viernes, 9 de julio de 2010

Harisrava - Jrimbhika - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosop

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | E | F | G | H1 | H2 | I | J1 | J2 | P | R | S1 | S2 | T | U | V | Y | Z

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H1 - H - Harischandra
  • H2 - Harisrava - Hz
  • I
  • J1 - J - Jrimbhika


Harisrava: (sáns. hindú). A river mentioned in the Vishnu Parana but not identified.

Harita: (sáns. hindú). A prince the son of Yuvanaswa from whom the Angirasa Haritas were descended; also a grandson of Harischandra; one of the five sons of Paravrit, and king of Videha.

Haritas: (sáns. hindú). The descendants of Harita, the son of Yuvanaswa. They were brahmans with the properties of Kshatriyas.

Haritas: (sáns. hindú). A class of gods in the twelfth Manwantara; one of the tribes of Aborigines, who occupy the hills and jungles.

Haritaswa: (sáns. hindú). A son of Sudyumua after his transformation from Ila into a man. \

Hari Vansa: (sáns. hindú). 'The last portion of the Mahabharata, and believed to be a coiAparatively recent addition to that work. It is chiefly occupied with the adventures of Krishna, but, as introductory to his era it records particulars of the creation of the world, and of the patriarchal and i-egal dynasties; done, says Professor Wilson, with much carelessness and inaccuracy of compilation.

Hari-Varsha: (sáns. hindú). A country to the north of Hemakuta and south of Nishadha. Also, the name of the nine sous of Agniothra, king of Nishadha.

Harsha: (sáns. hindú). (Joy). A son of Kama (Love) by his wife Naudi

Harsha Deva: (sáns. hindú). A king of Kashmir who reigned between A. D. 1113 and 1125, and the reputed author of the play called "Ratnavali, or the necklace," translated by Wilson, in the Hindu Theatre.

Harshavarddhana: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Yajnakrit, one of the descendants of Kshattravriddha.

Haryaksha: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sons of Prithu, according to the Bhagavata enumeration.

Haryanga: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Champa one of the descendants of Anu. Champa was the founder of Champapuri, a city of which traces still remain in the vicinity of Bhagulpur.

Haryaswa: (sáns. hindú). The son and successor of Dridhaswa. Dridhaswa was one of the three sons of Kuvalayaswa who survived the conflict with the Asura Dhundu, all the others, to the extent of twenty thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven, having perished. Haryaswa was also the name of a son of Prishadaswa; of a son of Drishtaketu; and of a son of Chakshu.

Haryaswas: (sáns. hindú). In the Vishnu Purana it is stated that Daksha, being commanded by Bramha, created living creatures. The creation and disappearance of the Haryaswas is thus described.

" In the first place he willed into existence the deities, the Rishis, the quiristers of heaven, the Titans, and the snake-gods. Finding that his will-borh progeny did not multiply themselves, he determined, in order to secure their increase, to establish sexual intercourse as the means of multiplication. For this purpose he espoused Asikui, the daughter of the patriarch Virana, a damsel addicted to devout practices, the eminent supportress of the world.

By her the great father of mankind begot five thousand mighty sons, through whom he expected the world should be peopled, Narada, the divine Rishi, observing them desirous to multiply posterity, approached them, and addressed them in a friendly tone:

"Illustrious Haryaswas, it is evident that your intention is to beget posterity; but first consider this: why should you, who, like fools, know not the middle, the height, and depth of the world, propagate offspring ? When your intellect is no more obstructed by interval, height, or depth, then how, fools, shall ye not all behold the term of the universe ?" Having heard the words of Narada, the sons of Daksha dispersed themselves through the regions, and to the present day have not returned; as rivers that lose themselves in the ocean come back no more."

Haryatma: (sáns. hindú). Called also Uttama, the Vyasa of the twenty-first Dwapara."

Hasta: (sáns. hindú). A lunar mansion in Govithi, in the Central Avashthana.

Hastin: (sáns. hindú). The son of Suhotra and founder of the city of Hastinapura.

Hastinapura: (sáns. hindú). Is the name of the ancient capital of the Kurus, frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata. The Vishnu Purana relates that it was founded by Hastin, washed away by the Ganges - under the reign of Nichakra, who, in consequence of this event, had to remove the seat of his government to Kausambi - and at a later period it was undermined by Balarama. It was situated on the Ganges, and is placed by Lassen, in his map to the Indische Alterthuns Kunde about 78° long, and 28° 50' lat.

Hastisima: (sáns. hindú). A river mentioned in the Vishnu Purana list, but not identified.

Havirbha: (sáns. hindú). (Oblation-born). The wife of the Rishi Pulastya, and mother of Agastya.

Havirdhana: (sáns. hindú). The son of Antarddhana by his wife Sikhandinl.

Havishmantas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Pitris, of the corporeal order, living in the solar sphere, sons of Angiras, and Pitris of Kshatriyas. See Pitris.

Havya: (sáns. hindú). According to the Vayu Purana, one of the five sons of Atri after his penance.

Havyavahana: (sáns. hindú). The fire of the gods, the son of Suchi.

Hayasiras: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Vrishaparvan, the renowned Danava, and wife of Kratu.

Hema: (sáns. hindú). The son of Ushadratha, a descendant of Yayati. Also the name of a river in the Vishnu Purana.

Hemachandra: (sáns. hindú). l, The king of Vaisali, a place celebrated amongst the Buddhists as the chief seat of the labours of Sakhya and his first disciples- now Allahabad; 2, A zealous and able propagator of the Jain doctrines in the twelfth century. He was well versed in the peculiarity of the system which he taught, and may be regarded as a safe guide. He was the author of a useful vocabulary termed the Abhidana Chintamani, and of a life of Maha Vira. Wilson.

Hemakuta: (sáns. hindú). One of the boundary mountains of the earth, lying to the south of Meru.

Hermit: (sáns. hindú). See Vanaprastha.

Heti: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshas, that always resides in the sun's car during the month of Madha or Chaitra, as one of its seven guardians.

Hidimba: (sáns. hindú). A hideous Asura and cannibal, with yellow eyes and a horrible aspect, but possessed of great strength. He lived in the jungle south of Varanavata, and attacked the Pandavas on their march, but was killed by Bhima after a severe contest.

Hidimbi: (sáns. hindú). The sister of the above who is described as beautiful, and was afterwards married to Bhima.

Himavat: (sáns. hindú). The king of mountains. Part of the snowy range.

The well-known range of mountains now called the Himalaya, forming the northern barrier of the Indian peninsula, containing the highest elevations in the world. The Imiis or Emodus of classical writers. In Mythology Himavat is husband of the Air-nymph Menaka; father of the river Gunga and of Durga or Uma, in her descent as Parvati to captivate Siva, and seduce him from the austerities which he practiced in those mountains. In this personification the name belongs to the Puranic; as a mountain only, to the Epic.

On account of the majestic height of this mountain range, and the apparent impossibility of reaching its summit, the imagination of the ancient Hindus invested it with the most mysterious properties, and connected it with the history of some of their deities. In the Purunas, Himavat is placed to the south of the fabulous mountain Meru, which stands in the centre of the world, and described as the king of the mountains, who was inaugurated as such when Prithu was installed in the government of the earth. As the abode of Siva, he is the goal of penitent pilgrims, who repair to his summit in order to win the favours of this terrific god. His wife was Mena, whom the Pitris or demigods Vairajas, engendered by the mere power of their thought.

Hindi: (sáns. hindú). One of the tongues of India; it abounds in Sanskrit words, and has many dialects. Speaking generally the tongues spoken in the whole of upper India, including the Punjab, from the Himalayan to the Vindhyan range, may be said to be Hindi. Also the languages of Kamaon and Garhwal, all along the Sub-Himalayan range as far as the Gogra river; the impure dialect of the Gorkhas; the Brij-Bhasha (or Baka as it is pronounced on the Ganges,) the Panjabi, Multani, Sindi, Jataki, Haruti, Marwari and it is said Konkani. The Bengali is a form of Hindi, but so highly polished as to be classed as a distinct tongue.

Hindus: (sáns. hindú). " The great bulk of the people known by this appellation are the descendants of Scythian and Aryan immigrants, who in bye-gone days, as conquerors, in search of a milder clime, left the cold regions of the north, some off-shoots moving westward and others to the south. Remnants of Scythian languages are found in Beluchistan, and the seat of the great Sanskrit speaking people was long in Kashmir, proving that one great highway to the south, had been along the valley of the Indus, through Kashmir, and the Panjab. But between the valley of the Indus, and that of the Brahmaputra, there are twenty or thirty other passes in the Himalayas, through which the northern races could stream to the genial south. Amongst the first of these immigrants eeemingly were the Tamil races, belonging to the Turanian or Tartar family of mankind, a body of whom seem to have followed the course of the Indus and spread themselves over the peninsula.

As to the date of their advent, however, history is silent; but there seems no doubt that great branches of the Scythic stock were occupants of India, at the time that it was invaded, and to a considerable extent conquered, by the Sanskrit speaking tribes of the Aryan family. In the north, the subjugation or ousting of the Tamilians from all rank and power was so complete that Sanskrit forms of speech became the language of the country, and the Kashmiri, the Panjabi, the Sindi, the Guzerathi, the Hindustani and the Bengali, all of them with a large admixture of Sanskrit, are sister tongues known as forms of Hindi. South of the Nerbudda, however, it is otherwise. Throughout the peninsula, the languages differ from the Sanskrit in grammar, and only admit Sanskrit words, in the same way that the Anglo-Saxon admitted terms of law and civilization from the Normau French.

At the present day, the south of India more largely represents the Tartar, and the north, the Aryan race. But the fair, yellow colored Aryans are to be met with south even to Cape Comorin, and though mixing with the various Tamil nations, races and tribes, for at least two thousand years, in physical form, complexion, intellect and manners, the Brahmanical and other Aryan families are as distinct as when their forefathers first came conquering from the north. The great Aryan migration, however, which seems to have received its first check south of the Aravali, took place between the fourteenth and eighth centuries before our era. Major Cunningham in his learned work on the Bhilsa topes (p. 15) uses the term Aryan in allusion to " the race of Aryya, whose emigrations are recorded in the Zendavesta, who starting from Ericene Vijo, gradually spread to the south-east, over Aryavartha or Arya-desa, the northern plains of India, and to the south-west, over Iran or Persia: he adds that the Medas are called Apitol by Herodotus. The original meaning of the word is also said to have been equivalent to Upper Noble. It has also, however, been suggested that as the Aryans were originally and essentially an agricultural and therefore a peasant race, they may have derived their name from their plough. The Aryans seem to have brought with them a servile race, or to have had amongst them a social distinction between the noble and the common people which has ever continued. As they conquered southwards," amongst the Tartar races whom they found in the country, they reduced them everywhere to a state of slavery. They named them in fierce contempt Dasa or slave, and these formed the true servile race of Manu and other writers. Where the races who liad preceded them retained their independence, these proud immigrants styled them M'hlechhas, a term which even to the present day, is intended to comprise every thing that is hateful or vile. In Vedic times, along the western coast of Plindustan dwelt other races, different alike from the Scythic tribes and from the Aryans of the Vedas: - earlier colonizers or emigrants, most probably from Assyria and the west, - who had a civilization of their own. Mr. Wheeler divides the history of the Hindus into four great epochs correspouding with the four great changes in their religious belief: -

1 -The Vedic age, which was characterised by the worship of the elementary deities, such as Agni and Indra, and appears to have prevailed in the Panjab prior to the disappearance of the Saraswati river in the sand.

