Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana Goswami Maharaja
02 de julio a las 1:26
Contenido - Contents
Glossary of Terms
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S1 | S2 | T | U | V | Y | Z
Glossary of Names
A | B | C | D | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S |
T | U | V | Y | Z
Glossary of Places
A | B | C | D | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y | Z
Glossary of Terms
Äruti: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) that which is heard. (2) revelation, as distinguished from smèti, tradition; infallible knowledge which was received by Brahmâ or by the great sages in the beginning of creation and which descends in disciplic succession from them; the body of literature which was directly manifest from the Supreme Lord. This applies to the original four Vedas (also known as the nigamas) and the Upaniëads.
Sthâvara: (sáns. vaiëòava). non-moving living entities like trees, creepers, shrubs, and stones.
Sthâyîbhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the five essential ingredients of bhakti-rasa; the permanent sentiment of love for the Lord in one of the five primary relationships of tranquility, servitude, friendship, parental affection, or conjugal love. This dominant emotion of the heart in one of the five primary relationships is also known as mukhya-rati, primary attachment. The sthâyîbhâva can also refer to the dominant sentiment in the seven secondary mellows of laughter, wonder, heroism, compassion, anger, fear, and disgust. In that case it is known as gauòa-rati, secondary attachment.
Sthûla-äarîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the gross material body consisting of physical elements.
Äubha-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). activities producing auspicious results.
Äuddha-abhimâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure egoism; the conception of being a servant of Kèëòa.
Äuddha-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pure bhakta; one who performs äuddha-bhakti.
Äuddha-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure devotion; devotion which is unmixed with fruitive action or monistic knowledge, and which is devoid of all desires other than the exclusive pleasure of Kèëòa; this is also known as uttama-bhakti.
Äuddha-bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pure or genuine state of bhâva-bhakti; the genuine spiritual emotions which manifest at the state of bhâva.
Äuddha-jîva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pure spiritual entity in his liberated state free from material designations.
Äuddha-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge of the relationship between Bhagavân, the jîvas, and mâyâ.
Äuddha-nâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure chanting of the holy name. When one is freed from all offenses and anarthas, the pure holy name descends and appears on the fully purified and transcendental senses – known thus as äuddha-nâma.
Äuddhâvasthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pure or liberated state of the jîva.
Äûdra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lowest of the four varòas, or castes, in the varòâärama system; artisans and laborers.
Sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). piety, virtue; pious activity. Sukèti is of two types: nitya, eternal, and naimittika, temporary. The sukèti by which one obtains sâdhu-saôga and bhakti is nitya-sukèti. It is eternal because it produces eternal fruit. Bhakta-saôga, or the association of bhaktas, and bhakti-kriya-saôga, or contact with acts of devotion, are nitya-sukèti. These activities are said to be nitya-sukèti and not bhakti proper when they are performed accidentally or without pure äraddhâ. When this type of sukèti acquires strength after many lifetimes, äraddhâ develops toward sâdhu-saôga and ananya-bhakti. The sukèti by which one obtains material enjoyment and impersonal liberation is naimittika-sukèti. It is temporary because it produces temporary results. Karma, yoga, and jñâna are all naimittikasukèti. Naimittika-sukèti does not have the power to awaken faith in transcendental objects, such as the Lord’s holy name, mahâprasâda, bhakti, and the Vaiëòavas.
Äûnyavâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the doctrine of nihilism or voidism, which has as its goal complete annihilation of the self.
Sura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a god, divinity, deity, sage; this specifically refers to the devas situated in the celestial planets. The brâhmaòas are known as bhû-sura, gods on earth, because they represent the Supreme Lord.
Svabhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the true nature of a thing which forms an essential part of its composition.
Svabhâvika-anurâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spontaneous attraction that one experiences toward the Supreme Lord and His bhaktas when one becomes established in one’s pure spiritual nature.
Sva-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) one’s ‘own duty’; the true eternal spiritual function of the self. (2) in regard to varòâärama-dharma, this refers to the temporary duties prescribed in accordance with one’s social caste. Thus sva-dharma is used in both the absolute and relative sense.
Svârasikî: (sáns. vaiëòava). in chapter twenty-one is used in the sense of undivided remembrance of Kèëòa’s lîlâ. When râga has awakened in the heart of the bhakta, then Kèëòa’s lîlâ automatically manifests in his heart in a continuous flow, without cessation or interruption. Such a condition is called svârasikî.
Svarûpa-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage in which a bhakta’s svarûpa, or internal spiritual form and identity, becomes manifest. This comes at the stage of bhâva-bhakti.
Svarûpata-jaòa-mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberated from matter in terms of the revelation of one’s svarûpa. This refers to svarûpa-siddhi, the stage in which bhâva manifests in the bhakta’s heart from the heart of one of the Lord’s eternal associates. At this stage one’s internal spiritual identity becomes manifest and the intelligence is freed from the influence of matter, yet one’s relationship with the material world remains intact due to the presence of the material body.
Tamas: (sáns. vaiëòava). (see tamo-guòa).
Tâmasika: (sáns. vaiëòava). of the nature of tamo-guòa.
Tamo-guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the quality or nature of tâmasika jîvas which is characterized by indolence and ignorance.
Tantras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the verbal root tan means “to expand”, so tantra is that which expands the meaning of the Vedas. A class of Vedic literature dealing with a variety of spiritual topics and divided into three branches: the âgamas, Yâmala, and principal Tantras; a class of works teaching magical and mystical formularies, mostly in the form of dialogues between Äiva and Durgâ. These are said to expound upon five subjects: (1) the creation, (2) the destruction of the world, (3) the worship of the gods, (4) the attainment of all objects, especially of six superhuman faculties, and (5) the four methods of union with the supreme spirit by meditation.
Tântrika: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is completely versed in the mystical science of the Tantras.
Tapasyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). asceticism; austerity.
Tarkîbî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an Islamic term for the conditioned soul.
Taùa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the border region between land and water; a shore. A marginal state.
Taùasthâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the marginal or jîva potency of Ärî Bhagavân. Because the jîva-äakti is included neither within the svarûpa-äakti nor within mâyâ-äakti, it is known as taùasthâ-äakti, the marginal potency. The word taùa means a shore or bank, like the shoreline of an ocean; and the verbal root stha means to be situated. The shore is not part of the ocean, yet it is not part of the land which borders the ocean. One situated on the shoreline is known as taùastha. He is situated neither within the ocean, nor on the land. In his Paramâtma-sandarbha, Jîva Gosvâmî has described the taùasthâ-äakti as follows: “The jîva-äakti is known as taùasthâ-äakti for two reasons. First of all it cannot be included within mâyâäakti for it is beyond mâyâ-äakti. Secondly, although jîva-äakti is overcome by ignorance, the defect of being overcome in this way cannot touch the Paramâtmâ situated in his heart. This is understood by the following analogy. We see that some portion of the sun’s rays can be covered by shade or clouds, but the sun itself cannot be covered. Similarly, the individual soul, who is vibhinnâêäa, a separated part of Him, can be covered by mâyâ, but Kèëòa Himself can never be covered.
“From this it may be understood that the jîva-äakti is separate from the svarûpa-äakti also for the following reason. Svarûpa-äakti is present in the Paramâtmâ. If the jîva-äakti were included within the svarûpa-äakti, then the defect of the jîvas being overcome by ignorance would be transposed upon the svarûpa-äakti situated within the Paramâtmâ as well, and ultimately upon the Paramâtmâ Himself. Since that is not the case, it is evident that the jîva-äakti is not included within svarûpa-äakti. Consequently, because the jîva-äakti is included neither within svarûpa-äakti nor within mâyâäakti, it is known as taùasthâ-äakti.”
Taùasthâ-vikrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). see taùasthâ-äakti.
Tâtkâlika: (sáns. vaiëòava). activities which are relative to a particular period of time.
Tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). truth, reality, philosophical principle; the essence or substance of anything.
Tâttvika-äraddhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). real faith; faith which is based on the understanding of tattva and which prompts one to dedicate one’s entire being to attain the Supreme Lord.
Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a term addressing Ärî Bhagavân and the Deity. Other great personalities such as Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura are sometimes so called, implying that they have become sâkëâd-dharitva, qualitatively as good as God through their full dedication to Bhagavân.
Tilaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). clay markings worn on the forehead and other parts of the body by Vaiëòavas, signifying their devotion to Lord Kèëòa or Viëòu, and consecrating the body as the Lord’s temple.
Tridaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a staff which is carried by the Vaiëòava sannyâsîs. It consists of three rods symbolizing engagement of body, mind, and words in the service of the Lord. These three rods may also signify the eternal existence of the servitor (the bhakta), the object of service (Bhagavân), and service, thus distinguishing Vaiëòava sannyâsa from the mâyâvâda ekadaòàa sannyâsa.
Tulasî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred plant whose leaves and blossoms are used by Vaiëòavas in the worship of Lord Kèëòa; a partial expansion of Vèndâ-devî.
Tulasî-mâlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a strand of wooden beads made of the tulasî plant, used like a rosary by Vaiëòavas for counting their chanting of harinâma; a necklace of small tulasî beads, known as kaëùhi-mâlâ, worn on the neck by Vaiëòavas to indicate their devotion to Ärî Kèëòa and acceptance of dîkëâ.
Tyâgî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a renunciate or ascetic.
Uddîpana-vibhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). an aspect of vibhâva which refers to those things which stimulate rememberance of Ärî Kèëòa, such as His dress and ornaments, the spring season, the bank of the Yamunâ, forest groves, cows, peacocks, and so on. Vibhâva is one of the five essential ingredients of rasa (see vibhâva).
Udita-viveka: (sáns. vaiëòava). one whose spiritual discrimination has been awakened; the spiritually awake.
Upacâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a figurative expression; assignment of meaning, quality, or appellation to something, metaphor.
Upakaraòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) ingredient, constituting material, instrument. (2) the upakaraòas of rasa are the ingredients which combine to produce rasa; namely, sthâyîbhâva, vibhâva, anubhâva, sâttvika-bhâva, and vyâbhicârî-bhâva. (3) upakaraòa may also refer to the paraphernalia which is offered to the Deity.
Upanayana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a ceremony in which a guru initiates a boy into one of the three twice-born classes by investing the boy with the sacred thread, and teaching him the Brahma-gâyatrî mantra, whereupon he becomes eligible to study the Vedas under his guru. This is one of the Vedic saêskâras, or purificatory ceremonies.
Upâsanâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual practices, especially worship of the Deity.
Upâsanâ literally means ‘to sit near’. Thus upâsanâ refers to all those activities by which one approaches the Lord in order to offer worship.
Ûrddhva-puòàra-tilaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the vertical clay markings of the Vaiëòavas worn on the forehead and other parts of the body to symbolize their devotion to Lord Kèëòa or Viëòu.
Uttama-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the topmost practitioner of bhakti.
Uttara-mîmâêsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the philosophy established by Vyâsadeva dealing with the latter division of the Vedas (see Vyâsa in the Glossary of Names). After thorough analysis of the Upaniëads, which comprise the latter portion of the Vedas, and the smèti-äâstras which are supplements to the Upaniëads, Vyâsadeva summarized the philosophical conclusions of those treatises in his Brahma-sûtra. This Brahma-sûtra, or Vedânta-sûtra, is also known as vedânta-daräana or uttara-mîmâêsâ. Like the other philosophical systems, vedânta-daräana accepts certain fundamental principles. The principles of the vedântadaräana are not the imagination of Vyâsadeva, but are established on the basis of the apauruëeya-veda-äâstras, which are understood to have been spoken directly by Ärî Bhagavân. The statements of Bhagavân are by definition completely free from the defects of mistakes, illusion, cheating, and imperfect senses. On the other hand, the fundamental principles which are accepted in the other systems are products of their authors’ imaginations. The other systems are based on man-made äâstras, composed by greatly learned sages. As a result they are subject to the defects of human limitation. The vedânta-daräana accepts brahma as the supreme fundamental truth. What is the nature of that brahma? The first sûtra of vedântadaräana states: athâto brahma-jijñâsâ – “Now, therefore, inquiry should be made into brahma.” The entire vedânta-daräana is presented in order to answer this inquiry. In the course of analyzing what brahma is, one also becomes acquainted with the truths of the jîvas, the creation, liberation, and other such topics. As this is a vast subject matter, only a brief introduction has been given here.
Vaidha-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). duties which have been prescribed by the Vedas or their corollary äâstras.
Vaidhî-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotion prompted by the regulations of äâstra. When sâdhana-bhakti is not inspired by intense longing, but is instigated instead by the discipline of the äâstra, it is called vaidhî-bhakti.
Vaidhî-prakèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the nature of the sâdhaka which impels him to follow the rules and regulations of äâstra. As long as the intelligence is under the control of mâyâ, human nature must be regulated by rules and prohibitions. Thus, in this condition the vaidhî nature will certainly be in effect.
Vaidhî-pravètti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the proclivity to follow the religious codes of äâstra.
Vairâgya: (sáns. vaiëòava). detachment or indifference to this world; a spiritual discipline involving the acceptance of voluntary austerities to achieve detachment from the sense objects.
Vaiäeëika: (sáns. vaiëòava). a later division of the nyâya school of philosophy, also known as vaiäeëika-daräana. It was founded by Kaòâda Èëi and differs from the nyâya system of Gautama (see Kaòâda in the Glossary of Names). Kaòâda accepted six principles: (1) dravya (elementary substances which are nine in number – earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, the soul, and the mind), (2) guòa (characteristics of all created things such as form, taste, smell, sound, and tangibility), (3) karma (activity), (4) sâmânya (universality; the connection of different objects by common properties), (5) viäeëa (individuality; the essential difference between objects), and (6) samavâya (inseparable concomitance; the relation which exists between a substance and its qualities, between a whole and its parts, or between a species and its individuals). According to the vaiäeëika-daräana the jîvas are innumerable. The merit or demerit attaching to a man’s conduct in one state of existence and the corresponding reward or punishment which he receives in another is called adèëùa (that which is beyond the reach of consciousness or observation). Due to the force of this unforseen accumulated karma, the jîva falls into the cycle of creation and undergoes birth, death, happiness, and distress. When the jîva obtains philosophical knowledge of the six principles, his adèëta is destroyed and he can attain liberation from the bondage of material existence. The vaiäeëikas define mukti as final release from material misery. There is no direct mention of Îävara in the vaiäeëika-daräana of Kaòâda.
Vaiäeëika-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge of worldly phenomena; classification of such phenomena into various categories such as dravya (objects), guòa (qualities) and so on.
