viernes, 9 de julio de 2010

Dandaka - Dyutimat - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosop...

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S1 | S2 | T | U | V | Y | Z

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat


Dandaka: (sáns. hindú). An extensive forest near the Godavery, frequently mentioned in the Ramayana as the scene of Rama's wanderings. Rama was living in a hermitage in this forest when Ravana carried off Sita. The river which the unhappy Sita loved was a tributary to the Godavery, running through the dense forests and wild districts not yet entirely explored, which lie to the north of Bombay and stretch away towards Orissa. The plash of the water-fowl bathing in the bright waters of the Godavery is the most cheerful feature of the scene; but, unlike the Gogra, it is skirted by sea-bright hills, with flashing torrents, but hemmed in by the weary woods of " the pathless Dandaka ;" where twining creeper plants, hanging and climbing from bough to bough, alone relieve the " forest gloom." The country is said to be still the "pathless Dandaka." A. and M. I., vol II, p. 22.

Dandaka: (sáns. hindú). " A class of metre in Sanskrit which admits an inordinate length of the verse, which may consist of any number of syllables from twenty-seven to nine hundred and ninety-nine; and the specific name varies accordingly. The construction of the metre requires that the first six syllables be short, and the remainder of the verse be composed of cretic feet, or the bacchus. These two kinds of metre are distinguished by different names. A verse consisting of any number of anapaests within the limitation above mentioned, is also comprehended under this general designation; as are verses of similar length consisting exclusively of iambic or trochaic feet. They have their peculiar denominations."

Dandaniti: (sáns. hindú). Policy; one of the four branches of royal knowledge; originally written by Vishnugupta in six thousand stanzas for the use of the Maurya kings.

Dandis: (sáns. hindú). One of the Vaishnava or Saiva sects among the Hindus, and a legitimate representative of the fourth Asrama or mendicant life, into which the Hindu is believed to enter after passing through the previous stages of student, householder, and hermit. A Brahman, however, does not require to pass through the previous stages, but is allowed to enter at once into the fourth order. The Dandi is distinguished by carrying a small dand or wand, with several projections from it, and a piece of cloth dyed with red ochre, in which the Brahmanical cord is supposed to be enshrined, attached to it; he shaves his hair and beard, wears only a cloth around the loins, and subsists upon food obtained ready dressed from the houses of the Brahmans once a day only, which he deposits in the small clay-pot that he always carries with him.

He should live alone, and near to, but not within a city; but this rule is rarely observed, and, in general, the Dandis are found in cities, collected like other mendicants in Maths. The Dandi has no particular time or mode of worship, but employs himself chiefly in meditation and in the study of the Vedanta works. He reverences Siva and his incarnations in preference to the other members of the Hindu Triad, and hence the Dandis are reckoned amoucr the Saivas. They bear the Siva mark upon the forehead, smearing it with the Tripundra, that is, a triple transverse line formed with the ashes of fire made with burnt cow-dung. This mark, beginning between the eyebrows and carrying it to their extremity, is made with the thumb reverted between the middle and third fingers. The genuine Dandi, however, is not necessarily of the Siva or any other sect, and in their establishments they are usually found to adore Nirguna or Niranjana, the deity devoid of attribute or passion. The Dandis have usually great influence and authority among the Siva Brahmans of the North of India, and they are the Sanyasis or monastic portion of the Smarta sect of Brahmans in the south.

It is not so much the speculative as the practical Dandis that are worshippers of Siva, and the form in which they adore him is that of Bhairava (which see), or Lord of Terror. In the case of those who thus worship Siva, part of the ceremony of initiation consists in inflicting a small incision on the inner part of the knee, and drawing the blood of the novice as an acceptable offering to the god. The Dandis of every description differ from the great mass of Hindus in their treatment of the dead, as they put them into coffins and bury them, or when practicable cast them into some sacred stream. Hindus of all castes are occasionally found assuming the life and emblems of the order of Dandis. There are even Brahmans who, without connecting themselves with any community, take upon them the character of this class of mendicants.

There is, however, a sect of Dandis termed Da sn amis (which see), which admit none but Brahmans into their order. - Wilson.

Danshtrinas: (sáns. hindú). The progeny of Krodavasa, carnivorous animals, birds and fishes - all sharp-toothed monsters.

Dantavaktra: (sáns. hindú). A fierce Asura,the son of prince Vriddhasarman.

Danu: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Daksha and mother of the Danavas.

Danu: (sáns. hindú). The mother of Vrittra who was slain by Indra, along with her sod, and when slaughtered, lay over him like a cow over her calf. O. S. T. Vol. v, p. 95.

DailllS: (sáns. hindú). Another name for Danavas, the sons of Danu.

Danusha: (sáns. hindú). An unerring bow; - one of the fourteen gems obtained at the churning of the milk sea in the second or Kurma Avatar of Vishnu.

Dapple-skin: (sáns. hindú). The name of the wonderful cow of plenty belonging to the great sage Vasishtha, and which Raja Viswimitra took away by force.

Daradas: (sáns. hindú). The inhabitants of the country along the course of the Indus above the Himalaya, just before it descends to India. This is the locality they occupied in the days of Strabo and Ptolemy, and at the date of the V. P. They reside there still and are now called Durds.

Dabhasayana: (sáns. hindú). A place between Rameshwara and Cape Comorin, where Rama, reclining on a couchof sacred grass, prayed to the sea for a passage.

