lunes, 26 de julio de 2010

Jaiva - Dharma I - Glosario - Srila Narayana Maharaja

Pure Bhakti
Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana Goswami Maharaja
02 de julio a las 1:26

You are in the prison of Maha-maya, the Lords potency of delusion, and therefore you are obeying her order. Under her order you are influenced to think that you are not the soul, that you are not part and parcel of God; rather you are this body. Under her order you are made to think that if you will eat delicious food, or if you have 10,000 dollars, then you will be very happy. Please remember that you drink liquor or take meat only on the orders of Maya. This is not freedom. Freedom means breaking out of the clutches of Maya and realizing that you are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, and that you are by nature always happy. If you realize your soul in this way, then you will realize God.
Añadida el 04 de julio

If you want to go to school, you first agree to follow the rules and regulations of the school, which only the teacher can explain to you. Then you are admitted in the school, and then the teacher trains you. In the same way, when you come to this transcendental school, this bhakti-yoga school, you ask a very expert teacher, "How can I enter the transcendental world?" That teacher will first say, "Surrender totally to me," and then he will instruct you in the process. He will tell you, "In this world everyone performs activities with the goal of becoming happy, but we see that no one has become happy, nor is anyone becoming happy. People may say, ‘We are happy,' but very soon old age runs after them along with so many diseases, and then at last they become hopeless." You must take the shelter of a teacher who can instruct you in the process of happiness.
Añadida el 05 de julio ·

We are not this body; inside the body there is a soul, the eternal servant of Krsna. Now we souls have forgotten Krsna, and that is why we are covered by so many stages – birth, death, calamities, diseases, and problems.
Conversely, if we chant Krsna’s name, we will attain love for Krsna and be liberated from this world. There will be no birth or death, and we will take a very young and smart teenage body. We will always serve Krsna, and be happy. In Krsna’s abode, there is no need of serving anyone else but Krsna, no need of money, and no need of eating, as we have here. There is only nectar there – we only drink nectar.
Añadida el 10 de julio

Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramātmā (Supersoul) in everyone's heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses the desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who relishes His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted.
Añadida el 21 de julio

We should think, ‘I am not this body.’ We are spirit souls, part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. - Srila Narayana Maharaja
Añadida el 22 de julio

The root cause of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa is association with advanced devotees. Even when one's dormant love for Kṛṣṇa awakens, association with devotees is still most essential.
Añadida el 22 de julio

Contenido - Contents

Glossary of Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S1 | S2 | T | U | V | Y | Z

Glossary of Names

A | B | C | D | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y | Z

Glossary of Places

A | B | C | D | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y | Z


Capítulos: I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII | IX | X | XI | XII | XIII | XIV | XV | XVI | XVII | XVIII | XIX | XX | XXI | XXII | XXIII | XXIV | XXV | XXVI | XXVII | XXVIII | XXIX | XXX | XXXI


Advaita-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the perfectional stage of oneness aspired for by those who cultivate an awareness of indistinct brahma.

Advaita-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the doctrine of non-dualism, monism – the doctrine that emphasizes the absolute oneness of the living entities with God. This is often equated with the Mâyâvâda theory that everything is ultimately one; that there is no distinction whatsoever between the Supreme Absolute and the individual living entities; that the Supreme is devoid of form, personality, qualities, and activities; and that perfection is to merg oneself into the all-pervading impersonal brahma. This doctrine was propagated by Ärî Äaôkarâcârya (see Glossary of Names).

Advaita-vâdî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who advocates the doctrine of monism (see advaita-vâda).

Âgama: (sáns. vaiëòava). is a part of Veda which deals with the science of Tantra.

Ahaêkâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). lit. ahaê (I) kâra (am the doer) i.e. the false ego.

Ahaêtâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means ‘I-ness’; egoism; self-consciousness.

Aihika: (sáns. vaiëòava). that which relates to iha (the here and now); that which relates to this material world.

Aihika-sukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). material enjoyment pertaining to this world.

Aiäî-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). divine potency, which is known as taùasthâ-äakti. Aiäî comes from the word Îäa the Supreme Lord, Master or Controller (see taùasthâ-äakti).

Aiävarya: (sáns. vaiëòava). opulence, splendor, magnificence, majesty, supremacy. In regard to bhakti this refers to devotion which is inspired by the opulence and majesty of the Lord especially in His feature as Lord Nârâyaòa. This type of devotion restricts the intimacy of exchange between Ärî Bhagavân and His bhaktas.

Akarma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the non-performance of auspicious activities or prescribed duties.

Akhaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). undivided, uninterupted, without a break, like the flow of a stream of honey.

Akiñcana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who considers he has nothing but Kèëòa. Having nothing at all, utterly destitute materially. When referring to a Vaiëòava, this usually denotes an ascetic who is devoid of the spirit of material enjoyment and accepts only the bare necessities for his maintenance. Vaiëòavas like the Pâòàavas who live in the midst of family and material opulence only for the service of Bhagavân and who are devoid of any desire for material enjoyment consider that nothing belongs to them. Everything belongs to Ärî Bhagavân. They are akiñcana Vaiëòavas.

Ãlam al-maähâl: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for the spiritual world.

Alaôkâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). ornaments, embellishments etc.

Alaôkâra-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). books concerning the literary embellishment of worldly poetry, etc.

Ãmnâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the teachings of the Vedas received through guruparamparâ are known as âmnâya.

Ãmutrika-sukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). enjoyment which pertains to the next life, particularly enjoyment in the celestial planets yet to be attained after the performance of pious activities.

Anâ al-ƒaqq: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Islamic equivalent of the Vedic aphorism ahaê brahmâsmi, “I am brahma.”

Anâdi-bahirmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the condition of the jîvas in material existence of being diverted from Kèëòa from a time without beginning.

Ãnanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual bliss, ecstasy, joy, happiness; that which Ärî Bhagavân relishes through His hlâdinî-äakti (see hlâdinî).

Ananya: (sáns. vaiëòava). having no other object; undistracted; devoted to only one worhipable Lord, no one else.

Ananya-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). exclusive or pure devotion; devotion which is not mixed with any other desires and has no objective other than Ärî Kèëòa.

Anartha: (sáns. vaiëòava). unwanted desires in the heart which impede one’s advancement in bhakti. These anarthas are of four types: (1) duëkètottha, those arising from past sins; (2) sukètottha, those arising from previous pious activities; (3) aparâdhottha, those arising from offenses; and (4) bhakty-uttha, those arising in relationship to bhakti.

Anartha-nivètti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the clearing of all unwanted desires in the heart. This is the third stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti, which occurs by the influence of sâdhu-saôga and bhajana-kriyâ.

Aôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). limb, division, part; the various practices of bhakti such as hearing and chanting are referred to as aôgas (of bhakti).

Anitya: (sáns. vaiëòava). temporary; not permanent or eternal.

Anitya-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). impermanent religion; does not accept the existence of the Supreme Lord or the eternality of the soul.

Antaraôga-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s internal potency (see svarûpaäakti).

Antarmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the inward tendency. Having one’s attention focused inwards towards the soul and spiritual enlightenment.

Antyaja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person of the lowest class, outside of the varòâärama system; literally antya means ‘born last’ and ja means ‘those people’.

Anubhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the five essential ingredients of rasa. The actions which display or reveal the spiritual emotions situated within the heart are called anubhâvas. The anubhâvas are thirteen in number: 1) nètya (dancing), 2) vilunùhita (rolling on the ground), 3) gîta (singing), 4) kroäana (loud crying), 5) tanu-moùana (writhing of the body), 6) huôkara (roaring), 7) jèmbhaòa (yawning), 8) ävâsa-bhûâ (breathing heavily), 9) loka-anapekëitâ (giving up concern for public image), 10) lâlâsrâva (salivating), 11) aùùa-hâsa (loud laughter), 12) ghûrëâ (staggering about), and 13) hikkâ (a fit of hiccups).

Aòu-caitanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). infinitesimal spiritual consciousness, represented by the jîvas.

Aòu-cit-vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). infinitesimal spiritual substance; the jîvas, who are conscious
entities but minute in size.

Anudita-viveka: (sáns. vaiëòava). one whose spiritual discrimination is not awakened; the spiritually unconscious.

Aòukalpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). refers to acceptance by the bhakta of aòu (a small amount) kalpa (for minimum capability), meaning a quantity of food (which is not in the category of grains, beans etc.) to maintain sufficient energy for hari-sevâ.

Aòu-padârtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). infinitesimal object.

Anurâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) attachment in general. (2) spiritual attachment. (3) a specific stage in the development of prema which has been defined in Ujjvala-nîlamaòi (14.146) as follows: “Despite regularly meeting and being already well-acquainted with the beloved, an everfresh sentiment of intense attachment causes the beloved to be newly experienced at every moment as if one had never before any experience of such a person. The attachment which inspires such a feeling is known as anurâga.”

Anuäîlana: (sáns. vaiëòava). constant practice, study, or cultivation, especially the culture of spiritual activities.

Aparâdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). offenses committed against the holy name, the Vaiëòavas, the guru, the äâstras, the holy places, the Deity and so on. The verbal root râdh means to give pleasure or satisfy and the prefix apa means taking away. Thus the word aparâdha signifies all activities that are displeasing to Bhagavân and His bhaktas.

Aparâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s inferior or material potency.

Apauruëeya: (sáns. vaiëòava). that which is not created by (puruëa) man; divine; that which is transcendental in nature, emanating directly from Ärî Bhagavân; the Vedas.

Aprâkèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental, beyond the influence of material nature, beyond the perception of the mind and senses, not created by any human, beyond the material world, situated in Kèëòa’s transcendental abode, extraordinary, divine, pure, or consisting of spiritual consciousness and bliss.

Aprârabdha-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the accumulated stock of reactions to activities which are lying in a dormant condition and waiting to bear fruit at some time.

Apûrva: (sáns. vaiëòava). unprecedented, extraordinary, unparalleled.

Apsarâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heavenly wives of the Gandharvas; exceptionally beautiful dancing girls in the court of Indra.

Apûròa-jagat: (sáns. vaiëòava). the finite world; the material world.

Ãratî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremony of offering articles to a Deity, such as incense, lamp, flowers, and a fan, accompanied by the chanting of devotional hymns.

Arcanam: (sáns. vaiëòava). to worship the Deity in a temple with all different types of paraphernalia. When this worship is conducted internally, it is known as manasi-pûjâ. Arcanam is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.

Ãropa-siddhâ-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). endeavors which by nature are not purely constituted of bhakti. The performer of aropa-siddha-bhakti imposes bhakti onto his activities, meaning he is performing an activity that isn’t one of the nine limbs of bhakti (navadhâ-bhakti), or that isn’t pure enough to be classified as äuddha-bhakti, but he is thinking that his activity is bhakti. Examples of personalities performing âropa-siddhâ-bhakti are: Hariächandra and Mahârâja Äibhi.

Artha-pañcaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Râmânuja’s views on the following five subjects 1) sva-svarûpa (the constitutional nature of the individual self), 2) para-svarûpa (the constitutional nature of the individual self in relation to other living beings), 3) upâya-svarûpa (the means of achieving the highest goal of life – bhakti), 4) puruëârtha-svarûpa (the highest goal of life) and 5) virodhi-svarûpa (the hinderances to spiritual life).

Arundhatî-daräana-nyâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Arundhatî is a very small star, which is situated close to the Vaäiëùha star in the Saptaèëi constellation (the Great Bear). In order to view it, its location is first determined by looking at a bigger star beside it, then if one looks carefully one can see Arundhatî close by.

Ãryan: (sáns. vaiëòava). is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root è meaning ‘to go ahead’ or ‘progress’. Thus ârya means one who is on the progressive path of spiritual advancement. Those who follow the varòâärama system; those who are advanced in terms of social and religious culture i.e. Hindus.

Ãsakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). attachment. This especially refers to attachment for the Lord and His eternal associates. âsakti occurs when one’s liking for bhajana leads to a direct and deep attachment for the person who is the object of that bhajana. This is the sixth stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti, which is awakened upon the maturing of one’s ruci for bhajana.

Asampûròa: (sáns. vaiëòava). incomplete.

Ãärama: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) one of the four stages of life – student, married, retired, or renounced – in which one carries out corresponding socio-religious duties in the system known as varòâärama. (2) a hermitage, usually in the association of others, which is established to facilitate spiritual practices.

Ãäraya: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) shelter, support, refuge, protection, container. (2) the receptacle of prema; Kèëòa’s bhaktas. Kèëòa may also become the receptacle of prema for His bhaktas.

Ãäraya-âlambana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the receptacle of love for Kèëòa, the bhaktas. This is an aspect of vibhâva, one of the five essential ingredients of rasa (see vibhâva). Although the word âäraya also conveys the same meaning as âäraya-âlambana, it may often be used in the general sense of shelter or support. The word âäraya-âlambana, however, is specifically used to indicate the receptacle of prema as one of the necessary ingredients of rasa. It is not used in any other sense.

Aëùa-kâlîya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pastimes which Kèëòa performs with His associates in eight periods of the day. Sâdhakas who are engaged in smaraòa, or remembrance, meditate on these pastimes. The periods are as follows (times are approximate): 1) niäânta-lîlâ, pastimes at the end of night (3:36 am-6:00 am); 2) prâta-lîlâ, pastimes at dawn (6:00 am-8:24 am); 3) pûrvâhna-lîlâ, morning pastimes (8:24 am-10:48 am); 4) madhyâhna-lîlâ, midday pastimes (10:48 am-3.36 pm); 5) aparâhna-lîlâ, afternoon pastimes (3:36 pm-6:00 pm); 6) sâyâhna-lîlâ, pastimes at dusk (6:00 pm-8:24 pm); 7) pradoëa-lîlâ, evening pastimes (8:24 pm- 10:48 pm); and 8) nakta-lîlâ, midnight pastimes (10:48 pm-3:36 am).

Aëùâôga-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the yoga system consisting of eight parts: yama (control of the senses), niyama (control of the mind), âsana (bodily postures), prâòâyâma (breath control), pratyâhâra (withdrawal of the mind from sensory perception), dhâraòâ (steadying the mind), dhyâna (meditation), and samâdhi (deep and unbroken absorption on the Lord in the heart).

Aäubha-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). activities producing inauspicious results.

Aävamedha-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a horse-sacrifice of antiquity in which vast wealth is spent. Formerly the brâhmaòas were so highly qualified by purity and in the skill of chanting mantras that the life of the animal would be rejuvenated. By performing one hundred such sacrifices one could attain the post of Indra. This sacrifice is forbidden in the age of Kali as there are no qualified brâhmaòas to perform it properly.

Atâttvika-äraddhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). unreal faith; faith which is based on a false conception of God, which gives rise to self-interested activities rooted in pride and material desires. Belief which is not rooted in äâstra.

Atirikta: (sáns. vaiëòava). separate; apart from.

Âtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the soul; it may also refer to the body, mind, intellect, or the Supreme Self. It usually refers to the jîva soul.

Ãtma-nivedanam: (sáns. vaiëòava). to offer one’s very self to Kèëòa. When one offers oneself to the Lord, he no longer acts for his independent pleasure. One engages body, mind, life, and everything in the service of Ärî Bhagavân. This is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.