Vaiëòava: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means one whose nature is ‘of Viëòu’ in other words, one in whose heart and mind only Viëòu or Kèëòa resides. a bhakta of Ärî Kèëòa or Viëòu.
Vaiëòava-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the constitutional function of the soul which has as its goal the attainment of love for Kèëòa. This is also known as jaiva-dharma, the fundamental nature of living beings, and nityadharma, the eternal function of the soul.
Vaiäya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third of the four varòas or castes in the varòâärama system; agriculturalists and businessmen.
Vânaprastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third âärama or stage of life in the varòâärama system; retired life which entails freedom from family responsibilities and the acceptance of spiritual vows.
Vandanam: (sáns. vaiëòava). principally refers to the offering of prayers or the recitation of Sanskrit älokas composed by äuddha-bhaktas. Akrûra attained perfection through vandana, offering prayers.
Vandanam may also be divided into another three categories: (1) kâyika, by the body; (2) vâcika, by speech; and (3) mânasika, by the mind. Although vandanam is actually included within arcana (worship), it has been listed as an independent aôgas to show its importance. To offer obeisance with one hand, to offer obeisance directly facing the Deity, behind the Deity, or with one’s right side facing the Deity are all considered to be offenses. Vandanam is one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti.
Vântâäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who eats his own vomit. This refers to one who abandons household life and formally enters the renounced order, but who again establishes connection with women.
Varòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four social orders, castes – priest, administrator, businessman, or laborer – in which one carries out corresponding socio-religious duties in the system known as varòâärama.
Varòâärama-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vedic social system, which organizes society into four occupational divisions and four stages of life (varòas and âäramas).
Vâstava-vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). any really existing or abiding substance; that which is grounded in transcendence; Bhagavân, His atomic parts (the jîvas), and His potency (mâyâ).
Vastu: (sáns. vaiëòava). an object, thing, or substance; that which has existence.
Vastu-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage in which the vastu, or substantive entity known as the jîva is fully liberated from matter. After giving up the material body, the living entity who has already attained svarûpasiddhi enters into Ärî Kèëòa’s manifest lîlâ, where he or she receives the association of Kèëòa and His eternal associates for the first time. There one receives further training from His eternal associates. When one becomes established in the mood of their prema and one’s eternal service to Kèëòa, one gives up all connection with this world and enters His spiritual abode. At this point the jîva becomes situated in his pure identity as a vastu, known as vastu-siddhi.
Vastuta-jaòa-mukti : (sáns. vaiëòava). liberated in terms of one’s constitutional make-up as a vastu, or conscious living entity; permanent release from the encasement of the gross and subtle bodies which cover the âtmâ and facilitate the jîva’s interaction with the material energy; complete freedom from all contact with matter and the material world. This refers to vastu-siddhi.
Vâtsalya: (sáns. vaiëòava). love or attachment for Ärî Kèëòa expressed in the mood of a parent.
Vedânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the end of Vedic knowledge. The Upaniëads are the latter portion of the Vedas, and the Vedânta-sûtra summarizes the philosophy of the Upaniëads in concise statements. Therefore, the word Vedânta especially refers to the Vedânta-sûtra (see uttaramîmâêsâ). Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam is considered to be the natural commentary on Vedânta-sûtra by the same author, Vyâsadeva. Therefore, in the opinion of the Vaiëòavas, Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam is the culmination or ripened fruit of the tree of all Vedic literature.
Vibhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the causes for tasting bhakti-rasa. These are of two types: (1) âlambana, the support (this refers to Kèëòa and His bhaktas who possess in their hearts spiritual love known as rati which can be transformed into rasa by combination with the other four ingredients of rasa); and (2) uddîpana, the stimulus (objects con nected to Kèëòa which arouse one’s spiritual love for Him and cause that love to be transformed into rasa).
Vibhinnâêäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s separated portions; the living entities.
Viddha-Vaiëòava-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious practices which go by the name of Vaiëòava dharma but which are adulterated with karma and jñâna.
Vidhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). rule, law, religious injunction or regulation.
Vidhi-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of bhakti which follows rules and regulations.
Vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge, learning, science, philosophy.
Vidyâdhara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a class of supernatural beings who possess magical powers and knowledge of various heavenly arts and sciences, especially singing and dancing.
Vidyâdharî: (sáns. vaiëòava). females of the above class of supernatural beings.
Vigraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) individual form, shape, or embodiment. (2) the Deity form of Kèëòa.
Vijñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). realized knowlege; knowledge distinguishing one thing from another; science.
Vikarma: (sáns. vaiëòava). prohibited acts; actions against the codes of äâstra.
Vikasita-cetana: (sáns. vaiëòava). budding consciousness. This refers to human beings who have an increased sense of morality and have also awakened faith in God. It also refers to those who have developed a taste for the practice of sâdhana-bhakti in accordance with the directions of äâstra.
Vilâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) pastimes, especially the playful amorous pastimes of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa in Vraja. (2) a particular type of manifestation of the Lord. That form which, although manifesting different bodily features for the purpose of accomplishing particular pastimes, is almost identical with its original root form, is known as vilâsa.
Vîòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a stringed musical instrument of melodious sound, the favorite instrument of Nârada Muni and of various other celestial personalities.
Vipakëa-vaiäiëùya: (sáns. vaiëòava). is a specific incident that is either seen (dèëùa) or is inferred (anumati) about relating with vipakëa (an opposing party).
Viëaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an object of the senses, anything perceptible by the senses; any object of affection, concern, or attention; sensual enjoyment.
Viëaya-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge of material objects, knowledge acquired through the senses.
Viëayâlambana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the object of the transcendental senses on which there is âlambana (dependence) for the advancement of prema. This is an aspect of vibhâva, which is one of the five essential ingredients of rasa (see vibhâva).
Viëayî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a materialistic person, a sensualist.
Viäeëa-guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). special characteristic quality. The special characteristic quality of a truly abiding entity, or vâstava-vastu, is its svabhâva.
Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord of the cosmos (see Glossary of Names).
Viëòu-mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärî Bhagavân’s external potency, also known as Durgâ.
Viärambha: (sáns. vaiëòava). lit. vigita means ‘completely devoid of’ and ärambha means ‘awarness of his majesty or greatness’ i.e. complete intimacy without feelings of inferiority or worship. (1) loosening, absence of restraint, confidence, trust, intimacy, love. (2) In his Locana-rocanî commentary on Ujjvala-nîlamaòi (14.108) Jîva Gosvâmî has defined viärambha as the feeling of complete identification with the beloved such that one’s identity is not separate from that of the beloved. In his ânanda-candrikâ commentary on the same äloka, Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura has defined viärambha as deep faith, devoid of formality. Viärambha impels one to think that one’s life, mind, intelligence, body, and possessions are one in all respects with the life, mind, intelligence, and body of the beloved.
Viärambha-guru-sevâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). service to guru which is imbued with deep faith and intimacy (see viärambha). Service devoid of formality. Complete absence of any feeling of separateness from the guru. This type of service is possible only in an advanced stage.
Viäuddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). completely pure; beyond the influence of material nature.
Viäuddha-sattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the state of unalloyed goodness; the quality of existence which is beyond the influence of material nature. Ärîdhara Svâmî has defined viäuddha-sattva in his commentary on a äloka from the Viëòu Purâòa (1.2.69):
tad evaê tasyâs try-âtmakatve siddhe yena svaprakâäatâ-lakëanena tad-vètti-viäeëeòa svarûpaê vâ
äakti-viäiëùaê vâvirbhavati, tad-viäuddha-sattvaê tac-cânya-nirapekëas tat-prakâäa iti jñâpaê jñâna-vèttikatvât samvid eva, asya mâyayâ
– “The Lord’s cit-äakti is known as svaprakâäa. The term sva-prakâäa means that it reveals itself and illuminates others also. Just as when the sun rises it makes itself known and illuminates other objects, so when cit-äakti arises in the heart, one can then understand the nature of cit-äakti and come to know oneself according to one’s true spiritual identity.
“Because the cit-äakti is sva-prakâäa, its vètti is also sva-prakâäa. The word vètti literally means function, which refers to the active agency through which the cit-äakti operates. The cit-äakti is composed of hlâdinî, sandhinî, and saêvit. The particular svaprakâäavètti of this three-fold cit-äakti which reveals Bhagavân, His form, and the transformations of His cit-äakti, such as His associates and dhâma, is known as viäuddha-sattva. In other words, viäuddhasattva is the self-revealing agency of the cit-äakti, through which the Bhagavân and His paraphernalia are revealed to the bhaktas. Because it has no contact with the external energy, it is known as viäuddha-sattva.”
Viävâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). belief, trust, faith, confidence.
Viveka: (sáns. vaiëòava). discrimination; conscience; judgment; spiritual knowledge.
Vivekî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who discriminates; one whose spiritual consciousness is awakened.
Vraja-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mood of ecstatic love for Kèëòa which inundates the hearts of Kèëòa’s eternal associates in Vraja (see rasa).
Vyabhicârî-bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the five essential ingredients of rasa; thirty-three internal spiritual emotions which emerge from the nectarean ocean of sthâyîbhâva, cause it to swell, and then merge back into that ocean. These include emotions like despondency, jubilation, fear, anxiety, and concealment of emotions. They are of two kinds: dependent (paratantra) and independent (svatantra). Dependent emotions are those that are under the control of either mukhya or gauòa-rati. Mukhya dependent emotions are either superior (vara) or inferior (avara). The superior mukhya dependent emotions are those that (a) arise in connection with rati, and also (b) nourish the rati. Of these, the direct (sâkëât) superior mukhya emotions nourish mukhya-rati, and the separated (vyavahita) superior mukhya emotions nourish gauòa-rati. The inferior (avara) mukhya dependent emotions are those that arise in connection with rati, but do not nourish
Vyabhicârî-bhâvâbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). refers to vyabhicârî-bhâvas that are observed in improper or inappropriate persons or things. There are two types: antagonistic (prâtikûlya) and improper (anaucitya). Antagonistic vyabhicârî-bhâvas are emotions that arise in people who are hostile to Ärî Kèëòa, and who have no rati. There are two types of improper âbhâsa: non-existence (asatyatva) and incapability (ayogyatva). When a bhakta experiences some emotion toward Kèëòa and projects that feeling upon non-moving living entities or animals as if they were experiencing that emotion, the âbhâsa is said to exhibit non-existence in the case of the nonmoving entities and incapability in the case of animals. However, these distinctions do not apply to Kèëòa’s eternal associates in Vraja, who serve Him in species such as trees, plants, and animals.
Vyâkula: (sáns. vaiëòava). agitated and restless.
Vyavahâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). behavior, conduct, social customs, practice.
Vyavahârika: (sáns. vaiëòava). routine, common, ordinary; relating to practical life and social customs.
Yâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). offering oblations; any ceremony in which offerings or oblations are presented.
Yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacrifice in which a deity is propitiated by the chanting of prayers and mantras and the offering of ghee into the sacred fire.
Yati: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ascetic; one who has restrained his passions and abandoned his involvement with material civilization.
Yavana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a barbarian, a Muslim, i.e. one who does not follow äuddhâcâra, (pure lifestyle), one who eats flesh, takes intoxicants and does other degraded activities. This term sometimes refers to any foreigner or to those excluded from varòâärama society.
Yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) union, meeting, connection, combination. (2) a spiritual discipline aiming at establishing one’s connection with the Supreme. There are many different branches of yoga such as karma-yoga, jñânayoga, and bhakti-yoga. Unless specified as such, the word yoga usually refers to the aëùâôga-yoga system of Patañjali (see aëùâôga-yoga).
Yogî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who practices the yoga system with the goal of realization of the Paramâtmâ or of merging into the Lord’s personal body.
Yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). an age of the world. Four ages are described in the Vedas: Kèta or Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara, and Kali. The duration of each yuga is said to be respectively 1,728,000; 1,296,000; 864,000; and 432,000 years. The descending numbers represent a corresponding physical and moral deterioration of mankind in each age. The four yugas comprise an aggregate of 4,320,000 years and constitute a mahâ-yuga, or great yuga.
Yugala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a couple or pair.
Yugala-kiäora: (sáns. vaiëòava). the divine youthful couple, Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa.
Yukta-vairâgya: (sáns. vaiëòava). appropriate renunciation; renunciation which is suitable for entrance into bhakti. This is defined in Bhakti-rasâmètasindhu (1.2.255): “When one is detached from material sense enjoyment, but accepts in appropriate proportion objects which are favorable to one’s bhakti, and shows special inclination toward things which are directly related to Kèëòa, such as mahâprâsada, his renunciation is known as yukta-vairâgya.” (See phalgu-vairâgya with which this is contrasted.)
Zamindar: (sáns. vaiëòava). a landowner, landlord (responsible for property taxes to the government).
Glossary of Names
Acyuta: (sáns. vaiëòava). infallible or imperishable; one who is never deviated, moved, or shaken; one who never falls from the transcendental position; a name for Ärî Kèëòa.
Advaita âcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an intimate associate of Ärîman Mahâprabhu and one of the members of the pañca-tattva. He is the combined form of Mahâ Viëòu and Sadâ-Äiva. He was a disciple of Ärî Mâdhavendra Purî and by age senior to Ärî Caitanya. Seeing the fallen condition of the jîvas in Kali yuga, He prayed to the Lord to descend. Ärîman Mahâprabhu appeared partly to fulfill His request.
Ahalyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of the great sage Gautama Èëi. Indra, the chief of the devas, was infatuated with the beauty of Ahalyâ. Once in Satyayuga, while Gautama Èëi was away, Indra assumed the form of Gautama by mystic power and had union with Ahalyâ. When Gautama returned he could understand the whole situation through his yogic power. Furious with his wife, Gautama cursed her to become a stone. Ahalyâ was deeply aggrieved and fell crying at Gautama’s feet to beg for deliverance from the curse. Gautama consoled her by saying that in Tretâ-yuga, when Bhagavân Râmacandra would appear on the earth, He would touch the stone with His foot and she would thus be delivered from the curse. Normally Satya-yuga is followed by Dvâpâra and then Tretâ in the cycle of the four yugas. Ahalyâ appealed to Gautama, saying that she would not be able to bear waiting so long for the appearance of Râmacandra. Gautama assured her that in this particular cycle of the four yugas, Tretâ would follow Satya. By the desire of Gautama Èsi, the order of the yugas was reversed. When Glossary of Names Râmacandra appeared, He touched that stone with His foot and Ahalyâ was released from the curse. Thus Ahalyâ, who had assumed the form of a stone, was liberated from the state of covered consciousness (âchâdita-cetana), at which time she was reunited with her husband.