Darpa: (sáns. hindú). (Pride). The name of one of the sons of Dharma.

Darsapaurnamasa: (sáns. hindú). One of the five great sacrificial ceremonies: viz., new and full-moon, those at which four priests officiate.

Darsanas: (sáns. hindú). The name given to the six systems of Hindu Philosophy: -

I. The Saukya system of Kapila, to which is appended
II. The Yoga system of Patanjali.
III. The Nyaya system of Gautama, to which is appended
IV. The Vaiseshika system of Kanada.
V. The Purva Mimansa system by Jaimini.
VI. The Uttara Mimansa, or Veda-nta, by Veda Vyasa.

A. M, L

Darsapumamasa: (sáns. hindú). The small festivals held at the new moon and full moon. " In the beginning of the Darsapurnamasa sacrifice, the Adhivaiya priest having called the cows and calves together, touches the calves with a branch, and says, *You are like the winds.* " Max Muller,

Daruka: (sáns. hindú). The charioteer of Krishna. He was sent to apprise Arjuna of Krishna's approaching end, when he was about to quit the body, and "unite himself to his own pure, spiritual, inexhaustible, imperishable and universal spirit - to become Nirguna, devoid of all qualities."

Daruna: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the Narakas, or hells, described in the Puranas.

Darvan: (sáns. hindú). The son of Usinara, one of the descendants of Anu.

Dasa-bala: (sáns. hindú). Ten powers or modes of wisdom possessed by Buddha. Mr. Spence Hardy, to whose excellent works we are indebted for our information on the principles and rites of the Buddhists, thus enumerates the Dasabala, in his ' Manual of Buddhism :' - " 1, The wisdom that understands what knowledge is necessary for the right fulfilment of any particular duty, in whatsoever situation; 2, That which knows the result or consequences of karma, or moral action; 3, That which knows the way to the attainment of nirwana or annihilation; 4, That which sees the various sakwalas or systems of worlds; 5, That which knows the thoughts of other beings; 6, That which knows that the organs of sense are not the self; 7, That which knows the purity produced by the exercise of the dhyanas or abstract meditation; 8, That which knows where any one was born in all his former births; 9, That which knows where any one will be born in all future births; 10, That which knows how the results proceeding from karma, or moral action, may be overcome."

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Dasa-dandu: (sáns. hindú). Ten prohibitions which are eujoined upon the Buddhist monks to be studied during their noviciate. Mr. Hardy, in his * Eastern Monarchism,' thus describes them: - " 1, The eating of food after mid-day; 2, The seeing of dances or the hearing of music or singing; 3, The use of ornaments or perfumes; 4, The use of a seat or couch more than a cubit high; 5, The receiving of gold, silver, or money; 6, Practising some deception to prevent another priest from receiving that to which he is entitled; 7, Practising some deception to injure another priest, or bring him into danger; 8, Practising some deception in order to cause another priest to be expelled from the community; 9, Speaking evil of another priest; 10, Uttering slanders, in order to excite dissension among the priests of the same community.

The first five of these crimes may be forgiven, if the priest bring sand and sprinkle it in the court-yard of the vihara, and the second five may be forgiven after temporary expulsion."

Dasnami Dandis: (sáns. hindú). The primitive members of the order of Dandis. They are said to refer their origin to Sankara ACHARYA, a remarkable individual who acted a conspicuous part in the religious history of Hindustan. The word Dasnami means ten-named, there being ten classes of mendicants descended from this remarkable man, only three of them, however, having so far retained their purity as to entitle them to be called Sankara's Dandis. These are numerous, especially in and about Benares.

The chief Vedantist writers belong to this sect. The most sturdy beggars, as we learn from Professor Wilson, are members of this order, although their contributions are levied particularly upon the Brahmanical class, as whenever a feast is given to the Brahmans, the Dandis of this description present themselves, though unbidden guests, and can only be got rid of by bestowing upon them a share of the viands. Many of them practise the Yoga, and profess to work miracles. The author of the * Dabistan' speaks of one who could keep his breath suspended for three hours, bring milk from his veins, cut bones with hair, and put eggs into a narrow-mouthed bottle without breaking them.

The remaining members of the Dasnami class, though they have degenerated from the purity of the practice necessary to the original Dandis, are still religious characters, only they have given up the staff or wand, the use of clothes, money, and ornaments; they prepare their own food, and admit members from any order of Hindus. These Atits, as they are often called, are frequently collected in Maths, as well as the Dandis, but they mix freely in the business of the world; they carry on trade, and often accumulate property, and some of them even enter into the married state, when they receive the name of Samyogi." - Wilson, vol. I, p. 204.

Dasa-sil: (sáns. hindú). Dasasikka, Dasa-pariji, Dasa-nasanu, Dasa-dandu, Dasa-sil, the ten obligations binding on the Buddhist priest- to abstain from murder, theft, sexual intercourse, falsehood, intoxicating drink, eating after mid-day, dancing, perfumes, luxury, receiving of gold or silver. The other Dasas relate to the same rules with slight modifications. The Dasa-dandu forbid deceiving or speaking evil of other priests.

Dasaratha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Aja, and father of Rama. He was the sovereign of Ayodhya or Oude, whose car bore him to the ten quarters of the universe, that is, to the eight points of the compass, and to the zenith and nadir. He was a descendant from Surya, and one of his ancestors, Raghu, had conquered the seven dwipas, or the whole earth.