Ãtyantikî laghu gopîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). are yûtheävarîs and also nitya-sakhîs. Sakhîs such as Kusumikâ can be called âtyantika-laghus, because they are gentle in all respects and they are insignificant in comparision with the other sakhîs.

Aupacârika: (sáns. vaiëòava). figurative, metaphorical, attributive (see upacâra).

Avaidha: (sáns. vaiëòava). that which is opposed to äâstric injunctions.

Avaidha-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). actions which defy the regulations of äâstra.

Avâstava-vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). things which are not eternally existing; worldly phenomena.

Avidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). ignorance, spiritual ignorance, illusion. Ignorance is of four kinds: to mistake that which is impermanent to be permanent, that which is full of misery to be blissful, that which is impure to be pure, and that which is not the self to be the self. Avidyâ is one of the five types of kleäa, or miseries, destroyed by bhakti.

Âviëùatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). being overpowered by something, or deeply absorbed in it. Thus, when the bhakta is completely overpowered with affection for Kèëòa by the continuous flow of remembrance of His lîlâ, that state is called râga.


Bâbâjî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a term of respect which is given loosly (frequently improperly), to sâdhus and Vaiëòavas, particularly those who have given up all connection with household life. In the setting of this book, this term specifically refers to the Vaiëòava followers of Ärîman Mahâprabhu, who have given up all the duties and designations of varòâärama society and who engage almost exclusively in chanting hari-nâma. Actual bâbâjîs live as strict renunciates, they do not accept the external garb of sannyâsîs because sannyâsa is part of varòâärama. They do not wear the sacred thread of the brâhmaòas because they have entered into bhâvâvasthâ and are engaged in râga-mârga. Such characteristics are to be accepted only by those on the highest platform of eligibility, who retire from the world to immerse themselves in private bhajana.

Baddha-daäâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the state of bondage; the state of the jîvas in material existence.

Baddha-jîva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conditioned soul who is bound by matter. With regard to the origin of the baddha-jîva this passage states that Bhagavân’s eternal associates in the spiritual world do not have any contact with and are completely unaffected by the material energy. Only some of the jîvas that emanate from Mahâ-Viëòu come into the material world. The original Bengali is as follows: goloka-vèndâvanastha evam paravyoma-stha baladeva o saôkarëaòaprakaùita nitya-pârëada jîva-sakala ananta; tâôhârâ upâsya-sevâya rasika; sarvadâ svarûpârtha-viäiëùa; upâsya-sukhânveëî upâsyera prati sarvadâ unmukha jîva äaktite cit-äaktite bala lâbha kariyâ tâôhâra sarvadâ balavân; mâyâra sahita tâhâôdera kona sambandha nâi; mâyâäakti baliyâ kona äakti âchena, tâhâo tâôhârâ avagata nana; ye hetu tâôhârâ cit-maòàala-madhyavartî evam mâyâ tâôhâdera nikaùa haite aneka dûre; tâôhârâ sarvadâi upâsya-sevâ-sukhe magna; dukha, jaòa-sukha o nija-sukha ity âdi kakhanî jânena nâ. tâôhârâ nitya-mukta premai tâôhâdera jîvana; äoka, marana au bhaya ye ki vastu, tâhâ tâôhârâ jânena nâ. karaòâbdha-äâyi-mahâ-viënura mâyâra prati ikëana-rûpa kiraòagata aòu-caitanya-gaòa o ananta; tâôhârâ mâyâ-pâräva-sthita baliyâ mâyâra vicitratâ tâôhâdera daräana-pathârûòa-pûrve ye jîvasâdhâraòera lakëana baliyâchi, se samasta lakëaòa tâôhâdera âche, tathâpi atyanta aòu-svabhâva-prayukta sarvadâ taùastha-bhâve citjagatera dike evam mâyâ-jagatera dike dèëùipâta karite thakena. e avasthâya jîva atyanta durbala, kenanâ, – juëta vâ sevye-vastura kèpâlâbha karatah cid-bala lâbha karena nâi. iôhâdera madhye ye saba jîva mâyâ-bhoga vâsanâ karena, tâôhârâ mâyika-viëaye abhiniviëùa haiyâ mâyâte nitya-baddha. yâôhârâ sevya-vastur cidanuäîlana karena, tâôhârâ sevya-tattvena kèpâra sahita cid-bala lâbha karataì cid-dhâme nîta hana; bâbâ! âmarâ durbhâgâ, kèëòera nityadâsya bhûliyâ mâyâbhiniveäa dvârâ mâyâbadha âchi; ataeva svarûpârtha-hîna haiyâî âmâdera e durdaäâ.

Baddhâvasthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava) same as baddha-daäâ.

Bahiraôgâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the external or material potency of Bhagavân, also known as mâyâ-äakti. This potency is responsible for the creation of the material world and all affairs pertaining to the material world. Because Bhagavân never directly contacts the material energy, this potency is known as bahiraôgâ, external.

Bahirmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). having one’s face turned away; having one’s attention diverted away from some object. This is commonly used with the word Kèëòa (see Kèëòa-bahirmukha).

Bahûdaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second of four stages of sannyâsa. When a sannyâsî advances beyond the kuùicaka stage, he no longer accepts anything from home; instead he collects his necessities from many places. This system is called madhukârî, which literally means ‘the profession of bumblebees’. As bumblebees collect honey from many flowers, so a sannyâsî should beg from door to door but not accept very much from any particular house. The bahûdaka stage has been mentioned in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this äloka, Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura defines the ascetic in this stage as, one who has relegated the performance of karma to a secondary position and who gives prominence to transcendental knowledge.

Bandâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for servitor.

Behesht: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for the Lord’s spiritual abode, paradise, or heaven.

Bhagavân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord; the Personality of Godhead. In the Viëòu Purâòa (6.5.72-74) Bhagavân is defined as follows: äuddhe mahâvibhûty âkhye pare brahmaòi varttate maitreya bhagavac-chabda sarva-kâraòa-kâraòe; sambharteti tathâ bharttâ bha-kâro ‘rthadvayânvita netâ gamayitâ sraëùâ ga-kârârthas tathâ mune; aiävaryasya samagrasya dharmasya yaäasaì äriyaì jñâna-vairâgyayoä caiva ëaòòâê bhaga itîôganâ – “The word bhagavat is used to describe the Supreme brahma who possesses all opulences, who is completely pure, and who is the cause of all causes. In the word bhagavat, the syllable bha has two meanings: one who maintains all living entities and one who is the support of all living entities. Similarly, the syllable ga has two meanings: the creator, and one who causes all living entities to obtain the results of karma and jñâna. Complete opulence, religiosity, fame, beauty, knowledge, and renunciation are known as bhaga, or fortune.” (The suffix vat means possessing. Thus one who possesses these six fortunes is known as Bhagavân.)

Bhâgavata-pravètti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the tendency of the jîva to seek out and serve the Supreme Person, Bhagavân.

Bhagavat-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fundamental conclusions which regard the Absolute Truth, Bhagavân.

Bhajana: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) the word bhajana is derived from the verbal root‘: bhaj ity eëa vai dhâtu sevâyâê parikîrtitaì tasmât sevâ budhaiì proktâ bhakti sâdhana-bhûyasî – “The verbal root bhaj is used specifically in the sense of sevâ, or service. Therefore, when sâdhana is performed with the consciousness of being a servant, it is called bhakti.” According to this äloka, kèëòa-sevâ, or loving devotional service to Kèëòa is called bhakti. Such service is the intrinsic attribute of bhakti or bhajana. Therefore whatever services are performed in this consciousness may be referred to as bhajana. (2) in the general sense bhajana refers to spiritual practices; especially hearing, chanting, and meditating upon the holy name, form, qualities, and pastimes of Ärî Kèëòa.

Bhajana-kriyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). taking up the practices of bhakti, such as hearing and chanting. There are sixty-four primary aôgas of bhakti, of which the first four are to take shelter of the lotus feet of äri-guru; to receive dîkëâ and äikëâ; to serve one’s guru with great affection; and to follow the path of sâdhus. Without adopting these practices, there is no question of making any advancement in bhajana. This is the second stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti which occurs by the influence of sâdhu-saôga.

Bhajanânandi: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is absorbed in the bliss of bhajana; one whose inclination is primarily for bhajana.

Bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee.

Bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the word bhakti comes from the root bhaj, which means to serve (see bhajana). Therefore the primary meaning of the word bhakti is to render service. Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî has described the intrinsic characteristics of bhakti in Ärî Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu (1.1.11) as follows: anyâbhilâëita-äûnyaê jñâna-karmâdy-anâvètam ânukûlyena kèëòânu-äîlanaê bhaktir uttamâ – “Uttamâ-bhakti, pure devotional service, is the cultivation of activities that are meant exclusively for the benefit of Ärî Kèëòa, in other words, the uninterrupted flow of service to Ärî Kèëòa, performed through all endeavors of body, mind, and speech, and through expression of various spiritual sentiments (bhâvas). It is not covered by jñâna (knowledge of nirviäeëa-brahma, aimed at impersonal liberation) and karma (reward-seeking activity), yoga or austerities; and it is completely free from all desires other than the aspiration to bring happiness to Ärî Kèëòa.”

Bhakti-devî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the goddess of devotion. All potencies of the Lord have personified forms. In Mâdhurya-kâdambinî (1.3) Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura explains that bhakti is the svarûpaäakti of Bhagavân and that she is yadècchâ, which means that bhakti has her own will. Being sva-prakâäa, self-manifest, she is not dependent on any other agency in order to manifest in a person’s heart. In the Bhâgavatam (1.2.6) it is said: yato bhaktir adhokëaje ahaituky apratihatâ – “that by which causeless and uninterrupted bhakti for Lord Adhokëaja arises.” The word ahaituky in this äloka indicates that bhakti has no cause. The only cause of bhakti is bhakti herself. Ärîla Cakravartîpâda analyzes the meaning of this statement. He says that bhakti situated in the heart of a bhâva-bhakta is the only cause for her manifesting in others. Since Kèëòa is under the control of His unalloyed bhaktas, He has invested such power in them. Therefore sâdhana is not the true cause of bhakti’s appearance.

Bhakti-devi, being self-willed, manifests bhakti in the heart when she is pleased with the bhakta’s unalloyed service attitude. Ultimately this indicates that Bhakti-devi acts through the agency of Kèëòa’s bhaktas who are situated in the stage of bhâva. When they see the sincerity of the sâdhaka-bhakta, the bhakti which is one with the very nature of their hearts is transmitted into the hearts of the sâdhakas. Other than this, there is no cause for bhakti’s appearance.

Bhakti-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a division of the Vedas relating to bhakti, which is performed exclusively for the benefit of Ärî Bhagavân.

Bhakti-latâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the creeper of devotion. Bhakti is likened to a creeper which grows in the bhakta’s heart until it matures and produces the fruit of love for Kèëòa. The bîja, or seed, of this creeper is characterized as kèëòa-sevâ-vâsana, the desire to serve Ärî Kèëòa. This desire is sown in the heart of the bhakta by the grace of ärî-gurudeva and it manifests externally as äraddhâ, faith in the conclusions of the äâstra. After its intitial inception in the form of the bhakti-latâ-bîja, the creeper develops through eight successive stages culminating in prema. These stages are sâdhu-saôga, bhajana-kriyâ, anartha-nivètti, niëùhâ, ruci, âsakti, bhâva, and prema. Each of these are separately described in this glossary.

Bhakti-latâ-bîja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seed of the creeper of devotion. This refers to the inception of the desire to serve Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa in a particular capacity which is known as kèëòa-sevâ-vâsana. Within this seed is the undeveloped conception of bhâva. This seed externally manifests as äraddhâ, or faith in the instructions and goal described by the äâstras. When this seed is watered by the methods of hearing, chanting, and service to Vaiëòavas, it grows into a luxurious plant and ultimately delivers its fruit of love of God.

Bhakti-poëaka-sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious activities which foster bhakti. This specifically refers to the association of bhaktas and activities connected to bhakti (see sukèti).

Bhakty-âbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). externally resembles bhakti but does not have the true characteristics of bhakti. There are two types of bhakty-âbhâsa.

Châyâ-bhakty-âbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). is attained by association with äuddha-bhaktas during kîrtana, recitation of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, or other devotional performances. Pratibimba-bhakty-âbhâsa is the semblance of bhakti that occurs in the hearts of those who adopt the aôgas of bhakti with a desire for bhukti (material enjoyment) and mukti (liberation). The stage of châyâ-bhakty-âbhâsa is the result of great fortune, Bhârata-varëa India (see Glossary of Places).

Bhâva-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the initial stage of perfection in devotion. A stage of bhakti in which äuddha-sattva, or the essence of Ärî Kèëòa’s internal potency consisting of spiritual knowledge and bliss, is transmitted into the heart of the practicing bhakta from the heart of one of His eternal associates and softens the heart by different kinds of tastes. It is the first sprout of prema, or pure love of God. Bhâvabhakti is the seventh of the eight stages of development of the bhakti-latâ, the creeper of devotion. In Ärî Bèhad-Bhagavatâmèta there are five divisions of bhâva accepted amongst bhaktas: 1) jñâna-bhakta (e.g. Bharata Mahârâja), 2) äuddha-bhakta (e.g. Ambariëa Mahâarâja), 3) prema-bhakta (e.g. Hanumân), 4) prema-para-bhakta (e.g. the Pâòàavas headed by Arjuna), and 5) premâtura-bhakta (âtura means ‘very eager for’, or agitated out of prema e.g. the Yâdavas headed by Uddhava).

Bhâvuka: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) a bhakta at the stage of bhâva who is thus able to taste spiritual sentiments. (2) This word is sometimes used in a slightly derogatory sense to refer to those who are prone to emotional displays without possessing the true characteristics of kèëòarati, or bhâva.

Bhedâbheda-prakâäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a manifestation simultaneously distinct yet not separate from Ärî Bhagavân.

Bhoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). material enjoyment. Unoffered foodstuffs.

Bhogî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who indulges in material enjoyment without restriction; one who seeks material enjoyment as his life’s aspiration.

Bhukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). material enjoyment.

Bhûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the five elements; any living being; a spirit, ghost or demon.

Bîja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a seed (see bhakti-latâ-bîja).

Brahmacârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first âärama or stage of life in the varòâärama system; unmarried student life.

Brahma-gâyatrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vedic mantra which is chanted at the three junctures of the day by brâhmaòas.

Brahma-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge of impersonal brahma; knowledge aiming at impersonal liberation.

Brahma-jñânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). see jñânî.

Brahma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Lord; the all-pervading, indistinct feature of the Absolute. Depending on the context, this may sometimes refer to the Supreme brahma, Ärî Kèëòa, who is the source of brahma.

Brâhmaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest of the four varòas or castes in the varòâärama system; a priest or teacher.

Brâhmaòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a female brâhmaòa; the wife of a brâhmaòa.

Brahma-pravètti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the tendency of the jîva to seek the all-pervading brahma.

Brahma-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the doctrine of indistinct nirviäeëa-brahma which has as its goal the merging of the self into Kèëòa’s effulgence.

Brahma-vâdî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who follows the doctrine of brahma-vâda.

Bèhat-caitanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). infinite spiritual consciousness, represented by Kèëòa.

Bèhat-cit-vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). vast or infinite spiritual substance; Ärî Kèëòa.