Anaôga Mañjarî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the younger sister of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ. She is thirteen years old and her complexion is the color of vasanta-ketakî, a beautiful golden flower blossoming in spring. Her dress is the color of indîvara, a blue lotus flower. Her principal service is preparing tâmbula for the pleasure of Râdhâ and Kèëòa. In gaurâôga-lîlâ she manifests as Jâhòavâ Devî, the consort and äakti of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu.
Aôgada: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Târâ and Vâli, the monkey chieftain of the kingdom of Kiëkindhâ. Sugrîva had enlisted the help of Bhagavân Râma to kill Vâli. When Vâli was on his death-bed, he offered his son, Aôgada, at the feet of Ärî Râma. After Vâli’s death, Râmacandra appointed Sugrîva as the king of Kiëkindhâ and Aôgada as the crown prince. Aôgada assisted Ärî Râma in the battle against Râvaòa. Thus, although in the body of a monkey, which is representative of the state of saôkucita-cetana (contracted consciousness), he engaged in the process of bhakti.
Bâdarâyaòa Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Vyâsadeva.
Bharata: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eldest of one hundred sons of Lord Èëabhadeva, who was a äaktyâveäa-âvatâra, an impowered incarnation of Ärî Bhagavân. Although his father was a brâhmaòa, Bharata exhibited the nature of a këatriya and thus he acted in that capacity. By the desire of his father, Bharata was enthroned as the emperor of the entire earth. Nonetheless, he was a great bhakta of Ärî Bhagavân. After ruling the kingdom for a considerable time, detachment awakened in his heart for the world. Dividing the kingdom and his possessions amongst his sons, he went alone to the âärama of Pulaha Èëi in Hariharakëetra to absorb himself in the worship of Bhagavân. Once, after bathing in the River Gaòàakî close by his hermitage, he sat down on the sacred banks of that river, and began to chant ärî-nâma. He saw a thirsty doe drinking water, and looking around cautiously. Just then, she heard the fierce roar of a lion nearby, and out of fear jumped into the river to cross it. She was pregnant, and due to her sudden jump the baby deer fell out of her womb into the current of the river. The doe died after crossing the river. Bharata’s heart melted. He ran and picked up the drowning, motherless baby deer, brought it to his hermitage, and began to take care of it with great affection. Bharata’s affection for the baby deer gradually increased, and as it did so, his sâdhana-bhajana decreased, until he finally gave up his devotional practices completely. One day, he could not find the baby deer and he started lamenting “Hâ deer! Hâ deer!” and overwhelmed with grief, finally gave up his life. In due course of time, he received the body of a deer, according to his thoughts at the time of death. However, due to the influence of the devotional practices performed in his previous birth, he could remember the cause of his falldown, and became repentant. Leaving his parents, he again went to Pulaha-âärama and was delivered by hearing the holy name. This is an example of a contracted consciousness (saôkucita-cetanâ). Similarly, if a renounced person or a hermit becomes attracted to women etc., he certainly falls down from his exalted position. Some people put forward the theory that one attains the human birth, which is the best of all births, through a natural progression, and that one does not fall down from it. Such a proposition is quite wrong, and very misleading. One takes birth according to his desires, and there is no scope for changing this principle. Bharata demonstrated this principle through his own life.
Brahmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first created being in the universe. Directed by Ärî Viëòu, he creates all life forms in the universe and rules the mode of passion.
Caitanya Mahâprabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). also referred to as Ärî Caitanya, Ärîman Mahâprabhu, Gaura, Gauracandra, Gaura-Hari, Gaura-kiäora, Gaurâôga, Gaurasundara, Gaura, Kèëòa-Caitanya, Nimâi Paòàita, Äacînandana, and Viävambhara; the Supreme Lord who appeared approximately five hundred years ago (1486 A.D.) in Navadvîpa, West Bengal. Although He is identical to Ärî Kèëòa, He appeared with the bhâva (internal mood) and kânti (bodily complexion) of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ in order to taste the mellows of Her love for Kèëòa. Assuming the mood of a bhakta, He spread love for Kèëòa through the chanting of ärî-hari-nâma.
Catuhsana: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Kumâra.
Chând Kâzî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the guru of Hussain Shah and chief magistrate of Navadvîpa during the time of Ärî Caitanya. He forbade the performance of kîrtana in Navadvîpa and had a mèdaôga drum broken. Later, he received the mercy of Ärîman Mahâprabhu and became a great devotee. In kèëòa-lîlâ he was King Kaêsa.
Choùa Haridâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of Lord Caitanya’s intimate associates.
He accepted the renounced order and was chastised for a slight indiscretion. Once Bhagavân âcârya requested Choùa Haridâsa to beg some good quality rice from the elderly Mâdhavî Devî so that he could feed Caitanya Mahâprabhu. Mâdhavî Devî was an exemplary devotee of Mahâprabhu, deeply absorbed in bhajana. When Mahâprabhu tasted the excellent quality of the rice, He inquired where it had come from. Bhagavân âcârya explained that Choùa Haridâsa had received it from Mâdhavî Devî. Hearing this Mahâprabhu was silent. Later He informed the devotees that Choùa Haridâsa was no longer permitted to come to Him, for He could not bear to see the face of a renunciate who freely converses with women.
Choùa Haridâsa eventually went to Prayâga and gave up his life in the Gaôgâ. Thereafter he attained the form of a Gandharva in Vaikuòùha. In that form he would visit Mahâprabhu every night and perform melodious kîrtana for His pleasure. Choùa Haridâsa did not actually commit any offense; this was simply a pastime of the Lord with an unalloyed devotee to establish the sanctity of the renounced order.
Dhruva : (sáns. vaiëòava). This pastime occurred at the beginning of creation. Emperor Uttânapâda, who was born in the dynasty of Svâyambhuva Manu, had two queens. The elder was named Sunîti, while the younger, who controlled the king, was called Suruci. Sunîti had a son by the name of Dhruva. Child Dhruva was deprived of his father’s affection, and could not tolerate his stepmother’s tortures. Following his mother’s advice, he therefore went into the deep forest, where he became completely absorbed in very austere and difficult worship of the lotus-eyed Ärî Hari. His prayer was not to attain the Supreme, but to fulfill his material desire for a kingdom. However, by the mercy of Ärî Bhagavân, not only was his ambition for a kingdom fulfilled, but he also obtained pure bhakti. If one performs bhakti with undivided attention, even to fulfill a material desire, one always attains all auspiciousness in the end. Dhruva is an example of such an arthârthî.
Dînanâtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the guardian and refuge of destitute souls; a name for Ärî Kèëòa.
Durgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Lord Äiva, also known as Äakti, Mahâvidyâ, Kâlî, Äyâmâ, and Nistâriòî. She presides over the material energy and is one of the five deities worshiped by the pañcopâsakas.
Durvâsâ Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Maharëi Atri and Anusûyâ. A partial expansion of Ärî Rudra, a great èëi and propounder of the jñânaäâstras. Like Lord Äiva, he was easily angered and easily pleased. He could give great benedictions and terrible curses. Durvâsâ Muni was always surrounded by sixty thousand disciples. Consequently, his unexpected arrival could create an awkward situation for his host. The Muni’s intimidating presence, and the difficulty of accommodating so many disciples could cause fear of the possible repercussion of displeasing him.
Four Kumâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Kumâra.
Gadâdhara Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). an intimate associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He is one of the members of the pañca-tattva. He embodies Ärî Kèëòa’s internal potency and is a manifestation of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ. After Mahâprabhu accepted sannyâsa, Gadâdhara Paòàita accompanied Him to Purîdhâma. He used to recite the Ärîmad Bhâgavatam for the pleasure of Ärî Gaurâôga. Mahâprabhu wrote a äloka in His own handwriting in Gadâdhara Paòàita’s Bhagavad-Gîtâ. After Mahâprabhu’s disappearance from this world, Gadâdhara Paòàita could not bear the pain of separation. He departed from this world eleven months after His disappearance.
Gajendra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the following pastime took place during the fourth manvantara. An elephant called Gajendra was the leader of many strong elephants, and he lived with many she-elephants in the deep jungle in a valley of Trikuùa, the King of mountains. In the valley was a large, beautiful and inviting lake, and one day Gajendra was fearlessly absorbed in sporting in the lake with his female elephants and children. All of a sudden, a strong crocodile angrily caught hold of his leg. Gajendra used all his strength to try to release himself, but the strong elephant could not get free, even after struggling for a thousand years. Slowly, Gajendra begun to lose strength. When he saw that he had no other protection, he took complete and exclusive shelter of Ärî Bhagavân, and began to chant in great distress, eloquant Sanskrit älokas learned by him in his previous birth as King Indradyumna. Ärî Bhagavân, who carries the cakra, arrived there riding on Garuòa, and released Gajendra by cutting open the crocodile’s mouth with His cakra. In his previous life, Gajendra had been King Indradyumna of the state of Draviòa, a member of the Pâòàava dynasty. Once Mahâèëi Agastya came to visit Indradyumna, but when he arrived there, the king was worshiping Ärî Bhagavân in deep trance, and therefore could not greet the èëi. Due to this offense, Mahâèëi Agastya cursed the king to take birth as an elephant. This is an example of a person in distress (ârtta) and contracted consciousness (saôkucita-cetana).
Gaòeäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Lord Äiva and Pârvatî. He removes all material impediments and bestows great wealth upon his worshipers; one of the five deities worshiped by the pañcopâsakas.
Gaôgeäopâdhyâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). author of a famous treatise on nyâya, Tattvacintâmaòi. There are no authentic records regarding his birth or place of origin, but he is believed to have been from Mithilâ and to have lived in the 12th-13th century. He was a keen dialectician and a brilliant polemicist. He made the nyâya-äâstra a science and an art of debate. He developed a new school of nyâya known as navya-nyâya. His Tattva-cintâmaòi is a systematic account of epistemology, logic and philosophy of grammar. It deals almost exclusively with the epistemology of the nyâya system with little attention to metaphysics or ontology. The Tattva-cintâmaòi laid the foundation of a new system of dialectics in India. His book became so popular that no one thereafter could be considered a scholar of nyâya unless they wrote a commentary on this book. The most famous commentary on Tattva-cintâmaòi was written by Raghunâtha (Kâòâîbhaùùa) Äiromaòi, a contemporary of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu (see Äiromaòi).
Gaura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a short form of the name Gaurâôga.
Gauracandra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has arisen like a dazzling golden moon; a name for Caitanya Mahâprabhu (see Caitanya).
Gaura-Hari: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has stolen the golden complexion of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ; a name for Kèëòa appearing in the form of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.
Gaura-kiäora: (sáns. vaiëòava). the beautiful golden youth; a name for Caitanya Mahâprabhu.
Gaurâôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). one whose limbs have a hue of molten gold; a name for Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, who is Ärî Kèëòa Himself, endowed with the bhâva (inner mood) and kântî (bodily complexion) of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ.
Gaura-Nitâi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a short name for Ärî Gaurâôga and Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu.
Gaurasundara: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has a splendid golden form; a name for Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu (see Caitanya).
Gaurîdâsa Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). a beloved associate of Caitanya Mahâprabhu. His father was Kaêsâri Miära and his mother was Ärî Kamalâ Devî. He had five brothers named Sûryadâsa, Dâmodara, Jagannâtha, Kèëòadâsa, and Nèsiêha-Caitanya. His eldest brother, Sûryadâsa, had two daughters – Ärîmatî Vasudhâ Devî and Ärîmatî Jâhnavâ Devî – who became the wives of Nityânanda Prabhu. Gaurîdâsa’s wife was Vimalâ Devî. They had two sons, Balarâma and Raghunâtha. Gaurîdâsa lived in Ambikâ Kâlnâ, on the opposite side of the Gaôgâ from Äântipura. Just next to Gaurîdâsa’s house there is a large tamarind tree, beneath which Ärîman Mahâprabhu and Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu would sit. Once Gaurîdâsa implored the two brothers to remain in his home forever. In order to pacify Gaurîdâsa, Mahâprabhu made a beautiful set of Gaura-Nitâi Deities from a nearby neem tree and presented them to him. In kèëòalîlâ Gaurîdâsa Paòàita is Subala-sakhâ, one of the dvâdaäa-gopâlas of Vraja (Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ 128).
Gautama: (sáns. vaiëòava). is popularly known as Akëapâda Gautama. According to some scholars, he lived in the 5th century BC and founded the prâcîna, or older, nyâya school of philosophy. He wrote Nyâyasûtra, which is known as the earliest systematic literature of the system. The traditional nyâya system as it stands today is mainly based on this work of Gautama. The Nyâya-sûtra is divided into five adhyâyas, or lessons, usually called books. Each lesson is divided into two âhnikas, or daily portions, and these in turn contain a number of sûtras, or aphorisms. These sûtras are also divided into prakaraòas, or topics, by commentators such as Vâtsyâyana and Vâcaspati.
Gopijana-vallabha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lover of the gopîs of Vraja; a name for Ärî Kèëòa.
Gopinâtha âcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great devotee of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He was the husband of Sârvabhauma Bhaùùâcârya’s sister. During Mahâprabhu’s childhood, he lived in Nadîyâ. He later lived with the Bhaùùâcârya in Purîdhâma while Mahâprabhu was there. He was the first one in Pûri to proclaim Ärî Caitanya as Bhagavân, for which he was initially ridiculed by the Bhaùùâcârya, who later obtained the mercy of Mahâprabhu.
Govinda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Kèëòa; one who pleases the gopîs, gopas, cows, senses, the earth, and Govardhana Hill.
Guòarâja Khâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). an associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and resident of Kulînagrâma. He was also known as Ärî Mâlâdhara Vasu. His father was Bhagîratha Vasu and his mother was Indumatî. He wrote a famous book known as Ärî Kèëòa-vijaya which was much appreciated by Mahâprabhu. Guòarâja Khâna used to visit Ärî Caitanya every year for the performance of the ratha-yâtrâ festival at Purî. It was there that the residents from Kulînagrâma inquired from the Lord about the characteristics of a Vaiëòava.
Hari: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Ärî Kèëòa which means ‘One who takes away’ He takes away everything inauspicious, and who steals the hearts of His bhaktas.
Indra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the predominating deity of the atmosphere, sky and rain, he is a deva who is subordinate to Brahmâ, Viëòu, and Äiva, but is the chief of all the other celestial devas.