" There reigned a king of name revered,
To country and to town endeared,
Great Dasaratha good and sage
Well read in Scripture's holy page;
Upon his kiogdom's weal intent,
Mighty and brave and provident:
The pride of old Ikshvaku's seed
For lofty thought and righteous deed.
Peer of the saints for virtues famed,
For foes subdued and passions tamed;
A rival in his wealth untold
Of Indra and the Lord of Gold.
Like Manu first of kings, he reigned,
And worthily his state maintained.
For firm and just and ever true,
Love, duty, gain he kept in view;
And ruled his city rich and free.
Like Indra's Amaravati." - Griffiths' Ramayan.

Another Dasaratha was the son of Mulaka; a third, the son of Navaratha; a fourth, the son of Suyasas. The name of Dasaratha, in a similar ancient character to that of Piyadasi's inscriptions, has been found at Gaya amongst Buddhist remains, and like them deciphered by Mr, Prinsep. V. P.

Dasagriva: (sáns. hindú). A name of Ravana, meaning the ten-cabezas.

Dasakumara: (sáns. hindú). The name of a popular collection of stories containing the Adventures of Ten Princes. " They are storiesof common life, relating the adventures of a lively set of people, who kill, cheat, and rob, as it were for diversion; - something indeed after the fashion of pantomimes and farces, which are still popular in Europe." - Mrs. Manning. For extracts from these stories. See Works of Professor Wilson, vol. iv.

Dasara: (sáns. hindú). -An Annual Festival, called in the north of India the Durga Puja. It is the most popular, splendid and expensive of any of the Hindu festivals, and takes place in the month Aswiyaj (the end of September or beginning of October). The preliminary ceremonies occupy several days previous to the three days of worship. " During the whole of this period all business, in many parts of the country, is suspended, and pleasure and festivity prevail... The artisans and labourers offer sacrifices to the tools and implements which they use in their daily work. The labourer brings his plough, hoe, and other instruments, piles them together, and offers to them a sacrifice consisting of incense, flowers, fruits, rice, and similar articles; after which he prostrates himself before them, and then returns them to their places. The mason offers the same adoration and sacrifice to his trowel, his rule, and other instruments. The carpenter is no less pious with regard- to his hatchet, his adze, and his plane. The barber, too, collects his razors in a heap, and worships them with similar rites. The writing-master or copyist sacrifices to the iron pencil or style with which he writes; the tailor to his needles; the weaver to his loom; the butcher to his cleaver. The women, at the same time, heap together their baskets, the rice mill, the wooden cylinder with which they bruise the rice, and the other household implements; and fall down before them after having offered the sacrifices above described. In short, every person adores the instrument or tool which he principally uses in gaining his livelihood. The tools are now considered as so many deities; to whom they present their supplications that they would continue propitious, and furnish them still with the means of living. The festival is concluded by erecting a shapeless statue in each village, composed of paste from grain.

It is intended to represent the goddess Parvati; and, being placed under a sort of canopy, is carried about and receives the homage of the inhabitants, who flock to render it their adorations."

Many other usages prevail at this festival in different parts of the country. Amongst the Mahrattas, sheep and buffaloes are sacrificed. The chiefs often give money to enable their soldiers to buy sheep to perform sacrifices, which from furnishing them with a good dinner, are by many considered as the most essential ceremonies of the Dasara. The cannon belonging to the army are planted, praised, invoked, and propitiated by several species of offering. Sir John Malcolm states that on the morning of the tenth day, the Peshwa with all his officers and soldiers, used to move out to the camp in the vicinity of the city, each mounted on his best horse, drest in his finest clothes, and with his arms highly polished. Horses, elephants, and camels Avere all arranged in their gayest trappings, and every corps spread its gaudiest flags and banners. The whole population of the capital, either as actors or spectators, joined in this grand procession, which moved towards the sacred tree, the object of adoration. After the offerings and prayers the Peshwa plucked some leaves of the tree, in which all the cannon and musketry commenced firing. The Peshwa then plucked from a field, purchased for the occasion, a stalk of jowri, on which the whole crowd fired off their arms or shot arrows, and rushing to the field, tore up all the stalks, each person securing some share of the spoil, which he carried home with joy.

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Dasarha: (sáns. hindú). A Prince, the son of Nirvriti. In the Linga Purana it is said that Dasarha was the destroyer of the host of copper (faced) foes.

Dasarna: (sáns. hindú). A river mentioned in the Pui-anas, and identified la the Dhosaun in Bundlekund.

Dasarna: (sáns. hindú). A place mentioned in Kalidasa's Cloud Messenger.

*' Dasarna's fields await the coming shower." Dr. F. E. Hall says it was situated to the east of Chandeyru. Vidisa is described as the capital of the District. Dasarna is said to be derived from Dasa, ten; and Rina, a stronghold or Durga, the Droog of the Peninsula, and means the District of the ten citadels. - Wilson.

Dasa-Rupaka: (sáns. hindú). Ten varieties of dramatic performance. See Wilson's Hindu Theatre, vol. i.

Dasra: (sáns. hindú). The name, in later literature, of one of the two Asvins.

Dasyus: (sáns. hindú). A name given to the aborigines of India by the first Aryan settlers. The name often occurs in the Big Veda, where they are described as enemies to be slain.

Dattatreya: (sáns. hindú). An ascetic; one of the three sinless sons of the patriarch Atri by his wife Anasuya (Atri).