Buddhi-apekëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the consideration that takes place through one’s intelligence of the sublime nature of madhura rasa and which in turn assists in creating lobha.

But-parast: (sáns. vaiëòava). (Muslim) idolatry; worship of material elements, spirits, or ordinary living beings.


Caitanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). consciousness; the Universal soul or spirit.

Caitanya Mahâprabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Kèëòa appearing in the mood of a bhakta (see Glossary of Names).

Câòàâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). an outcaste race known to eat dogmeat; one born in such a race.

Cetana: (sáns. vaiëòava). conscious; an animate being.

Châyâ-bhakty-âbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a shadow-like semblance of bhakti. This refers to the activities of neophytes or ignorant people which resemble bhakti, but which do not have the actual characteristics of äuddha-bhakti. Because these people engage in activities of bhakti only when associating with real bhaktas, this semblance of bhakti is connected with true bhakti, but it is transient in nature and is therefore compared to a shadow.

Châyâ-nâmâbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a shadow-like semblance of the pure name. This refers to a stage of chanting in which the pure name is obscured by ignorance and anarthas just as the sun, when covered by clouds, does not manifest its full brilliance.

Châyâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s shadow potency known as mâyâ which binds the living entities in the material world.

Cid-anubhava: (sáns. vaiëòava). direct experience or realization of spirit, one’s spiritual nature, or the spiritual dimension including Kèëòa’s name, form, qualities, pastimes, and abode.

Cid-anurâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual attachment; attachment for Ärî Bhagavân, His bhaktas, and things related to Him.

Cid-anuäîlana: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual practice or cultivation; the culture of pure spiritual reality.

Cid-vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental or cognitive substance.

Cid-vikrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). see cit-äakti.

Cinmaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). possessing full spiritual nature and consciousness; composed of pure cognition; spiritual.

Cit: (sáns. vaiëòava). consciousness; pure thought; spirit; spiritual cognition or perception.

Citta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heart, thoughts, mind and consciousnes.

Cit-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual nature or the characteristic function of a conscious being.

Cit-jagat: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual world. The world of pure spiritual consciousness.

Cit-kâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual time which exists eternally in the present without any intervention of past or future.

Cit-kaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a particle of spiritual consciousness; a conscious entity who is spiritual in nature yet minute. This refers to the individual jîva souls.

Cit-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s internal potency by which His transcendental pastimes are accomplished (see svarûpa-äakti).

Cit-samâdhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual trance or deep internal perception of spiritual reality.


Daivî-mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the divine potency of Kèëòa which acts in the material world to bewilder the living entities who are seeking material enjoyment separate from their eternal and natural relationship with Kèëòa. This external potency consists of the three qualities of nature: goodness, passion, and ignorance.

Damaru: (sáns. vaiëòava). a drum played by Lord Äiva; a small two-headed drum shaped like an hour-glass which, held in one hand, is played by twisting one’s wrist. The swinging actions causes a ball at the end of each of two strings which are attached to the drum to hit the drum ends at each turn.

Daòàavat-praòâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). prostrated obeisances; literally, falling like a daòàa (stick) to offer obeisances.

Daräana: (sáns. vaiëòava). seeing, meeting, visiting with, beholding. This word is used primarily in reference to beholding the Deity or advanced bhaktas. Daräana also means doctrine or philosophical system, as in vedânta-daräana.

Dâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a servant; a servant of Kèëòa.

Daäâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). state, condition; disposition; phase, stage.

Daäa-mûla: (sáns. vaiëòava). ‘ten-roots’. In the Âyur-veda, the science of herbal medicine, there are ten roots which, when combined together produce a tonic which sustains life and counteracts disease. Similarly, there are ten ontological principles. When these are properly understood and realized, they destroy the disease of material existence and give life to the soul. The first of these principles is known as pramâòa, the evidence which establishes the existence of the fundamental truths. The other nine principles are known as prameya, the truths which are to be established. The pramâòa refers to the Vedic literature and in particular to the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. The Bhâgavatam is the essence of all the Vedas; it reveals the most intimate loving feature of the Lord‚ as well as the soul’s potential to unite with the Lord and His eternal associates in their play of divine loving exchange. Of the nine prameyas, the first seven relate to sambandha-jñâna, knowledge of the interrelationship between Ärî Bhagavân, His energies, and the living beings, both conditioned and liberated. The eighth prameya relates to abhidheya-jñâna, knowledge of the means by which the living entity can become established in an eternal loving relationship with Him. The ninth prameya relates to prayojana, the ultimate goal to be attained by pursuit of the transcendental path. That goal is known as kèëòa-prema, and it takes on infinite varieties when manifest in the different bhaktas possessing variegated moods of divine love.

Dâsî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a female maidservant of Kèëòa or Ärîmatî Râdhikâ.

Dâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) the second of the five primary relationships with the Lord which is established in the stages of bhâva or prema; love or attraction to Kèëòa which is expressed in the mood of a servant. (2) in this world the general relationship of practicing bhaktas toward Him is known as kèëòa-dâsya or bhagavad-dâsya. This means simply to recognize that one’s true identity is to be a servant of Kèëòa.

Dâsyam: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the aôgas of sâdhana-bhakti; to render service with the pure egoism of being a servant of Kèëòa. Only when one renders service with this attitude, giving up false conceptions of the self, can one’s bhajana practices attain perfection. According to Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu (1.2.183) there are two kinds of dâsya: in its beginning form, dâsya means to offer all of one’s activities to Ärî Bhagavân, and in its mature stage, dâsya means to render all kinds of services to Him with the feeling that ‘I am a servant of Ärî Kèëòa, and He is my master.’ This attitude is called kaiôkarya. Dâsyam is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.

Deva-bhâëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). ‘the language of the gods’, the language spoken in the celestial planets; Sanskrit.

Devas: (sáns. vaiëòava). celestial deities; beings situated in the celestial planets who are endowed with great piety, tremendous lifespans, and superior mental and physical prowess. They are entrusted with specific powers for the purpose of universal administration.

Devatâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). same as devas.

Devî-bhâgavata and Devî-gîtâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). (chapter 9) are two books that the äâktas promote as proving that Devî is the supreme personality. However, the great âcâryas and later scholars have not accepted them as authoritative.

Dhâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). a holy place of pilgrimage; the abode of the Lord where He appears and enacts His transcendental pastimes.

Dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). from the verbal root dhè meaning ‘to sustain’; lit. that which sustains; 1) the natural, characteristic function of a thing; that which cannot be separated from its nature; 2) religion in general. 3) the socio-religious duties prescribed in äâstra for different classes of persons in the varòâärama system; one’s fixed occupation in relation to the highest ideals known to man. Dharma is aspired for by persons who not only desire enjoyment in this world, but who hanker for something more, like Svarga. For this it is necessary to follow the religious codes outlined in äâstra. By following the religious duties prescribed according to varòâärama, one can enjoy happiness in this life and attain Svarga. The performance of dharmika duties is foremost for such people, and therefore their puruëârtha (goal of life) is known as dharma.There are many types of dharma. Strî-dharma (a woman’s dharma) refers to the duties, behaviour etc., that sustain the proper nature of a woman. Similarly, dharmas such as puruëa-dharma, brâhmanadharma, äûdra-dharma; and sannyâsa-dharma, are described in dharma-äâstras. Ultimately, however, dharma means the natural attraction of the part for the whole, the jîva for Kèëòa. All of these other dharmas are only related to this temporary body, therefore, in the midst of performing them, one must cultivate âtma-dharma, the soul’s eternal occupation as servant of Kèëòa, so that one can reach the point, either now
or tomorrow, of sarva-dharmân parityajya, giving up all secondary dharmas and taking full shelter of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa.

Dharma-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious äâstras, such as Manu-saêhitâ, delineating the codes of behavior for human beings.

Dharma-viëaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the object of the soul’s spiritual function; the object of prema; Ärî Kèëòa.

Dîkëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). receiving initiation from a spiritual master. In the Bhaktisandarbha (Anuccheda 283) Jîva Gosvâmî has defined dîkëâ as follows: divyaê jñânaê yato dadyât kuryât pâpasya saôkëayam tasmâd dîkëeti sâ proktâ deäikais tattva-kovikaiì – “Learned exponents of the Absolute Truth declare that the process by which the spiritual master imparts divya-jñâna to the disciple and eradicates all sins is known as dîkëâ.” He then explains divya-jñâna, or divine knowledge: divyaê jñânaê hy atra ärîmati mantre bhagavat svarûpajñânaê tena bhagavatâ-sambandha-viäeëa-jñânaê ca – “Divya-jñâna is transcendental knowledge of the Lord’s form and one’s specific relationship with the Lord contained within a mantra.” This means at the time of intiation, the guru gives the disciple a mantra which, in course of time, reveals the particular form of the Lord who is the object of one’s worship and the bhakta’s specific relationship with the Lord in one of the relationships of dâsya, sakhya, vâtsalya, or mâdhurya.

Dîkëâ-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). initiating spiritual master. One who gives a mantra in accordance with the regulations of äâstra to a qualified candidate for the purpose of worshiping Ärî Bhagavân and realizing Him through that mantra is known as a dîkëâ or mantra-guru.

Dîkëâ-mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mantras given by the guru at the time of initiation. These mantras include the mahâ-mantra, brahmâ-gâyatrî, gurumantra, guru-gâyatrî, gaura-mantra, gaura-gâyatrî, gopâla-mantra, and kâma-gâyatrî. The guru’s internal mood of service to Râdhâ and Kèëòa is transmitted through the medium of these mantras. This is indicated in the following äloka from Bhakti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 237): yo mantraì sa guruì sâkëât yo guru sa hari svayaê gurur yasya bhavet tuëùas tasya tuëùo hariì svayam – “The mantra (which is given by the guru) is itself the guru, and the guru is directly the Supreme Lord Hari. He with whom the spiritual master is pleased also obtains the pleasure of Ärî Hari Himself.” These mantras are invested with divya-jñâna, or transcendental knowledge of Kèëòa’s form and one’s specific relationship with Him (see also dîkëâ and mantra).

Divya-nâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the transcendental name of Ärî Kèëòa.

Divya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental pastimes.

Dravya: (sáns. vaiëòava). objects such as a table, a chair, and so on.

Dèòha-niäcaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). firm determination or resolve.

Dhèëùatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a state of being reckless, bold or courageous. In chapter twenty-one it is refering to those gopîs who have left their husbands and sons, and have abandoned all the rules and regulations of varòâärama-dharma. The Dvârakâ mahiëîs do not want to leave all these things; they want to follow their husbands, and the rules and regulations of varòâärama-dharma. That is why it is said here that they give up the quality of dhèëùatâ and serve Kèëòa just like a housewife. Those who have left all these things and who have the quality of dhèëùatâ are called sakhîs

Durjâti: (sáns. hindú). degraded birth or caste.

Durjâti-doëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the defect of a degraded birth; the defect of having taken birth in a sinful or outcaste family. Such a defect is due to prârabdha-karma.

Duëkèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). impious or sinful deeds.

Dvija: (sáns. vaiëòava). anyone among the brâhmaòas, këatriyas, or vaiäyas who has received a ‘second birth’ through the upanayana-saêskâra of being invested with the sacred thread, which prepares one for studying the Vedas.


Ekadaòàa: (sáns. hindú). a staff which is carried by the renunciates belonging to the monistic school and, in particular, the followers of Ärî Äaôkarâcârya. The staff consists of only one rod which symbolizes their goal of attaining oneness with nirviäeëa-brahma.

Ekâdaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). is the eleventh day of the waxing or waning moon. Äuddha Ekâdaäî means that the whole eleventh day of the moon elapses during the period between one sunrise and the next. Viddha Ekâdaäî means that the eleventh day of the moon begins on one solar day (sunrise to sunrise) and finishes on the next solar day, that is after sunrise on the next day. In case of viddha Ekâdaäî, the observances are made on the Dvâdaäî i.e. the twelfth day of the moon.


Folklore: (sáns. vaiëòava). (in reference to chapter seventeen), there is a saying: “To make money by counting the waves.” The explanation is as follows. In ancient times, there was a rich vaiäya, who became famous all over the country as someone who could make money in any circumstances. Some envious people poisoned the ears of the local King, and managed to convince him to send the businessman far away, where he would have no opportunity to make any money. The King decided to send him to a lonely place near the sea. But this vaiäya, true to his character, sat on the beach counting the waves! Whenever a vessel passed across the sea, he would stop it by waving his arms, and then say, “You are not allowed to cross. The King has appointed me to count the waves here, and your vessel is disturbing them.” He would argue back and forth, and only relent when he had extracted a bribe. In this way, he became a rich man again.


Gâòapatya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a worshiper of Gaòeäa.

Gandharvas: (sáns. vaiëòava). celestial beings situated in the higher planets who are especially noted for their expertise in singing and music.

Gaôgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the holy river, Gaôgâ, also known as the Ganges (see Gaôgâ in the Glossary of Places).

Gaùhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the formation, structure, or composition of a thing.

Gauàîya Vaiëòava âcâryas: (sáns. vaiëòava). prominent teachers in the line of Lord Caitanya.

Gauàîya Vaiëòava Sampradâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the school of Vaiëòavism following in the line of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Gauòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means “that which possesses qualities” or “that which is secondary.” Relates to a quality, having qualities; connected to the three guòas (qualities of material nature); subordinate, secondary, unessential.

Gaurâbda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a year in the era beginning from the appearance of Ärî Gaurâôga Mahâprabhu (corresponding to 1486 AD).

Gaura-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the divine pastimes of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, who is identical to Ärî Kèëòa.

Gaura-Nâma-Rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental taste which comes from chanting the holy name of Lord Gaura.

Gâyatrî-mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred mantra repeated by brâhmaòas at the three junctures of the day. The gâyatrî mantra is personified as a goddess, the wife of Brahmâ and mother of the four Vedas (see dîkëâ-mantra).

Ghâùa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a landing-stage (as on the bank of a river, pond, and so on).

Ghaùa-âkâäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). is the space that one can see in a pot. (Maha-âkâäa is the great unlimited sky).

Godruma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine divisions of Navadvîpa (see Glossary of Places).

Gopas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cowherd boys who serve Kèëòa in the mood of intimate friendship. This may also refer to the elderly gopas headed by Nanda Mahârâja who serve Kèëòa in the mood of parental affection.

Gopîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). the young cowherd maidens of Vraja headed by Ärîmatî Râdhikâ who serve Kèëòa in the mood of amorous love. This may also refer to the elderly gopîs headed by mother Yaäodâ who serve Kèëòa in the mood of parental affection.

Go-äâlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). shelter for the cows.

Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is the master of his senses; a title for those in the renounced order of life. This often refers to the renowned followers of Caitanya Mahâprabhu who adopted the lifestyle of mendicants. Descendants of the relatives of such Gosvâmîs or of their sevaites often adopt this title merely on the basis of birth. In this way, the title Gosvâmî has evolved into use as a surname. Leading temple administrators are also sometimes referred to as Gosvâmîs.

Gèhastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the word stha means “to reside.” The word gèha means “house,” and also refers to the family members who inhabit a house; as a verb, it means “to grasp, take on, or accept.” The second âärama or stage of life in the varòâärama system; family life.

Gèhastha-tyâgî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has renounced household life.

Gullî-àaòàâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a game played with a bat and stick.

Guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) in relationship to Kèëòa this refers to His transcendental qualities which are heard, described, and meditated upon by bhaktas as part of the practice of sâdhana-bhakti. (2) qualities of objects such as hardness and softness. (3) qualities in general such as compassion, tolerance, and mercy. (4) the three ropes (binding qualities) known as – sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas (ignorance).

Guòâvatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the primary presiding deities of the tri-guòas (three guòas), Viëòu, Brahmâ and Äiva presiding over the qualities of sattva, rajas, and tamas respectively.


Haêsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third stage of sannyâsa, as mentioned in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this äloka, Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura defines an ascetic in the haêsa stage as jñâna-âbhyâsa-niëùhâ, one established in the cultivation of transcendental knowledge.

Hari: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Ärî Kèëòa (see Glossary of Names).

Hari-kathâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). narrations of the holy name, form, qualities, and pastimes of Ärî Hari.

Hari-nâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. Unless accompanied by the word saôkîrtana, it usually refers to the practice of chanting the Hare Kèëòa mahâ-mantra to oneself on a strand of tulasî beads.

Hari-vâsara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the day of Lord Hari; this refers especially to Ekâdaäî; it also refers to other holy days such as Janmâëùamî and Râmanavamî (check this Glossary for explanation of these terms).

Haviëya: (sáns. vaiëòava). rice dried in the sun, cooked with water and mixed with ghee

Heya: (sáns. vaiëòava). undesirable; fit to be given up; contemptible, base, vile.

Hlâdinî: (sáns. vaiëòava). this refers to svarûpa-äakti which is predominated by hlâdinî (see svarûpa-äakti). Hlâdinî is the potency which relates to the ânanda, or bliss, aspect of the Supreme Lord. Although the Supreme Lord is the embodiment of all pleasure, hlâdinî is that potency by which He relishes transcendental bliss and causes others to taste bliss. When viäuddha-sattva is predominated by hlâdinî, it is known as guhya-vidyâ, or confidential knowledge. This guhyavidyâ has two faculties: bhakti and that which bestows bhakti. It is by these two agencies that bhakti, which consists of prîti (prema), is manifest. Bhakti which is of the nature of prîti is itself a special feature of guhya-vidyâ.


Ibâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for divine worship. Ignorance five types: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Brahmâ first creates these five types of ignorance (Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam 3.12.2.). Because of the desire to enjoy mâyâ, the jîva develops the false ego that he can enjoy material sense gratification, and then the five types of ignorance: (sáns. vaiëòava). tamaì (not knowing anything about the spirit soul), moha (the illusion of the bodily concept of life), mahâ-moha (madness for material enjoyment), tâmisra (forgetfulness of one’s constitutional position due to anger or envy) and andha-tâmisra (considering death to be the ultimate end) – cover his pure, atomic nature.

Îäânugata: (sáns. vaiëòava). those who are devoted or surrendered to Îëa (Ärî Bhagavân); the Vaiëòavas.

Iähqh: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for love (spiritual or mundane).

Iëùa-deva: (sáns. vaiëòava). one’s worshipful deity; the particular form of Kèëòa toward whom one is attracted and who is the object of one’s love and service.

Îävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord or Supreme Controller.

Itihâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) history in general. (2) a book which contains instructions on dharma, artha, kâma, and mokëa, and narrations of ancient events (dharmârtha-kâma-mokëâòâm upadeäa-samanvitam pûrva-vèta kathâ-yuktam itihâsaê pracakëate). This definition is quoted in Gauòîya-Vaiëòava-abhidhâna. (3) the fifth Veda. According to both äruti and smèti, the Itihâsa and the Purâòas are considered the fifth Veda. Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (3.12.39) states, itihâsa-purâòâni pañcamaê vedam; and (1.4.20), itihâsa purâòañ ca pañcamo veda ucyate. In his commentary on (1.4.20), Jîva Gosvâmî quotes the Mahâbhârata (Mokëa-dharma 340.21), vedân adhyâpayâmâsa mahâbhârata-pañcamân iti, “Vyâsa taught the Vedas along with the fifth of their number, the Mahâbhârata.” Similarly in Manu-smèti (3.232) it is said, âkhyânânîtihâsaêä ca. In his Manu-vartha-muktâvalî commentary on this äloka, Kullûka Bhaùùa (a celebrated commentator on Manusmèti from the twelfth century) states, itihâsân mahâbhâratâdîn, “The word itihâsân refers to the Mahâbhârata and other literature.” These references establish that the word itihâsa specifically refers to the Mahâbhârata. Within the Mahâbhârata is found the Bhagavad-Gîtâ, which is accepted as the essence of all the Vedas even by Ärî Äaôkarâcârya, who states in the introduction to his Gîtâ commentary, tad idaê gîtâ-äâstraê samasta-vedârtha-sârasaôgraha-bhûtam, “This Gîtâ-äâstra is the essence of the purport of all the Vedas.” This further confirms that the itihâsa is part of the body of Vedic literature. Äruti itself (Chândogya Upaniëad 7.1.2) declares that the Itihâsa and Purâòas are the fifth Veda among the body of Vedic literature, itihâsaê purâòaê pañcamaê vedânâê vedam.


Jaàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). inanimate object; worldly, material.

Jaàa-anurâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). attachment for mundane material objects.

Jaàa-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material or external potency also known as mâyâ.

Jaàîya-kâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). material time which is designated by the divisions of past, present, and future.

Jaiva-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the constitutional function of the jîva; unadulterated love for the Supreme Lord.

Jaôgama: (sáns. vaiëòava). moving living beings such as animals, birds, insects, aquatics, and humans.

Janma: (sáns. vaiëòava). birth, origin.

Janmâëùamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance day of Lord Ärî Kèëòa which occurs on the eighth day of the dark lunar fortnight of the month of Bhâdra (August-September). According to the Viëòu Purâòa, however, Janmâëùamî occurs on the eighth day of the dark lunar fortnight of the month of Ärâvaòa (July-August). The reason for this difference is that in some years the mukhya-cândra-mâsa, or principal lunar month falls in Ärâvaòa. The mukhya-cândra-mâsa refers to a lunar month which ends with a conjunction of planets, whereas gauòacândra- mâsa refers to a lunar month which ends with an opposition of planets. When the mukhya-cândra-mâsa occurs in Ärâvaòa, Janmâëùamî falls in that month instead of Bhâdra.

Japa: (sáns. vaiëòava). loud chanting or soft utterance of the holy names of Kèëòa to oneself; usually referring to the practice of chanting hari-nâma on tulasî beads. The word japa comes from the verbal root jap which means to utter or whisper repeatedly (especially prayers or incantations). In the Äabda-kalpa-druma, japa has been defined as the utterance of mantras either within the heart or verbally. In Haribhakti-vilâsa (17.155-159) Ärîla Sanâtana Gosvâmî describes japa in the following words:

In the Nèsiêha-Purâòa it is said that japa-yajña is of three kinds: (1) vâcika (verbal), (2) upâêäu (in a whisper), and (3) mânasika (within the mind). When a mantra is pronounced very distinctly either in a high, low, or resonant voice it is known as vâcika-japa. When a mantra is uttered slowly with slight movement of the lips and can be heard only by one’s own ears it is known as upâêäu-japa. When one meditates on the meaning of the mantra by application of the intelligence going repeatedly from one syllable to the next and from one word to the next it is known as mânasika-japa.”

Jâti: (sáns. vaiëòava). caste, race, or pecies.

Jâti-bheda: (sáns. vaiëòava). caste distinction; the difference between various castes or species.

Jism: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for matter.

Jîva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal individual living entity who, in the conditioned state of material existence, assumes a material body in any of the innumerable species of life.

Jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) knowledge, (2) knowledge which leads to impersonal liberation: this concerns the âtmâ’s distinction from matter and its identity with brahma.

Jñâna-adhikâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). eligibility for knowledge leading to liberation.

Jñâna-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a division of the Vedas which relates to knowledge of the one, undifferentiated spirit known as brahma.

Jñâna-mudrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the traditional posture of the hand formed with the tip of the thumb touching the tip of the index finger.

Jñâna-niëùhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). those who are fixed in the pursuit of monistic knowledge aiming at liberation.

Jñâna-viddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). vaiëòava-dharma which is adulterated with jñâna, knowledge directed toward the attainment of impersonal liberation.

Jñâna-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of spiritual realization through a philosophical search for truth.

Jñânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who pursues the path of jñâna, or knowledge, directed toward impersonal liberation.


Kali-yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the present age of quarrel and hypocrisy which began five thousand years ago (see yuga).

Kâmya-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious rites performed to obtain some specific material benefit.

Kaniëùha-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the neophyte practitioner of bhakti.

Karatâlas: (sáns. vaiëòava). small brass hand cymbals used for devotional songs.

Karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) any activity performed in the course of material existence. (2) pious activities leading to material gain in this world or in the heavenly planets after death. (3) fate; former acts leading to inevitable results.

Karma-adhikâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). eligibility for pious action leading to material gain.

Karma-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a division of the Vedas which relates to the performance of ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites directed toward material benefits or liberation.

Karma-viddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). vaiëòava-dharma which is adulterated with karma, activities directed toward material benefits.

Karma-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path to God realization through dedication of the fruits of one’s work to God.

Karmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who pursues the Vedic path of karma directed toward material gain or elevation to the heavenly planets.

Kârya-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the potency by which activity is carried out.

Kauòî: (sáns. hindú). a small shell used as currency.

Kâya-vyûha: (sáns. hindú). direct expansions. All the four types types of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ’s sakhîs are nitya-siddha, and they are direct expansions (kâya-vyûha) of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ’s own svarûpa. She eternally manifests eight bhâvas as the eight principle sakhîs and Her four different types of service moods as the four different types of sakhîs namely, priya-sakhîs, narma-sakhîs, prâòa-sakhîs, and parama-preëùha sakhîs. All these sakhîs are kâya-vyûha direct expansions, whereas the sâdhana-siddha gopîs are not expansions. The queens in Dvârakâ fall into a different category of expansion known as vaibhava-prakâäa, and the Lakëmîs in Vaikuòùha are vaibhava-vilâsa expansions of Ärîmatî Râdhârânî. The wives of Vâmana and other avatâras in Devaloka are also expansions. Durgâ-devî in this world is a material expansion.

Kâyastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a particular caste in Hindu society; those born from a këatriya father and a sûdra mother. They are generally well-educated, and many work as writers. The kâyasthas claim to be descendents of Citragupta (the scribe of Yamarâja).

Kâzî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Muslim magistrate, usually the ruler of a town or city (like a mayor).

Khicarî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a savory dish of rice and dahl boiled together with ghee and spices.

Khodâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for God.

Kîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). congregational singing of Kèëòa’s holy names, sometimes accompanied by music. This may also refer to loud individual chanting of the holy name, as well as oral descriptions of Bhagavân names, forms, qualities, associates, and pastimes. Kîrtana is the most important of the nine aôgas of bhakti.

Kèëòa-bahirmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). being oblivious to Kèëòa due to having one’s attention focused outwardly toward the material world; ignorance of Kèëòa and enthrallment with material enjoyment.

Kèëòa-dâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). service to Kèëòa; the dharma, or spiritual function of the jîva. In its perfectional state this refers to prema.

Kèëòa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the divine pastimes of Ärî Kèëòa (see lîlâ).

Kèëòa-prema: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure love for Kèëòa (see prema).

Kèëòa-unmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). those whose attention is focused upon Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-vimukhatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the state of having one’s attention turned away from Kèëòa; the state of absorption in the material world.

Këatriya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second of the four varòas, or castes, in the varòâärama system; an administrator or warrior.

Këayonmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the decline or diminution of any object or thing; the stage in which a jîva’s relationship with the material world gradually diminishes due to engagement in spiritual practice.

Këudra-cetana: (sáns. vaiëòava). possessing minute consciousness; the living entities.

Kuñja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a grove or bower; a natural shady retreat with sides and a roof formed mainly by trees and climbing plants.

Kuùicaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first of four stages of sannyâsa. According to the Vedic system, when one first renounces family life, the ascetic will construct a cottage (kuùîra) just outside his village and will accept the necessities for his maintenance from his family members or the villagers. This stage has been referred to in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (3.12.43). In Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura’s commentary on the afore-referenced äloka, he defines the kuùicaka stage as svâärama-karma-pradhâna, predominated by the performance of karma which pertains to one’s own âärama, or stage of life.

Kuùîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a cottage or hut.


Laukika: (sáns. vaiëòava). worldly, mundane, secular, pertaining to the material world.

Laukika-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). worldly knowledge, knowledge of worldly phenomena.

Laukika-äraddhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). worldly regard; faith which is based on custom or tradition and not on a deep understanding of the äâstra.

Lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). divine sportive pastimes. Ärî Bhagavân’s activities, whether in the matter of the creation of the material world or in the matter of transcendental exchanges of love with His bhaktas, are never under the influence of karma or material nature. They are all manifestations of His self-willed potencies and are therefore known as lîlâ, divine sport or play. These pastimes are heard, described, and meditated upon by bhaktas as part of the practice of sâdhana-bhakti.

Lîlâ-avatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa’s lîlâ (pastime) manifestations e.g. Nèëiêha,Varâha, Kûrma etc.

Lîlâ-kathâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). descriptions or narrations of the Lord’s divine pastimes.

Liôga-äarîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the subtle material body consisting of mind, intelligence, and ego.

Lobhamayî-äraddhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). means that the bhakta wants to serve Kèëòa in one of the four rasas: dâsya, sakhya, vâtsalya or mâdhurya, following in the footsteps of the vraja-vâsîs. He should be greedy to attain this. That is called lobhamayî-äraddhâ.

Loùâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a thin steel container for water.


Mâdhavî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a fragrant flower which is white when it blossoms and turns pink during the course of the day; the vine of the mâdhavî flower.

Mâdhukarî: (sáns. vaiëòava). collecting alms from door to door in the manner of a bee who collects honey (madhu) by going from flower to flower.

Mâdhurya: (sáns. vaiëòava). sweetness or beauty. In regard to bhakti this refers to devotion which is inspired by attraction to Kèëòa’s sweet and intimate feature as a beautiful young cowherd boy. This type of devotion allows for the greatest exchange of love between Him and His bhaktas.

Mâdhurya-rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). love or attachment toward Kèëòa which is expressed in the mood of a lover.

Madhyâhna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third period of the day; mid-day, noon (see aëùakâlîya-lîlâ).

Madhyama-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the practitioner of bhakti who is on an intermediate level.

Mahâbhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest stage of prema or divine love. In Ujjvalanîlamaòi (14.154) mahâbhâva is defined: “When anurâga reaches a special state of intensity, it is known as bhâva or mahâbhâva. This state of intensity has three characteristics: (1) anurâga reaches the state of sva-samvedya, which means that it becomes the object of its own experience, (2) it becomes prakâäita, radiantly manifest, which means that all eight sâttvika-bhâvas become prominently displayed, and (3) it attains the state of yâvad âäraya-vètti, which means that the active ingredient of this intensified state of anurâga transmits the experience of Râdhâ and Kèëòa’s bhâva to whomever may be present and qualified to receive it. This includes both the sâdhaka and siddha-bhaktas.”

Mahâjana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great personality who teaches and sets an example for others.

Mahânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the head of a monastery or temple.

Mahâprabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Ärî Kèëòa Caitanya (see Caitanya in the Glossary of Names).

Mahâ-âkâäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). is the great, unlimited sky or space.

Mahâprasâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). see prasâda.

Mahâtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). magnanimous or great soul; a title of respect offered to those elevated in spiritual consciousness.

Mahâvâkya: (sáns. vaiëòava). principal statements or utterances of the Upaniëads. Praòava (oê) is the true mahâvâkya of the Vedas as established in Chapter Twelve. However, Ärî Äaôkarâcârya has widely broadcast four aphorisms as mahâvâkyas. Therefore, the word mahâvâkya has come to be associated with these expressions: ahaê brahmâsmi, “i am brahma,” (Bèhad-âraòyaka Upaniëad, 1.4.10); tat tvam asi ävetaketo,

O Ävetaketo, you are that” (Chândogya Upaniëad, 6.8.7); prajñânaê brahma, “The supreme knowledge is brahma,” (Aitareya Upaniëad, 1.5.3); and sarvaê khalv idaê brahma, “All the universe is brahma.” (Chândogya Upaniëad, 3.14.1.)

Mâlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). see tulasî-mâlâ.

Malphuì: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for ignorance.

Mâlatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a kind of jasmine flower or its plant.

Mâmâjî: (sáns. vaiëòava). maternal uncle.

Mamatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means ‘my-ness’; attachment or possessiveness. Mamatâ for material objects or persons is the cause of bondage, whereas mamatâ for guru, Vaiëòavas, and spiritual objects is the cause of liberation; in the spiritual world mamatâ is one of the characteristics of prema.

Mâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). consists of the bhâvas (such as Ärîmatî Râdhikâ’s jealous anger) that prevent the nâyaka and nâyikâ from meeting freely, although they are together, and attracted to each other.

Mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mystical äloka composed of the names of Ärî Bhagavân which addresses any individual deity. Mantras are given to a disciple by a guru at the time of dîkëâ. The question may be raised that since bhagavan-nâma is independent, how can mantras, which are composed of the names of the Lord (bhagavan-nâma), be dependent upon dîkëâ? Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî has discussed this question in Bhaktisandarbha (Anuccheda 284). He says that mantras are bhagavannâmâtmikâ. This means that mantras are composed of the names of Bhagavân. The difference is that mantras also contain some special words like nama, svâhâ, and klîê. Ärî Bhagavân and the èëis have invested mantras with special power by which those mantras reveal one’s own specific relationship with Kèëòa. Therefore it may seem that mantras are endowed with some special potencies that are not invested in nâma. A contradiction arises because if bhagavan-nâma (which is lacking these special attributes) is able to bestow the supreme object of attainment (parama-puruëârtha) without any need for dîkëâ, how is it that mantras are dependent on dîkëâ when they are even more powerful than nâma? Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî analyzes that by the constitutional nature of mantras, they are not dependent on dîkëâ. Nonetheless, people in general are influenced by the bodily conception and their hearts are polluted with abominable desires. In order to curb these tendencies, the èëis have established regulations to be followed in the arcaòa-mârga. Otherwise, by constitutional nature, there is no difference between nâma and mantra in the matter of their independence of any formalities. Nâma, being non-different from nâmî, or Bhagavân Himself, is already invested with all potencies. Therefore in actuality, the glory of nâma is superior to that of mantras. Yet Jîva Gosvâmî says that the dîkëâ-mantras are invested with the power to reveal the sâdhakas’ specific relationship with the Lord – ärî bhâgavatâ samam âtmasambandha-viäeëa-pratipâdakâä ca (Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 284). The same thing is stated in Anuccheda 283: divyaê-jñânaê hy atra ärîmati mantre bhagavat-svarûpa-jñânaê tena bhagavatâ sambandha-viäeëa-jñânaê ca (see dîkëâ). This means that when a guru who is situated on the platform of bhâva gives dîkëâ, the mantras are invested with the knowledge of Bhagavân’s svarûpa and knowledge of one’s specific relationship with Him. Therefore, those who are desiring to attain the prema-sevâ of Ärî Kèëòa in Vraja in one of the four relationships of dâsya, sakhya, vâtsalya, or madhura should accept dîkëâ-mantras from a guru who is established in one of these moods.

Manu-saêhitâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a religious äâstra spoken by the forefather of mankind Manu, delineating the codes of behavior for all human beings.

Mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). illusion; that which is not; Ärî Bhagavân’s external potency which influences the living entities to accept the false egoism of being independent enjoyers of this material world.

Mâyâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the potency that creates bewilderment, which is responsible for the manifestation of the material world, time, and material activities.

Mâyâvâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the doctrine of illusion; a theory advocated by the impersonalist followers of Äaôkarâcârya which holds that the Lord’s form, this material world, and the individual existence of the living entitities are mâyâ or false.

Mâyâvâdî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who advocates the doctrine of illusion (see mâyâvâda).

Mâyâ-vikrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). see mâyâ-äakti.

Mâyika-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fundamental truth concerning Bhagavân’s deluding potency, which relates to the material world. One of the aspects of sambandha-jñâna.

Mîmâêsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a philosophical doctrine which has two divisions: (1) pûrva or karma-mîmâêsâ founded by Jaiminî, which advocates that by carrying out the ritualistic karma of the Vedas, one can attain the celestial planets, and (2) uttara-mîmâêsâ founded by Bâdarâyaòa Vyâsadeva, which deals with the nature of brahma. (See pûrvamîmâêsâ and uttara-mîmâêsâ).

Mîmâêsaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a philosopher. One who adheres to the mîmâêsâ philosophical doctrine of which there are two divisions. This usually refers to those who follow the karma-mîmâêsâ of Jaimini.

Mîmâêsâ-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) a äâstra which ascertains fundamental philosophical truths through analytical examination. (2) äâstra dealing with a branch of Vedic philosophy (see mîmâêsâ).

Miära: (sáns. vaiëòava). mixed, adulterated.

Mithyâ-abhimâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). false egoism; identification with the gross and subtle material bodies.

Mleccha: (sáns. vaiëòava). derived from the sanskrit root mlech meaning to utter indistinctly (sanskrit) – a foreigner; non-âryan; a man of an outcaste race; any non-Sanskrit-speaking person who does not conform to the Hindu social and religious customs.

Mokëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). see mukti.

Mèdaôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a double-headed clay drum which is used in the performance of devotional songs.

Mujarrad: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for spirit or consciousness.

Mukta-daäâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberated state.

Mukta-jîva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the liberated soul; those who are liberated from the influence of material nature while still residing in this world, or those who reside in the spiritual world.

Mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberation from material existence. There are five types of liberation: sârûpya (obtaining the same form as Bhagavân), sâmîpya (living in close proximity to Bhagavân), sâlokya (living on the same planet as Bhagavân), sârëùi (having the same opulence as Bhagavân), and sâyujya (becoming one with Ärî Bhagavân either by merging into His body or by merging into His brahma effulgence). The last type is vehemently rejected by the bhaktas. Although the other four types of mukti are sometimes accepted by bhaktas as they are not entirely incompatible with bhakti, they are never accepted by those who are fixed on attaining unalloyed love for Ärî Kèëòa in Vraja.

Mukulita-cetana: (sáns. vaiëòava). budding consciousness. This refers to human beings whose consciousness is superior to that of lower life-forms, but who are devoid of morality and ethics. It also refers to those who have a conventional sense of morality, but who have no faith in God.

Mullah: (sáns. vaiëòava). Muslim religious scholar Mumukëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the desire for liberation.

Mumukëu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person who is seeking liberation.

Mûrti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Deity form of Ärî Bhagavân.


Nagara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town or city.

Nagara-saôkîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). act of singing religious songs in procession through a city or village.

Naimittika-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the temporary or circumstantial function of an object or conscious being; that which relates to one’s acquired nature; circumstantial duty or religion.

Naimittika-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). occasional religious duties induced by specific circumstances.

Naimittika-sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious actions which bear temporary results; pious actions leading to material enjoyment, opulence, acquisition of knowledge, and mystic powers.

Naiëùhika-brahmacârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who accepts a life-long vow of celibacy.

Naitika: (sáns. vaiëòava). that which is related to morality and ethics (see nîti).

Nâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the holy name of Kèëòa, chanted by bhaktas as the main limb of the practice of sâdhana-bhakti.

Nâma-bhajana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the practice of chanting the holy name softly to oneself on tulasî beads.

Nâmâbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a semblance of the holy name. The stage of chanting in which one is becoming cleared of sins and offenses but has not yet attained pure chanting.

Nâma-aparâdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). offensive chanting of the holy name, or chanting of the holy name which is subject to the ten kinds of nâma-aparâdha. (see Chapter 24).

Nâma-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental taste which comes from chanting the holy name.

Nâma-saôkîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the practice of chanting the holy name of Kèëòa, especially congregational chanting.

Nâmaëkâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). offering obeisance, or the act of offering adoration, praise, or reverence. Obeisance to Ärî Bhagavân is of four types: (1) abhivâdana, salutation or bowing; (2) aëùaôga, prostrated obeisance performed with eight parts of the body (two hands, two feet, two knees, the chest, and the forehead); (3) pañcaôga, obeisance performed with five parts of the body (two knees, two arms, and the forehead); and (4) kara-äira-saêyoga, obeisance by joining the hands to the head and bowing..

Nâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân; the person addressed by the name.

Namâz: (sáns. vaiëòava). a system of Muslim prayer Nara-mâtram: (sáns. vaiëòava). refer to all human beings, regardless of caste, creed, or material designation.

Nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). an expansion of Kèëòa. The opulent Lord of Vaikuòùha.

Navadhâ-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). nine primary types of bhakti: äravaòam, kîrtanam, viëòu-smaraòam, pâda-sevanam, arcanam, vandanam, dâsyam, sakhyam, and âtma-nivedanam – hearing, chanting, and remembering the glories of Kèëòa, serving His lotus feet, worshiping Him, praying to Him, carrying out His orders in the mood of a servant, making friends with Him, and offering one’s very self to Him (see under the individual headings for more information on each of these).

Nimitta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a cause, reason, motive, instrument, or agent.

Nirapekëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vaiëòava who is detached from all material enjoyment and the designations associated with varòâärama; literally means independent, or one who is without needs.

Nirbheda: (sáns. vaiëòava). undifferentiated; that which is devoid of distinguishing characteristics or qualities; often used as an adjective to describe the impersonal brahma.

Nirbheda-brahma-jñânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who seeks to attain the impersonal brahma through the process of monistic knowledge.

Nirguòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). free from the influence of the material qualities of goodness, passion, and ignorance. In relationship to Ärî Kèëòa, this implies that He is endowed with transcendental qualities.

Nirvâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). extinction, disappearance, dissolution; final emancipation from matter and re-union with the Supreme Spirit; Mâyâvâda conception – absolute extinction or annihilation of individual existence.

Niäânta-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa’s daily pastimes are divided into eight periods.

Niäânta-lîlâ takes place at the end of night just prior to dawn (see aëùa-kâlîya-lîlâ).

Nisarga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the acquired nature of a thing; that nature which is acquired through long association or identification; the distorted nature of a thing.

Niëùhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). firm faith; steadiness in one’s devotional practices. This is the fourth stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti.

Niëùhâ occurs after the elimination of the major portion of one’s anarthas.

Nîti: (sáns. vaiëòava). moral science, ethics, social morality, moral conduct or behavior; political wisdom or science.

Nitya: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal; invariable; daily; that which has no beginning and no end.

Nitya-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal characteristic function of a thing, or that which relates to its eternal constitutional function.

Nitya-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). daily obligatory religious duties.

Nitya-satya: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal truth or reality.

Nitya-sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious deeds which bear eternal results; pious deeds which foster the eternal function of bhakti, such as the association of bhaktas and contact with acts of devotion.

Nitya-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal truth, reality or philosophical principle.

Nivètti-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of detachment or abstinence from material fruitive action and ritualistic religion.

Nyâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the philosophy dealing with a logical analysis of reality, also known as nyâya-daräana. This system of philosophy was founded by Mahaèëi Gautama (see Gautama in the Glossary of Names). The nyâya-daräana accepts sixteen principles: 1) pramâòa (evidence; the means to obtain factual knowledge), 2) prameya (that which is to be ascertained by real knowledge), 3) saêäaya (doubt about the point to be discussed), 4) prayojana (a motive for discussing the point in question), 5) dèëùânta (citing instances or examples), 6) siddhânta (demonstrated conclusion of an argument), 7) avayava (component parts of a logical argument or syllogism), 8) tarka (persuasive reasoning), 9) niròaya (deduction, conclusion, or application of a conclusive argument), 10) vâda (thesis, proposition, or argument), 11) jalpa (striking disputation or reply to defeat the argument of the opposition), 12) vitaòêâ (destructive criticism; idle carping at the assertions of another without attempting to prove the opposite side of the question) 13) hetv-âbhâsa (fallacy; the mere appearance of a reason), 14) chala (deceitful disputation; perverting the sense of the opposing party’s words), 15) jâti (logic based merely on false similarity or dissimilarity), and 16) nigraha-sthâna (a weak point in an argument or fault in a syllogism).

According to nyâya-daräana, misery is of nineteen types: the material body, the six senses including the mind, the six objects of the senses, and the six transformations – birth, growth, production, maintenance, dwindling, and death. In addition to these, happiness is considered as the twentieth form of misery because it is simply a transformed state of distress. The naiyâyikas, adherents of the nyâya-daräana, accept four types of evidence: pratyakëa (direct perception), anumâna (inference), upamâna (comparison), and äabda (the authority of the Vedas). The nyâya-daräana accepts the existence of eternal infinitesimal particles known as paramâòu. These, they claim, are the fundamental ingredients from which the creation has sprung. But in order for the creation to take place, there is need of an administrator who is known as Îävara, Ärî Bhagavân. Bhagavân creates the world by setting the atomic particles in motion. Like these atomic particles, Îävara is eternal and without beginning. Although the naiyâyikas accept the existence of Îävara, they do not believe that He personally carries out the creation. He is merely the primeval cause. By His desire, the atoms are set into motion whereupon they create all the subtle and gross elements from which the creation comes about. According to the nyâya-daräana, the jîvas are innumerable, eternal, and without beginning. The naiyâyikas do not think that the jîvas are of the nature of consciousness, but that they are only substantive entities which may be associated with intellectual, volitional, or emotional qualities as a result of a proper combination of causes and conditions. The nyâya-daräana advocates that the jîva and Îävara are two entirely separate truths. The jîva’s material existence is due to karma. The creation occurs under the influence of karma, and within the creation the jîvas suffer the reactions of their karma. Îävara’s sole function is to set the creation in motion and to reward the results of karma. The naiyâyikas say that the jîva can attain liberation from material existence through philosophical knowledge of the sixteen principles. They define mukti as complete cessation of material misery. There is no factual happiness in mukti. In this liberated condition the jîva is as if unconscious.

Nyâya-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the äâstras dealing with a logical analysis of reality. The precepts of nyâya are mostly explained through analogies drawn from an analysis of common objects such as a clay pot (ghaùa) and a piece of cloth (paùa), so these words are repeatedly encountered in discussions of nyâya.