Jagadânanda Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). a confidential friend and eternal associate of Ärî Caitanya. He used to perform kîrtana with Ärîman Mahâprabhu. He knew nothing other than the Lord. According to the Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (51), in kèëòa-lîlâ Jagadânanda Paòàita has a mood like that of Satyabhâmâ’s, the chief wife of Ärî Kèëòa (satyabhâmâ prakâäo ‘pi jagadânanda paòàitaù). As Satyabhâmâ always exhibited a haughty and contrary mood, Jagadânanda exhibited a similar mood in his relationship with Mahâprabhu. He remained with the Lord in Purîdhâma, constantly engaged in His service. He is the author of Ärî Prema-vivarta.
Jâhòavâ Devî: (sáns. vaiëòava). was the daughter of Sûryadâsa, the elder brother of Gaurîdâsa Paòàita, and one of the two wives of Nityânanda Prabhu. According to Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (65-66), in kèëòa-lîlâ she is Revatî, the consort of Lord Balarâma, and Anaôga Mañjarî, the younger sister of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ.
Jaimini: (sáns. vaiëòava). the founder of the pûrva-mîmâêsâ system of Indian philosophy, better known as the mîmâêsâ system. According to modern scholars he composed his pûrva-mîmâêsa-sûtra around the 4th century BC. It deals with the investigation of the nature of dharma and lays down the principle interpretation of the Vedic texts on which the performance of sacrifices wholly depends. It describes the different sacrifices and their purposes. The mîmâêsa sûtra consists of twelve chapters, the first of which deals with the source of knowledge and the validity of the Vedas. It is recognized as the basic comprehensive work of the mîmâêsa school of philosophy which gave rise to a host of commentaries and sub-commentaries.
Jâmavanta: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Jâmbavân and Èkëarâja, a king among bears. In Tretâ-yuga he was one of the ministers of the monkey king Sugrîva. In age, wisdom, strength, and moral judgment he was superior to all. It was he who reminded Hanumân of his strength when it came time to cross the ocean. He was the chief minister in the war against Râvaòa. Ärî Râmacandra took his advice in all matters and offered him great respect. In the battle of Laôkâ, when all were bewildered by the mâyic power of Meghanâda (Indrajit), Jâmbavân remained unaffected by that mâyâ. Both Meghanâda and Râvaòa fell unconscious from the blows of the fists of Jâmbavân. After Râma returned to Ayodhyâ and was corronated as king, He ordered Jâmbavân and all the monkeys to return to their kingdom. Jâmbavân agreed only upon receiving the Lord’s promise that he would obtain the Lord’s association again in Dvâpara-yuga. Thus when Ärî Kèëòa appeared in Dvâparayuga, Jâmbavân’s desire was fulfilled.
Jîva Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Ärî Vallabha (Anupama), who was the brother of Rûpa and Sanâtana Gosvâmîs. Even as a young boy he was deeply attracted Ärî Kèëòa. He spent his time not in playing but in worshiping Bhagavân with flowers, sandalwood, and other articles. In his youth he went to Vârâòasî to study Sanskrit under Madhusûdana Vâcaspati, a disciple of Sârvabhauma Bhaùùâcârya. After completing his studies he went to Vèndâvana and took shelter of his uncles, Ärî Rûpa and Sanâtana. After the disappearance of Rûpa and Sanâtana, he became the leader amongst all of the Vaiënava followers of Ärîman Mahâprabhu. His numerous literary contributions, which include books such as Saù-sandarbha and Gopal-Campu, and commentaries on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Bhakti-rasâmètasindhu, and Ujjvala-nîlamaòi, have lent support with äâstric evidence to the teachings of Ärî Caitanya. According to Gauragaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (194-207) he is Vilâsa Mañjarî in kèëòa-lîlâ.
Kakkhaùî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîmatî Râdhikâ’s pet female monkey.
Kâlî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a form of the Goddess Durgâ; one whose complexion is dark or black.
Kâliya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a gigantic nâga or serpent of the race of Kadru and Kaäyapa. At the time of Ärî Kèëòa’s appearance, he took up residence in the Yamunâ river and poisoned the water with his venom. Kèëòa chastised Kâliya by dancing on his hoods. By the touch of Kèëòa’s lotus feet, Kâliya was purified and he left the Yamunâ for Ramaòakadvîpa, a small island adjacent to Jambudvîpa.
Kaòâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient sage. He is the originator of the vaiäeëika system of Indian philosophy (see vaiäeëika in the Glossary of Terms). The word kaòâda primarily means “one who lives on a small particle of food.” This may have some connection to the basic tenet of the school which says that the universe is formed of the minutest units of matter, called aòu (the Nyâya-kandalî of Ärîdhara may be consulted for further information on this point). Kaòâda is also referred to by the synonyms of his name, e.g. Kaòabhuja and Kaòabhakëa, or by his genealogical name Kaäyapa. He is also known as Ulûka, which literally means an owl. Tradition explains this name with a story that Lord Äiva appeared before the sage in the form of an owl and revealed the vaiäeëika system to him. It is traditionally believed that Kaòâda lived and taught in Vârâòasî. Kaòâda is credited with the authorship of the Vaiäeëika-sûtra, the basic text of the system, but the precise dates of his life and work cannot be ascertained. While tradition sets him in the 8th century BC, modern scholarship assigns the composition of the Vaiäeëikasûtra to the first century AD. The basic tenets of the system were known to the early compilers of the Caraka-saêhitâ – not only to its final editor, Caraka, but to its original author, Agniveäa, who is thought to have lived several centuries prior to the Christian era. The vaiäeëika philosophy, as propounded in the sûtra, is acknowledged by several schools of Buddhist philosophy, particularly the madhyamikas and the vaibhâëikas. The Pali work, Milindapanha, which was written in the 1st century AD, mentions vaiäeëika as an established branch of Indian learning.
Kapiladeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). an avatâra of Ärî Kèëòa, who appeared as the son of Kardama Muni and Devahûti. He taught the true purport of the sâôkhya philosophy to his mother. In this original sâôkhya philosophy of Kapiladeva there are twenty-five principles. Beyond these there is the existence of Ärî Bhagavân, who is the source of the other principles. There was another Kapila who appeared later in the dynasty of Agni who taught an atheistic version of the sâôkhya philosophy (see Kapila above). The atheistic sâôkhya accepts the twenty-five principles but denies the existence of God. The sâôkhya of Kapiladeva ultimately culminates in bhakti.
Kaäyapa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Marîci, who was one of the six sons produced from the mind of Brahmâ. Kaäyapa was one of the first progenitors of the universe. He married thirteen daughters of Dakëa, headed by Aditî. The universe was filled with living beings of all different varieties by the combination of Kaäyapa and his wives. Aditi was the mother of the devas headed by Indra. Kaäyapa and Aditi performed severe austerities to please the Lord, and as a result He appeared as their son, Vâmanadeva.
Kavi Karòapûra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the three sons of Äivânanda Sena. His brothers were named Caitanya dâsa and Râma dâsa. His real name was Paramânanda Sena, but he was given the names Purî dâsa and Karòapûra by Ärîman Mahâprabhu. When he was a young boy he sucked the toe of Mahâprabhu. He was a superlative writer and poet. He wrote many famous books, including Gaura-gaòoddeäadîpikâ, Ärî Caitanya-candrodaya-nâùaka, ânanda-vèòdâvana-campû, Ärî Caitanya-carita-mahâkâvya, ârya-äataka, Kèëòâhòika-kaumudî, Alaôkâra-kaustubha, a commentary on the tenth canto of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, and Caitanya-sahasra-nâma-stotra.
Keäava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Kèëòa. When the word keäa is taken to mean the Keäi demon, the word va is connected to the verbal root vadh, to kill. In this sense, Keäava means the slayer of the Keäi demon. Another meaning of keäa is hair. When this is combined with the verbal root vah (to wear or possess), Keäava means one who has beautiful long hair. Ärîla Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura has given two further explanations of the name Keäava: keäân vayate saêskârotîti keäava, when keäa is combined with the verbal root ve (to braid), Keäava means one who expertly braids and decorates the hair of His beloved, Ärîmatî Râdhikâ; and ko brahmâ îäo mahâdeva tâvapi vayase vaäîkaroëî, the syllable ka refers to Brahmâ, the word îsa refers to Mahâdeva and the verbal root ve here is used in the sense of bringing under control. Thus Keäava means one who brings even Brahmâ and Mahâdeva under His control.
Kèëòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the original Supreme Lord, Svayam Bhagavân. He is avatârî, the source of all other avatâras. His partial manifestation is the Paramâtmâ and His bodily effulgence is the all-pervading brahma. His body is composed of sac-cid-ânanda – eternality, knowledge, and bliss. He is the personification of all spiritual mellows, raso vai sa. His father is Nanda Mahârâja, His mother is Yaäodâ, His brother is Balarâma, and His eternal consort is Ärîmatî Râdhikâ. He is a charming young cowherd boy with a complexion like that of a fresh monsoon raincloud. His wears a brilliant yellow dhotî, a peacock feather on His crown, and a garland of fresh forest flowers. He possesses sixty-four primary transcendental qualities, out of which four are unique to Him alone: venu-mâdhurya, He attracts the entire world and especially the gopîs with the melodious sound of His flute; rûpa-mâdhurya, He possesses extraordinary beauty which captivates the minds of all; prema-mâdhurya, He is surrounded by intimate loving associates whose prema is completely unbounded by reverence or formality; and lîlâ-mâdhurya, He performs beautiful and enchanting pastimes, amongst which râsa-lîlâ is the summit.
Kèëòa Caitanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Caitanya Mahâprabhu (see Caitanya).
Kèëòadâsa Kavirâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the author of Ärî Caitanya-Caritâmèta. He received the daräana of Nityânanda Prabhu in a dream and was ordered by Him to go to Vèndâvana. At the repeated request of the Vaiëòavas, and after obtaining the blessings of the Madana-Gopâla Deity, he accepted the task of writing the biography of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He also wrote Govinda-lîlâmèta, a description of Râdhâ and Kèëòa’s eight-fold daily pastimes, and a commentary known as Sâraôga-raôgadâ on Bilvamaôgala Ùhâkura’s famous book, Kèëòakaròâmèta. He is Kastûrî Mañjarî in kèëòa-lîlâ.
Kumâra : (sáns. vaiëòava). The four Kumâras are called Sanaka, Sanâtana, Sanandana and Sanat. Brahmâ created them in the beginning of creation from his mind (manaù). That is why they are called Brahmâ’s mânasa-putra (sons born of his mind). Because of their profound knowledge, they were completely detached from worldly attraction, and they did not give any assistance in their father’s task of creation, because they had developed an inclination for impersonal speculation (brahma-jñâna). Brahmâ was extremely displeased with this, and he prayed to Bhagavân Ärî Hari for the welfare of his sons. Ärî Bhagavân was pleased by Brahmâ’s prayers, and in His Haêsa (swan) avatâra, He attracted their minds away from dry impersonal knowledge to the knowledge of pure devotional service on the absolute platform. Because of this, Äanaka Èëi and his brothers are known as jñânî-bhaktas. They are the originators of the Nimbâditya disciplic succession.
Lalitâ-Sakhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an intimate friend of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ. She is the first and most prominent of the aëùa-sakhîs, the eight confidential girlfriends of Ärî Râdhâ. According to Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî’s Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa Gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (Baharampura edition) she is twenty-seven days older than Ärî Râdhâ and she is also known as Anurâdhâ. She has a contradictory and haughty nature. Her complexion is like gorocana, a brilliant yellow pigment. Her garments are the colors of peacock feathers. Her mother is Sâradî and her father is Viäoka. Her husband is Bhairava, who is a friend of Govardhana Malla, the husband of Candrâvalî. The eight principal sakhîs in her yûtha (group) are Ratna-prabhâ, Ratikalâ, Subhadrâ, Bhadra-rekhikâ, Sumukhî, Dhaniëùhâ, Kala-haêsî, and Kalâpinî. Lalitâ is the leader of the parama-preëùha-sakhîs; she instructs and directs all the sakhîs; she understands all the different moods of loving affairs; and she is expert in the tactics of union and separation in the matter of prema. If by chance Kèëòa ever commits any offense toward Ärî Râdhâ, Lalitâ is quick to rebuke Him, raising her head in anger.
Madhva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the chief âcârya of the Brahmâ sampradâya; born in 1239 near Uòupî. His father and mother were Ärî Madhyageha Bhaùùa and Ärîmatî Vedavidyâ. He accepted dîkëâ and sannyâsa at age twelve from Acyuta-prekëa. His sannyâsa name was Pûròaprajña. He wrote commentaries on the Bhagavad-Gîtâ, Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Brahmasûtra, and many other books. He established the doctrine of dvaitavâda which emphasizes the eternal distinction between the living entities and the Supreme Lord. He preached vigorously against the kevalâdvaitavâda teachings of Ärî Äaôkarâcârya.
Mahâdeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Lord Äiva; the great Lord or the chief among the devas (see Äiva).
Mahâprabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Great Master, Ärî Kèëòa Caitanya (see Caitanya).
Mahâvidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Goddess Durgâ. This name indicates that because Goddess Durgâ is the personification of the material energy, she is the source of all material science.
Maheäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great (mahâ) Lord or master (îäa). This is a name for Lord Äiva.
Maitreyî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Yajña-valkya had two wives, namely Katyayani and Maitreyî. When he reached the age of fifty, he called his two wives and divided all his wealth between them saying “Be happy and allow me to go the forest to chant and remember Kèëòa.” Katyayani told him, “ You have given me everything. So now you can go and practice as you desire.” The second wife Maitreyî said, “ First, please answer my question. You are giving me everything. My question is, can these things make me happy forever? You are giving me all these things, and previously you had all these possessions. Why are you giving them up and going to the forest? If these things can give me eternal happiness, why did you not get happiness from them? Why are you giving them up and going to the forest? I know that these material things could not actually make you happy. They only gave you momentary happiness.” Yajña-valkya was satisfied to hear his wife speaking in this way. He embraced her and said, “Truly, you are my svadharmani, my religious wife. No ordinary person can ask a question like this. Such a person is very rare.” He then took that wife Maitreyî with him to the forest and, helping each other, they began to practice bhakti-yoga.
Manu: (sáns. vaiëòava). any one of fourteen principal progenitors and administrators of the universe appearing in succession; the first of these is known as Svâyambhuva to whom the famous lawbook, Manusaêhitâ, is ascribed.
Mukunda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Ärî Kèëòa. The word muku is equivalent to mukti and the verbal root da means to give or bestow. Thus, Mukunda means the granter of liberation. Also means one whose face is lusterous like the kunda flower.