Dattdi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Agastya, in a previous Manwantara.

Dayabhaga: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated Sanscrit treatise on the Hindu Law of Inheritance. Mr. Colebrooke first published a translation of this Avork, in 1810; and a new edition, with valuable notes, was published in I860 by Mr. Whitley Stokes.

Deva: (sáns. hindú). A divine being, whether resident upon earth or in a deva-loka. Deva is also a divine epithet variously applied but rarely to the superior deities if alone. Maha deva is sometimes met with. The most frequent use of the term is in the plural, and may be translated " Celestials." The Hindu books say there are thirty-three crores of them; that is, three hundred and thirty millions of celestials; but this is probably only a figurative expression to denote a great number. They are not demi-gods, as has been stated; that is not deified human heroes. Rama or Krishna is not one of them, but of a higher order. The devatas people the paradise of Vishnu j but they especially belong to the Sverga, the paradise of Indra. They are usually ranged under eight divisions, with a vasu, as leader", at the head of each division.

Devabhaga: (sáns. hindú). The son of Sura and one of the nine brothers of Vasudeva.

Devabhuti: (sáns. hindú). The last Sunga prince, the dynasty having consisted of ten, who governed the kingdom for a hundred and twelve years. Devabhuti being addicted to immoral practices, was murdered by his minister, the Kanwa named Vasudeva, who usurped the kingdom.

Devadarsa: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Atharva-Veda, a pupil of Kahandha. He had four disciples who taught this veda.

Devagiri: (sáns. hindú). Deogur or Ellora; the mountain of the gods; the Apocopie are said hy Ptolemy to be also called mountains of the gods.

Devahuti: (sáns. hindú). A third daughter, according to theBhigavata of the Manu Swayambhuva. She was married to the Rishi Kardama, and was mother of the sage Kapila.

Devaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ahuka. Also the name of one of the sons of Yudhishthira, the Pandava.

Deva-loka: (sáns. hindú). The six celestial worlds between the earth and the Brahma lokas.

Devaki: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Devaka, who Avas married to Vasudeva. No person could bear to gaze upon Devaki, from the light that invested her: the gods, invisible to mortals, celebrated her praises continually from the time that Vishnu was contained in her person. Before the birth of Krishna " the quarters of the horizon were irradiate with joy as if moonlight was diffused over the whole earth. The virtuous experienced new delight, the strong winds were hushed, and the rivers glided tranquilly, when Janardana was about to be born. The infant was brought forth and conveyed to a place of safety, to escape from the enraged Kansa who had vowed his destruction. Kansa made unavailing search for the child, and ordered that every boy in whom there were signs of unusual vigour should be slain without remorse." See Krishna.

Devakshatra: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Devarata, one of the descendants of Jyamagha.

Devala: (sáns. hindú). a Rishi, the son of Krisaswa. He was a legislator, and has acquired additional celebrity as the grandfather of Panini.

Devamidha: (sáns. hindú). An ancient Raja of the solar race, one of the ancestors of king Janaka.

Devamidhusha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Vrishni also the name of a son of Hridika, .

Devamitra: (sáns. hindú). Also called Sakalya, a teacher of the Rig Veda. He died in consequence of his being defeated by Yajnavalkya in a disputation at a sacrifice celebrated by Janaka.

Devanampriya-Tishya: (sáns. hindú). A king of Ceylon from 307 to 267 .B. C. He adopted Buddhism and made it, like Asoka, with whom he was contemporary, the State religion of the island.

Devanika: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Kshemadhanawan, one of the descendants of Kusa.

Devapi: (sáns. hindú). The son of Pratipa, who abdicated the throne and adopted in childhood a forest life; while an ascetic in the forest he was perverted from the doctrines of the Vedas. The Vishnu Purana states that he is still in existence.

Devarakshita: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Devaka, sister of Devaki and aunt of Krishna; also the name of a prince who reigned in a city on the sea-shore over the Kosalas and Tamraliptas.

Devarata: (sáns. hindú). l, A royal sage of the solar race, the name given to Sunasepha when he was adopted by Viswamitra. Sunasepha refused to return home with his father Ajigartha, who had offered for 300 cows, to sacrifice him (See Sunasepha) and was afterwards enrolled as the adopted son of Viswamitra by the name of Devarata (Theodotus); 2, Also a son of Raja Suketu; 3, The name of a son of Karambhi, one of the descendants of Jyamagha; 4, also a name of Bhishma.

Devarshis: (sáns. hindú). Divine sages, demi-gods; their dwelling is the region of the gods.

Devasarman: (sáns. hindú). The name of a brahman who figures in the Panchatantra; he had no child and his wife was very unhappy in consequence: at length by some mantram the promise of a son was obtained; the child when born proved to be a snake. It was proposed that the monster should be destroyed, but maternal affection prevailed, and it was reared with tenderness. At the proper age it was married to a brahman girl, and one night was changed into a man, intending to resume its serpent form next morning; but the girl's father discovering the deserted skin threw it into the fire, and the son-in-law ever after remained in the figure of a man.

Devasavarni: (sáns. hindú). The thirteenth Manu according to the Bhagavata, which differs from the other Puranas in the enumeration.

Devasravas: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Sura, and brother of Vasudeva.

Devatithi: (sáns. hindú). A Kuru prince, one of the sous of Akrodhana.

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Devavat: (sáns. hindú). A son of Akrura, also a son of Devaka.