2- The Brahmanic age, which was characterised by the worship of Brahma, and appears to have prevailed between the disappearance of the Saraswati in the sand, and the advent of Sakya Muni about B. c. 600.

3 - The Buddhist age, which was characterised by the pursuit of Nirvana, and appears to have prevailed from about B.C. 600 to A. D. 800 or 1000.

4 - The Brahmanical revival, which was characterised by the worship of incarnations of deities, and appears to have prevailed from about A. d. 800 to the present time."

Professor Wilsou writes *' The circumstances that are told of the first princes have evident relation to the colonization of India, and the gradual extension of the authority of new races over an uninhabited or uncivilized region. It is commonly admitted, that the Brahmanical religion and civilization were brought into India from without. Certainly, there are tribes on the borders, and in the heart of the country, who are still not Hindus; and passages in the Ramayana, and Mahabharata, and Manu, and the uniform traditions of the people themselves, point to a period when Bengal, Orissa, and the whole of the Dakhin were inhabited by degraded or outcaste, that is, by barbarous tribes. The traditions of the Puranas confirm these views: but they lend no assistance to the determination of the question whence the Hindus came; whether from a central Asiatic nation, as Sir William Jones supposed, or from the Caucasian mountains, the plains of Babylonia, or the borders of the Caspian, as conjectured by Klaproth, Vans Kennedy, and Schlegel. The afliuities of the Sanskrit language prove a common origin of the now widely scattered nations amongst whose dialects they arc traceable, and render it unquestionable that they must all have spread abroad from some centrical spot in that part of the globe first inhabited by maukind, according to the inspired record. Whether any indication of such an event be discoverable in the Vedas, remains to be determined; but it would have been obviously incompatible with the Pauranik system to have referred the origin of Indian princes and principalities to other than native sources. We need not therefore, expect, from them, any information as to the foreign derivation of the Hindus.

We have, then, wholly insufficient means for arriving at any information concerning the ante-Indian period of Hindu history, beyond the general conclusion derivable from the actual presence of barbarous and apparently, aboriginal tribes - from the admitted progressive extension of Hinduism into parts of India where it did not prevail when the code of Manu was compiled - from the general use of dialects in India, more or less copious, which are different from Sanskrit - and from the affinities of that language with forms of speech current in the western woild - that a people who spoke Sanskrit, and followed the religion of the Vedas, came into India, in some very distant age, from lands west of the Indus.

Whether the date and circumstances of their immigration will ever be ascertained, is extremely doubtful: but it is not difficult to form a plausible outline of their early site and progressive colonization.

The earliest seat of the Hindus, within the confines of Ilindusthan, was, undoubtedly, the eastern confines of the Panjab. The lioly land of Manu and the Puranas lies between the Drishadwati and Saraswati rivers, - the Caggar and Sursooty of our barbarous maps. Various adventures of the first princes and most ftimous sages occur in this vicinity; and the Asramas or religious domiciles of several of the latter are placed on the banks of the Saraswati. According to some authorities it was the abode of Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas and Puranas; and agreeably to another, when on one occasion, the Vedas had fallen into disuse and been forgotten, the Brahmans were again instructed in them by Saraswata, the son of Saraswati. One of the most distinguished of the tribes of the Brahmans is known as the Saraswata; and the same word is employed by Mr. Colebrooke, to denote that modification of Sanskrit which is termed generally Prakrit, and which in this case, he supposes to have been the language of the Saraswata nation, ' which occupied the banks of the river Saraswati.' The river itself receives its appellation from Saraswati, the goddess of learning, under whose auspices the sacred literature of the Hindus assumed shape and authority. These indications render it certain, that, whatever seeds were imported from without, it was in the country adjacent to the Saraswati river that they were first planted, and cultivated and reared, in Hindusthau.

The tract of land thus assigned for the first establishnfent of Hinduism in India, is of very circumscribed extent and could not have been the site of any numerous tribe or nation. The traditions that evidence the early settlement of the Hindus in this quarter, ascribe to the settlers more of a philosophical and religious, than of a secular character, and combine, with the very narrow bounds of the holy land; to render it possible, that the earliest emigrants were the members, not of a political, so much as of a religious community; that they were a colony of priests, not in the restricted sense in which we use the term, but in that in which it still applies in India, to an Agrahara, a village or hamlet of Brahmans, who although married, and having families, and engaging in tillage, in domestic duties and in the conduct of secular interests affecting the community, are, still, supposed to devote their principal attention to sacred study and religious offices. A society of this description with its artificers and servants, and, perhaps, with a body of martial followers, might have found a home in the Brahmavarta of Manu, the land which, thence, was entitled * the holy,' or, more literally, * the Brahman region,' and may have communicated to the rude, uncivilized, unlettered, aborigines the rudiments of social organization, literature, and religion; partly in all probability, brought along with them, and partly devised and fashioned, by degrees, for the growing necessities of new conditions of Bociety. Those with whom this civilization commenced would have had ample inducements to prosecute their successful work; and in the course of time, the improvement which germinated on the banks of the Saraswati was extended beyond the borders of the Jumna and the Ganges. - Preface to V.P.

Hiranmaya: (sáns. hindú). A mountainous country lying between the Seveta and Srinji ranges; to the north of mount Meru.

Hiranvat: (sáns. hindú). The king of Sweta, installed by his father, the pious king Agnidhra, before he retired to a life of penance at Salagrama, Hiranyagarbha - A name of Brahma, ' he who was born from the golden egg,'

In the Rig Veda Hiranyagarbha is celebrated with all the attributes of supremacy. In the 121st hymn of the tenth book this "-od is said to have arisen in the beginning, the one lord of all beings, who upholds heaven and earth, who gives life and breath, whose command even the gods obey, who is the god over all gods, and the one animating principle of their being. O. S. T., Vol. IV, pp. 13, ff. V.p. 355.

Hiranyahasta : (sáns. hindú). The son given by the Asvius to the wise Vadhrimati, in answer to her prayers. O. S. T. v., p. 247.

Hiranyakasipu: (sáns. hindú). A son of Kasyapa and Diti, who became king of the Daityas, and usurped the authority of Indra, and exercised of himself the functions of the sun, of the air, of the waters, of fire, and of the moon. Having conquered the three worlds he was inflated with pride, and enjoyed whatever he desired. " He obtained the sovereignty of all the immortals for a hundred million years." (O. S. T., iv, 159.) Prahlada, his son, remained devoted to Vishnu, and when ordered by his father to be put to death, Vishnu appeared as his deliverer. Hiranyakasipu was reconciled to his son, but was notwithstanding put to death by Vishnu as Narasimha (the man-lion) and Prahlada became the sovereign of the Daityas.

Hiranyaksha: (sáns. hindú). The brother of the above, termed " the invincible." He was destroyed by Vishnu in his boar incarnation. In the Padraa Purana it is said that this occurred in the first, or Matsya avatara: that Vishnu in the form of a fish entered the ocean and destroyed Hiranyaksha. - Wilson's Works, Vol. III., p. 58.

Hiranyanabha: (sáns. hindú). One of the descendants of Rama, a pupil of Jaimini, and teacher of the Sama Veda. He had a large number of disciples who were termed the northern and eastern chaunters of the Saraan, and founders of schools.

Hiranyaretas: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sons of Priyavrata, according to the enumeration in the Bhagavata.

Hiranyaroman: (sáns. hindú). A Lokapala, regent of the North, son of Parjanya and Marichi.

Hlada: (sáns. hindú). One of the four mighty sons of Hiranyakasipu.

Hladini: (sáns. hindú). The Gladdener; the name of one of the seven rivei*s mentioned in the Riamiyana, in connection with the descent of Ganga. Only two, the Ganges and Indus, are known to geographers.

Homa: (sáns. hindú). A sort of burnt offering which can be made by Brahmans only. It is only made on special occasions, such as the celebration of a festival, the investiture of a young brahman with the sacred thread, marriages, and funerals. The method of making it is as follows: During the utterance of Mantras, five species of consecrated wood, together with the Dharba grass, rice and butter, are kindled and burnt; and the fire is then kept burning as long as the festival or ceremony lasts. Great efficacy is ascribed to this rite.

Hotri: (sáns. hindú). The priest who recites the hymns at the performance of sacrificial rites.

Hraswannan: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Suvarnarman; sometimes called Hrasvaroma.

Hri: (sáns. hindú). * Modesty,' An allegorical personage represented as one of the daughters of Daksha, and wife of Dharma.

Hridika: (sáns. hindú). A Yddava prince, the son of Swayambhoja, and father of Sura, in whose family Vishnu took a human form.

Hrishikesa: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vishnu, meaning * lord of the senses.'

Humas: (sáns. hindú). The white Huns, or Indo-scythians, who were established in the Punjab and along the Indus, at the commencement of our era, as we know from Arrian, Strabo, and Ptolemy, confirmed by recent discoveries of their coins.

Hutasana: (sáns. hindú). The god of flame.


Ida: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to Kasyapa.

Idhmajihwa: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sous of Priyavrata according to the Bhagavaia.

Idvatsara: (sáns. hindú). The name of the third cycle or Yuga, of which five are enumerated, each cycle comprehending sixty-one solar months or 1,830 days.

Ijikas, also Itikas: (sáns. hindú). A people of the South of India.

Ikshula Ikshumati: (sáns. hindú). The name of a river mentioned in the Ramayana and Vishnu Purana, but not identified.

Ikshwaku: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sons of the lawgiver Manu Vaivaswata, considered to be the first prince of the Solar dynasty; he reigned at Ayodha the capital of Kosala, in the second or Treta yuga. He had one hundred sons, and is said to have been born from the nostril of Manu when he happened to sneeze. V. P.

" Ikshwaku was the son of Manu, the first king of Kosala, and founder of the solar dynasty or family of the children of the Sun, the god of that luminary being the father of Manu. '

The following extract from the Ramayana gives the line of kings from Ikswaku to Bharata.