Nârada: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage among the devas; he is thus known as Devarëi. He was born from the mind of Brahmâ. He is a liberated associate of Ärî Kèëòa, who travels throughout the material and spiritual worlds broadcasting His glories. In Caitanya lîlâ he appears as Ärîvâsa Paòàit.
Nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). nâra–mankind, ayana–the shelter of. Means the shelter for mankind. An expansion of Kèëòa; the opulent Lord of Vaikuòùha.
Nîlâmbara Cakravartî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Ärî Äacî Mâtâ, and maternal grandfather of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu; a great astrologer. According to Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (104-105), in kèëòa-lîlâ he was Garga Muni and Sumukha gopa
Nimâi Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîman Mahâprabhu’s childhood name was Nimâi because He was born beneath a neem tree. In His youth He became a great scholar, and thus He came to be known as Nimâi Paòàita.
Nimbâditya: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Nimbârkâcârya; the head âcârya of the Kumâra sampradâya. He established the philosophical doctrine of dvaitâdvaita-vâda, which delineates both the oneness and the distinction of all things with the Lord. He performed his bhajana at Dhruva-këetra near Govardhana. He wrote a commentary on Vedânta-sûtra named Vedânta-saurabha, as well as Vedânta-kâmadhenu-daäa-äloka, Kèëòa-stavarâja, Guruparamparâ, Vedântatattva-bodha, Vedânta-siddhânta-pradîpa, Svadharmâdhva-bodha, Aitihya-tattva-siddhânta, Râdhâëùaka, and a commentary on Bhagavad-Gîta.
Nistâriòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Durgâ-Devî meaaning she who transports one across material existence; she who awards mokëa.
Nitâi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a nickname for Nityânanda Prabhu.
Nityânanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a manifestation of Ärî Kèëòa who in kèëòa-lîlâ is Ärî Balarâma. He appeared together with Ärîman Mahâprabhu and was the Lord’s chief assistantin distributing harinâma-saôkîrtana to the fallen jîvas of Kali-yuga. He was born in Ekacakrâ in 1473 on the day of äukla-trayodaäî in the month of mâgha (January-February). His father was Hâòâi Paòàita and His mother was Padmâvatî. According to some, He was the disciple of Ärî Mâdhavendra Purî, and according to others the disciple of Lakëmîpati, the guru of Mâdhavendra Purî.
Nèga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great king and the son of Mahârâja Ikëvâku. He was exceedingly generous. He once gave an incalculable number of exceptional cows to a brâhmaòa in charity. By chance one of those cows escaped and returned to the King’s herd. Unwittingly, Nèga gave that same cow to a different brâhmaòa. Along the way, the first brâhmaòa recognized the cow and was very upset. The two brâhmaòas went to Nèga to settle the matter. Although the King offered each of the brâhmaòas a hundred thousand cows in exchange for the one cow, they both left feeling dissatisfied. Shortly thereafter, the King died. When he was brought before Yamarâja, he was given the choice to first enjoy the results of his pious actions or to suffer the reactions to his misdeeds. He chose to first suffer the reactions to his misdeeds. Instantly he obtained the body of a lizard and was cast to Earth, where he was made to live in a dried-up well. One day in Dvâpara-yuga, Nèga was found by some boys of the Yadu dynasty. The boys went and reported this to Kèëòa who then came and lifted the lizard out of the well with His left hand. Upon being touched by the lotus-hand of Ärî Kèëòa, Nèga was released from the body of the lizard. He is an example of someone who attained Kèëòa’s mercy from the state of saôkucita-cetana, contracted consciousness.
Nèsiêhadeva (sáns. vaiëòava). the half-man, half-lion avatâra of Kèëòa. He appeared in a ferocious mood to protect His beloved bhakta, Prahlâda Maharâja, when Prahlâda was being severely oppressed by his demoniac father, Hiraòyakaäipu.
Padmanâbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one whose navel is shaped like a lotus; a name for Kèëòa or Viëòu.
Pâòàavas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the five sons of Pâòàu: Yudhiëùhira, Bhîma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. They were great devotees of Ärî Kèëòa. They are the heroes of the Mahâbhârata and were the victorious party in the battle of Kurukëetra.
Parîkëit Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Abhimanyu and Uttarâ, and the grandson of Arjuna. He appeared just at the end of Dvâpara-yuga. After the battle of Kurukëetra, he was the sole living descendant of the Pâòàavas and Kauravas. While still in his mother’s womb, Kèëòa protected him from the deadly brahmâstra weapon of Aëvatthâmâ. When Parîkëit was fully grown, the Pâòàavas installed him as emperor and retired to the Himâlayas. He was such a powerful ruler that he was able to forestall the onset of the age of Kali. Later, by the influence of the Lord’s internal potency, he committed an act of indiscretion against the sage Samîka Èëi and was cursed by the sage’s five year old son, Äèôgî, to die from a snake-bite within seven days. Parîkëit calmly accepted the curse as the mercy of Ärî Kèëòa. He left the kingdom in the hands of his son, Janamejaya, and went to the bank of the Gaôgâ. Great sages from all over the world immediately gathered there to witness his passing away. He spent his final days hearing the narration of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam from the sage Äukadeva. Absorbed in ambrosial descriptions of Ärî Kèëòa and His bhaktas, Parîkëit Mahârâja gave up eating, drinking, sleeping, and all fear of his imminent death.
Patañjali: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great maharëi and author of the yoga-sûtra (see yoga in the Glossary of Terms).
Patita-pâvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who purifies and delivers the fallen souls; a name for Ärî Caitanya and Nityânanada and Ärî Guru.
Prabodhânanda Sarasvatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the uncle of Ärî Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî. He was a resident of Raôga-këetra and a sannyâsi of the Ärî Râmânuja sampradâya. Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî received dîkëâ from him. Prabodhânanda was a worshiper of Lakëmî-Nârâyaòa, but by the mercy of Ärî Gaurasundara he adopted the worship of Ärî Râdhâ-Govinda. He wrote many books such as Ärî Vèndâvana-mahimâmèta, Ärî Râdhâ-rasa-sudhânidhi, Ärî Caitanya-candrâmèta, Saôgîtamâdhava, âäcarya-râsa-prabandha, Ärî Vèndâvana-äataka, Ärî Navadvîpa-äataka, Äruti-stuti-vyâkhyâ, Kâmabîja-Kâmagâyatrîvyâkhyâna, Gîta-Govinda-vyâkhyâna, and Ärî Gaura-sudhâkaracitrâëùaka. According to Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (163), in kèëòa-lîlâ Prabodhânanda Sarasvatî is Tuôgavidyâ, one of the aëùa-sakhîs of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ.
Pradyumna Brahmacârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a personal associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He was a worshiper of Ärî Nèsiêhadeva and thus Ärîman Mahâprabhu additionally gave him the name Nèsiêhânanda. In Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta Ärîla Kèëòa Dâsa Kavirâja has narrated how within his mind Nèsiêhânanda Brahmacârî created a road out of valuable jewels and surrounded it by all kinds of sublime paraphanalia (lakes and gardens etc.) so that Ärî Sacinandana could feel delight as He travelled to Ärî Vèndâvana.
Prahlâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great bhakta of Ärî Kèëòa and son of Hiraòyakaäipu. As a small boy of only five years old he was severly oppressed by his father, Hiraòyakaäipu, who was bitterly opposed to Viëòu for having killed his brother, Hiraòyâkëa. In spite of many threats and attempts on his life, Prahlâda remained composed and absorbed in remembrance of Ärî Kèëòa. He was protected in all such situations and ultimately the Lord appeared as Nèsiêhadeva to kill his demoniac father. The history and teachings of Prahlâda are renowned in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam and other scriptures.
Râdhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal consort of Ärî Kèëòa and the embodiment of the hlâdinî potency. She is known as mahâbhâva-svarûpinî, the personification of the highest ecstacy of divine love. She is the source of all the gopîs, the queens of Dvârakâ, and the Lakëmîs of Vaikunùha. Her father is Vèëabhânu Mahârâja, Her mother is Kîrtidâ, Her brother is Ärîdâma, and Her younger sister is Anaôga Mañjarî. She has an effulgent, golden complexion and She wears blue garments. She is adorned with unlimited auspicious qualities and is the most dearly beloved of Ärî Kèëòa.
Radhâ-Äyâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the divine couple Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa.
Raghunandana Bhaùùâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Harihara Bhaùùâcârya and a contemporary of Ärîman Mahâprabhu. He was also known as Smârta Bhaùùâcârya. He wrote a lengthy book known as Aëùâviêäati-tattva (28 principles) dealing with the scriptural codes of conduct for upanayana, marriage, ärâddha, and many other essential social and moral functions. Aside from this he wrote several other smèti-äâstras including Râsayâtrâ-paddhati, Saôkalpa-candrikâ, Tripuëkarâäânti-tattva, Dvâdaäa-yâtrâ-pramâòa-tattva, and Harismèti-sudhâkara. Kâlîrâma Vâcaspati and Râdhâ-Mohan Gosvâmî of Äântipura each wrote commentaries on his Aëùâ-viêäati-tattva.
Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Dâsa Gosvâmî; a confidential associate of Ärîman Mahâprabhu. He was born in 1494 in the village of Kèëòapura within the Hugalî district of West Bengal.
His father was Govardhana Majumadâra and His uncle was Hiraòya Majumadâra. His dîkëâ-guru was Ärî Yadunandana âcârya. At an early age he gave up a beautiful wife and opulence like that of Indra to take shelter at the feet of Ärîman Mahâprabhu in Jagannâtha Purî. Mahâprabhu placed him under the guidance of Svarûpa Dâmodara Gosvâmî. After the disappearance of Ärî Caitanya and Svarûpa Dâmodara, he went to Vèndâvana and remained under the shelter of Ärî Rûpa and Ärî Sanâtana Gosvâmîs. He stayed at Râdhâ-kuòàa, constantly absorbed in bhajana. He wrote three books: Stavâvalî, Dânakeli-cintâmaòi, and Muktâ-carita. In kèëòa-lîlâ he is Rati Mañjarî.
Râma: (sáns. vaiëòava). a lîlâ-avatâra or pastime avatâra of Ärî Kèëòa; He is the famous hero of the Râmâyaòa. He is also known as Râmacandra, Raghunâtha, Dâäarathi-Râma, and Râghava-Râma. His father was Mahârâja Daäaratha, His mother was Kausalyâ, and His wife was Sîtâ. He had three brothers named Lakëmaòa, Bharata, and Äatrughna. The celebrated monkey Hanuman was His beloved servant and devotee. After killing the pernicious demon, Râvaòa, and rescuing Sîtârânî with the help of the monkey army, Râma returned to Ayodhyâ and was crowned king.
Râmânuja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the celebrated Vaiëòava âcârya of the Ärî sampradâya who founded the Vedântic school which taught the doctrine of viäiëùâdvaitavâda, qualified non-dualism. He lived at Kâñcipuram and Ärî Raôgam in South India in the 12th century. He is believed to have been an incarnation of Äeëa and is known also as both Râmânujâcârya and Yatirâja. He wrote commentaries on Bhagavad-Gîta, Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, and Vedânta-sûtra.
Rasarâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the emperor of rasa; one who is supreme in relishing the mellows of rasa; this is a name for Ärî Kèëòa who is akhilarasâmèta-mûrti, the embodiment of the essence of all rasa.
Rûpa Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an eternal associate of Ärîman Mahâprabhu. He is glorified as having established the inner desire of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu in this world. He understood the confidential moods of Ärî Kèëòa and broadcast them in his many books. He was personally instructed by Mahâprabhu at Prayâga and empowered to write books explaining the esoteric truths of uttama-bhakti. His unique contribution was to explain how bhakti is transformed into rasa and how rasa is the real basis of loving relationships with Ärî Kèëòa. Some of his prominent books are Bhakti-rasâmètasindhu, Ujjvala-nîlamaòi, Vidagdha-mâdhava, and Lalita-mâdhava. According to Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (180), he is Ärî Rûpa Mañjarî in kèëòa-lîlâ.
Äacînandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of mother Äacî; a name for Caitanya Mahâprabhu (see Caitanya).
Sanâtana Goswâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an eternal associate of Ärîman Mahâprabhu and elder brother of Rûpa Gosvâmî. He was personally instructed by Mahâprabhu, who ordered him to write books explaining the principles of bhakti and to excavate the lost places of kèëòa-lîlâ in Vraja. His Bèhad-bhâgavatâmèta is considered to be the earliest of the Gosvâmî writings and the source of inspiration for many other works. He wrote a famous commentary on the tenth canto of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, originally titled Vaiëòava-toëanî, which later became known as Bèhad-Vaiëòava-toëaòî after Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî wrote a tenth canto commentary known as Laghu-Vaiëòava-toëaòî. He also enumerated the basic principles of bhakti in his book Haribhakti-vilâsa. According to Gaura-gaòoddeëa-dîpikâ (181), he is Lavaôga Mañjarî in kèëòa-lîlâ.
Ëaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Äukrâcârya and a teacher of Prahlâda Mahârâja. The word ëaòda means a bull. Ëaòàa embodies the nature of one who is dull-witted in the matter of spiritual realization.
Äaôkara: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for Äiva (see Äiva). Sometimes Äaôkara is used as a short name for Äaôkarâcârya.
Äaôkarâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a celebrated teacher of Vedânta philosophy and the reviver of Brâhmaòism. He is understood to have been an incarnation of Lord Äiva. He was born in 788 and he died in 820 at the age of thirty-two. According to some accounts of his life, he was born approximately 200 BC. He was born into a Naêbûdarîpâda brâhmaòa family in the village of Kâlapî or Kâëala in the province of Kerala. His father’s name was Äivaguru and his mother was Subhadrâ. The couple worshiped Lord Äiva for a long time to obtain a son, and thus when their son was finally born, he received the name Äaôkara. His father passed away when Äaôkara was only three years old. By the time he was six, Äaôkara was a learned scholar, and he accepted the renounced order at the age of eight. He travelled all over India to suppress the Buddhist doctrine and revive the authority of Vedic dharma.
Äaôkarâcârya wrote a famous commentary on Vedânta-sûtra known as Äârîraka-bhâëya, Inquiry into the Nature of the Embodied Spirit. Although he made an invaluable contribution by re-establishing Brâhmaòism and the Vedic authority, which laid some groundwork for the teachings of Ärî Caitanya, the precepts he established are at odds with the Vedic conclusion and the Vaiëòava âcâryas. He declared the Supreme brahma to be devoid of form, characteristics, potencies, and qualities. He states that although brahma is full of knowledge, it is not a conscious all-knowing being. Although brahma is of the nature of transcendental bliss, it is not a subjective experiencer of that bliss. brahma is not the creator of the world. When that featureless brahma comes in contact with mâyâ, it assumes material qualities. These ideas have been strongly refuted by all the Vaiëòava âcâryas.