Devavriddha: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Satwata, said in the Vishnu Purana to be equal to the gods.

Devayani: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of a Brahman priest named Sukra; she fell in love with her father's pupil Kanju, and finding her advances rejected, became soured in temper and vindictive in character. One day when out in the jungle with Sarmishta, daughter of the Raja of the Daityas and a number of other young damsels, on reaching a pleasant pool they all threw off their garments and went into the water to bathe, when it so happened that Vayu the god of the wind passed by, and seeing their clothes upon the bank he mingled them up together. Then when the damsels came out of the water, Devayani and Sarmishta by mistake put on each others' clothes and quarrelled. At last Sarmishta pushed Devayani into a well and left her there. A Raja named Yayati, who was hunting in the forest discovered her in the well and extricated her from it. Devayani, on meeting her maid, said she would never enter the city again. Her father Sukra went to the Raja of the Daityas to obtain an apology from him for his daughter's conduct. Devayani said to the Raja, "I shall be satisfied upon one condition, that when my fixther shall give me to a husband, your daughter who pushed me into a well, shall be given to me as a servant." To this the Raja assented, and Devayani had afterv/ards the daily attendance of Sarmishta and her maids.

One day the whole party were surprised by the Raja Yayati, who in hot pursuit of a stag burst in upon the damsels. The sight of so much loveliness almost deprived Yayati of his senses; but the adventure terminated in Devayini proposing that ' he should espouse her, which, on obtaining her father's consent, he did.

Two or three years afterwards Sarmishta obtained her revenge by stealing away Yayati's affections, and Devayani left him and returned to her father's house.- f Wheeler s Mahabharata). In the V. P. an entirely different account is given.

Devi: (sáns. hindú). The female of a deva. They also may reside either in earth or in a deva loka, and leave the one for the other at will for any important purpose. Also the name of Uma the wife of Siva.

Devika: (sáns. hindú). The name of a river, the Deva or Goggra.

Devikota: (sáns. hindú). A Puranic city, usually considered to be the modern Devicottah in the Carnatic, which is commonly believed to be the scene of Bana's defeat.

Dhamajaya: (sáns. hindú). A Vyasa, the arranger of the Vedas in the sixteenth Dwapara.

Dhanaka: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Durdama, a descendant of Yadu.

Dhananjaya: (sáns. hindú). A fierce and venomous many-headed serpent, one of the progeny of Kadru.

Dhanamitra: (sáns. hindú). The name of a wealthy merchant in Kaliddsa's drama of Sakuntala; the merchant, trading by sea, was lost in a shipwreck; and as he was childless, the whole of his property became by law forfeited to the king. The king ascertained that the merchant's widow was expecting to give birth to a child, and declared that the unborn child had a title to his father's property; a proclamation which was received with acclamations of joy.

Dhana-nando: (sáns. hindú). The youngest son of Kalasoka, king of Pataliputra. The nine sous succeeded their father in the order of their seniority. The youngest was called Dhana-nando from his being addicted to hoarding treasure. He collected money to the amount of eighty kotis; and to keep it securely he diverted the Ganges from its course, by constructing a dam across it: and in a rock in the bed of the river having caused a deep excavation to be made, he buried the treasure there. Over this cave he laid a layer of stones, and to prevent the admission of water poured molten lead in it. Repeating this process, which made it like a solid rock he restored the river to its former course. This prince was afterwards killed by the brahman Chanakko, who raised Chandragupta to the throne in his stead. As everything in India Chronology depends on the date of Chandragupta, great pains have been taken by Wilson, Max Müller, and others, to determine it accurately.

Dhaneyu: (sáns. hindú). A prince; one of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a descendant of Puru.

Dhanishta: (sáns. hindú). An asterism, or lunar mansion, in Migravithi, in the southern Avashtana.

Dhanur-veda: (sáns. hindú). The science of archery or arms, taught by Bhrigu.

Dhanwantara: (sáns. hindú). A sage produced from the churning of the ocean, robed in white, and bearing in his hand the cup of Amrita, which was afterwards seized by the Daityas. He is called the physician of the gods. In a second birth he was the son of Dirghatamas, and taught the Ayur Veda, or medical science. He was exempt from human infirmity, and master of universal knowledge. The only work at present existing under the title of Ayar Veda is said to have been revealed by Dhanwantari to his pupil Susruta; Dhanwantari having himself, as he declares, received it from Bramha.

Dhara: (sáns. hindú). A city to the south of the river Godavery, where the celebrated Raja Vikraraa resided.

Dharana: (sáns. hindú). Steady thought; retention or holding of the image or idea formed in the miod by contemplation; one of the eight stages by which " Yoga" must be accomplished. See Yoga.

Dharani: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of the Pitris, and wife of Meru. In the Vishnu Purana she is said to have been well acquainted with theological truth; addicted to religious meditation; accomplished in perfect wisdom, and adorned with ail estimable qualities.

Dharbaga: (sáns. hindú). The son of Ajatasatru, king of Maghada, one of the ten Saisunagas, the aggregate of whose united reigns amounted to three hundred and sixty-two years.

Dharma: (sáns. hindú). The god of justice; the Hindu Pluto. See Yama.

Dharma: (sáns. hindú). A Prajapati, one of the mind-engendered sons of Brahma, with form and faculties derived from his corporeal nature.