"From viewless nature Brahma rose.
No change, no end, no waste, he knows.
A son had he, Marichi styled,
And Kasyap was Marichi's child.
From him Vivaswat sprang; from him
Manu whose fame shall ne'er be dim.
Manu, who life to mortals gave.
Begot Ikshvaku good and brave.
First of Ayodhya's kings was he,
Pride of her famous dynasty.
From him the glorious Kukshi sprang,
Whose fame through all the regions rang.
Rival of Kukshi's ancient fame,
His heir, the great Vikukshi came.
His son was Vana, lord of might,
His Anaranya, strong to fight.
His son was Prithu, glorious name,
From him the good Trisanku came.
He left a son renowned afar.
Known by the name of Dhundumar.
His son who drove the mighty car
Was Yuvanaswa fear'd in war.
He passed away. Him followed then
His son Mandhata, king of men,
His son was blest on high emprise
Susandhi fortunate and wise.
Two noble sons had he, to wit,
Dhruvasandhi and Prasenajit
Bharat was Dhruvasaudhi's son.
And glorious fame that monarch won." - Griffiths,

Ila: (sáns. hindú). Before the birth of the sons mentioned above, the Manu, being desirous of sons, offered a sacrifice for that purpose to Mitra and Varuna; but the rite being deranged through an irregularity of the ministering priest, a daughter, Ila was produced. Through the favour of the two divinities, however her sex was changed, and she became a man named Sudyumna, q. v.

Ilavila: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Dasaratha, who does not appear however to have achieved any distinction.

Ilavila: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Trinavinda, became the wife of Visravas, and mother of Kuvera the god of wealth.

Ilavrita: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine sons of Agnidhra, king of Jambadwipa. The region in the centre of which Mount Meru is situated was conferred on Ilavrita.

Ilwala: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated demon, the son of Hlada. He is the hero of various legend" in the Puranas. He had a cousin of the same name, the son of Viprachitti, who was also distinguished amongst the Danavas.

India, " is bounded on the north and the east by the Himalaya mountains, on the west by the Indus, and on the south by the sea.

Its length from Kashmere to Cape Comorin is 1,900 miles; its breadth from Kurrachee to Sudiya, in Assam, 1,500 miles. The superficial contents are 1,287,000 miles, and the population, under British and native rule, is now estimated at 200,000,000. It is crossed from east to west by a chain of mountains called the Vindya, at the base of which flows the Nerbudda. The country to the north of this river is generally designated Hindustan, and that to the south of it the Deccan. Hindustan is composed of the basin of the Indus on one side, and of the Gauges on the other, with the great sandy desert on the west, and an elevated tract now called, from its position. Central India. The Deccan has on its northern boundary a chain of mountains running parallel with the Vindya, to the south of which stretches a table land of triangular form, terminating at Cape Comorin, with the western Ghauts, on the western coast, and the eastern Ghauts, of minor altitude, on the opposite coast. Between the Ghauts and the sea lies a narrow belt of land which runs round the whole peninsula.

Of the ancient history or chronology of the Hindus there are no credible memorials. The history was compiled by poets, who drew on their imagination for their facts, and the chronology was computed by astronomers, who have made the successive ages of the world to correspond with the conjunctions of the heavenly bodies. The age of the world is. thus divided into four periods: the satija yuga extending to 1,728,000, and the second, or treta yuga, to 1,296,000 years; the third, or the dwdpara yuga, comprises 864,000 years; and the fourth, or kali yuga is predicted to last 432,000 years. A kalpa, or a day of Brahma, is composed of a thousand such periods, or 4,320,000,000 years. Extravagant as these calculations may appear, they are outdone by the Burmese, who affirm that the lives of the ancient inhabitants extended to a period equal to the sum of every drop of rain which falls on the surface of the globe in three years. The dates given for the first three ages must, therefore, be rejected as altogether imaginary, while the commencement of the fourth, or present age, which corresponds, to a certain degree, with the authentic eras of other nations, may be received as generally correct.

India is designated by native writers Bharata Varsha, from king Bharat, who is said to have reigned over the whole country. That he did not enjoy universal monarchy in India is certain, though he was doubtless one of the earliest and most renowned of its rulers; but this fact loses all historical value when we are told in the shasters that he reigned ten thousand years, and on his death was transformed into a deer. Thus do we plod our way through darkness and mystery; at every step fact is confounded with fable, and all our researches end only in conjecture. The original settlers are identified with the various tribes of Bhils, Koles, Gonds, Minas, and Chuars, still living in a state almost of nature, in the forests of the Soane, the Nerbudda, and the Mahanuddi, and in the hills of Surguja and Chota Nagpore. Their languages have no affinity with the Sanskrit, and their religion differs from Hinduism. In those fastnesses, amidst all the revolutions which have convulsed India, they have continued to maintain, unchanged, their original simplicity of habits, creed, and speech.

They were apparently driven from the plains by fresh colonies of emigrants; and these were in their turn conquered by the Hindus, who brought their religion and language with them from regions beyond the Indus, and, having reduced the inhabitants to a servile condition, branded them with the name of sudras. Of the four Hindu castes, three are designated the twice-born, which seems to indicate that they all belonged to the conquering race, although the term is now applied exclusively to brahmans. In the Institutes of Manu reference is also made to cities governed by sudras, which the twice-born were forbidden to enter, and the allusion evidently applies to sudra chiefs, who continued to maintain their independence after the Hindu invasion.

The Hindus who originally crossed the Indus took possession of a small tract of land, 100 miles north-west of Delhi, about 65 miles by 30, which was considered the residence of gods and holy sages, while the brahmans appear to have subsequently occupied the country north of the Jumna and the Ganges, stretching to the confines of north Behar. The India of the Vedas, of Manu, and the earliest writers was exclusively confined to the region north of the Nerbudda, and comprised but a small portion even of that limited quarter. It was in the north that the four places of greatest sanctity were situated during the early ages, though the Deccan now contains many places of distinguished merit. The north was also the seat of the solar and lunar races, the scene of chivalrous adventures, and the abode of all those who are celebrated in the legends, the mythology, and the philosophy of the Hindus.

Even in the polished age in which the Ramayan and the Mahabharat were composed, the south was the land of fable, the dwelling of bears and monkeys, and it was not till a very late period that these apes and goblins and monsters were transformed into orthodox Hindus. It must, therefore, be distinctly borne in mind that the revolutions described in the sacred books of the Hindus belong to Hindustan and not to the Deccan."* Marshman's History of India, vol. 1

Indra: (sáns. hindú). The king of heaven; the king of the Devas; is represented wdth four arms and hands, with two he holds a lance, in the third one the thunderbolt (Vajrayudha) and the fourth one is empty. Sometimes he is drawn as a white man sitting on an elephant, with the thunderbolt in his right hand and a bow in his left. His reign is to continue one hundred years of the gods, after which another individual from among the gods, the giants, or men, by his own merit, raises himself to this eminence. The sacrifice of a horse one hundred times will, it is said, raise a person to the rank of Indra. The Puranas relate many stories of Indra, who is described as veiy jealous lest any person should, by sacred austerities or sacrifices, excel him in religious merit, and thus obtain his kingdom. To prevent these devotees from succeeding in their object, he generally sends one of the celestial nymphs to draw away their minds, and thus bring them from thoir religious observances, induce them to return to a life of sensual gratification.

It was Indra who stole the horse consecrated by king Sagara, who was about to perform for the hundreth time the sacrifice of that animal.

" Indra plays au importaut part in each of the three periods of Indian mythology. In the earliest age he seems to have been the unknown mysterious being who inhabited the sky, the firmament between earth and the sun, who rode upon the clouds, who poured forth the rain, hurled the forked lightning upon earth, and spoke in the awful thunder. His character was at once beneficent as giving rain and shade; and awful and powerful in the storm. He is the original of the Jupiter Tonans of the west, and the Thor of the north, and like them rose in the earliest ages to the first place, and the sovereignty among the gods. Feai*, a stronger motive among men than gratitude, raised him above the elementary triad. In the Epic period he is the first person of the pure mythological triad, Indra, Agni, and Yama. In the Puranic age, when the powers of a Supreme Being were personified in the superior triad of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, Indra's star declines. He is no longer the principal divinity, but only the chief of the inferior deities; and, as such, is at constant war with the giants and demons, by whom he is for a time deposed. A curse from the Rishi Durvdsa causes his power and that of the deities subject to him gradually to decline; and he is defeated by Krishna in a fight for the Parijata tree, which had been produced at the churning of the ocean, and planted by Indra in his own garden. An amusing account of this battle is given in the Vishnu-Purana, p. 587.

His wife's name is Sachi. He is lord of the eight Vasus. The sage Gautama pronounced upon him the curse of wearing one thousand disgraceful marks which he afterwards turned to eyes.

He ravished the daughter of Puloman, whom he slew to avoid his curse. He is borne on a white horse. The rain-bow is supposed to be his bow bent for the destruction of his foes, and thunderbolts are his weapons. The heaven over which he rules, and which the other secondary deities inhabit, is, in the Epic age, called Swarga, and later, Indraloka, or Devaloka. His horse is Uchchhaihshravas; his elephant, AiraVata; his city, Amardvati; his palace, Vaijayauta. These details belong to the Puranic age." (Thomson.)

Dr. Muir writes " Indra and Agni are said to be twin brothers.

A variety of vague and general epithets are lavished upon Indra.

He is distinguished as youthful, ancient, strong, agile, martial, heroic, bright, undecaying, all-conquering, lord of unbounded wisdom and irresistible power and prowess, wielder of the thunderbolt, &c. He has vigour in his body, strength in his arms, a thunderbolt in his hand, and wisdom in his head. * * * *
The thunderbolt of Indra is generally described as having been fashioned for him by the Indian Hephaistos, Tvashtri, the artificer of the gods. Another instrument of warfare, a net, is assigned to Indra. * This world was the great net of the great Sakra. With this net of Indra I envelope them all in darkness.'

" Invoked by his mortal worshippers Indra obeys the summons, and speedily arrives in his chariot to receive their offerings. He finds food provided for his horses, and large libations of soma juice are poured out for himself to quaff. He becomes exhilarated by these libations, which are also frequently described as stimulating his warlike dispositions and energies, and fitting him for his other functions, even for supporting the earth and sky. He is said to have drunk at one draught thirty bowls of soma." * * * ?

