun. This he accomplished, and not long after killed

Kama with a crescent-shaped arrow. The armies stopped fighting, and the gods descended from heaven to witness the battle between Arjuna and Kama.

The Mahabharata next relates Aijuna's adventures with the horse that was captured and then let loose for a year, previous to the great Asvamedha which Yudhishthira had resolved to perform.

These adventures constitute twelve legends connected with the countries into which the horse is said to have wandered. In the seventh of them Arjuna is slain and beheaded by his own son Babhru-vahana in the city of Manipura, but restored to life by the application of a jewel brought from the city of serpents in the under world. After the massacre at Prabhasa, Arjuna was summoned to Dwaraka by Krishna, and on his arrival he directed the residue of the people to leave the city. His strength now departed from him; he was advised by Vyasa to abandon worldly concerns, and died with the other Pandavas on the Himalaya mountains. His grandson Parikshit (son of Abhimanyu) succeeded to the Raj of Hastinapura.

Arshabhu: (sáns. hindú). The first division of the central portion of the lunar mansions.

Arsha marriage: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight modes of marriage described by Manu; in which a father receives from a bridegroom one pair of kiue, (a bull and a cow) or two pairs, for religious purposes, and then gives away his daughter in due form. This is the ceremony of the Rishis and probably prevailed amongst all the Vedic Aryans. It furnishes proof of the distinction between the marriage rite of the Rishis and that of the Brahmans. No religious qualification was required in the bridegroom, and the young man simply obtained a damsel by presenting her father with a pair or two of kine. - Wheeler.

Art'ha Brahmans: (sáns. hindú). According to the Kerala Ulpatti, when Parasu Rama had recovered a large strip of territory from the ocean, on the Malayalam coast, he set apart certain fishermen to officiate as Brahmans to the rest of the people, and promised to come at their call. They, however, acted so as to displease him; whereupon he disfranchised them, and called in a colony of pure

Brahmans from Hai Kshetram, to whom he delivered charge of the people, in matters of rites and ceremonies. The fishermen had the title of " half-brahmans." - Taylor.

Art'hanesvari: (sáns. hindú). A form of Siva, and, on the left-hand half, is Panmti. This is doubtless an early hieroglyphic to convey a chaste notion of the union of the active deity, with passive matter; whence creation.

Arthasadhak: (sáns. hindú). The finance minister of Raja Dasaratha.

Arthasastra : (sáns. hindú). One of the eighteen principal branches of knowledge, viz., the science of Government as laid down first by Vrihaspati.

Arugan: (sáns. hindú). The name given by the Jains to the Supreme Being.

The popular name of God is Jinan, or Jainan; hence the appellation Jains. To this God one thousand and eight sacred names are ascribed. The attributes of omnipotence and omniscience, of omnipresence and infinite benevolence, are given to this deity. See Jains.

Aruna: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated son of Kasyapa and Vinata: and brother of Garuda the destroyer of serpents.

Arundhati: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Kardama, wife of Vasistha, evidently an allegorical personification of a religious rite. ''One of the Pleiades and generally regarded as the model of wifely excellence; " it is a small star close to the middle one in the tail of Ursa Major: and is said to have been the wife of Vasistha. A newly-married couple, amongst brahmans, have this star pointed out to them by the Purohita, or Astrologer, and are directed to pay it obeisance.

Contenido - Contents

Fuentes - Fonts

bai_____.ttf - 46 KB
babi____.ttf - 47 KB
bab_____.ttf - 45 KB
balaram_.ttf - 45 KB
inbenr11.ttf - 64 KB
inbeno11.ttf - 12 KB
inbeni11.ttf - 12 KB
inbenb11.ttf - 66 KB
indevr20.ttf - 53 KB

free counters

Disculpen las Molestias
Conceptos Hinduistas (1428)SC

Conceptos Hinduistas (2919)SK · (2592)SK
Aa-Ag · Ah-Am · Ana-Anc · And-Anu · Ap-Ar · As-Ax · Ay-Az · Baa-Baq · Bar-Baz · Be-Bhak · Bhal-Bhy · Bo-Bu · Bra · Brh-Bry · Bu-Bz · Caa-Caq · Car-Cay · Ce-Cha · Che-Chi · Cho-Chu · Ci-Cn · Co-Cy · Daa-Dan · Dar-Day · De · Dha-Dny · Do-Dy · Ea-Eo · Ep-Ez · Faa-Fy · Gaa-Gaq · Gar-Gaz · Ge-Gn · Go · Gra-Gy · Haa-Haq · Har-Haz · He-Hindk · Hindu-Histo · Ho-Hy · Ia-Iq · Ir-Is · It-Iy · Jaa-Jaq · Jar-Jay · Je-Jn · Jo-Jy · Kaa-Kaq · Kar-Kaz · Ke-Kh · Ko · Kr · Ku - Kz · Laa-Laq · Lar-Lay · Le-Ln · Lo-Ly · Maa-Mag · Mah · Mai-Maj · Mak-Maq · Mar-Maz · Mb-Mn · Mo-Mz · Naa-Naq · Nar-Naz · Nb-Nn · No-Nz · Oa-Oz · Paa-Paq · Par-Paz · Pe-Ph · Po-Py · Raa-Raq · Rar-Raz · Re-Rn · Ro-Ry · Saa-Sam · San-Sar · Sas-Sg · Sha-Shy · Sia-Sil · Sim-Sn · So - Sq · Sr - St · Su-Sz · Taa-Taq · Tar-Tay · Te-Tn · To-Ty · Ua-Uq · Ur-Us · Vaa-Vaq · Var-Vaz · Ve · Vi-Vn · Vo-Vy · Waa-Wi · Wo-Wy · Yaa-Yav · Ye-Yiy · Yo-Yu · Zaa-Zy


No hay comentarios:

Correo Vaishnava

Mi foto
Correo Devocional

Archivo del blog