He married thirteen daughters of Daksha. It is evident from the names of these daughters (faith, devotion, &c.) that they are allegorical personages, being personifications of intelligences and virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu Code of religion and morals, or to the equally allegorical repi'esentation of that code, Dharma, moral and religious truth. V. P.

Dharma: (sáns. hindú). Virtue, religion, duty, law, moral and religious truth according to the law and the Vedas. Any peculiar or prescribed practice or duty; thus giving alms, &c., is the dharma of a householder: administering justice is the dharma of a king; piety is the dharma of a brahman; courage is the dharma of a kshatriya, &c.

Dharma Raja: (sáns. hindú). A name of the eldest of the five Pandavas, Yudhishthira, (q. v.) son of Kunti Devi, by Yama; Pandu, the nominal father, being impotent.

Dharmadhris: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Swaphalka, a descendant of Sini.

Dharmadhwaja: (sáns. hindú). 1, A king of Mithila,- who is also called Janaka; 2, The name of a king of Burdwan, mentioned in the Belata Paucliavinsati, as having restored Brahmanism, which had been put aside for the Jaina religion.

Dharmaketu: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Suketana, (according to the Bhagavata list) a descendant of Alarka. In the Vishnu Purana he is made the -son of Sukumara, and in (he Agni he appears as the son oi' Alarka himself.

Dharmanetra: (sáns. hindú). The son of Haihaya, a descendant of Yadu-
the tribe in which Krishna was born.

Dharmapal: (sáns. hindú). One of the ministers of justice of Maharija Dasaratha.

Dharmaranya: (sáns. hindú). A Puranic city in the mountainous part of Magadha, the residence of Amurtarajas.

Dharmaranya: (sáns. hindú). Is also the name of the wood to which the god of justice is said to have fled through fear of Soma the moon-god.

Dharmaratha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Divaratha. He is said tohave drank the Soma juice along with Indra.

Dharma-sastra: (sáns. hindú). A law book; the three principal topics of all such are dchara, rules of conduct; vyavahara judicature; and prdyaschitia penance. The Code of Yajjnawalka is termed Dharmasastra; as is also the Code of Manu.

Dharma-savarni: (sáns. hindú). The Manu of the eleventh Manwantara.

One of the mind-engendered sons of a daughter of Daksha, by himself and the three gods Brahma, Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount Meru.

Dharshtakas: (sáns. hindú). A race of Kshatriyas, some of whom obtained brahmanhood upon earth. V. P.

Dhata: (sáns. hindú). A Rudra, the son of Bhrigu by Khyati.

Dhataki : (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Savana, king of Pushkara - an island without mountains or rivers in which men live a thousand years without sickness or sorrow. V. P, Dhatri - A son of Vishnu and Lakshmi, married to Ayati, daughter of Meru.

Dhatu: (sáns. hindú). A linguistic root. In European languages if grammar attempts to reduce a word to its last limit, it calls such a limit its *root,* and a root in grammar thus answers to an element in chemistry, representing the farthest result of analysis attainable by the analyser; but in Sanskrit grammar, - dhatu, though generally translated root, does not imply that which is expressed by the European term. The former designates that theoretical form, from which, by conjugational affixes, verbal bases, and by krit affixes nominal bases may be derived. Yet as such derivations may not only be made from those forms which have been collected in lists called Dhatupatha, and may be called primary Dhatus, but also from those derivative forms, - the passives, intensives, causals, desideratives, and denominatives; - even these derivative forms are, to the Hindu gmmmarian Dhatus. To his mind therefore a dhatu is not an absolutely last linguistic element; but even a primary dhatu, or that form from which passive and other secondary dhatus could be derived, is to him only that form which, to the popular understanding, appeared to be a last limit of derivation."*

Dhatu-Parayana: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated commentary on Dhatus, written by Hemachaudra.

Dhauxnya: (sáns. hindú). The name of the brahman who was engaged by the Pandavas to be their Purohita or family priest. He also officiated as Hotri and cooked the sacrifice when it was offered. He accompanied the Pandavas on their exile; and on their return performed the inauguratory ceremonies for Raja Yudhishthira; and at the great Aswamedha squeezed milk out of the horse's ear.

Dhava: (sáns. hindú). (Fire). A deity of the class teraied Vasu; because they are always present in light or luminous irradiation.

Dhenuka: (sáns. hindú). A demon, fierce and malignant, who in the form of an ass, attacked Bala Eima when a boy, and began to kick him on the breast with his hinder heels. Bala Rama however, seized him by both hind legs, and whirling him round till he expired, tossed his carcase to the top of a palm tree from the branches of which it struck down abundance of fruit, like rain drops poured upon earth by thfe wind. Vishnu Purana, 517.

Dhi: (sáns. hindú). The wife of the Rudra Manyu.

Dhimat: (sáns. hindú). One of the six sons of Pururavas; the name also of the valiant son of Virat.

Dhishana: (sáns. hindú). A princess of the race of Agni, and wife of Havirdhana. "Mr B. Manning, A, and M, 1.

Dhishnyas: (sáns. hindú). The seven little circles extending in a straight line from the Marjala to ih-e Agnidhra fire.- t. JBraL

Dhoti or Dhotra: (sáns. hindú). The cloth wrapped round the loins, and universally worn by Hindus. It is spoken of by Nearchus as reaching to the middle of the leg. It is from 2 to 3 yards long by 2 to 3 feet broad. "Native sepoys march thirty or forty miles a day in dhotis without fatigue." " In the frescoes on the caves of Ajanta this costume is carefully represented." - Edin, Rev., Jan. 1868.