Thus exhilarated by soma juice, " Indra hurries off escorted by troops of Maruts, and sometimes attended by his faithful comrade Vishnu, to encounter the hostile powers in the atmosphere, who malevolently shut up the watery treasures in the clouds. These demons of drought, called by a variety of names, as Vrittra, Ahi, Sushna, Namuchi, Pipru, Sambara, Urana, &c., armed on their side also, with every variety of celestial artillery, attempt, but in vain, to resist the onset of the gods. Heaven and earth quake with affright at the crash of Indra's thunder. The enemies of Indra are speedily pierced and shattered by the discharge of his iron shafts. The waters, released from their imprisonment, descend in torrents to the earth, fill all the rivers and roll along to the ocean. The gloom which had overspread the sky is dispersed, and the sun is restored to his position in the heavens. Constant allusions to these elemental conflicts occur in nearly every part of the Rig Veda; and the descriptions are sometimes embellished with a certain variety of imagery. The clouds are represented as mountains, or as cities or fortresses of the Asuras, or atmospheric demons, which Indra overthrows."

Dr. Muir selects a great variety of passages as specimens of the language ia which Indra is most commouly celebrated in the hymns. He adds, " it will be observed that the attributes which are ascribed to him are chiefly those of physical superiority, and of dominion over the external world. In fact he is not generally represented as possessing the spiritual elevation and moral grandeur with which Varuna is so often invested. Vol. V,, p. 103.

" Thou Indra art a friend, a brother
kinsman dear, a father, mother.
Though thou hast troops af friends, yet we,
Can boast no other friend but thee.
With faith we claim thine aid divine,
For thou art ouis and we are thine.
Thou art not deaf; though far away,
Thou hearest all, whate'er we pray.
Preserve us friend, dispel our fears,
And let us live a hundred years.
And when our earthly course we've run,
And gained the region of the sun,
Then let us live in ceaseless glee,
Sweet nectar quaffing there with thee."

O. S. T.,Vo). v., p. 139.

Indrani: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Indra (called also Sachi) is represented as an ever-blooming virgin, and whilst the dignity of the king of the gods passes from one to another, she remains the wife of each succeeding Devandra. Indrani, never a mother herself, had a son, Chitraputra, born unto her of a cow, as a reward for the austerities which she practised in honour of Iswara, to the end that he might grant her a son. When Chitraputra was born from the cow, Indrani felt like a woman in travail, and her breasts became full, so that she could nurse the child.

In the Rig Veda one speaker says ** I have heard that among all these females Indrani is the most fortunate; for her husband shall never at any future time die of old age." The Aitareya Brahmana alludes to a wife of Indra, called Prasaha. The Satap. Br. says '-' Indrani is Indra's beloved wife, and she has a head dress of all forms." O. S. T., Vol. V., p. 82.

Indras of the Manwantara: (sáns. hindú). Each Manwantaia has its own Indra. The Indra of the second Manwantara was Vipaschil; of the third, Susanti; of the fourth Siva (also named Satakrata, as he obtained the honour by his performance of a hundred Sacrifices,) of the fifth Vibha; of the sixth, Manojava; of the seventh, Purandara; of the eighth, Bali; of the ninth, Adbhufa; of the tenth, Santi; of the eleventh, Vrisha; of the twelfth, Rithudama; of the thirteenth, Divaspati; of the fourteenth, Suchi.

Indra-dwipa: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine portions of the Varsha of Bharata.

Indradyumna: (sáns. hindú). The king of Avanti, who erected the temple of Vishnu at Purushottaraa Kshetra, and set up the image of Jagganatha, made for him by Visvakarman.

Indrajit: (sáns. hindú). The bravest and most powerful of the sous of Ravana. His original name was Megha-nada, but was changed by Brahma to Indrajit, in commemoration of the latter having obtained a victory over Indra. He was skilled in magic, could render himself invisible, possessed enchanted weapons, described as a kind of rope, which when thrown at an enemy became transformed into a serpent, and retained him in its folds. By means of these magical weapons he pierced a great number of warriors and inflicted terrible wounds on all the leaders of Rama's army; viz., Sugriva, Angada, Nila, Jambavat, Nala, Tara, Sarabha, Susheua, Panasa, Gandha*
madana, Dwivida, Kesari, Sampati, Binata, Rishabha; as well as on Rama and Lakshmana, leaving them for dead. They were all restored by the exhalations issuing from the healing plants brought by Hanuman from Kailasa. All this occurred after Hanuman had destroyed the great army of Rakshasas sent against him by Ravana, the latter being filled with dismay, ordered his son Aksha to go forth, and he was also slain. Then Ravana filled with grief sent for his famous son Indrajit, and said go you and conquer this evil Monkey. Indrajit then ascended his chariot, drawn by four tigers, and went out at the head of a vast army to fight against the Monkey chief. The combat commenced, but Indrajit could not conquer until he bound Hanuman in the ij-resistible noose of Brahma. Afterwards Indrajit performed three sacrifices to Agni, and confined Rama and Lakshmana in his noose, and successfully charged the army of Monkeys. He was ultimately killed by Lakshmana, with an arrow given to him by Indra at the hermitage of Agastya.

Indra-kila: (sáns. hindú). A mountain of the Vishnu Purana but not identified.

Indra-loka: (sáns. hindú). Amaravati, the heaven of Indra and Kshatriyas, called also Swarga. It was built by Visvakarma, the architect of the gods, a son of Brahma. It is described as eight hundred miles in circumference, and forty miles high. Its pillars are composed of diamonds; all its thrones, beds, etc., of pure gold, as also its palaces. It is surrounded by beauteous gardens and pleasure grounds, interspersed with pools, fountains, etc., while music, dancing, and every sort of festivity entertain the celestial inhabitants. The audience chamber is so large that it accommodates all the three hundred and thirty millions of celestials, together with the forty-eight thousand Rishis, and the multitude of attendants.

Indrapramita: (sáns. hindú). A pupil of Paila and teacher of a Sanhita of the Rig Veda. Indrapramita imparted his Sanhita to his son Mandakeya, and it thence descended through successive generations as well as disciples.

Indra-prastha: (sáns. hindú). The city of the Pandavas situated between Delhi and the Kutub. ** The pilgrim who wends his way from the modern city of Delhi to pay a visit to the strange relics of the ancient world which surround the mysterious Kutub, will find on either side of his road a number of desolate heaps, the debris of thousands of years, the remains of successive Capitals which date back to the very dawn of history; and local tradition still points to these sepulchres of departed ages as the sole remains of the Raj of the sons of Pfindu, and their once famous city of Indra-prastha."* The Mahabharata contains a poetical description of the flourishing state of the kingdom under the rule of Raja Yudhishthira. When he resolved on retiring from the world he gave the Raja of Hastinnpur to Parikshit the son of Abhimanyu, and the Raja of Indra-prastha to Yuyutsa, the only surviving son of Maharaja Dritarashtra.

Indrasavarni: (sáns. hindú). The Manu of the fourteeuth Manwantara, according to the Bhagavata.

Indriyatma: (sáns. hindú). ** One with the senses ;" a name of Vishnu, who is described by five appellations.

1. Bhutatma, One with created things.
2. Pradhanatam, One with crude nature,
3. Indriyatma, One with the senses.
4. Paramatma, Supreme spirit.
5. Atma, Soul, living soul animating nature and existing before it.

Indumati Devi: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of the Raja of Vidarbha and wife of Aja. (See Aja.)

Iravat: (sáns. hindú). A son of Arjuna by the serpent nymph Ulupi.

Iravati: (sáns. hindú). The wife of the Rudra Bhava according to the Bhagavata.

Isana: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight Rudras of the Vishnu Purana whose statue was the air.

Isa: (sáns. hindú). A name of a month occurring in the Vedas, and belonging to a system now obsolete. It is one of the months according to the Vishnu Purana in which the sun is in his southern declination.

Iswara: (sáns. hindú). Brahma in the neuter form is abstract supreme spirit: and Iswara is the Deity in his active nature, he who is able to do, or leave undone, or to do anything in any other manner than that in which it is done. Iswara is that which knows all things as if they were present. Mahat is also called Iswara from its exercising supremacy over all things. In Southern India Iswara is identical with Siva. All who profess the Siva mata (the religion of Siva) regard Iswara as the highest god in whose honour they have everywhere built pagodas, and celebrate many festivals. Iswara is also the name of one of the Rudras in the Vayu list.

Itihasa: (sáns. hindú). Historical tradition taught by Vyto. It is usually supposed that by the Itihasa the Mahabharata is meant.

Ivilaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the Andhra kings, the son of Lambddara.


Jabala: (sáns. hindú). The mother of Satyakama, who could not tell her son who was his father and to what gotra he belonged; the son had consequently the utmost difficulty in obtaining permission to become a Brahmacharin. See Satyakama.

Jabalas: (sáns. hindú). Students of a branch of the Vajasaneyi, or white Yajush.

Jaggannatha: (sáns. hindú). This is perhaps the most famous form of Krishna. The image has no legs, and only stumps of arms. The head and legs are very large. At the festivals, the Brahmans adorn him with silver or golden hands.

Krishna having been accidentally killed by Jara, a hunter, he left the body to rot under a tree. Some pious persons, however, collected the bones of Krishna and placed them in a box. There they remained till King Indradyumna (a great ascetic) was directed by Vishnu to form the image of Jaggannatha, and put into its belly these bones of Krishna. Visvakarma (the architect of the gods) undertook to prepare it, on condition that he should be left undisturbed till its completion. The impatient king, however, after fifteen days, went to the spot; on which Visvakarma desisted from his work, and left the god without hands or feet.

The king was much disconcerted, but on praying to Brahma, he promised to make the image famous in its present shape. Indradyumna then invited all the gods to be present at the setting up of this image. Brahma himself acted as high priest, and gave eyes and a soul to the god, which completely established the fame of Jaggannatha. This image is said to lie in a pool, near the famous temple at Juggannatha-kshetra (i. e. Jagganath's field), near the town of Puri in Orissa, commonly called by the English, Juggernath's Pagoda. * Vulg. Juggernath: i.e. The Lord of the World."

There are many other temples to Jaggannatha in Bengal and other parts of India, besides that in Orissa, built by rich men as works of merit, and endowed with lands, villages, and money, at which the worship of the god is performed every morning and evening.

There are two great annual festivals in honour of the god, viz., the Snan-yatra in the month Jyaistha (May, June) and the Rathyathra in the following month Asarha. These are everywhere most numerously attended; but especially those celebrated at the great temple at Puri. Thither pilgrims from the remotest corners of India flock to pay their adoration at the hallowed shrine.

Between two and three thousand persons, it is computed, used to lose their lives on the annual pilgrimages to this temple, and not less than 200,000 worshippers were present at the festivals, from which the Brahmans draw an immense revenue. Since the with drawment of the large annual grant, however, which the British Government of India, till very recently, made to the Orissa Temple, the numbers attending these festivals have very greatly diminished.