Pâda-sevanam : (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means to serve the feet. However, the question arises as to how a sâdhaka can serve the feet of the Lord. Therefore in his Krama-sandarbha commentary on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Jîva Gosvâmî has defined pâda-sevanam as follows: pâda-sevâyâê pâda äabdo bhakty eva nirdiëùa tata sevâyâê sâdaratvaê vidhîyate – “In the term pâda-sevâ the word pâda refers only to bhakti. The word sevâ indicates that this bhakti, or service, should be done with great love and respect.” To take daräana of the Deity, to touch the Deity, to do parikramâ of the Deity, to follow the Deity in a procession, to visit the Lord’s temples or holy places such as the Gaôgâ, Puruëottama-këetra, Dvârakâ, and Mathurâ; to observe festivals, and to serve the Vaiëòavas and tulasî are all included in pâda-sevanam. This is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.

Pañca-mahâpâpa : (sáns. vaiëòava). killing a brâhmaòa, drinking intoxicating liquors, theft, committing adultary with the wife of ärî-guru and associating with anyone guilty of these crimes.

Pañcopâsana : (sáns. vaiëòava). worship of the five deities – Sûrya, Gaòeëa, Äakti, Äiva, and Viëòu.

Paòàita : (sáns. vaiëòava). Paòàâ means ‘the intelligence of one who is enlightened by knowledge of the äâstra’, and the word paòàita refers to one who has such intelligence.

Pâpa : (sáns. vaiëòava). sin.

Parabrahma : (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme brahma, the source of the brahma effulgence, Ärî Bhagavân.

Parâk-vètti : (sáns. vaiëòava). the tendency to be focused outward toward the external world or toward the senses and sense objects.

Pâralaukika : (sáns. vaiëòava). concerning the next world; extra-mundane; spiritual.

Parama-dharma : (sáns. vaiëòava). the supreme or ultimate function of the jîva.

Parama-guru : (sáns. vaiëòava). grand-spiritual master; the guru of one’s guru.

Paramahaêsa : (sáns. vaiëòava). the fourth and final stage of sannyâsa, which has been referred to as niëkriya (freedom from all material obligations) in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this äloka, Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura has defined niëkriyâ as prâptatattva, realization of the Supreme Absolute Truth.

Paramârtha : (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest truth; spiritual knowledge; the highest object of attainment.

Pâramârthika : (sáns. vaiëòava). that which relates to the supreme spiritual truth or ultimate reality; real, essential, true; that which relates to a higher object.

Paramâtmâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supersoul situated in the hearts of all living entities as the witness and source of remembrance, knowledge, and forgetfulness.

Paramâtma-pravètti : (sáns. vaiëòava). the tendency of the jîva to seek Kèëòa in the heart, who is known as Paramâtmâ.

Parâ-äakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s superior potency which has three divisions: cit, taùasthâ, and mâyâ.

Paravyoma : (sáns. vaiëòava). means ‘the spiritual sky’. Generally this refers to the region of the spiritual sky where the Vaikuòùha planets reside.

Pâùha-äâlâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means a school in which four subjects (pâùha) are taught. These four subjects refer to the study of the four Vedas or the four subjects – Sanskrit grammar, rhetoric, logic, and philosophy.

Phalgu-vairâgya : (sáns. vaiëòava). futile renunciation; renunciation which is unfavorable to bhakti. This is defined in Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu (1.2.256):

When people who desire liberation give up objects which are related to Kèëòa, considering them to be material, their renunciation is known as phalgu-vairâgya.” Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî has explained in his commentary that this especially refers to giving up prasâda, or remnants of food and other articles offered to Him. This giving up of prasâda is of two types: never requesting Kèëòa’s prasâda, and refusing it when it comes unsolicited. The second one in particular is considered to be an offense and therefore unfavorable to bhakti.

Piòàa : (sáns. vaiëòava). riceballs or flour cake offered to the Pitèis, or deceased ancestors; a ärâddha oblation.

Prabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). master or Lord.

Prabhu-tattva : (sáns. vaiëòava). the fundamental truth concerning Bhagavân, who is the master of the living entities and of material nature. This is one of the aspects of sambandha-jñâna.

Prâdeäika : (sáns. vaiëòava). regional, territorial, provincial. This comes from the word pradeäa, a province. When it is used in reference to particular statements of the Vedas, it means that which is limited to a particular context, or that which defines only a partial aspect of a concept. This is in contrast to mahâvâkyas which are statements defining the underlying essence of the entire Vedas (see mahâvâkya in this Glossary).

Prahara : (sáns. vaiëòava). a day is divided into eight periods known as prahara, each roughly three hours in duration.

Prakâäa : (sáns. vaiëòava). a particular type of manifestation of Bhagavân. When a single form is manifest in many places simultaneously and each of these forms is identical in terms of bodily features, qualities, and pastimes, such a manifestation is called prakâäa.

Prâkèta-bhakta : (sáns. vaiëòava). an unrefined or undeveloped bhakta. This is a term which refers to the kaniëùha, or neophyte bhakta‚ who worships the Deity with faith but who renders no service to the Kèëòa’s bhaktas.

Prakèti : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) nature, the material world, the power that creates and regulates the world. (2) matter as opposed to puruëa, spirit. (3) the primordial female energy, a woman or womankind.

Prakèti Devî : (sáns. vaiëòava). the goddess of nature.

Prâòa-nâtha : (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means the Lord of one’s life, but it carries the sense of one who is infinitely more dear than life itself.

Prâòî : (sáns. vaiëòava). a living or sentient being. Prâòî comes from the word prâòa which means the breath of life or vital air. That which is living, breathing, or possessed of vital air is called prâòî.

Prapatti : (sáns. vaiëòava). surrender or submission to Ärî Bhagavân.

Prârabdha-karma : (sáns. vaiëòava). the results of previous activities which have already begun to bear fruit.

Prasâda : (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means mercy; especially refers to the remnants of food offered to the Deity; may also refer to the remnants of other articles offered to the Deity such as incense, flowers, garlands, and clothing.

Pratibimba-bhakti-âbhâsa : (sáns. vaiëòava). a reflective semblance of bhakti. This refers to those who adopt the practices of bhakti with a desire for material enjoyment and especially liberation. Because these people have no faith in Kèëòa and no desire to please Him, their semblance of bhakti is of the nature of an image which is disconnected from its object, and is therefore compared to a reflection.

Pratyak-vètti : (sáns. vaiëòava). the tendency to be focused inward toward the soul.

Pravètti-mârga : (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of fruitive action or ritualistic religion which yields material piety and the facility to enjoy this material world.

Prayojana : (sáns. vaiëòava). a goal or object of attainment. In terms of bhakti, this refers to the ultimate goal, kèëòa-prema.

Prema : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) love for Kèëòa which is extremely concentrated, which completely melts the heart, and which gives rise to a deep sense of mamatâ or possessiveness in relation to the Lord (this is the general definition of prema given in Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu, 1.4.1). (2) When rati becomes firmly rooted and unchecked by any obstacle it is known as prema. When some cause arises that could conceivably ruin the relationship between the lover and beloved and yet their bond remains completely unaffected, such an intimate loving relationship is known as prema. When prema is augmented, it is gradually transformed into sneha, mâna, praòaya, râga, anurâga, and bhâva. (Ujjvala-nîlamaòi, 14. 59, 63).

Prema-bhakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). a stage of bhakti which is characterised by the appearance of prema (see above); the perfectional stage of devotion; the eighth and fully blossomed state of the bhakti-latâ.

Prema-dharma : (sáns. vaiëòava). the religion which has as its goal the attainment of unalloyed love for Ärî Kèëòa.

Premâdhikâra : (sáns. vaiëòava). eligibility for the unalloyed loving service of Ärî Bhagavân.

Prîti : (sáns. vaiëòava). love for Kèëòa which is also known as prema or bhakti. Jîva Gosvâmî has defined prîti in Prîti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 65): tasyâ hlâdinyâ eva kâpi sarvânandâtiäâyinî vèttir-nityaê bhakta-vèndeëv eva nikëipyamâòâ bhagavat-prîtyâkhyayâ varttate – “When the eternal pleasure-giving faculty of the hlâdinî potency, which alone has the power to bring supreme delight to Kèëòa, manifests in the bhakta’s heart, it is known as bhagavat-prîti, or love for Bhagavân.” The symptom of this prîti is an uninterrupted desire to please the object of prîti, Ärî Kèëòa.

Pèthak : (sáns. vaiëòava). distinct; different.

Purâòas : (sáns. vaiëòava). the eighteen historical supplements to the Vedas.

Pûròa-Brahma : (sáns. vaiëòava). the complete brahma who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavân. Bhagavân is pûrna, the complete reality. Brahma, because it is the bodily effulgence of Bhagavân, is an aspect of that reality.

Pûròa-cetana : (sáns. vaiëòava). possessing full consciousness; Ärî Bhagavân.

Pûròa-äakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). complete potency.

Pûròa-vikasita-cetana : (sáns. vaiëòava). fully blossomed consciousness. This refers to the bhâva-bhaktas, or those who have awakened deep attachment and love for Bhagavân.

Puruëa : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) the primeval being as the soul and original source of the universe, the Supreme Being or Soul of the universe. (2) the animating principle in living beings, the soul, spirit as opposed to prakèti, or matter. (3) a male or mankind.

Puruëârtha : (sáns. vaiëòava). the goals of human attainment. In the Vedic äâstras these are classified into four categories: dharma, religious duty; artha, acquisition of wealth; kâma, satisfaction of material desires; and mokëa, liberation from material existence. Beyond all of these is the development of unalloyed love for the Supreme Lord, who is the embodiment of spiritual bliss and transcendental rasa. This is known as parama-puruëârtha, the supreme object of attainment.

Pûrva-mîmâêsâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). the philosophy established by Mahaèëi Jaimini, also known as jaimini-daräana (see Jaimini in the Glossary of Names). To thoroughly examine a topic and arrive at a conclusion is known as mîmâêsâ. Mîmâêsâ comes from the verbal root man, to think, reflect, or consider. Because in his book, Mahaèëi Jaimini has established the correct interpretation of the Vedic statements and how they may be decided through logical analysis, this book is known as mîmâêsâ-grantha. The Vedas have two divisions: pûrva-kâòàa (the first part), dealing with Vedic karma; and uttarâ-kâòàa (the latter part), dealing with the Upaniëads or Vedânta. Since Jaimini’s book deals with an analysis of the first part of the Vedas, it is called pûrva mîmâêsâ. As Jaimini’s philosophy deals exclusively with an analysis of Vedic karma, it is also known as karma-mîmâêsâ. Jaimini has minutely examined how Vedic ritualistic karma is to be performed and what its results are. He has accepted the Vedas as apauruëeya (not created by any man), beginningless, and eternal. His philosophy is established on the basis of the Vedas. However, he has given prominence only to Vedic karma. He states that the jîvas are meant to performVedic karma only. By proper performance of Vedic karma, one can obtain parama-puruëârtha, the supreme goal, which in his opinion refers to the attainment of the celestial planets. In Jaimini’s view, the visible world is anâdi, without beginning, and it does not undergo destruction. Consequently, there is no need for an omniscient and omnipotent Îävara to carry out the creation, maintenance, and destruction of the world. Jaimini accepts the existence of pious and sinful karma. According to his doctrine, karma automatically yields the results of its own actions. Therefore, there is no need for an Îävara to award the results of karma.

Putra : (sáns. vaiëòava). a son; one who delivers his forefathers from the hell known as put.


Râga : (sáns. vaiëòava). a deep attachment which is permeated by spontaneous and intense absorption in the object of one’s affection. The primary characteristic of râga is a deep and overpowering thirst for the object of one’s affection. The desire for water is called thirst. When the body is deprived of water, thirst arises. The greater the thirst, the greater the longing for water. When this thirst reaches the point that without water one can no longer maintain the body, it is known as an overpowering thirst. Similarly, when the loving thirst to please the object of one’s affection becomes so intense that in the absence of such service one is on the verge of giving up his life, it is known as râga.

Râga-mârga : (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of râgâ, or spontaneous attachment; see râgânugâ.

Râgamayî bhakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). bhakti which is permeated with râga, or spontaneous affection. Râgamayî bhakti is not within sâdhana. It refers to the stage after prema has arisen. In the beginning, there is prema, which then develops into sneha, mâna, praòaya, râga, anurâga, bhâva and mahâbhâva. When prema attains the state of râga it is called râgamayî. It comes after one takes his birth in the womb of a gopî and attains the association of Kèëòa’s râgâtmikâ-bhaktas. By that association, first prema will come and then it will gradually evolve to the stage of râga and on up to mahâbhâva. The word tèëòâ used here means ‘thirst’ to drink Kèëòa, His form (rûpa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha), sound (äabda) and touch (sparäa). The word premamayî is a general term that can indicate the stage of prema anywhere in its development from the stage of sneha right up to the stage of mahâbhâva.

Râgânugâ-bhakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). bhakti which follows in the wake of the râgâtmika nature present in the hearts of the Lord’s eternal associates in Vraja is known as râgânugâ-bhakti.

Râgânugâ-prakèti : (sáns. vaiëòava). nature which impels one to follow the soul’s spontaneous attraction toward Kèëòa. When the intelligence is liberated from the bondage of mâyâ, human nature no longer needs to be governed by rules and prohibitions; rather, it is prompted by spontaneous love. The râgânugâ nature is the unadulterated nature of the jîva. It is svabhâva-siddha (the perfected state of the self), cinmaya (transcendental), and jaòa-mukta (free from bondage to dull matter).

Râgânugâ-sâdhana : (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî’s conclusions regarding the method for performing râgânugâ-bhajana are stated in Bhaktirasâmèta-sindhu (1.2.294-296) as follows: “One should constantly remember one’s dearest nava-kiäora Ärî Nanda-nandana and the beloved associates of Kèëòa who are possessed of sajâtîya-bhâva or the identical mood for which one aspires. One should always reside in Ärî Vraja-dhâma with great attachment for hearing topics regarding Kèëòa and His devotees. If one is physically unable to live in Vraja, one should do so mentally. This is the method of râgânugâbhakti-sâdhana.” Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî continues: “A sâdhaka who has lobha for râgânugâ-bhakti should serve Ärî Kèëòa both in the sâdhaka. Rûpa and the siddha-rûpa in accordance with the bhâva of the Vrajaparikaras who possess the same mood for which he aspires. The aôgas of bhakti such as äravana, kîrtana, ärî guru-padaâäraya, and others in regard to vaidhî-bhakti, are also useful and necessary in râgânugâbhakti. But judicious sâdhakas will adopt only those aôgas which nourish their specific bhâva, avoiding those which hamper it.” Examples of the aôgas of bhakti in regard to râgânugâ-sâdhana are as follows: Äravaòam in madhura-rasa means that one will hear how a maidservant serves Lalitâ, Viäâkhâ, Râdhâ and Kèëòa. Kîrtana means that one will learn how to do pati-vañcanam, that is speaking sweet words to the husband in order to cheat him and go to participate in the lîlâ of Râdhâ and Kèëòa. Smaraòam means to remember how Lalitâ and Viäâkhâ are rendering service to Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî. Pâda-sevanam means to take Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî to meet with Kèëòa at night. Arcanam is done with the corner of the eyes. When Kèëòa is returning from the cow-pastures with the cowherd boys and the cows, all the gopîs are standing at their doorsteps doing arcana with the corner of their eyes. Everything is there; the flame is there, water is there, sneha, mâna, praòaya and everything else is there. Kèëòa also accepts their worship with the corner of His eyes. This is called arcana. âtma-nivedanam means gopîjana-vallabhâya svâhâ:

I am the maidservant of Râdhâ and Kèëòa, and I am offering my entire being to Them.”