Dhridhaswa: (sáns. hindú). One of the three sons of KuvaUyaswa, who escaped from the conflict with the demon Dhundu.

Dhrishta: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata. Before their birth the Manu, being desirous of sons offered a sacrifice for that purpose to Mitra and Varuna; but the rite being deranged through an irregularity of the ministering priest, a daughter, Ila, was produced. See Ila and Manu. From Drishta sprang the Kshatriya race of Dharshtakas.

Dhrishtadyumna: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Raja Drupada, in whose reign the possessions of the Panchalas were divided. Dhrishtadyumua was the brother of Draupadi, who proclaimed the terms of her Swayamvara.

** The gallant Dhrishtadyumna on the plain
Descended, and his father's will proclaimed; -
Princes, this bow behold ! Yon mark - these shafts -
Who'er with dextrous hand at once directs
Five arrows to their aim; and be his race,
His person, and his deeds, equivalent
To such exalted union, - He obtains
My sister for his bride. My words are truth.
Thus said, he to the Princess next described
Each royal suitor by his name and lineage.
And martial deeds; and bade her give the wreath
To him whose prowess best deserved the boon.

Arjuna was the successful suitor, and Draupadi became the wife of the five Pandu brothers, Dhrishtadyumna followed the brothers home, and ascertained that they were not brahmans but Kshatriyas of the royal house of Hastinapura, and soon acquainted his father with the tidings. At the beginning of the great war Dhrishtadyumna was elected commander-in-chief; after several days' fighting, Raja Drupada was slain by Drona, and Dhrishtadyumna vowed that he would be revenged for his father's death by killing Drona. This he did the following day, aided by Bhima. He was afterwards surprised by Aswatthama, the son of Drona, while sleeping in the tents of the Pandavas and was barbarously murdered. See Drupada.

Dhrishtaketu: (sáns. hindú). l. The son of Dhrishtadyumna, he commanded the troops of Chedi and Malwa in the great war; 2, The name of a son of Satyadhriti or Sudhriti, king of Mithila, who was celebrated for his piety, and received the designation of "royal saint." 3, A son of Suketu, a descendant of Alarka.

Dhrishtasarman: (sáns. hindú). A prince, one of the sons of Swaphalka, of the family of Anamitru.

Dhrishti: (sáns. hindú). The war minister of Maharaja Dasaratha.

Dhrita: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Dharma.

Dhritamati: (sáns. hindú). A river among those enumerated in the Vishnu Purana as one of the rivers of Bharata.

Dhritarashtra: (sáns. hindú). The elder son of Krishna Dwaipayana and the widow of Vichitravirya (see Bhishma), king of Hastinapura, and father of Duryodhana and his ninety-nine brothers. Being blind from birth, he eventually delivered his sceptre to Duryodhana, at whose suggestion he banished the Pandava princes, his own nephews, from his kingdom. It is to him that his charioteer and bard (suta), Saujaya, relates the Bhagavat Gita, or dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna, having received, as he says, from the Vyfisa, the mystic power of being present while it was earned on.

His wife's name was Gandhari, and the chief of her hundred sons were Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Vikarna, and Chitrasena. (Dhritardshtra is derived from dhrita, * held firm ;' and rashtra, a 'kingdom,' * who tenaciously maintains the sovereignty.' The name, Schlegel observes, may have arisen from his remaining on the throne in spite of his blindness.) (J, C, Thomson) Outhe death of Duryodhana, who was killed by Bhima, he meditated revenge, and caused an instrument of strongly constrictive power to be made, which he wore on his person; and then expressed a strong desire to embrace Bhima, his nephew, before he died, Krishna being aware of the device (the hug as of a bear) caused a stone image to be substituted; and as the blind king could not distinguish the difference, he was deceived, and Bhima escaped.

Dhritarashtra was also the name of a powerful many-headed serpent, of immeasurable might; one of the progeny of Kadru.

Dhritarashtri: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Kasyapa, one of the wives of Garuda and mother of geese, ducks, teal and other water-fowl.

Dhritavrata: (sáns. hindú). One of the eleven Rudras. Also the name of a prince, one of the descendants of Anu.

Dhriti: (sáns. hindú). Steadiness. One of the twenty-four daughters of the patriarch Daksha, married to Dharma (righteousness), their son was Niyama (precept). Dhriti was also the name of several princes - of a son of Vethavya, king of Mithila; of a son of Babhru; and of a son of Vijaya. The wife of Manu, one of the eleven Rudras, was named Dhriti.

Dhritimat: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated sage, the son of Kirthimat, by his wife Dheuuka. Also the name of a son of Yavinara.

Dhruva: (sáns. hindú). The polar star, the pivot of the atmosphere; on it rests the seven great planets, and on them depend the clouds: the rains are suspended in the clouds and fall for the support of created beings. This source of rain is termed the sacred station of Vishnu, and the support of the three worlds. Vishnu Purana, Ch. VIII.