All the land within twenty miles round the " Pagoda" is considered holy; but the most sacred spot is an area of about six hundred and fifty feet square, which contains fifty temples, the most conspicuous of which is a lofty tower, about one hundred and eighty-four feet in height, and about twenty-eight feet square inside, in which the idol, with his brother Bala-Rama, and his sister Subhadra, is lodged. Adjoining are two pyramidical buildings.

In one, about forty square, the idol is worshipped, and in the other, the food prepared for the pilgrims is distributed. These buildings were erected in a. d. 1198. The walls are covered with statues, many of which are in highly indecent postures. The grand entrance is on the eastern side, and close to the outer wall stands an elegant stone column, thirty-five feet in height, the shaft of which is formed of a single block of basalt, presenting sixteen sides. The pedestal is richly ornamented. The column is surrounded by a finely sculptured statue of Hanuman, the monkey chief of the Ramayana. The establishment of priests and others belonging to the temple has been stated to consist of three thousand nine hundred families, for whom the daily provision is enormous. The holy food ia presented to the idol three times a day. His meal lasts about an hour, during which time the dancing girls, the Devadasi, belonging to the temple, exhibit their professional skill in an adjoining building. " At the Suan-yatra (or bathing festival) the god is bathed by pouring water on his head during the reading of incantations. At the Rath-yati*a (or car festival) the carriage, containing the three images (which has sixteen wheels and two wooden horses) is drawn by the devotees, by means of a hawser, for some distance. On this occasion many cast themselves beneath the ponderous wheels and are crushed to death."- Small H. S. L., p. 157.

Jahnu: (sáns. hindú). The son of Suhotra. This prince whilst performing a sacrifice, saw the whole of the place overflowed by the waters of the Ganges; being highly offended at this intrusion, he united the spirit of 'sacrifice with himself by the power of his devotion, and drank'up the river. The gods and sages upon this came to him and appeased his indignation, and re-obtained Ganga from him in the capacity of his daughter.

"It chanced that Jahnu, great and good
Engaged with holy offerings stood.
The river spread her waves around
Flooding his sacrificial ground.
The saint in anger marked her pride,
And at one draught her stream he dried.
Then god and sage and bard afraid,
To noble high-souled Jahnu prayed.
And begged that he would kindly deem
His own dear child that holy stream.
Moved by their suit, he soothed their fears, .
And loosed her waters from his ears.
Hence Ganga through the world is styled
Both Jahnavi and Jahnu's child." - Griffiths

Jahnu is also the name of a son of Kuru. V. P.

Jahnavi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Ganga as the daughter of Jahnu, as related above.

Jaimini: (sáns. hindú). A pupil of Vyasa, and teacher of the Sama Veda. Also the name of a celebrated author in the South of India, who lived about the thirteenth century. Ho wrote a free translation from the Sanskrit of the Aswamedhika Parva of the Mahlbh;irata, detailing the horse sacrifice. This work is acknowledged by all sects to be the finest specimen of Canarese poetry in existence. * He has read Jaimini' is a proverbial saying, equivalent to ' he is an accomplished man.

Jainas: (sáns. hindú). The Jainas were a very numerous and important sect in the eighth and ninth centuries of the Christian era. The founder of the system was Rishaba-deva, a Hindu, but the system itself was an off-shoot or after-growth of Buddhism with which it has many leading doctrines in common, but is distinguished from it by its recognition of a divine personal Ruler of all, and by its political leaning towards Brahmanism. The Jainas have left many monuments of their skill and power in the fine temples built in different parts of the Deccan, as well as in the provinces of Mewar and Marwar, which have been designated the cradle of their system. The literature of the Jainas is very extensive, including, besides Puranas of their own, various works in grammar, astronomy, mathematical science, medicine, &c. They were the first who reduced the Canarese language to- writing, and cultivated it to a high degree of perfection. The best Epic poem in the Tamil language, the Chintamani, is the work of a Jaina.

" The leading tenets of the Jainas and those which chiefly distinguish them from the rest of the Hindus, are, first, the denial of the divine origin and infallible authority of the Vedas: secondly, the reverence of certain holy mortals, now termed Tirthankara, or saints, who acquired by practices of self-denial and mortification a station superior to that of the gods; and thirdly, extreme and even ludicrous tenderness for animal life.

" The Jainas are still found in most of the provinces of Upper Hindustan; in the cities along the Ganges, in Calcutta, but more especially to the westward. They are also numerous in Guzerat, in the upper part of the Malabar Coast, and are scattered throughout the Peninsula. They still form a large and importan division of the population of India. The name of the sect means a follower of Jina, the latter being one of the denominations of their deified saints; and as another name of these saints is Arhat, the Jainas are also called Arhattas. - Wilson.

The following account of Jainism was written in Tamil by Munshi, Sastram Aiyar. * " The Jainas verily believe that their system alone was the primeval system of the world; that all other systems were derived from it; that some of the learned professors of their system, by the fault of the time in which they lived, formed various other systems; that Maksha (bliss) can be obtained in this system and in no other; that this alone is the true system; and that all other systems believe falsehood to be truth.

" The Jainas positively affirm that the world exists from all eternity, and that it will exist for ever, without being destroyed, and that it was not created by God, or by any other person. They moreover affirm that this world is divided into three parts, namely, the lower world, the middle world, and the upper world; and that below this world, there is a world called Adhogati (abyss, the nethermost hell), above which there are seven infernal worlds; and above those again are ten Pavanalokas, purifying worlds (Purgatories), above which is this world of earth; above this again is the Jotiloka, world of light (starry world); and that in this our world of earth there are two worlds included, namely, the Vyantraloka, world of demons (devils), and the Vidyadharaloka, world of demi-gods; and again above these are sixteen different kinds of Devalokas, worlds of the gods, over which is the Ahamindraloka, world of Indra; and above that again is the Mokshaloka, world of bliss; where dwells the Lord of all these worlds, the Supreme Being, called the Anadi-chitta-para-meshti (Eternal-intellectual-heavenly-dweller.)

"They believe that this earth is sixteen cords high, and seven cords broad; but this measurement is not within the comprehension of men; it is known only to the wise. The seas and islands that are situated on the earth cannot be perceived and estimated by man's understanding. They affirm that in the midst of the earth is the great mountain Meru, and that to the South of it i& situated the Bharata region, and to the North the Airavata region, and to the Est and West is the Videha region. They also affirm that on both sides of Mount Meru are situated the three kinds of Bhogabhumi, fruitful, or felicitous regions; and that the natives of these regions attain to great age and size; that they cannot interchange places; and that while it is day in one of the lands, it is night m the other. The people of Videha also attain to great age and stature.

" The Jainas consider Arugan to be their principal god, and worship him.

" Yxom the Chintamani. By the Rev, H. Bower. Madras, 1868, The popular name of this god is Jinan; and from this the appellation Jaiuas ia derived. To this god one-thousand and eight sacred names are ascribed.

His greatness ia such that the three worlds worship and adore him. His knowledge is so great that it extends simultaneously to all things sentient.

and unsentient, to things that have been conceived and that will be conceived, to worlds and to worldless spaces. He is powerful to impart the knowledge of his doctrines simultaneously to all kinds of living beings, in their respective language, without the aid of mind, word, or body; and this he does of pure grace, and not from any selfish motives. He does not possess the power (act) of creating anything, or of preserving anything. He is not subject to birth or death. He manifests great grace, and love, and mercy, to all sentient beings. He is of infinite wisdom, of infinite intelligence, of infinite power, and of infinite bliss. It is he that in the beginning, with a view of causing happiness to all living beings, made known the twelve primeval Vedas.

He is the possessor of the triple-umbrella. He is without beginning and without end. He is the possessor of the three wheels of justice. He is represented with four holy faces, and as seated in the shade of the ashoka tree. He has forsaken the one hundred and forty-eight actions of life. He has declared that the Veda, the "World, Time, Souls, Action, and Virtue are, like himself, imperishable and eternal objects.

" The god Arugan has declared that there is no other god besides himself; that all who worship and adore him will obtain bliss, and that those who do not worship him will not obtain bliss; that all living beings will enjoy the fruits of their good or evil actions; that by preponderance of evil, souls enter hell, and by preponderance of good, they enter the world of the gods; but when good and evil are equally balanced, they are born as human beings; when evil alone exists, they are born as irrational animals; and when both good and evil are destroyed, then they are liberated. Since Arugan has declared these things, the Jains firmly believe them to be true doctrines, and since all other systems have been intermediately introduced by certain persons, they positively affirm them all to be false systems. , " As Time is considered to be eternal, it is iudestructable in its nature, and is divided into two sorts, viz., the Utsarpini and the Avasarpiui time. The Avasarpini time has six stages, viz., good-good time, good time, good-bad time, bad-good time, bad time, and bad-bad time. In like manner the Utsarpini time has six stages, only that it begins at the bottom of the list with bad-bad time and goes backwards. In the Utsarpini time, beginning from bad-bad time, the age and stature of men increase, as that of the waxing moon. But in the Avasarpini time, beginning from the good-good time, the age and stature of men decrease, as that of the waxing moon. The increase and decrease of stature is up to six thousand Vils (bows), and down to a cubit. The increase and decrease of nge will be from three pallam.s, to fifteen years. This account of pallams is not to Le understood by men. In the above specified six divisions of time, the first consists of four krores of krores of oceans of years. The second consists of three krores of krores of oceans of years. The third consists of two krores of krores of oceans of years. The fourth, one krore of krores of oceans of years, save forty-two thousand years. The fifth consists of twenty thousand years. The sixth also consists of twenty thousand years. This account of oceans is not to be understood by men. The stage in which we now live is the fifth, viz., the bad time. When the two sorts of time, viz., the Utsarpini and Avasarpini times run out, it is said to be a Yugam. Utsarpini means the age of increase, and Avasarpani means the age of decrease.

*' As the present is the Avasarpini time, we must infer that the three good stages of time have already passed by, and that the Bharata region, and the Airavata region have both been Bhogabhumis, fruitful lands. The people of those times, as before stated, had stature of body, and length of age adequate to the times. The people of those times forty-five days after their birth, became perfect men, and were well up in all sciences, and attained all knowledge by themselves, simply from the plastic power of the time.

Moreover in these three stages of time there was no light of the sun or of the moon; but day and night were formed from the reflection and nonreflection of the Kalpaka trees. Those people at death entered the world of the gods, and did not go to hell. And they were not subject to the ordinary physical evils connected with disease, the discharges of the body, &c.