Sapta-tâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seven tâla (palmyra) trees. In Tretâ-yuga the monkey chief Vâli once procured seven succulent tâla fruits. He kept them aside and went to bathe, thinking that he would enjoy them later.
Upon his return, he discovered that a poisonous snake had already ruined them. Vâli became furious and cursed the snake to obtain the body of a tree. By the potency of this curse, the snake at once manifested as seven Palmyra trees (sapta-tâla). The father of the snake was acutely distressed and cursed Vâli in return that whoever could pierce all seven tâla trees with a single arrow would be the cause of Vâli’s death. Later, Ärî Râmacandra accomplished this feat to assure Sugrîva of His ability to kill Vâli. In Kali-yuga when Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu travelled to South India to deliver the jîvas of that place, He came upon the sapta-tâla trees. Upon seeing them, He became overwhelmed with prema and rushed forward to embrace them. As soon as He did so, the trees disappeared. By the touch of Ärîman Mahâprabhu they were delivered from the state of âcchâdita-cetana, covered consciousness. When the local residents witnessed this astonishing event, they could understand that Ärîman Mahâprabhu was directly Ärî Râmacandra.
Sârvabhauma Bhaùùâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an associate of Ärîman Mahâprabhu; also known as Ärî Vâsudeva Sârvabhauma. According to the Gaura-Gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (119) he was formerly Bèhaspati, the preceptor of the devas. At first his residence was in Navadvîpa, but he came to Puri dhâma on the invitation of King Pratâparudra, and was the chief paòàita in the king’s court. He was one of the foremost scholars of his time. When Mahâprabhu came to Puri dhâma, Sârvabhauma instructed Him for one week in the impersonal conception of Vedânta. After this, Mahâprabhu explained the true meaning of Vedânta and bestowed His mercy upon Sârvabhauma in such a way that the Bhaùùâcârya could understand Ärî Kèëòa’s true identity. At that point Sârvabhauma submitted himself unto His lotus feet.
Äaunaka and èëis: (sáns. vaiëòava). Once, Äaunaka and other èëis organized sacrificial yajñas for a thousand years in the holy place of Naimiëâraòya, hoping to attain the supreme benediction. After some time, they lost all hope of attaining their desired goal in this way, but they attained their desired perfection through the answers that Ärî Suta Gosvâmî (the disciple of Ärî Kèëòa-dvaipâyana Vedavyâsa) gave to their questions. The six questions that they asked him are: (1) What is the ultimate benediction for the jîvas? (2) What topic can we hear that will please the life of all souls, Paramâtmâ Ärî Hari? (3) What were the purposes that Vâsudeva Ärî Kèëòa desired to fulfill when He appeared from Devakî’s womb? (4) What pastimes did Bhagavân Vâsudeva perform in His different avatâras? (5) Please describe the qualities and glories of Ärî Hari. (6) Where did dharma take shelter when Ärî Kèëòa returned to His own abode? All these èëis took shelter of Ärî Suta Gosvâmî as guru, although they took birth in high-caste brâhmaòa families, whereas he took birth in a lower caste. When they expressed their inquisitiveness to Ärî Suta Gosvâmî in a simple-hearted way, this dearmost disciple of Ärî Vedavyâsa answered all their questions with gentle affection. When they heard his answers, they all attained the supreme perfection. This is an example of an inquisitive (jijñâsu) devotee.
Äiromaòi, Raghunâtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Kâòâî Äiromaòi or Kâòâbhaùùa; a contemporary of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and author of Dîdhiti, the famous nyâya commentary on the Tattvacintâmaòi of Gaôgeäopâdhyâya. He was a student of Ärî Vâsudeva Sârvabhauma Bhaùùâcârya in Navadîpa. After completing his studies, he went to Mithilâ for some time and then returned to Navadîpa to open his own school of nyâya. At that time Vâsudeva Sârvabhauma was invited by King Pratâparudra to come to Orissa to be the chief paòàita in his court. As a result, Äiromaòi became distinguished as the foremost scholar of nyâya in Navadvîpa during his time. According to the Advaita-prakâäa, Äiromaòi desired that his Dîdhiti would become the most famous commentary on Tattvacintâmaòi. However, Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu had written a commentary on Tattva-cintâmaòi which surpassed the work of Äiromaòi. Seeing this, Äiromaòi became despondent. In order to fulfill Äiromaòi’s desire, Mahâprabhu threw His own commentary into the Gaôgâ. Thereafter, Äiromaòi’s commentary became celebrated as the pre-eminent commentary on Tattva-cintâmaòi.
Äiva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a qualitative expansion of Ärî Kèëòa who supervises the material mode of ignorance, and who annihilates the material cosmos; one of the five deities worshiped by the pañcopâsakas. His name literally means auspicious. In the Brahmâ-saêhita (5.45) it is described that Ärî Kèëòa assumes the form of Lord Äiva for the purpose of carrying out the material creation. In the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (12.13.16) Äiva is described as the best of all Vaiëòavas: vaiëòavânâê yathâ äambhu.
Simantini-devi: (sáns. vaiëòava). is a name for Parvatî, who at the instigation of her consort Lord Äiva, desired to have daräana of Gauranga Mahâprabhu. Thus she went to see Him. After being blessed by Him she took His footdust and placed it on her sîmanta (hair parting). Thus that place bwcame famous as Simanta-dvipa. Ignorant people call it Simuliyâ.
Ärîman Mahâprabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu (see Caitanya).
Äukadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Bâdarâyaòa Vyâsadeva and speaker of the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam to Mahârâja Parikëit. In Goloka-dhâma, Kèëòa’s eternal abode in the spiritual world, he is the parrot of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ.
Sugrîva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the monkey chieftain in the Èëya-mûka mountain, who received Râma and Lakëmaòa when they were searching for Sitâ. He was the brother of Vâli, who, due to a misunderstanding, was vehemently inimical toward him. After taking Râma’s help to kill his brother, he summoned the monkey army to assist Râma in conquering Râvaòa and recovering Sîtâ. After the death of Râvaòa, Sugrîva accompanied Râma and Lakëmaòa on their return to Ayodhyâ.
Surabhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a cow of divine origin. After Indra committed a grave offense against Ärî Kèëòa by flooding Gokula with torrents of rain, he became very fearful, and thus he approached Surabhi for shelter, knowing cows to be most dear to Kèëòa. The two of them went to Navadvîpa-dhâma, knowing that Kèëòa would appear there in Kaliyuga as Ärî Gaurâôga. By chanting Gaurâôga’s name, tears of love filled their eyes and they quickly attained the daräana of Gaurâôga. The Lord assured them that they would attain His service when He would appear there. After He disappeared, Surabhi remained there beside a banyan tree, constantly serving the lotus feet of Gaurâôga by engaging in worship and bhajana.
Sûrya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sun god; one of the five deities worshiped by the pañcopâsakas.
Svarûpa Dâmodara: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the most intimate associates of Ärîman Mahâprabhu (Caitanya-caritâmèta, Antya-lîlâ 2.105-106). His previous name was Puruëottama âcârya. After accepting sannyâsa he received the name Svarûpa Dâmodara. He accompanied Mahâprabhu to Purî and served Him constantly by reciting appropriate älokas to nourish His confidential moods. He recorded the activities of Ärîman Mahâprabhu in the form of Sanskrit älokas, which later became the basis of Caitanya-caritâmèta and other biographical works on the life of Ärî Caitanya. In kèëòa-lîlâ he is Lalitâ Sakhî.
Äyâmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) a name for Ärîmatî Râdhikâ, one who is absorbed in Äyâma (Ärî Kèëòa), (2) a name for the Yamunâ River, (3) a short name for Äyâmalâ, a sakhî friend of Ärî Râdhâ, (4) a form of Durgâ worshiped by tântrikas.
Tâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Sapta-tâla.
Uddhâraòa Datta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a confidential associate of Nityânanda Prabhu. He was born into a wealthy family of gold merchants in 1481 in the town of Saptagrâma. His father and mother were Ärîkara Datta and Bhadrâvatî. His wife was Mahâmâyâ and his son was Ärînivâsa Datta Ùhâkura. Uddhâraòa Datta’s wife died when he was only twenty-six. After this he abandoned his wealth and family and wandered everywhere as a servant of Nityânanda Prabhu. In kèëòalîlâ he was the cowherd boy known as Subâhu, one of the dvâdaäagopâlas of Vraja, the twelve intimate cowherd boyfriends of Kèëòa and Baladeva, who descended with Nityânanda Prabhu (Gauragaòoddeäa-dîpikâ 129).
Vaêäî-vadanânanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Chakauri Caùùopâdhyâya. At birth, Ärîla Vaêäî-vadanânanda Ùhâkura was given the name Vaêsî or Vaêäî dâsa. He was also known as Vadana and Vadanânanda. He was born in 1494 or, according to others, in 1505, and was regarded as an incarnation of Kèëòa’s flute. This was later confirmed in Ärî Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ (179) – written approximately 1576 – the book of Ärîla Kavi Karòapûra which reveals the identities of Mahâprabhu’s associates in kèëòa-lîlâ. The name Vaêäî-vadana refers to Ärî Kèëòa, the flute-player. One who gives ânanda (bliss) to Kèëòa by enabling Him to play on the flute and thus attract the beloved gopîs to Him is known as Vaêäî-vadanânanda. Thus, although his birth name was simply Vaêäî dâsa, he came to be known as Vaêäî-vadanânanda Prabhu or Ùhâkura. The names Prabhu and Ùhâkura are titles of respect for great personalities.
Vâsudeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the indwelling Lord of all beings, Ärî Kèëòa who resides everywhere and in all things. This word comes from the verbal root vas, to reside. In another sense it means the son of Vasudeva, derived from the Sanskrit verbal root viä to pervade; means the all-pervading and omnipotent one.
Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord of the cosmos who presides over the material mode of goodness; the supreme amongst the five deities worshiped by the pañcopâsakas.
Viëòupriyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second wife of Ärîman Mahâprabhu. Bhagavân has three potencies known as ärî, bhû, and nîlâ. Ärî Viëòupriyâ Devi embodies the bhû potency. In kèëòa-lîlâ she is Satyabhâmâ (Gaura-gaòoddeäa-dîpikâ 47-48). Her father was Sanâtana Miära, who was King Satrâjita in kèëòa-lîlâ. After Mahâprabhu accepted sannyâsa, Viëòupriyâ engaged constantly in chanting hari-nâma. She would set aside one grain of rice for every round of hari-nâma that she chanted. In the evening she would cook that rice and offer it to her Deity of Ärî Gaurâôga. She would then give half to Äacî Mâtâ and eat the remainder.
Viëòusvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the head âcârya of the Rudra sampradâya. He established the doctrine of äuddhâdvaitavâda, purefied non-dualsim, in contrast to the impure doctrine of kevalâdvaitavâda, the impersonal interpretation of monism. The famous Vaiëòava âcârya, Ärî Vallabha, established his conclusions on the basis of the philosophical principles laid down by Viëòusvâmî. Vallabhâcârya is said to be an incarnation of Viëòusvâmî.
Viävambhara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Caitanya Mahâprabhu which means one who maintains and nourishes the entire universe (see Caitanya).
Vèndâ Devî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a confidential servant of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa. She is expert in making all arrangements for Râdhâ-Kèëòa’s amorous pastimes in the kuñjas of Vèndâvana. She is the predominating goddess of the Vèndâvana forest and her partial expansion is Tulasî-Devî. Sometimes the name Vèndâ-Devî is used simply to refer to Tulasî-Devî.
Vyâsadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage and empowered incarnation of the Lord. He was also known as Bâdarâyaòa, Dvaipâyana, and Veda-Vyâsa. His father was Parâäara and his mother was Satyavatî. He was the step-brother of Vicitravîrya and Bhîëma. Because of the untimely death of Vicitravîrya, Satyavatî requested Vyâsa to become the husband of Vicitravîrya’s two childless widows. From the womb of Ambikâ, Dhètarâëùra was born and from the womb of Ambâlikâ, Pâòàu was born. He was also the father of Vidura by a servant girl. In addition, by his wife Araòi, Vyâsadeva was the father of the great sage Ärî Äukadeva, who spoke the Bhâgavata Purâòa to Mahârâja Parîkëit. Vyâsadeva compiled and arranged the Vedas, Vedânta-sûtra, the Purâòas, the Mahâbhârata, and Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, and he also established the uttara-mîmâêsâ system of philosophy.
Yadunandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Ärî Kèëòa meaning one who appeared in the Yadu dynasty.
Yamalârjuna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the twin Arjuna trees. Formerly they were Nalakuvara and Maòigrîva, the sons of Kuvera, the treasurer of the devas in the heavenly planets. Once, intoxicated with sensuous desire and accompanied by many young ladies, Nalakuvara and Maòigrîva were sporting naked in the Mandâkinî river. The sage Nârada Muni passed by at that moment. The ladies at once covered themselves in shame and fell at the feet of Nârada to beg his forgiveness. However, Nalakuvara and Maòigrîva were so intoxicated that they took no notice of Nârada. Seeing them bereft of all sense, Nârada blessed them by cursing them to take birth as trees. Thus they were born as twin Arjuna trees in Gokula. When Bhagavân Ärî Kèëòa appeared in Dvâpara-yuga, He delivered them from the state of covered consciousness by touching them with His lotus feet.
Glossary of Places
Agradvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town about six miles south of Kâùoyâ (Katwa). It is situated on the west side of the Gaôgâ, about 26 miles northwest of Mâyâpura, in the Barddhamân district. Ärî Govinda, Ärî Mâdhava, and Ärî Vâsudeva Ghoëa lived here. The samâdhi of Ärî Govinda Ghoëa is located in Agradvîpa. Govinda Ghoëa Ùhâkura established the Deity of Ärî Gopînâtha on the east bank of the Gaôgâ near Agradvîpa.
Alakânanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four great branches of the river Gaôgâ (the others are the Bhâgîrathî, Mandâkinî, and Bhogavatî). When the Alakânanda meets the Bhâgîrathî in northern Uttara Pradesh, the river becomes known as the Gaôgâ. It again divides in Bengal. In Bengal, one branch of the Gaôgâ, which has now dried up, was called the Alakânanda. This Alakânanda formerly flowed south through Navadvîpa-maòàala. The bed of this river lies directly across the Gaôgâ from the present town of Navadvîpa, where it runs east for two miles and then turns south. From this point it runs between Godrumadvîpa and Madhyadvîpa.