Râgâtmika : (sáns. vaiëòava). one in whose heart there naturally and eternally exists a deep spontaneous desire to love and serve Ärî Kèëòa; one whose bhakti is permeated with râga. This specifically refers to the eternal residents of Vraja, who are attracted to Ärî Kèëòa in a mood of intimate love, free from any conception of the Lord’s opulence or majesty (aiävarya-jñâna).

Rajas : (sáns. vaiëòava). (See rajo-guòa).

Râjasika : (sáns. vaiëòava). of the nature of rajo-guòa.

Rajo-guòa : (sáns. vaiëòava). the quality or nature of living beings which is characterised by intense activity and passion.

Râma-navamî : (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance day of Ärî Râma which occurs on the ninth day of the light lunar fortnight of the month of Caitra (March-April).

Rañjakatâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). in chapter twenty-one rañjakatâ is used to mean attraction. The special implication is that a person’s heart becomes

colored’, or dyed very thoroughly by an object due to his strong attachment for it. That is the state of râga. When the person sees the beautiful object, his vision at once becomes drawn to it, and his heart becomes colored. Then, even if the beautiful object goes out of his sight, still his heart continues to perceive it everywhere. The coloring of the heart is called rañjakatâ and the strong attachment that is established in the heart when the consciousness becomes dyed in this way is known as râga.

Rasa : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) the spiritual transformation of the heart which takes place when the perfectional state of love for Kèëòa, known as rati, is converted into liquid emotions by combination with various types of transcendental ecstasies. In Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu (2.1.5) bhakti-rasa is defined: “When the sthâyibhâva, or the permanent emotion of the heart in one of the five primary relationships of neutrality, servitude, friendship, parental affection, or conjugal love, mixes with vibhâva, anubhâva, sâttvika-bhâva, and vyabhicârîbhâva, thus producing an extraordinary taste in the heart of the bhakta, it is called bhakti-rasa.” The explanation of bhakti as rasa is the unique contribution of Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî. The common view is that rasa applies to the emotional experience of poetry or drama. This theory of rasa originated from the Nâùya-äâstra of Bharata Muni, a famous work on Sanskrit poetics and drama. Rûpa Gosvâmî’s explanation of how rasa is generated is exactly in accordance with Bharata Muni’s definition; yet he has explained the experience of rasa in terms of bhakti, or love for Kèëòa. Thus, there is both a transcendental and secular conception of rasa. (2) the state of aesthetic consciousness.

Rasarâja : (sáns. vaiëòava). the emperor of rasa; one who is supreme in relishing the mellows of rasa; this is a name for Ärî Kèëòa who is akhila-rasâmètamûrti, the embodiment of the essence of all rasa.

Rasika-bhakta : (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is able to relish bhakti-rasa within his heart. At the stage of bhâva, a bhakta’s heart becomes infused with äuddha-sattva from the heart of one of Kèëòa’s eternal associates in Vraja. This äuddha-sattva is then known as kèëòa-rati, the first dawning of divine love. When this permanent sentiment of love combines with other ecstatic emotions, it generates the unique experience of bhakti-rasa. One who is eligible to taste this rasa is known as a rasika-bhakta.

Rati : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) attachment, fondness for. (2) a stage in the development of bhakti which is synonymous with bhâva (see bhâva-bhakti).

Riraêsâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). means the desire to taste Kèëòa for one’s own enjoyment, not for Kèëòa’s pleasure. If that riraêsâ is to please Kèëòa, then it comes in the category of kâma and prema. Riraêsâ should be present in kâmânuga, whether it is tat-tad-bhâva-icchâmayî or sambhogaicchâmayî; riraêsâ is present in both. Riraêsâ is present in tad-tadbhâva-icchâmayî, but it is tasted when the gopîs and Kèëòa meet together. And in sambhoga-icchâmayî, the gopîs are meeting with Kèëòa in order to please Him. Riraêsâ is also present in Kubjâ, but only to satisfy herself. Riraêsâ is not for one’s personal enjoyment in sambhoga-icchâmayî and tat-tad-bhâva-icchâmayî. If one has this riraêsâ toward Kèëòa and is practicing strictly according to vaidhî-bhakti then he will attain to the class of Kèëòa’s queens in Dvârakâ. In vaidhî-bhakti one worships Lakëmî-Nârâyaòa. Sâdhakas who have riraêsâ towards Kèëòa will attain Kèëòa, but their kâma will be of the nature of Dvârakâ, so they will follow the mahiëîs (queens). Vaidhî means to be married by äâstravidhi. In the vaidhî-bhâva, one desires to have Kèëòa as one’s husband. One may desire the Kèëòa of Vraja, but there is no marriage in Vraja. Therefore, one cannot obtain Vraja bhâva; instead, one will attain Dvârakâ.

Èëi : (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage learned in the Vedas.

Ruci : (sáns. vaiëòava). taste. This is the fifth stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti. Ruci develops after one has acquired steadiness in bhajana. At this stage, with the awakening of actual taste, one’s attraction to spiritual matters, such as hearing, chanting, and other such devotional practices, exceeds one’s attraction to any type of material activity.

Rûh : (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for the soul.

Rûh-mujarrad : (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for the liberated soul.


Sac-cid-ânanda : (sáns. vaiëòava). that which is composed of sat (eternal existence), cit (full spiritual consciousness), and ânanda (spiritual bliss); often refers to the transcendental form of Ärî Kèëòa.

Äacînandana : (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Caitanya Mahâprabhu; the son of mother Äacî (see Caitanya).

Sâdhaka : (sáns. vaiëòava). one who follows a spiritual discipline to achieve a specific goal. In this book this especially refers to a practitioner of bhakti.

Sâdhana : (sáns. vaiëòava). the method one adopts in order to obtain a specific goal is called sâdhana. Without sâdhana one cannot obtain sâdhya, the goal of one’s practice. There are many different types of sâdhana corresponding to various goals. Those who desire material enjoyment adopt the path of karma as their sâdhana. Those who desire liberation adopt the path of jñâna as their sâdhana. Those who aspire for the eternal loving service of Ärî Kèëòa adopt the path of bhakti as their sâdhana. The sâdhana of bhakti refers to spiritual practices such as hearing, chanting, and so on.

Sâdhana-bhakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). the practising stage of devotion; a stage of bhakti in which the various spiritual disciplines performed for the satisfaction of Ärî Kèëòa are undertaken through the medium of the senses for the purpose of bringing about the manifestation of bhâva, or spiritual prema.

Sâdhana-catuëùaya : (sáns. vaiëòava). four types of sâdhana (mentioned in Chapter twelve) which are; nityânitya-vastu-viveka (discriminating between eternal and temporary objects); 2) ihânutra-phala-bhoga-virâga (detachment from enjoying the results of this life and the next life); 3) äama-damâdi sat-sampatti (the six types of opulences headed by control over the mind and senses); and 4) mumukëâ (the desire for liberation).

Sâdhu : (sáns. vaiëòava). derived from the verbal root sâdh meaning to go straight to the goal (like an arrow), or to succeed, thus the sâdhu means one who is straight forward and speaks the truth unaffected by social convention, as does sâdhana mean the process of going straight to the goal. Although in a general sense this may be translated as a religious person or a bhakta, it refers to bhaktas who are highly advanced. Such bhaktas are also known as mahat (great souls) or bhâgavata (bhaktas who embody the characteristics of Bhagavân). Their symptoms are described as follows (Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam 5.5.2-3): mahântas te sama-cittâ praäântâ vimanyava suhèda sâdhavo ye, ye vâ mayîäe kèta-sauhèdârthâ janeëu dehambhara-vârtikeëu gèheëu jâyâtmajarâtimatsu na prîti-yuktâ yâvad-arthâä ca loke – “The mahat or great souls are endowed with the following qualities: They see all jîvas with equal vision. They are fully peaceful because their intelligence is firmly fixed in Kèëòa. They are devoid of anger. They are well-wishing friends to all jîvas. They are sâdhus, meaning that they never consider others‘ faults. They are firmly established in a loving relationship with the Supreme Lord, and they consider prema to be the supreme object of attainment. They do not consider any other object to be worthy of interest. They have no attachment for people who are absorbed in material enjoyment, nor for wife, children, wealth, or home. They have no desire to accumulate wealth beyond what is necessary to maintain their body for the service of Ärî Kèëòa.”

Sâdhu-saôga : (sáns. vaiëòava). the association of highly advanced bhaktas who possess the qualities described above. The word sâdhu-saôga does not mean merely to be in the proximity of advanced bhaktas; it means to seek them out, to remain with them, to offer them obeisances, to serve them as far as possible, to hear spiritual instructions from them, to perform spiritual practices under their direction, to follow in their footsteps, and to conduct one’s life according to their instructions. In Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu (1.2.91) Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî specifically defines what type of sâdhu-saôga we should seek out – sajâtîyâäaye snigdhe sâdhau saôgaì svato vare. He says that we should associate with bhaktas who are significantly more advanced than ourselves, who are soft hearted, and who are established in the mood of service to Kèëòa for which we individually aspire. This is the first development of the creeper of bhakti after its inception in the form of äraddhâ.

Sâdhya : (sáns. vaiëòava). the object or goal which is desired by a person and for the attainment of which he undergoes a suitable process, is known as sâdhya. There are many different types of sâdhyas, or objects of attainment, and these are generally grouped into four categories: dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kâma (material enjoyment), and mokëa (liberation). The sâdhya-vastu, or object of attainment, for the bhaktas is bhagavat-prîti, love for the Supreme Lord. This is also known as prema. Bhakti or prema, being an eternal function of Ärî Bhagavân’s svarûpa-äakti, is not produced by anything. Yet, when the bhakta’s heart is purified by performing sâdhana-bhakti, it becomes fit to receive the manifestation of His hlâdinî or pleasure giving potency. At that time Kèëòa manifests this potency in the bhakta’s heart and it becomes known as bhagavatprîti (see prîti and puruëârtha).

Sâdhya, susiddha, siddha and ari : (sáns. vaiëòava). These are four kinds of doëa (faults) calculated according to jyotiëa-äâstra concerning the nature of a äiëya in accordance with his pûrva-karma. Some of them appear to be good qualities, but from the absolute perspective, anyone who takes a material birth has fault. In this context sâdhya indicates that the candidate has the adhikâra to attain prema-bhakti if he endeavors fully in this life. Susiddha has the adhikâra to attain perfection with very little endeavor and siddha has somewhat less adhikâra than him. Ari indicates that the äiëya has so many ari (inauspicious planets) in his chart that almost any endeavor he makes for bhakti will simply create further hindrances. However, when these four kinds of äiëyas accept kèëòa-mantra from sad-guru all of their hindrances can be removed.

Sâgnika-brâhmaòa : (sáns. vaiëòava). is a brâhmaòa who keeps a perpetual fire burning in his house for the sake of performing yajña.

Äaiva : (sáns. vaiëòava). a worshiper of Ärî Äiva.

Sakhî : (sáns. vaiëòava). a female friend, companion, or attendant.

Sakhya : (sáns. vaiëòava). love or attachment for the Lord which is expressed in the mood of a friend; one of the five
primary relationships with Kèëòa which are established in the heart when the sâdhaka has attained the stage of bhâva or prema. One of the aôgas of sâdhana-bhakti; the worship of the Lord while one is in the stage of sâdhana in the mood of being a friend of the Lord. Although Ärî Bhagavân possesses all opulences and majesty, a bhakta who thinks of the Lord as his friend and endeavors to please Him in this way exhibits this mood of friendship toward the Lord. In the summer season, thinking that his worshipful Lord must be suffering greatly from the heat, the sâdhaka will fan Him and offer Him sandalwood and other fragrant and cooling substances. When one does so, he demonstrates a mood of friendship toward the Lord. The difference between dâsyam and sakhyam is that sakhyam is imbued with viärambha-sevâ, the mood of intimacy, free from any formal restraint. This is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.

Äâkta : (sáns. vaiëòava). a worshiper of Äakti or Durgâ.

Äakti : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) power or potency. (2) the wife of Lord Äiva, also known as Durgâ, who presides over the material energy; one of the five deities worshiped by the pañcopâsakas.

Äâktyâveäa-avatâra : (sáns. vaiëòava). an empowered incarnation; a jîva who, due to submission to Bhagavân becomes âveëa (empowered) by Him to act powerfully on His behalf.

Samâdhi : (sáns. vaiëòava). meditation or deep trance either upon the Paramâtmâ or upon Kèëòa’s lîlâ.

Samâja : (sáns. vaiëòava). human society; a meeting, assembly, congregation or community.

Sâmâjika : (sáns. vaiëòava). that which relates to society and social ideas (see samâja).

Sambandha-jñâna : (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge regarding sambandha-tattva, the mutual relationship between the Lord, the living entities, and the material energy. The word sambandha means connection, relationship, and binding. The living entities are eternally and inseparably connected to the Supreme Lord, who is therefore the true object of relationship. The general relationship between the living entities and Ärî Bhagavân is one of servant and served. But in the perfectional stage of bhakti, one becomes established in a specific relationship with the Lord either as a servant, friend, parent, or beloved.

Sambandha-tattva : (sáns. vaiëòava). the principle regarding the mutual relationships between Bhagavân, the living entities, and the material energy.

Sambhoga : (sáns. vaiëòava). full pleasure. Experienced in the loving dealings between Kèëòa and His associates in Vraja. The object of these dealings, which embody a wonderful, ecstatic sentiment of rejoicing, is solely to give pleasure to each other.

Saêhitâ-äâstras : (sáns. vaiëòava). religious äâstras which delineate the laws for human beings.

Sampradâya : (sáns. vaiëòava). (samyak + pradâya): that process or path that bestows the Supreme Absolute Truth thoroughly and perfectly. A line of disciplic succession; established doctrine transmitted from one teacher to another; a particular system of religious teaching. The Padma Purâòa predicts the advent of four authorized lines of Vaiëòava disciplic succession as well as their founding âcâryas in the age of Kali: ata kalau bhaviëyanti catvâraì sampradâyinaì ärîbrahma-rudra-sanakâ vaiëòavâì këiti-pâvanâ – “In the age of Kali four Vaiëòava sampradâyas will purify the earth. These are known as the Ärî (Lakëmî), Brahmâ, Rudra, and Sanaka (Catuùsana) sampradâyas.” These sampradâyas are renowned by the names of the âcâryas who established their doctrines in recent times (Padma Purâòa): râmânujaê ärî svîcakre madhvâcâryam caturmukha ärî viëòusvâminaê rudro nimbâdityaê catuùsana – “Lakëmîdevî accepted Râmânuja, Caturmukha Brahmâ accepted Madhvâcârya; Rudra accepted Viëòusvâmî; and Catuùsana, the four Kumâras, accepted Nimbâditya as the respective heads of their sampradâyas.” Although Ärî Gaurâôga Mahâprabhu claimed a link with the Madhva sampradâya, His line is distinguished as the Gauòîya sampradâya (the sampradâya established in the land of Gauòa). Because He is Ärî Bhagavân Himself He has presented the highest conceptions of love of God which were previously unknown to any of the sampradâyas.