'* Thus after the existence of the Bhogabhumi, when yet there was oneeighth of time, in the third stage, fourteen Manus were born. It was in the time of these Manus that the sun and moon, the stars and clouds appeared; division of time into years and months, the equinoctical or solstitial course, the lunar half-month or fortnight, the six seasons, the day of twenty-four hours, and the day as distinguished from night, were instituted; means of warding off the evils arising from wild beasts were discovered; rivers, tanks, reservoirs, mountains, and a variety of means of livelihood were brought into use. Of the above mentioned Manus, the foiirteenth is said to have been Nabhi Maharajah. In the reign of this Manu, as the people were born with the umbilical cord, the name Nabhi was given. In his reign clouds appeared, and it rained. Then appeared trees and various kinds of corn. By this Manu men were taught to cat fruit and grain, and the way of preparing food; and he also pointed o)it the way of weaving cloths from cotton, and of wearmg them; and the use of flowers, garlands, perfumes, and ornaments, to adorn the person, came into voguo.

'This Nablii Maharajah is said by some to be Brahma. His consort was Murudeviammal. In his reign was born the first incarnated personage named A'ri-sUal.ha Tirthankara, After him were born twenty-three Tirthankaras, equal to himself. In their days, the twelve Chakravartis, the nine Baladevas, the nine Vasudevas, and the nine Prativasudevas were all born in the fourth stage. These sixty-three persons were called Salaka iiurushas, divine personages.

" The twenty-four Tirthankaras, without the instruction of a Guru, were skilled in the circle of the sciences, knew the five Kaliyanas or ceremonies of the gods, were worshipped by the four classes of the gods, and at their very birth were endued with the three kinds of knowledge; they also had the fourth kind of knowledge, by the exercise of which they were cognizant of the thoughts of all living beings, and they also possessed the fifth kind of knowledge called Kevalajnanam (spiritual knowledge,) by which they were instantaneously cognizant of all things done in all the worlds. They sat exalted on the throne in the temple called Sambhavasaranam, constructed by the Devendras. They were the possessors of the triple-umbrella and the Ashoka tree; they were believed in as gods over gods, as omniscient, as lords of the three worlds, as removers of sin and bestowers of heavenly bliss, as persons praised by all living beings, as possessors of divine attributes, as bearing the one thousnd and eight divine appellations, as having the one thousand and eight divine marks on their sacred bodies, and as manifesting abundant grace, love, and mercy to all living beings, and pre-eminent in imparting instruction in their respective languages to the inhabitants of the celestial and the terrestial worlds, to those of the Nagaloka, Vaiyantriloka, and Jotiloka, and also to irrational animals, and inculcating the virtues, such as not killing, &c., prescribed in the twelve Vedas. As these twenty-four Tirthankaras are incarnations of wisdom, and are divine personages who appeared in the world and attained the enjoyment of heavenly bliss, the Jainas consider them to be Swamis equal to the divine-natured Arugan, who exists in this Avasarpini time. And accordingly they build temples in honour of these Tirthankaras, and make images like them of stone, wood, gold, and precious gems, and considering these idols as the god Arugan himself, they perform daily and special iujas (worship), and observe fasts, and celebrate festivals, in their honour.

" They moreover say that in the time of Vrishaba Tirthankara, and in the reign of Baradeswara, the first Chakravarti, the four castes, namely, the Brahman, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra, were instituted in connection with this system.

" They moreover allege that in the time of Vrishaba Swami, who was the first Tirthankara, the Saiva system was first introduced; and about the same period, by the fault of the time, one hundred and six heterodox sects were established by Marichi, a Prajapati (Patriarch); and that from the time of Vimalaswami, the I3th Tirthankara, the Vaishnava system was introduced; and that in the time of Paraswanatha, the 20th Tirthankara, Mahomedanism was established. They also say that there are three hundred and thirty-six false systems of religion.

" They moreover affirm that during the period of the 20th Tirthankara, by the fault of the time, Yagam, animal sacrifice, was first introduced by an Asura named Mahakalesurau; and after the introduction of these Yagams, temples were built for Siva and Vishnu.

" Moreover, as it is declared in the Jaina Vedas that all the gods worshipped by the various Hindu Sects, namely, Siva, Brahma, Vishnu, Ganapati, Subramaniyan, and others, were devoted adherents of the abovementioned Tirthankaras, the Jainas therefore do not consider them as unworthy of their worship; but as they are servants of Arugan, they consider them to be deities of their system, and accordingly perform certain pujas in honour of them, and worship them also.

" As Jaina temples and idols are to be seen in all villages and countries, and in some places even underground, it is evident that the Jaina system, as declared in their Vedas, was the primeval system of the Hindus. As moreover, when the Jaina Vedas are carefully examined, there will be found in them many things calculated to benefit mankind; and since Jaina idols are to be found in all countries; and as the deities worshipped by others are believed to be devotees of Arugan; and as all the precepts of Arugafa point only to what is good to all sentient beings; and by the great doctrine that no sentient being whatever, even a tree, should be destroyed; and as there are many things in the system beyond the reach of man's understanding, and which can by no means whatever be comprehended; and as it is evident from their Vedas as well as from experience, that all other systems originated among themselves through the fault of the time, from misunderstanding, and from a variety of other causes; it is evident that this system was the primeval one.

"The Jainas are divided into two parties, the Swetambaras, and Digambaras. Though both parties have the same Veda, they disagree in a few things. The Swetambaras have many internal divisions, and the Digambaras also appear to have a few internal divisions.

" The Jainas are prevalent in the North. Their tenets and observances arc the following: They believe that not to kill any sentient being is the greatest virtue; not to tell lies, not to steal other men's goods, not to covet other men's wives, and to desire moderately such things as money, grain, house, garden, land, vehicle, clothing, &c.; these four ordinances they consider of equal importance with the injunction not to kill.

" Moreover, not to eat at night, and to drink water strained, are held to be high virtues, And not to drink toddy, or honey, or arrack, are also believed to be important injunctions. They are also forbidden to eat figs, the fruit of the banian, the peepul, the koli and the jujube, as well as the snake-vegetable, the calabash, gunjah (bhang), opium, onions, assafsetida, garlic, radish, mushroom, &c. Such articles, and others which have much seed in them, they will not so much as think of eating even in an emergency where death is imminent on such abstinence; and any kind of flesh meat they will not even inadvertently touch with the hand.

" These and similar observances are enjoined on those who live in the domestic state; and if we were to write largely upon them many books would be required; we shall, therefore, abridge what we have to say. They have in fact twelve thousand injunctions to observe. But regarding those who live in the ascetic state, as much time will be required both to write and to read, we have not ventured to describe them. However, it is necessary to know that they firmly believe that there is no final liberation (bliss) in the domestic, but only in the ascetic state; nor is liberation to be attained by females, irrational animals, or Sudras, nor by celestial, nor infernal beings; and they moreover hazard the assertion that during the fifth and sixth stages of time there is no liberation for any one; and they show that Time alone is the cause of this evil. They also affirm that there are always three less nine krores of Munis (ascetics) on earth.

" The Jainas hold that the function (act, work) of the Divine Being is to exercise love and mercy to all living beings, and reveal to them the Vedas, in order that they may walk according to the precepts enjoined in them; and that the function (act, work) of all living beings is either to do good or evil, and have fruition of their deeds; and that the attainment of heaven or hell is also their own act, and that it is in their own power to renounce sin, and to obtain merit. This thej consider to be true doctrine."

According to )VIr. Max IVIiiller the Nirwana of the Buddhists is absolute and total annihilation; but the Jainas certainly do not attach any such meaning to the term; it is with them a more defined state of existence than the Moksha of the Hindus, " The Jainas not only affirm that there is such a state, but they define the size of the emancipated souls, the place where they live, their tangible qualities, the duration of their existence, the distance at which they are from one another, their parts, natures and numbers.

Those who attain to this nirwana, this extinction of action, this final liberation, do not return to a wordly state, and there is no interruption to their bliss. They have perfect vision and knowledge, and do not depend on works. (Rev. J. Stevenson. The Kalpa Sutra.)

As noticed in the extract given above from Mnnshi Sastram,.the Jainas are divided iuto two priucipal divihiouB, Digambaras and Swetambaras. The former word meaus 'sky-clad/ or naked, but in the present day, ascetics of this division wear coloured garments, and confine the disuse of clothes to the period of their meals.

Swetambara means *one who wears white garments;' but the points of difference between these two divisions are far from being restricted to that of dress: it is said to comprehend a list of seven hundred topics, of which eighty-four are considered to be of paramount importance. Amongst the latter are mentioned the practice of the Swetambaras to decorate the images of their saints with earrings, necklaces, armlets, and tiaras of gold and jewels; whereas the Digambaras leave their images without ornaments.

Again, the Swetambaras assert that there are twelve heavens and sixty-four Indras; whereas the Digambaras maintain that there are sixteen heavens and one hundred Indras. In the south of India, the Jainas are divided iuto two castes; in Upper Hindustan, they are all of one caste. It is remarkable, however, that amongst themselves they recognise a number of families between which no intermarriage can take place, and that they resemble, in this respect also, the ancient Brahmanical Hindus, who established similar restrictions in their religious codes.

As regards the pantheon of the Jaina creed, it is still more fantastical than that of the Brahmanical sects, whence it is borrowed to a great extent, but without any of the poetical and philosophical interest which inheres in the gods of the Vedic time.

The highest rank amongst their numberless hosts of divine beings -
divided by them into four classes, with various sub-divisions - they assign to the deified saints, wliich they call Jina, or Arhat, or Tirthankara, besides a variety of other generic names. The Jainas enumerate twenty-four Tirthankaras of their past age, twenty-four of the present, and twenty-four of the age to come; and they invest these holy personages with thirty-six superhuman attributes of the most extravagant character. Notwithstanding the sameness of these attributes, they distinguish the twenty-four Jainas of the present age from each other in colour, stature, and longevity.

Two of them are red, two white, two blue, two black; the rest arc of a golden hue, ("r a vcllowihli brown. The other two peculiarities are regulated by them with equal precision, and according to a system of decrement, from Rishabha, the first Jina, who was five hundred poles in stature, and lived 8,400,000 great years, down to Mahavira, the 24th, who had degenerated to the size of a man, and was no more than forty years on earth; the age of his predecessor, Parswanatha, not exceeding one hundred years.

The present worship is almost restricted to the two lastTirthankaras; and as the stature and years of these personages have a reasonable possibility, H. T. Colebrooke inferred that they alone are to be considered as historical personages. A s, moreover, amongst the disciples of Mahavira there is one, Indrabhuti, who is called Gautama, and as Gautama is also a name of the founder of the Buddha faith, the same distinguished scholar concluded that, if the identity between these names could be assumed, it would lead to the further surmise that both these sects are branches of the same stock. But against this view, which would assign to the Jaina religion an antiquity even higher than 543 before Christ -
the date which is commonly ascribed to the apotheosis of Gautama Buddha - several reasons are alleged by Professor Wilson. As to the real date, however, of the origin of the Jaina faith, as the same scholar justly observes, it is immersed in the same obscurity which invests all remote history amongst the Hindus. We can only infer from the existing Jaina literature, and from the doctrines it inculcates, that it came later into existence than Buddhism.