Ambikâ-Kâlnâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a place about 30 km south of the present city of Navadvîpa. This is where Ärî Gauridâsa Paòàita, Ärî Hèdaya Caitanya, Ärî Paramânanda Gupta, and Ärî Sûryadâsa Paòàita lived. It is situated on the west bank of the Gaôgâ directly across from Äântipura, where Ärî Advaita âcârya lived. Ärîman Mahâprabhu used to visit the house of Gauridâsa Paòàita in Kâlnâ.
Âmraghâùâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a village in Godrumadvîpa also known as âmghâùâ. It is on the east side of the Gaôgâ, about midway between Svarûpagañja and Devapallî. Once while Ärîman Mahâprabhu was performing saôkîrtana with His associates, He arrived at this place. After several hours of saôkîrtana, the devotees’ hunger and thirst was aroused. Ärî Mahâprabhu planted a mango seed which immediately grew into a tree full of ripened mangoes, which had neither seeds nor skins. The mangoes were fragrant and their taste was sweeter than nectar. Ärîman Mahâprabhu and Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu relished those fruits along with Their associates. This place is thus known as âmghâùâ, the place of mangoes.
Antardvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa. This place embodies the devotional practice of âtma-nivedanam, surrendering one’s very self to Ärî Kèëòa. Antardvîpa is situated in the antar (heart or middle) of the eight-petaled lotus of Navadvîpa. At the center of Antardvîpa is Ärî Mâyâpura, and at the very core of Mâyâpura is Yogapîùha, the place where Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu appeared. Lord Brahmâ felt despondent after disturbing Kèëòa’s pastimes in Vraja by stealing His cows and cowherd friends. He performed austerities in Antardvîpa, knowing that Gaurâôga would descend there in Kali-yuga. Gaurâôga manifested before Brahmâ and gave him the benediction that Brahmâ would appear as the great bhakta, Haridâsa Ùhâkura. Taking birth in a Yavana family, he would not be disturbed by pride. Because Mahâprabhu revealed His internal (antar) feelings to Brahmâ at this place, the island is known as Antardvîpa.
Baragâchi: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Bâhiragâchi. It is situated two miles from the Murâgâchâ railway station, which is about 20 km north of Kèëòanagara on the east side of the Gaôgâ. According to Caitanyabhâgavata (Antya 5.710-711), this place is famous for its connection with Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu: viäeëe sukèti ati baòagâchi-grâma nityânanda-svarûpera vihârera sthâna, baòagâchi grâmera janeka bhâgyodaya tâhâ kabhu kahite nâ pâri samuccaya – “The village of Baragâchi is especially virtuous because Nityânanda Prabhu performed many pastimes there. It is simply impossible to describe the great fortune of this village.”
Bhâgîrathî: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for the Gaôgâ River. The river Gaôgâ is a celestial river. Because this river was brought to the earth by the austerities and prayers of King Bhagîratha, she is also known as Bhâgîrathî. Initially, where the Gaôgâ starts near Gaôgotrî, she is known as the Bhâgîrathî. When the Bhâgîrathî meets the Alakânanda, she becomes known as the Gaôgâ. In West Bengal, the Gaôgâ divides into the Padmâ River and the Bhâgîrathî. The Bhâgîrathî flows south through Navadvîpa and on to the Bay of Bengal. Some distance south of Äântipura, the Bhâgîrathî becomes known as the Huglî.
Bhârata-varëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of nine tracts of land which form the divisions of Jambûdvîpa. It is named after King Bharata, the son of Rëabhadeva. India is now known as Bhârata, although in the ancient histories this appellation referred to the entire earth plant.
Bhûù: (sáns. vaiëòava). (Bhû-loka) the planet earth.
Bhûù-maòàala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the middle planetary system within the universe.
Bhûvaù: (sáns. vaiëòava). (Bhûvar-loka) the second of seven divisions of planets:
Bhûù, Bhûvaù, Svarga, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, and Satyaloka. This planet is situated between the earth and the sun planet. It is attained by siddhas and munis.
Bilva-puëkariòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Bael-pukura. Ärî Nîlambara Cakravartî, the maternal grandfather of Ärîman Mahâprabhu, lived at this place. It is situated near the northern border of Sîmantadvîpa and forms part of the area known as Simuliyâ.
Brahmâloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the planet of Ärî Brahmâ situated above Tapoloka at the upper limit of the universe. This planet is also known as Satyaloka.
Brâhmaòa-puëkariòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). presently known as Bâmana-pukura. According to Ärî Narahari dâsa’s Parikramâ-paddhati, the place now known as Bâmana-pukura was formerly called Brâhmaòa-puëkara: bâmanapukure puòya-grâma, brâhmaòa-puëkara e vidita pûrva nâma. According to a book named Citre Navadvîpa, part of Bâmana-pukura is included in Antardvîpa and part in Sîmantadvîpa. Bâmanapukura is presently situated north of the Yogapîùha and east of the Bhâgîrathî. From the description in the beginning of Chapter Twelve it appears that Brâhmaòa-puëkariòî was situated just south of Bilva-puëkariòî, and together these two areas made up the district known as Simuliyâ. This must have been the case either at the time this book was written (1896) or at the time the story is set (c.1600). On the 1916 map of Ärîdhâma Navadvîpa, however, we see that there is a considerable distance between Bael-pukura
Campahaùùa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a place in the southwest part of Rtudvîpa, also known as Câmpâhâùî. It was formerly known as Campakahaùùa because there was a market (haùùa) there that sold the flowers of the Campaka trees that grow profusely in this area. It is considered non-different from the Khadiravana forest of Vèndâvana. The great poet Jayadeva Gosvâmî wrote the Gîta-Govinda while residing in Campahaùùa.
Devapallî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town three miles south-west of Kèëòa-nagara in Godrumadvîpa where all the devas resided. In Satya-yuga, Lord Nèsiêhadeva rested at Devapallî after killing Hiranyakaäipu. This place is also thus known as Nèsiêhapallî. There is an ancient Deity of Nèsiêhadeva at this place, said to date back to Satyayuga.
Gâdigâchâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). often equated with the entire region of Godruma-dvîpa. In Citre Navadvîpa, Ärîyukta Äarad-indu Nârâyaòa Râya has stated that Godruma is called Gâdigâchâ in the Apabhraêäa language. In Chapter Ten of this book, Gâdigâchâ is referred to as a small area within Godruma-dvîpa where the Vaiëòavas of Pradyumna-kuñja were living. On the 1916 map of Ärîdhâma Navadvîpa, Gâdigâchâ is also portrayed as a small area of Godrumadvîpa
Gaôgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). derived from the verbal root gam (to go) meaning Go! Go! or ‘swift goer’. The holy river, Gaôgâ, which flows southeast from the Himâlayan Mountains to the Bay of Bengal; also known as the Ganges, Jâhnavî, Bhâgîrathî, and Alakânanda (see these entries in this Glossary).
Gauòa-bhûmi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the land of Gauòa. According to the Äakti-saôgama Tantra this corresponds to West Bengal, and includes some parts of modern day Bangladesh and Orissa (extending as far as Bhuvaneävara). In ancient times the residents of this tract of land were known as Gauòîyas. After the appearance of Ärî Gaurâôga, the term Gauòîya was especially applied to the devotees of Gaurâôga, for almost everyone in this land had become His bhakta.
Godruma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa, situated east of the Bhâgîrathî and south of the Jalaôgî. It is bordered by Sîmantadvîpa on the north side and by Madhyadvîpa on the west. This place is so named because Surabhi, a cow (go) of divine origin, worshiped Ärî Gaurâôga here under the shade of a large banyan tree (druma). Each of the nine divisions of Navadvîpa embodies one of the nine principal practices of bhakti, such as hearing about, chanting, and remembering the names, form, qualities and pastimes of Ärî Kèëòa. Godrumadvîpa personifies the practice of kîrtanam, chanting.
Goloka Vèndâvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest realm of the spiritual world. This is the abode of Ärî Kèëòa where He is manifest in His original and topmost feature as a cowherd boy, surrounded by His intimate and loving servitors, the gopas and gopîs of Vraja.
Gorâ-hrada: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pond near the Gâdigâchâ area where Ärî Gorâ (Go-Govinda, Râ-Râdhâ) sported.
Govardhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred mountain situated in the middle of Vrajamaòàala about 26 km north-west of Mathurâ. This mountain is also known as Ärî Girirâja (the king among mountains). He is identical with Ärî Kèëòa and is also known as haridâsa-varya, the best devotee of Ärî Hari, for He facilitates Ärî Kèëòa’s pastimes with His intimate friends and especially the most sacred pastimes with the gopîs. Govardhana Hill lies in the shape of a peacock, with Râdhâ-kuòàa and Äyâma-kuòàa as His eyes.
Indraloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the planet of Indra in the celestial planets (svarga); a place of great opulence and heavenly pleasure.
Indrapurî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the capital city of Indra in svarga, the celestial planets.
Jâhnavî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Gaôgâ, which reveals her connection with Jahnu Rëi. Jahnu Rëi was sitting by the Gaôgâ chanting his gâyatrîmantra, when his âcamana cup fell into the river and was swept away by the current. Out of anger, Jahnu Rëi opened his mouth and drank all the water in one gulp. King Bhagîratha, who had endeavored with great difficulty to bring the Gaôgâ to earth to deliver his deceased relatives, was overwhelmed with anxiety and worshiped the sage for several days. Jahnu Rëi then released the Gaôgâ from his body. Because of this incident, the Gaôgâ is known as Jâhnavî, the daughter of Jahnu.
Jahnudvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa. This place embodies the devotional practice of vandanam, offering prayers and obeisances. It is non-different from Bhadravana in Vraja. Jahnu Rëi performed penances and meditation here and obtained daräana of Ärî Gaurâôga (see also Jâhnavî and Jahnu-nagara).
Jahnu-nagara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place where the sage, Jahnu Rëi, performed meditation and swallowed the Gaôgâ River. This area is also known as Jahnudvîpa and Jân-nagara.
Jambûdvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the innermost of seven concentric islands which form the divisions of Bhû-maòàala. Jambûdvîpa is itself divided into nine varëas, or tracts of land, the most famous of which is Bhâratavarëa (India). According to some opinions, this roughly corresponds to Asia (Gauòîya-Vaiëòava-Abhidhâna).
Janaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a planet situated above Maharloka. It is obtained by the naiëùhika brahmacâris, those who accept a life-long vow of celibacy (unlike the upakurvâòa brahmacâris who enter the gèhastha-âärama after completing their studies). At the time of the partial devastation of the universe, occurring at the end of Brahmâ’s day, the three worlds, Bhû, Bhuva, and Svarga, are consumed by flames. Although Maharloka, the planet immediately above Svarga, is not destroyed, the residents of Maharloka are afflicted by the heat which is raging below, and thus they go to Janaloka. The residents of Janaloka are not troubled by the flames which destroy the lower planets at the time of partial annihilation, yet they do experience unease when witnessing the devastation that takes place on the planets beneath them.
Kâlnâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Ambikâ-Kâlnâ.
Kâñcana-pallî: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Kâñcrâ-pârâ. This is the place where Ärî Vâsudeva datta Ùhâkura and Kavi Karòapûra (the son of Äivânanda Sena) used to live. The parents of Äivânanda Sena’s wife are also from this village. It is located on the east side of the Gaôgâ, approximately parallel to Saptagrâma.
Kâäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). ‘the city of light’; another name for Vârâòasî. This ancient city is located on the bank of the Gaôgâ between Delhi (710 km) and Calcutta (680 km). Kâäî is 125 km downstream from Allahabad. It is a famous place of pilgrimage, especially for the devotees of Lord Äiva. Kâäî is celebrated as a place of learning and is a center of Sanskrit scholarship, and particularly of advaita-vedânta and mâyâvâda philosophy.
Khola-bhâôga-òâôgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place where the Chând Kâzî’s men broke a mèdaôga and prohibited the performance of saôkîrtana.
Koladvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa. Much of Koladvîpa is situated on the west bank of the Gaôgâ, but a small portion is located on the east bank. This place embodies the devotional practice of pâda-sevanam, serving the Lord’s lotus feet. It is also known as Kuliyâ Pâhârpura. Koladvîpa is so named because Kèëòa’s boar incarnation, Ärî Varâhadeva (also known as Koladeva), manifested here to a brâhmaòa who was worshiping Him.
Kuliyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). also known as Kuliyâ-grâma and Kuliyâ Pâhârpura. It is situated in Koladvîpa on the West bank of the Bhâgîrathî. The present day city of Navadvîpa was formerly known as Kuliyâ-grâma. Ärî Mâdhava dâsa Caùùopâdhyâya (Chakauri Caùùopâòhyâya) lived in this village. He was the father of Ärîla Vaêäîvadanânanda Ùhâkura. This place is also called aparâdha-bhañjana-pâùa, the place where offenses are destroyed. When Ärîman Mahâprabhu came to Kuliyâ on the way from Purî to Vèndâvana, He stayed at the house of Mâdhava dâsa for seven days. During that time, He delivered two great offenders, Gopâla Cakravartî and Devânanda Paòàita, as well as many others who came to see Him.
Madhyadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine divisions of Navadvîpa situated on the east side of the Bhâgîrathî. It is bordered by Koladvîpa on the west side and by Godrumadvîpa on the north and east sides. It was here that in Satya-yuga, the seven èëis (Bhrgu, Marîci, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasiëùha) worshiped Gaurâôga with austerities and prayers on the order of their father, Brahmâ. Being pleased with their prayers, Ärî Gaurâôga appeared before the èëis at mid-day (madhyâhna). This place is thus known as Madhyadvîpa. Madhyadvîpa embodies the devotional activity of smaraòam, remembering ärî-hari-nâma, His form, qualities, and pastimes.
Maharloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a planet situated above Svargaloka. This place is obtained by upakurvâòa brahmacâris, students of the Vedas who honor their teacher with a gift after completing their studies and before becoming gèhasthas. The maharëis (great sages) who are progenitors of the universe reside on this planet. One obtains this planet by performing sacrifices, undergoing the yoga discipline and other similar practices which are far superior to the pious activities by which one becomes eligible for Svargaloka. When there is a partial devastation of the universe at the end of Brahmâ’s day, the three worlds, Bhû, Bhuva, and Svarga, are destroyed, but the higher planets beginning from Maharloka remain intact.