Saêsâra : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) material existence; the cycle of repeated birth and death. (2) householder life; domestic life.

Saêskâra : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) a sacred or sanctifying ceremony. (2) reformation or training of the mind; impression on the mind of any previous experience or acts done in a former state of existence.

Saêvit : (sáns. vaiëòava). this refers to svarûpa-äakti which is predominated by saêvit (see svarûpa-äakti). Saêvit is the potency which relates to the cit, or cognizant, aspect of Ärî Bhagavân. Although Bhagavân is the embodiment of knowledge, saêvit is the potency by which He knows Himself and causes others to know Him. When the saêvit potency is prominent in viäuddha-sattva, it is known as âtma-vidyâ, knowledge of the individual self and Bhagavân. This âtma-vidyâ has two faculties: (1) jñâna, knowledge itself; and (2) jñâna-pravartaka, one who or that which promotes knowledge. The worshiper’s knowledge is manifest by these two faculties. Knowledge of absolute reality is possible only with the help of âtma-vidyâ.

Sandhinî : (sáns. vaiëòava). this refers to svarûpa-äakti which is predominated by sandhinî (see svarûpa-äakti). Sandhinî is the potency which relates to the sat, or existential aspect of Ärî Bhagavân. This is the potency by which He maintains His own existence and the existence of others. When the sandhinî potency is prominent in viäuddha-sattva, it is known as âdhâra-äakti, the all-accomodating potency. The spiritual abode of the Lord and His associates are manifest by this âdhâra-äakti.

Sandhyâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). evening – the junction of day and night.

Sandhyâ-âratî : (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremony of worshiping a Deity with various types of paraphernalia such as incense, flowers, and a ghee lamp, performed at evening twilight with the chanting of devotional hymns and musical accompaniment.

Sandhyâ-vandanâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). the chanting of Vedic mantras such as brahmagâyatrî at dawn, noon and sunset.

Sâôkhya : (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of knowledge involving an analysis of spirit and matter. This philosophy is atheistic in nature. It was propagated by the sage Kapila, who is different from the avatâra of the Lord known as Kapila, the son of Kardama and Devahûti. The sage Kapila, who was born in the dynasty of Agni, is referred to in the Mahâbhârata (Vana-parva 221.21): kapilaê paramarëiñ ca yaê prâhur yataya sadâ agni sa kapilo nâma sâôkhya-yoga pravartaka – “That person whom the renunciates proclaim as the founder of the sâôkhya-yoga system is the great sage Kapila who appeared in the dynasty of Agni.”

Saôkîrtana : (sáns. vaiëòava). congregational chanting of the names of Kèëòa.

Saôkucita-cetana : (sáns. vaiëòava). contracted consciousness. This refers to animals, birds, insects, and aquatics. Their consciousness is more developed than that of the non-moving entities, yet inferior to human consciousness. Saôkucita-cetana is mainly limited to the activities of eating, sleeping, mating, fearing, moving about of their own volition, fighting with other animals over territory and possessions which they claim as their own, and becoming angry in the face of encroachment. Beings at this stage of consciousness have no knowledge of the next life and no tendency to inquire about God.

Sannyâsa : (sáns. vaiëòava). the fourth âärama, or stage of life in the varòâärama system; renounced ascetic life.

Sannyâsî : (sáns. vaiëòava). a member of the renounced order.

Äaraòâgati : (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as äaraòâpatti; surrender; approaching for refuge or protection. In Bhakti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 236) äaraòâgati is described: ânukûlyasya saôkalpa prâtikûlyasya varjanam rakëiëyatîti viävâso goptètve varaòaê tathâ âtma-nikëepa kârpaòye ëaò-vidhâ äaraòâgati

There are six symptoms of self-surrender: acceptance of that which is favorable to bhagavad-bhajana, rejection of that which is unfavorable, firm faith in the Lord as one’s protector, deliberate acceptance of the Lord as one’s guardian and nourisher, submission of the self, and humility.

Sârârtha-daräinî : (sáns. vaiëòava). commentary on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura gives the following commentary on älokas 11.20.27-30, 32-33: “In the first two älokas quoted above, the nature of a person who is in the beginning stage of eligibility for bhakti is described. By the association of sâdhus one develops a taste for hearing hari-kathâ. At that time he loses interest in all other activities, and begins to chant ärî-nâma with firm determination. However, due to his previous habits and conditioning, he is unable to give up material enjoyment and the desire for such enjoyment. Yet even while engaged in such enjoyment he knows that it is offensive and he condemns it.

What is meant by dèòha-niäcaya, firm determination? ‘Whether my attachment for family, home, and so on is destroyed or increased, whether I experience ten million impediments in bhajana or none, even if I am impelled to lust, or must go to hell for my offenses, I will never give up bhakti. I will not agree to adopt karma or jñâna, even if Brahmâ himself comes to recommend it.’ This is known as dèòhaniäcaya. From the outset, the more one’s bhajana is firmly resolved for bhakti, the less it will be distracted by unfavorable things.

Will the bhakta remain obstructed by desires for material enjoyment? No. This is answered by Ärî Bhagavân in the next two älokas.

By hearing and repeating hari-kathâ, all desires for material enjoyment within the bhaktas heart are gradually destroyed. When the sâdhaka worships Me, I come and sit in his heart, at which time his faults can no longer remain. Why? Because it is not possible for material desires to sit in the same heart with Me, just as it is impossible for the sun and darkness to be present in the same place. The knot of the false ego is pierced without delay, all doubts are dispersed, and the desires for karma are annihilated. This is My eternal edict.’

A bhakta thus develops faith in hearing hari-kathâ, and having abandoned faith in the pursuits of karma and jñâna, he loses interest in such activities. But suppose for some improbable reason he were to desire the fruits of such activities – then what? This is answered in the next two älokas. ‘The benedictions of elevation to the celestial planets, liberation, the attainment of My supreme abode, as well as whatever else is obtained by fruitive activities, austerity, knowledge, renunciation, yoga practice, charity, religiosity, or other beneficial methods of sâdhana, are easily obtained by My bhaktas through the power of bhakti-yoga.‘”

Äarîra : (sáns. vaiëòava). the body; bodily frame.

Äârîraka-bhâëya : (sáns. vaiëòava). the commentary on Vedânta-sûtra by Ärî Äaôkarâcârya; Inquiry into the Nature of the Embodied Spirit (see Äaôkarâcârya in the glossary of names).

Äârîrika : (sáns. vaiëòava). that which relates to the material body and its acquisitions (see äarîra).

Sarva-daräî : (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is all-seeing; one who sees that Bhagavân is the complete Absolute Truth and the source of brahma and Paramâtmâ.

Sârva-kâlika : (sáns. vaiëòava). activities which are applicable for all time.

Äâstra : (sáns. vaiëòava). Scripture especially the Vedic scriptures.

Äâstrîya-äraddhâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). conviction based on deep faith in the äâstras in the practice of bhakti.

Sat-karma : (sáns. vaiëòava). pious deeds recommended in the karma-kâòàa section of the Vedas.

Sat-saôga : (sáns. vaiëòava). see sâdhu-saôga.

Sattâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). existence.

Sattva-guòa : (sáns. vaiëòava). the quality or nature of living beings which is characterised by wisdom and purity.

Sâttvika : (sáns. vaiëòava). of the nature of sattva-guòa.

Sâttvika-bhâva : (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the five essential ingredients of rasa; eight symptoms of spiritual ecstasy arising exclusively from viäuddhasattva, or in other words, when the heart is overwhelmed by emotions in connection with the five primary moods of affection for Kèëòa or the seven secondary emotions. The eight symptoms that constitute sâttvika-bhâva are: (1) stambha (becoming stunned), (2) sveda (perspiration), (3) româñca (standing of the hairs on end), (4) svara-bhaôga (faltering of the voice), (5) kampa (trembling), vaivaròa (pallor or change of color), (7) aäru (tears), and (8) pralaya (loss of consciousness or fainting).

Satya : (sáns. vaiëòava). truth, reality; demonstrated conclusion.

Saura : (sáns. vaiëòava). a worshiper of Sûrya, the sun god.

Sautrâmaòî-yajña : (sáns. vaiëòava). a particular sacrifice in honor of Indra which is described in the Yajur Veda. It is said that by performing this yajña, one obtains a place in the heavenly planets. Although drinking wine is forbidden for brâhmaòas, this yajña involves the acceptance of wine in a manner that does not result in a brâhmaòa’s falldown.

Saviäeëa-vâda : (sáns. vaiëòava). the doctrine which acknowledges that the Absolute Truth is a transcendental personality possessing non-material form, features, and attributes.

Saviäeëa-vâdî : (sáns. vaiëòava). one who adheres to the doctrine of saviäeëavâda.

Sevâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). service, attendance on, reverence, devotion to.

Sevâite : (sáns. vaiëòava). priests or servants of a Deity. Shallow earthen plate: (sáns. vaiëòava). (quoted in chapter 10) Vaiëòavas who now live at Gâdîgâchâ in Navadvîpa, who look upon the world as a shallow earthen plate. The shallow earthen plate is a lid for a water pot. Even if the pot is very large, it can only hold a small quantity of water. i.e. Nyâyaratna is saying although the earth is a vast container, it was reduced to a shallow lid by the immense scholarship and authority of the Vaiëòavas of Godruma.

Siddha : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) realized or perfected. (2) liberated souls who reside in the spiritual world. (3) a liberated soul who accompanies Bhagavân to the material world to assist in His pastimes, or one who has attained the perfectional stage of bhakti (prema) in this life, whose symptoms are described in Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu (2.1.180): avijñâtâkhila kleäa sadâ kèëòâärita kriyâ siddhâ syu santata prema saukhyâsvâda parâyaòâ – “One who is always fully immersed in activities
related to Ärî Kèëòa, who is completely unacquainted with impediments or material distress, and who incessantly tastes the bliss of prema is called a siddha-bhakta.”

Siddhânta : (sáns. vaiëòava). philosophical doctrine or precept; demonstrated conclusion; established end; admitted truth.

Siddhi : (sáns. vaiëòava). eight mystical perfections attained through yoga (see yogasiddhi).

Siddhi-kâmî : (sáns. vaiëòava). one who covets mystic powers (see yoga-siddhi).

Äikëâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). instructions received from a teacher; as one of the limbs of bhakti, this specifically refers to instructions received from a guru about bhakti.

Äikëâ-guru : (sáns. vaiëòava). the person from whom one receives instructions on how to progress on the path of bhajana is known as äikëâ-guru, or instructing spiritual master. After hearing instructions from the äravaòa-guru, the person from whom one hears about the fundamental truths of Bhagavân, a desire may arise to engage in bhajana. If such a desire arises, the person whom one approaches in order to learn how to perform bhajana is known as a äikëâ-guru. The äravaòaguru and äikëâ-guru are usually one and the same person as stated in the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 206 – atha äravaòa-guru bhajanaäikëâ-gurvo prâyakaê-ekatam-iti tathaivâha.

Äiva : (sáns. vaiëòava). a qualitative expansion of Ärî Bhagavân (see Glossary of Names).

Äiva-râtrî : (sáns. vaiëòava). a festival in honor of Äiva which is observed with a fast during the day and night of the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month of Phâlguna (February-March).

Smaraòam : (sáns. vaiëòava). rememberance and meditation upon Kèëòa’s names, forms, qualities, and pastimes. Smaraòam should be done in connection with nâma-saôkîrtana. There are five stages in the process of smaraòa known as smaraòa, dhârana, dhyâna, dhruvânusmèti, and samâdhî: (1) a little investigation or examination of Ärî Hari’s names, forms, and so on is called smaraòa; (2) to withdraw the mind from all external objects and fix it in a general way upon the name, form, etc. of Ärî Hari is called dhârana; (3) to contemplate the Lord’s names, forms, etc. in a concentrated manner is called dhyâna; (4) when that rememberance proceeds in an uninterrupted manner like a continuous flow of nectar, it is called dhruvânusmèti, and (5) that meditation in which the object of one’s contemplation is the only thing manifest in the heart is called samâdhi. Smaraòam is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.

Smârta : (sáns. vaiëòava). an orthodox brâhmaòa. One who rigidly adheres to the smèti-äâstras (in particular, the dharma-äâstras or codes of religious behavior), being overly attached to the external rituals without comprehending the underlying essence of the äâstra. They are distinct from the Vaiëòava smârtas and smèti-äâstras such as Hari-Bhakti -Vilasa Smârta-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). social
and religious rites prescribed by the smètiäâstras.

Smèti : (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) that which is remembered (2) tradition as distinguished from äruti, revelation. The body of sacred literature which is remembered (in contradistinction to äruti, or that which is directly heard by or revealed to the èëis). These include the six Vedâôgas, the dharma-äâstras such as Manu-saêhitâ, the Purâòas, and the itihâsas.

Sneha : (sáns. vaiëòava). affection. In chapter twenty-one two kinds of sneha are being described by Bâbâjî Mahâäaya. He says that sneha is related to sakhya-bhâva, this does not mean in the intimate sense of relationship. That kind of sakhya-bhâva comes under the category of sambandha-rûpa. Sakhya-bhâva in this chapter means the ordinary type of sakhyam, which comes in the nine items of bhakti that Prahlâda Mahârâja mentions in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. Here sakhyam is in vaidhî-bhakti, and it means to serve Kèëòa with an ordinary sense of friendliness (sakhya-bhâva), and to know Kèëòa as a friend (sakhâ). Since this comes under the jurisdiction of vaidhî-bhakti, it is not part of râgânugâ-bhakti. The other kind of sneha comes in the category of prema (sneha, mâna, praòaya, etc.), and therefore cannot be performed in râgânugâ-sâdhana, but it can come in râgâtmikâ-bhakti. It cannot be followed. It can only develop in prema after vastu-siddhi, when the bhakta has taken birth in the womb of a vraja-gopî, and so it cannot be practiced in râgânugâsâdhana-bhakti.

Äraddhâ : (sáns. vaiëòava). faith. This refers to faith in the statements of the äâstras which is awakened after accumulating pious devotional activities over many births. Such faith is aroused in the association of saintly bhaktas and it is the external manifestation of the seed of the creeper of bhakti. The inner essence of that seed is the conception which is planted in the heart of the disciple to serve Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa in a particular capacity (see also bhakti-latâ-bîja).

Ärâddha : (sáns. vaiëòava). a ceremony in honor of and for the benefit of deceased relatives. The forefathers are offered piòàa, an oblation of rice and meal, which endows them with a body suitable to attain pitè-loka, the planet of the forefathers. There they enjoy a high standard of material enjoyment.

Äravaòa-guru : (sáns. vaiëòava). the person from whom one hears instructions regarding the fundamental truths of Ärî Bhagavân, His energies, the living entities, and bhakti is known as the äravaòa-guru.

Äravaòam : (sáns. vaiëòava). hearing the transcendental descriptions of Bhagavân’s names, forms, qualities, pastimes, and associates from the mouths of advanced bhaktas. One of the nine most important aôgas of bhakti.

Ärî Bhâëya : (sáns. vaiëòava). The commentary which Reveals the Transcendental Beauty and Opulence of the Lord; a commentary on Vedânta-sûtra by Ärî Râmânujâcârya.

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