Jaitra: (sáns. hindú). The name of the chariot of Krishna.

Jajali: (sáns. hindú). A pupil of Pathya, and teacher of the Atharva Veda.

Jaleyu: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a descendant of Puru.

Jamadagni: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven Rishis, or great sages of the seventh Manwantara, the present period.

Jamadagni: (sáns. hindú). The son of Richika, was a pious sage, who by the fervour of his devotions, whilst engaged in holy study, obtained entire possession of the Vedas. Having gone to king Prasenajit, he demanded in marriage his daughter Renuka, and the king gave her unto him. The descendant of Bhrigu conducted the princess to his hermitage, and dwelt with her there, and she was contented to partake in his ascetic life. They had four sons, and then a fifth, who was Jamadagaya, (Rama) the last but not the least of the brethren. Once when her sons were all absent, to gather the fruits on which they fed, Renuka, who was exact in the discharge of all her duties, went forth to bathe. On her way to the stream she beheld Chitraratha, the prince of Mrittikavati, with a garland of lotuses on his neck, sporting with his queen in the water, and she felt envious of their felicity. Defiled by unworthy thoughts, wetted but not purified by the stream, she returned disquieted to the hermitage, and her husband perceived her agitation. Beholding her fallen from perfection, and shorn of the lustre of her sanctity, Jamadagni reproved her, and was exceeding wrath. Upon this there came her sons from the wood, first the eldest, Rumanwat, then Sushena, then Vasu, and then Visvvavasu; and each, as he entered, was successively commanded by his father to put his mother to death; but amazed, and influenced by natural affection, none of them made any reply: therefore Jamadagni was angry, and cursed them, and they became as idiots, and lost all understanding, and were like unto beasts or birds. Lastly, Rama returned to the hermitage, when the mighty and holy Jamadagni said unto him, ' Kill thy mother, who has sinned; and do it, son, without repining.' Rama accordingly took up his axe, and struck off his mother's head; whereupon the wrath of the illustrious and mighty Jamadagni was assuaged, and he was pleased with his son, and said, * Since thou hast obeyed my commands, and done what was hard to be performed, demand from me whatever blessings thou wilt, and thy desires shall be all fulfilled.' Then Rama begged of his father these boons; the restoration of his mother to life, with forgetfulness of her having been slain, and purification from all defilement; the return of his brothers to their natural condition; and, for himself, invincibility in single combat, and length of days; and all these did his father bestow.

" It happened on one occasion, that, during the absence of the Rishi's sons, Uie mighty monarch Karttavirya, the sovereign of the Haihaya tribe, endowed by the favour of Dattatreya with a thousand arms, and a golden chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go, came to the hermitage of Jamadagni, where the wife of the sage received him with all proper respect. The king. inflated with the pride of valour, made no return to her hospitality, but carried off with him by violence the calf of the milch cow of the sacred oblation, and cast down the tall trees surrounding the hermitage. When Rama returned, his father told him what had chanced, and he saw the cow in affliction, and he was filled with wrath. Taking up his splendid bow, Bhargava, the slayer of hostile heroes, he assailed Karttavirya, who had now become subject to the power of death, and overthrew him in battle. With sharp arrows Rama cut off his thousand arms, and the king perished.

The sons of Karttavirya, to revenge his death, attacked the hermitage of Jamadagni, when Rama was away, and slew the pious and unresisting sage, who called repeatedly, but fruitlessly.

upon his valiant son. They then departed; and when Rama returned, bearing fuel from the thickets, he found his father lifeless. V. P. See Rama.

Jambavat: (sáns. hindú). The king of the bears, that killed the lion that slew Prasena, the possessor of the Syamantaka gem. The lion had the jewel in his mouth when he was killed by Jambavat, who carrying off the gem retired into his cave, and gave it to his son Sukumara to play with. The murder of Prasena having been ascribed to Krishna, he determined to recover the gem, and having found the cavern of Jambavat, he saw the brilliant jewel in the hands of the nurse, who called loudly for help. Hearing her cries Jambavat cameinto the cave, and a conflict ensued between him and Krishna which lasted twenty-one days. At last Jambavat was vanquished and acknowledged the divinity of Krishna, who then alleviated the bodily pain the bear suffered from the fight. Jambavat prostrated himself and offered his daughter Jambavati along with the Syamantaka jewel. Jambavat was one of the generals in Ruma's army at the siege of Lanka. He was severely wounded by the magical weapons of Indrajit; but was still conscious, and made known to Hanuman the existence of the four medicinal herbs, that grew at Kailasa on the Himalaya mountains, and by virtue of which all the dead and wounded might be restored. Hanuman at once flew to the spot, and brought the mountain peak and all its contents back with him to the camp, and Jambavat, with the other chiefs were soon made well.

Jamabvati: (sáns. hindú). One of the wives of Krishna obtained as related in the preceding article.

Jambu: (sáns. hindú). The name of the rose-apple tree on Mount Gandhamidana, the southern buttress of Mount Meru. From the Jambutree the insular continent, Jambu-dwipa derives its appellation, The apples are said to be as large as elephants. V. P.

Jambu-dwipa: (sáns. hindú). The centre of the seven great insular continents, which, with the seven seas, are supposed to form alternate concentric circles. In the centre of Jambu-dwipa is the golden mountain Meru.

Jambumali: (sáns. hindú). The son of the Commander-in-Chief of the Rakshasas, who was sent by Ravana against Hanuman with orders not to return until he had slain the blood-thirsty monkey. But Hanuman took up a large tree and hurled it at the head of his enemy; afterwards he took up a pillar and threw it at Jambu-mali, dashing him and his chariot to pieces.

Jambunada: (sáns. hindú). The soil in the banks of the river Jambu, absorbing the Jambu juice, and being dried by gentle breezes becomes the gold termed Jambunada, of which the ornaments of the Siddhas are fabricated.

Jambu river: (sáns. hindú). The apples of the Jambu tree are as large as elephants; when they are rotten they fall upon the crest of the mountain, and from their expressed juice is formed the Jamburiver, the waters of which are drunk by the inhabitants; and in consequence of drinking of that stream they pass their days in content and health, being subject neither to perspiration, to foul odours, to decrepitude, nor organic decay. V. P.

Janaka: (sáns. hindú). The Raja of Mithila (the modern Tirhoot) the successor of Nimi, called Janaka from being born without a progenitor. Another Raja of Mithila of the same name, called also Siradharaja, is the more celebrated as the father of Sita.

He received Viswamitra the sage with Rama and Lakshmana, and exhibited to them the great bow of Siva, informing them that bis daughter Sita was promised to the Raja who could bend the bow. Rima then bent the bow in their presence and claimed his reward. The Raja iavited Dasaratha to the marriage, and proposed to marry his two daughters to Rama and Lakshmana; and his two nieces to Bharata and Satrughna. The sages approved of the marriages of the four damsels to the four sons of Dasaratha.

The latter performed a great Sriddha to the ghosts of his deceased ancestors, and gave four lakhs of cows with their calves to the Brahmans, being a lakh for each son, and each cow was adorned with horns of pure gold. The marriage rites were then performed with great pomp and overpowering splendour. (Ramayana) Janaka was also the name of a king of Magadha, and seems to have been a general title of Mithila kings.

Janakpur: (sáns. hindú). A ruined city in the northern skirts of the Mithila district (Tirhut) and supposed to indicate the site of a city founded by one of the princes of that name.

Jana-loka: (sáns. hindú). The heaven of saints where Sanandana and other pure-minded sons of Brahma reside, situated twenty millions of leagues above Dhruva. During a pralaya or general conflagration of all things at the end of a Kalpa, Jana-loka is beyond the reach of the all-devouring flame; and the saints who dwell in Maharloka, when the heat of the flames that destroy the world, is felt by them, repair to Jana-loka in thin subtile forms, destined to become re-embodied, in similar capacities as their former, when the world is renewed at the beginning of the succeeding Kalpa. V. P.

Janamejaya: (sáns. hindú). The king of Vaisali, whose father Somadatta celebrated ten times the sacrifice of a horse. Also a son of Puranjaya, a descendant of Ana. Parikshit, the son of Kuru, had also a son named Janamejaya; and another Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu, had a son named Janamejaya.

Janarddana: (sáns. hindú). The name of Vishnu as the one only God, derived from Jana * men' and Arddana, worship, the object of adoration to mankind.

Janasruti: (sáns. hindú). A king mentioned in the Chhandogya-Upanishad, described as charitably-disposed, the giver of large gifts, and the preparer of much food; who built houses everywhere that people from all sides miht come and feast therein.

Jangalas: (sáns. hindú). One of the aboriginal tribes, dwellers in thickets and jungles. Many of the aborigines -were driven into the forests by the Aryan invaders.

Jangams, or Lingayats: (sáns. hindú). One of the forms in which the Linga worship appears, is that of the Lingayats, Lingawants, or Jangams, the essential characteristic of which is wearing the emblem on some part of the dress or person. The type is of a small size, made of copper or silver, and is commonly worn, suspended in a case, round the neck, or sometimes tied in the turban. In common with the Saivas generally, the Jangamas smear their foreheads with Vibhuti (ashes), wear necklaces, and carry rosaries made of the Rudraksha seed. The clerical members of the sect usually stain their garments with red ochre. They are not numerous in upper India, and are rarely encountered except as mendicants, leading about a bull, the living type of Nandi, the bull of Siva, decorated with housings of various colours and strings of kauri shells. The conductor carries a bell in his hand, and, thus accompanied, goes about from place to place, subsisting upon alms.

In the South of India the Lingayats are very numerous, and the officiating priests of the Saiva shrines are commonly of this sect, when they bear the designations of Aradhya and Panadram. The sect is also there known by the name of Vira Saiva. The restorer if not the founder of this faith, was Basava whose history is given in the Basava Purana, q. v. - H. H. Wilson, Vol. I, p. 224.

Janma: (sáns. hindú). A birth; a state of existence; nativity, one of the branches of the study included in the Brihat-Sanhita.

Jantu: (sáns. hindú). The eldest of the hundred sons of Somaka. Also the name of a son of Sudanwan.

Jara: (sáns. hindú). An allegorical personage signifying 'old age' 'decay' - mentioned in the Vishnu Purana as the name of the hunter by whom Krishna was slain. He mistook the foot of Krishna for part of a deer, and shooting his arrow lodged it in the side, lie then said, 'Have pity on me; I have done this unwittingly, Krishna forgave him and sent him to heaven in his own car. Jara was also the name of the female fiend who united the two part - of Jarasandha.

Jaradgava: (sáns. hindú). The southern portion or Avashthana of the planetary sphere or path of the sun and planets amongst the lunar asterisms.