Mâyâpura-dhâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance place of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, situated in Antardvîpa within the greater region of Navadvîpa. Mâyâpura is located on the east bank of the Gaôgâ. Navadvîpa forms an eight-petaled lotus. In the whorl of this lotus lies Antardvîpa, at the very center of which is Mâyâpura. The actual appearance place of Ärî Caitanya is situated within Mâyâpura and is known as Yogapîùha, the seat of the Lord’s eternal transcendental pastimes.
Mithilâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ancient state ruled by King Janaka, the father of Sitâ. This state extended from Campâraòya to the Gaòàakî river. It is now part of Nepal and includes the present city of Janakapura, the birthplace of Sitâ. Janakapura is said to be the site of Ärî Râma and Sitâ’s wedding.
Modadrumadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa.
Modadrumadvîpa is situated on the west side of the Bhâgîrathî to the north of Jahnudvîpa. This place is also known as Mâmgâchî and as Mahâpâùa. Nârâyaòî (the mother of Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura), Ärî Vâsudeva datta, and Ärî Sâraôga Murâri used to live here. Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura, the writer of Caitanyabhâgavata, took birth in Modadrumadvîpa. In Satya-yuga, Ärî Râma along with Sitâ and Lakëmaòa came here during Their exile. Ärî Râmacandra built a hut here underneath a large banyan tree and they lived happily for some time. This place is therefore known as Modadrumadvîpa, the place where Ärî Râma lived with great delight under a banyan tree (moda means happiness or delight and druma means a tree). Ärî Râma disclosed to Sitâ that in Kali-yuga He would appear in Navadvîpa with a splendid golden complexion as the son of Äacî Mâtâ and that she would appear as His wife, Ärî Viëòupriyâ. This place embodies the devotional practice of dâsyam, becoming a servant of the Lord.
Nadîyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a large district which encompasses the nine islands of Navadvîpa.
Nandagrâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the village of Nanda Mahârâja, the father of Ärî Kèëòa. It is situated about sixty kilometers northwest of Mathurâ. Nanda Mahârâja and his community lived there before Kèëòa’s appearance. Prior to Kèëòa’s appearance, they moved to Gokula. When Kèsòa was seven years old, the family moved back to this place and built their house on top of a large hill known as Nandîävara-parvata (Lord Äivajî, the Lord of Nandî, in the form of this hill). Kèëòa lived there from the age of seven until He was ten.
Nandana-kânana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Indra’s heavenly garden of paradise.
Navadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the village (or town) of Navadvîpa. This is one village within the greater area of Navadvîpa-maòàala (see below). In this book both the village of Navadvîpa and Navadvîpa-maòàala have been referred to simply as Navadvîpa. Therefore the reader must apply discrimination according to context to understand when the author is referring to the village and when he is referring to the territory of Navadvîpa. In Chapter Eleven the village of Navadvîpa is called Prâcîna (Old) Navadvîpa. There it is said that Prâcîna Navadvîpa was situated across the Gaôgâ from the village of Kuliyâ. Similarly in Chapter Seven it is said that Kuliyâgrâma was across the Gaôgâ from Navadvîpa. In Chapter Eleven it is said that Kuliyâ was situated on the western bank of the Bhâgîrathî in the Koladvîpa district of Navadvîpa-maòàala. From these descriptions it is clear that Prâcîna Navadvîpa was located on the east bank of the Gaôgâ and therefore corresponds to the present-day site of Ärî Mâyâpura. Kuliyâ-grâma, situated on the west bank of the Gaôgâ, corresponds to the present town of Navadvîpa (see Kuliyâ for further confirmation of this point). Therefore, wherever the village of Navadvîpa is mentioned in this book, it refers to Prâcîna Navadvîpa and not to the present town of Navadvîpa.
Navadvîpa-maòàala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sacred nine-island region about 130 kilometers north of Calcutta, where Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu’s early pastimes were manifest. Navadvîpa consists of nine islands which resemble an eight-petalled lotus flower. Antardvîpa is at the center of this lotus. Each of the nine divisions of Navadvîpa represents one of the nine primary aôgas of bhakti. These divisions and their corresponding aôgas are as follows: (1) Antardvîpa (âtma-nivedanam, surrendering one’s very self), (2) Sîmantadvîpa (äravaòam, hearing), (3) Godrumadvîpa (kîrtanam, chanting), (4) Madhyadvîpa (smaraòam, remembering Ärî Kèëòa’s transcendental names, form, qualities, and pastimes), (5) Koladvîpa (pâdasevanam, serving Ärî Kèëòa’s feet), (6) Ètudvîpa (arcanam, worshiping), (7) Jahnudvîpa (vandanam, offering prayers and obeisances), (8) Modadrumadvîpa (dâsyam, becoming a servant), and (9) Rudradvîpa (sakhyam, becoming a friend).
Nèsiêhapallî: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Devapallî.
Prâcîna Navadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the old village of Navadvîpa, located on the east bank of the Gaôgâ. This corresponds to the present site of Ärî Mâyâpura (see Navadvîpa for clarification).
Pûrvasthalî: (sáns. vaiëòava). this is a place located in the western part of Rudradvîpa.
Râdhâ-kuòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). ‘the pond of Ärî Râdhâ’, situated 26 km northwest of Mathurâ. Considered to be the most sacred place of pilgrimage for all Gauòîya Vaiëòava, Râdhâ-kuòàa is the direct embodiment of Ärîmatî Râdhikâ. The most confidential pastimes of Râdhâ and Kèëòa take place here.
Ètudvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa. Ètudvîpa is situated west of both the Gaôgâ and Koladvîpa, and south of Jahnudvîpa. This place embodies the devotional practice of arcanam, worshiping Ärî Kèëòa. The word ètu means season. The six seasons headed by spring manifest here in personified forms and, on the pretext of conversing among themselves, they worship Ärî Gaurâôga in order to broadcast His transcendental pastimes. Ètudvîpa corresponds to Ärî Râdhâ-kuòàa in Vèndâvana. As Râdhâ and Kèëòa go daily to Râdhâ-kuòà to enact Their midday pastimes, Ärî Gaurâôga and His associates come to Ètudvîpa daily to perform their noon pastimes.
Rudradvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa. According to the 1916 map of Ärîdhâma Navadvîpa, Rudradvîpa is divided in three by the Bhâgîrathî. This place embodies the devotional mood of sakhya, friendship with Ärî Kèëòa. It is so named because the eleven Rudras (expansions of Lord Äiva) reside here. Ärî Viëòusvâmî, the âcârya of the Rudra sampradâya, visited this place, and both Lord Äiva and Ärî Gaurâôga appeared before him. Ärî Äiva gave Viëòusvâmî the benediction that he (Viëòusvâmî) would propagate a pure sampradâya, which would be named after himself. Mahâprabhu gave him the benediction that at the time of His own appearance as Ärî Gaurâôga, Viëòusvâmî would take birth as Ärî Vallabhâcârya.
Samudragarh: (sáns. vaiëòava). a place in the southwestern side of Ètudvîpa. It is located on the southern-most border of Navadvîpa-dhâma. Dvârakâ-purî and Gaôgâ-sâgara are directly present here. The great king and bhakta of Kèëòa, Samudra Sena, had his capital here. When Bhîma was touring east India on behalf of his brother, Yudhiëùhira, to collect tributes for the Râjasûya sacrifice, Samudra Sena opposed him, knowing that if he put Bhîma into difficulty, Ärî Kèëòa would come to his rescue. Kèëòa did appear, not to Bhîma but before the King on the battlefield, first in His original form and then as Ärî Gaurâôga. The ocean (samudra) also traveled to this place through the medium of the Gaôgâ to have daräana of Ärî Gaurâôga.
Äântipura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the city where Advaita âcârya, Ärî Harëa, and Gopâlâcârya lived. It is situated on the east side of the Gaôgâ about 20 kilometers south of Kèëòa-nagara, which is about 12 kilometers due east of the present town of Navadvîpa. Directly across the Gaôgâ from Äântipura is Kalna. After taking sannyâsa, Ärîman Mahâprabhu went to the house of Advaita âcârya in Äântipura, after being misled by Nityânanda Prabhu into thinking that He had arrived in Vèndâvana.
Saptagrâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient mercantile city about 50 km north of Calcutta on what is now the bed of the Sarasvatî River.
Saptagrâma is located west of the Gaôgâ and south of Ambikâ-Kâlnâ. As the name suggests, this city encompasses seven settlements: Saptagrâma (or, in the opinion of some, Äabdakârâ), Vaêäavâùî, Äivapura, Vâsudevapura, Kèëòapura (or, in the opinion of some, Cândapura), Nityânandapura, and Äaôkha-nagara (or Baladaghâùî). The village of Triveòî is also included in Saptagrâma. Ärî Uddhâraòa Datta Ùhâkura lived here. His father, Ärîkara Datta, was a wealthy gold merchant. Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî lived in Kèëòapura, Kalidâsa lived in Äaôkha-nagara, and Balarâma âcârya and Yadunandana âcârya lived in Cândapura. Sarasvatî a sacred river which flows in several different branches. It is said to mix with the Gaôgâ and Yamunâ at Prayâga. The Sarasvatî formerly flowed through the area known as Saptagrâma to the south of the present town of Navadvîpa, but it has now dried up (Gauòîya-Vaiëòava-Abhidhâna).
Sîmantadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine islands of Navadvîpa. This place is also known as Simuliyâ. It is situated east of the Bhâgîrathî and north of the Jalaôgî, and it is at the northern border of Navadvîpa. This place embodies the devotional practice of äravanam, hearing the glories of Ärî Kèëòa’s names, forms, qualities, and pastimes. In Satya-yuga, Parvatî worshiped Ärî Gaurâôga here on the inspiration of her husband, Lord Äiva. When Gaurâôga appeared before her, she took the dust from His feet and placed it on the part in her hair (sîmanta). As a result, this place became known as Sîmantadvîpa.
Simuliyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for Sîmantadvîpa, or a section of Sîmantadvîpa extending from Brâhmaòa-puëkariòî to Bilvapuëkariòî. This area is situated in the north of Navadvîpa-maòàala on the east side of the Bhâgîrathî.
Ärîvâsa-aôgana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the courtyard of Ärîvâsa Ùhâkura situated in Mâyâpura just next to the birth place of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. After Mahâprabhu received dîkëa from Ärîla Îävara Purî in Gayâ, He returned to Navadvîpa and began the saôkîrtana movement. During this time He performed ecstatic kîrtana every night with His intimate associates at Ärîvâsa-aôgana. Ärîvâsa-aôgana of navadvîpa-lîlâ is non-different from the râsa-sthalî of vèndâvana-lîlâ.
Sva: (sáns. vaiëòava). (Svarga-loka) the heavenly planets (see svarga-loka).
Svarga-loka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heavenly planets which are characterised by material opulence, enjoyment, and duration of life far exceeding those of the planet earth. Svarga is attained by strictly carrying out the pious activities recommended in the karma-kâòàa section of the Vedas.
Äyâma-kuòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). ‘the pond of Ärî Äyâmasundara’, situated just next to Ärî Râdhâ-kuòàa. This pond is the direct embodiment of Ärî Kèëòa. This place is also known as Ariëùa-kuòàa, because it was the pond Kèëòa made at the instigation of the gopîs after He killed the Ariëùa (bull) asura. The gopîs accused Kèëòa of being impure because of having killed a bull. First Ärî Kèëòa dug a small hole with His heal then He called all the sacred rivers throughout the universe, and at once they came together and entered to form this pond. Afterward, the personified deities of those rivers prayed to be accepted in Râdhâ’s kuòàa also. Râdhâ-kuòàa and Äyâma-kuòàa are considered to be the eyes of Govardhana, which lies in the shape of a peacock. They are together the site of the topmost pastimes of Râdhâ and Kèëòa and are superlative among all holy places.
Tapoloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a planet situated above Janaloka. Topmost sages like the four Kumâras reside on this planet which is obtained by naiëùhika- brahmacâris.
Vaikuòùha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual world. The majestic realm of the spiritual world which is predominated by Lord Nârâyaòa or His various expansions. All the residents of Vaikuòùha have eternal, spiritual bodies. They possess four arms and a darkish complexion like that of Bhagavân and are fully engaged in His service in pure devotional love. Their sense of intimacy with Ärî Bhagavân is somewhat hampered, however, due to their aiävarya-bhâva. Superior to this is Goloka Vèndâvana, the topmost planet of Ärî Kèëòa, which is characterised by mâdhurya and intimacy.
Vairâgî-dâôgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a place situated in Ärîdhâma Mâyâpura close to Khola-bhâôga-dâôgâ. Because many renounced Vaiëòavas were living in this place, it became known as Vairâgî-dâôgâ.
Vârâòasî: (sáns. vaiëòava). see Kâäî.
Vikramapura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a famous place in Bangladesh in the district of Dhaka. Living here were Câòda Râya and Kedâra Râya, who were among the twelve feudal princes governing Bengal during the Muslim regime. At first they were äâktas (worshipers of Durgâ), but later they became disciples of Ärîla Narottama Ùhâkura.
Vraja-dhâma : (sáns. vaiëòava). the one hundred sixty-eight square mile tract of land where Ärî Kèëòa enacted His earthly pastimes.
Vèndâvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). ‘the forest of Vèndâ’; the famous place where Ärî Kèëòa enacted many of His enchanting lîlâs. Vèndâvana is situated approximately 12 kilometers northeast of Mathurâ, along the western bank of the Yamunâ river. It is one of the twelve forests of Vraja and within it are twelve smaller forests: Aùalavana (mountain forest), Korârivana (osprey forest), Vihâravana (pleasure pastime forest), Gocâraòavana (cowherding forest), Kâlîyadamanavana (subduing Kâlîya forest), Gopâlavana (the cowherds forest), Nikuñjavana (bower forest), Nidhuvana (treasure forest), Râdhâbâga (Râdhâ’s garden), Jhulavana (swing pastime forest), Gahvaravana (secret forest), and Papaòavana (forest of harsh mountains).
Yamunâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred river flowing through Vraja-maòàala. She is considered the holiest of rivers because Kèëòa performed many sublime lîlâs in her waters with the gopîs and gopas. In this world she appears at Yamunottarî in the Himâlayas.Yamunâ is described as an expansion of Viäâkhâ Devî: viäâkhorasi yâ viëòor yasyâê viëòur jalâtmani nityaê nimajjati prîtyâ tâê saurîê yamunâê stumaì –
“Lord Viëòu daily immerses Himself and plays with great pleasure and affection in the water of Yamunâ, the liquid form of Viäâkhâ Devî. Thus I offer prayers to Yamunâ Devî, the daughter of Sûrya.”
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