Jaradgavi: (sáns. hindú). A division of the lunar mansions, occurring in the Central or Vaiswanara Avasthana.

Jarasandha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Vrihadratha, who was born in two parts and put together by the female fiend Jara. When he grew up he became king of Magadha, and hearing that Krishna had killed his son-in-law, he collected a large force and beseiged Mathura; he was defeated, but renewed the attack eighteen times without success. When Yudhishthira was about to perform the Rajastiya, Krishna informed him that there was one Raja still to be conquered before he began the great sacrifice, and that was Jarasandha the Raja of Magadha. Krishna, Arjuna and Bhima then disguised themselves as brahmans and journeyed to the city of Magadha, and Bhima challenged Jarasandha to single combat; the challenge was accepted and after a hard contest the Raja was slain. The story is related at great length in the Mahabharata, but the details are purely mythical.

Jaratkaru: (sáns. hindú). The Vyasa of the twenty-seventh Dwapara.

Jarudhi: (sáns. hindú). One of the mountain ridges which project from the base of Mount Meru, on the western side.

Jataka: (sáns. hindú). A birth; a state of existence; the title of one of the sacred books of the Buddhists, containing an account of Gautama Buddha in 550 different births.

Jatas: (sáns. hindú). One of the five great divisions of the Haihaya tribe.

Jatayu: (sáns. hindú). A son of Syeni and Aruna. A semi-divine bird, the friend of Rama, who fought in defence of Sita. He heard her cries in the chariot of Ravana, stopped the chariot and fought desperately with the formidable giant, but was mortally wounded and only lived to make known to Rama the fate of Sita. The funeral rites of the chief of vultures were carefully performed by Rama and Lakshmana.

Jathara: (sáns. hindú). A range of mountains running north and south, and connecting the two chains of Nishadba and Nila.

Jatharagni: (sáns. hindú). The name in a previous birth of the Muni Agastya.

Jatharas: (sáns. hindú). A tribe of aborigines inhabiting the mountain range termed Jathara.

Jaughira: (sáns. hindú). An interesting and picturesque place of pilgrimage between Bhagulptir and Monghir. In the middle of the river there is a romantic rock, with a temple surmounting it sacred to Siva; while in the mainland, and close to the small town, there is another hill of the same kind, on which temples have been built, some of them of great antiquity. The place has long enjoyed the reputation of being the residence of holy devotees; Mussalman as well as Hindu.

Javali: (sáns. hindú). A renowned logician who at Chitra Kuta endeavoured to persuade Rama that it was his duty to accept the Raj when Bharata himself offered it. Rama regarded his arguments as atheistical and wanting in respect for his deceased father the Maharaja. Javali ultimately recants. Mr. Wheeler regards the incident as an interpolation to bring forward Buddhism and Atheism for the sake of refuting them.

Jaya: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Gusruta.

Jayadratha: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Anu and son of Vrihanmanas. Also the name of a son of Vrihatkarman, a descendant of Hastin.

Jayadhwaja: (sáns. hindú). The king of Avanti; one of chief of the hundred sons of Karttavirya.

Jayanta: (sáns. hindú). A name applied to one of the Rudras. The Puranic writers apply to the Rudras different appellations of the common prototype, or synonyms of Rudra and Siva, selected at random from his thousand and eight names.

Jayantpura: (sáns. hindú). A city founded by Nimi, near the Asrama of Gautama.

Jayas: (sáns. hindú). In the beginning of the Kalpa twelve gods, named Jayas, were created by Bramha as his deputies and assistants in the creation. They, lost in meditation, neglected his commands; on which he sentence then to be repeatedly born in each Manwactara till the seventh. They were accordingly in the several successive Manwantaras, Ajitas, Treshitas, Satyas, Haris, Vaikunthas, Sadyas, and Adityas.

Jayati: (sáns. hindú). The metre created from the western mouth of Bramha along with the Sama Veda, the collection of hymns termed Saptadasa and the Aitaratra sacrifice.

Jayasena: (sáns. hindú). The son of Adina; one of the descendants of Kuru, Sarvabhauraa had a son also named Jayasena.

Jhajhara: (sáns. hindú). A daitya of great prowess, the son of Hiranyaksha.

Jillikas: (sáns. hindú). one of the aboriginal or Non-Aryan tribes mentioned in the V. P.

Jimuta: (sáns. hindú). A prince, son of Vyoman, a descendant of Jyamagha.

Jiva: (sáns. hindú). The soul; *' Spirit cannot change; intelligence has no knowledge; the soul (jiva) knowing things in excess is subject to illusion, and says, * I act, I see.' If spirit falls into the error of supposing the individual soul, jiva, to be itself, as one might suppose a rope to be a snake, it becomes frightened; but so soon as it perceives I am not fwa, but the Supreme spirit, (pardtman) it is released from all fear." Atma Bodha quoted in A. and M.I., Vol. I, p. 212.

Jivata: (sáns. hindú). Man's individual spirit; it is an error to attribute the spirit of life (or man's individual spirit, jivata,) to the Supreme Spirit, just as it is an error to take a post for a man. When once the true nature of jivata has been recognised jivata - itself disappears." Atma Bodha, quoted in A. and M. I. p. 214.

Jogi: (sáns. hindú). See Yogi.

Jumnotree: (sáns. hindú). A sacred spot in the Himalaya mountains, near a junction of three streams. From the bed of the torrent the mountain rises at once to its height, apparently without any very extensive irregularities, and the steepness of the declivity at this point may in some degree be estimated, when it is understood that here, though at the foot 'of this upper region of the mountain, the very peaks are seen towering above as ready to overwhelm the gazer with the snow from their summit, and, in fact, the avalanches from above fall into the channel of the river. The particular spot which obtains the name of Jumnotree is very little below the place where the various small streams formed on the mountain brow, by the melting of many masses of snow, unite in one, and fail into a basin below. Balfour's Cyclopcedia of India.

Jnana": (sáns. hindú). " Wisdom," the various epithets applied to it in the Yoga philosophy are that it "requires no exercise," "without the practice of abstract contemplation ;" "not to be taught," "not capable of being enjoined" "internally diffused," etc., "of all means knowledge alone is able to effect emancipation; as without fire there can be no cooking, so without jnana, science, there can be no final deliverance." Atma Bodha, A, and M, I., Vol.I, p. 210.

Jrimbhika: (sáns. hindú). " Yawning," a form or manifestation of Brahma. V. P. 40.

Jyamagha: (sáns. hindú). A king, celebrated for his devotion to his wife.

" Of all the husbands submissive to their wives, who have been or who will be, the most eminent is the king Jyamagha, who was the husband of Saivyi, who was barren: but Jyamagha was so much afraid of her, that he did not take any other wife. On one occasion the king, after a desperate conflict with elephants and horse, defeated a powerful foe, who abandoning wife, children, kin, army, treasure, and dominion, fled. When the enemy was put to flight, Jyamagha beheld a lovely princess left alone, and exclaiming, " Save me, father ! Save me, brother !" as her large eyes rolled wildly with aflfright. The king was struck by her beauty, and penetrated with affection for her, and said to himself, "This is fortunate; I have no children, and am the husband of a sterile bride: this maiden has fallen into my hands to rear up posterity:

I will espouse her; but first I will take her in my car, and convey her to my palace, where I must request the concurrence of the queen in these nuptials." Accordingly he took the princess into his chariot, and returned to his own capital.

When Jyamagha's approach was announced, Saivya came to the palace gate, attended by the ministers, the courtiers, and the citizens, to welcome the victorious monarch: but when she beheld the maiden standing on the left hand of the king, her lips swelled and slightly quivered with resentment, and she said to Jyamagha, *' Who is this light-hearted damsel that is with you in the chariot ?"

The king unprepared with a reply, made answer precipitately, through fear of his queen; This is my daughter-in-law" " I have never had a son," rejoined Saivya, *' and you have no other children.

Of what son of yours then is this girl the wife ?" The king disconcerted by the jealousy and anger which the words of Saivya displayed, made this reply to her in order to prevent further contention; " She is the young bride of the future son whom thou shalt bring forth," Hearing this, Saivy4 smiled gently, and said, *' So be it ;" and the king entered into his great palace. V. P.

Fuentes - Fonts

bai_____.ttf - 46 KB
babi____.ttf - 47 KB
bab_____.ttf - 45 KB
balaram_.ttf - 45 KB
inbenr11.ttf - 64 KB
inbeno11.ttf - 12 KB
inbeni11.ttf - 12 KB
inbenb11.ttf - 66 KB
indevr20.ttf - 53 KB

free counters

Disculpen las Molestias
Conceptos Hinduistas (1428)SC

Conceptos Hinduistas (2919)SK · (2592)SK
Aa-Ag · Ah-Am · Ana-Anc · And-Anu · Ap-Ar · As-Ax · Ay-Az · Baa-Baq · Bar-Baz · Be-Bhak · Bhal-Bhy · Bo-Bu · Bra · Brh-Bry · Bu-Bz · Caa-Caq · Car-Cay · Ce-Cha · Che-Chi · Cho-Chu · Ci-Cn · Co-Cy · Daa-Dan · Dar-Day · De · Dha-Dny · Do-Dy · Ea-Eo · Ep-Ez · Faa-Fy · Gaa-Gaq · Gar-Gaz · Ge-Gn · Go · Gra-Gy · Haa-Haq · Har-Haz · He-Hindk · Hindu-Histo · Ho-Hy · Ia-Iq · Ir-Is · It-Iy · Jaa-Jaq · Jar-Jay · Je-Jn · Jo-Jy · Kaa-Kaq · Kar-Kaz · Ke-Kh · Ko · Kr · Ku - Kz · Laa-Laq · Lar-Lay · Le-Ln · Lo-Ly · Maa-Mag · Mah · Mai-Maj · Mak-Maq · Mar-Maz · Mb-Mn · Mo-Mz · Naa-Naq · Nar-Naz · Nb-Nn · No-Nz · Oa-Oz · Paa-Paq · Par-Paz · Pe-Ph · Po-Py · Raa-Raq · Rar-Raz · Re-Rn · Ro-Ry · Saa-Sam · San-Sar · Sas-Sg · Sha-Shy · Sia-Sil · Sim-Sn · So - Sq · Sr - St · Su-Sz · Taa-Taq · Tar-Tay · Te-Tn · To-Ty · Ua-Uq · Ur-Us · Vaa-Vaq · Var-Vaz · Ve · Vi-Vn · Vo-Vy · Waa-Wi · Wo-Wy · Yaa-Yav · Ye-Yiy · Yo-Yu · Zaa-Zy


No hay comentarios:

Correo Vaishnava

Mi foto
Correo Devocional

Archivo del blog