From it proceeds the stream that washes away all sin, the river Gunga, embrowned with the unguents of the nymphs of heaven, who have sported in her waters. Having her source in the nail of the great toe of Vishnu's left foot, Dhruva receives her and sustains her day and night devoutly on his head. V. V,-lhid, As Dhruva revolves it causes the moon, sun and stars to turn round also; and the lunar asterisms follow in its circular path, for all the celestial luminaries are bound to the polar star by aerial cords. The rain is evolved by the sun; the sun is sustained by Dhruva; and Dhruva is supported by the celestial porpoise-shaped sphere, which is one with Narayana. Narayana, the primeval existent, and eternally enduring, seated in the heart of the stellar sphere, is the supporter of all beings. V. P., Ch. IX.

Dhruva was the son of Uttanapada and Suniti; when a child he observed his half-brother Uttama in the lap of his father as he was seated on his throne, and was desirous of ascending to the same place. He was reproved for this by the mother of Uttama, Suruchi, the favorite wife of his father. The boy being angry went to the apartment of his own mother, who took him on her lap and asked what had vexed him. Suniti, distressed by the narrative of the boy, said, Suruchi has rightly spoken; thine, child, is an unhappy fate; those who are born to fortune are not liable to the insults of their rivals. Yet be not afflicted my child. That the king favors Suruchi is the reward of her merits in a former existence. It is not proper for you to grieve; a wise man will be contented with that degree which appertains to him; be amiable, be pious, be friendly, be assiduous in benevolence to ail living creatures; for prosperity descends upon modest worth as water flows towards low ground, Dhruva answered: " Mother, the words that you have addressed to me for my consolation, find no place in a heart that contumely has broken. 1 will exert myself to attain such elevated rank that it shall be revered by the whole world." The youth then went forth from his mother's dwelling and applied to seven Munis, whom he found sitting in an adjoining thicket. By their advice he devoted himself entirely to the service of Vishnu, concentrating his whole mind on this one object. He comnfenced a course of religious austerities; resisted all the attempts made to change his purpose; and was finally elevated by Vishnu to the skies as the pole-star. V. P.

Dhruva sandhi: (sáns. hindú). One of the sous of Raja Tresandhi, king of Ay6dhya, and father of Bharata.

Dhruvasandhi: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son Pushya, a descendant of Rima.

Dhrujru: (sáns. hindú). The eldest son of king Yayati, by his wife Sannishta: called in some of the Puranas, the handmaid of his first wife Devayani. Dhruyu became king of the western part of his father's dominions.

Dhumaketu: (sáns. hindú). (Comet). An allegorical personage, the son of Krisaswa, by his wife Archish (flame). The deified weapons of the gods were the progeny of Krisaswa. Dhumaketu is also the name of one of the sons of Trinavindu by the celestial nymph Alambush£, who became enamoured of Trinavindu.

Dhlimrakesa: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sons of the celebrated Prithu, the universal emperor or Chakra-vertti.

Dhumraksha: (sáns. hindú). One of Havana's generals, who was killed at the siege of Lanka.

Dhumraswa: (sáns. hindú). The son of Suchandra and king of Vaisali- the city founded by Vaisali, son of Trinavinda. The Buddhists consider Vaisdli to be Prayaga, or Allahabad. Among them it is celebrated as a chief seat of the labours of Sakhya and his first disciples.

Dhundu: (sáns. hindú). An Asura, or demon, represented as most formidable.

The pious sage Uttanka was much harassed by this demon, and king Kuvalayaswa, inspired with the spirit of Vishnu, determined to destroy it. In the conflict the king was attended by his sons to the number of twenty-one thousand, and all these with the exception of three perished in the engagement, consumed by the fiery breath of Dhundu. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand, which Kuvalayaswa and his sons dug up, undeterred by the flames which checked their progress and finally destroyed most of them. The king was afterwards entitled Dhundumara. The legend is supposed to have originated in some physical phenomena as an earthquake or volcano. V. P.

Dhundumara: (sáns. hindú). The name of Kuvalayaswa, after the conflict above described. In the Ramayana he is termed the son of Trisanku.

Dhuti: (sáns. hindú). One of the twelve Adityas who in a former Manwantara were deities called Tushitas; they entered the womb of Aditi, daughter of Daksha, and were born as the sons of Kasyapa, and named the twelve Aditya?.

Dhyana: (sáns. hindú). Profound meditation on Vishnu, When the image (of Vishnu) never departs from the mind of the sage, whether he be going or standing, or be engaged in any other voluntary act, then he may believe his retention to be perfect. There are six stages in the attainment of this object: 1, Yama, acts of restraint and obligation; 2, Asana, sitting in particular postures; 3, Pranayama, modes of breathing; 4, Pratyahara, exclusion of all external ideas; 5, Bhavana, apprehension of internal ideas; 6, Dharana, fixation or retention of those ideas. Those who thus devote themselves to meditation, must divest their minds of all sensual desire, and have their attention abstracted from every external object, and absorbed with every sense in the prescribed subject of meditation. Patanjali says, * Eestraint of the body, retention of the mind, and meditation, which thence is exclusively confined to one object, is Dhyana.' See V. P., p. 657.

Digambara: (sáns. hindú). A naked ascetic, or gymnosophist. The Jains are divided into two principal divisions, Digambaras and Svetambaras; the former of which appears to have the best pretensions to antiquity, and to have been most widely difiused. The discriminating difference is implied in these terms, the former meaning the sky-clad, that is, naked; and the latter the white-robed, the teachers being so dressed. In the present day, however, the Digambara ascetics do not go naked, but wear coloured garments; they confine the disuse of clothes to the period of their meals, throwing aside their wrapper when they receive the food given them by their disciples. - Wilson.

Diksha: (sáns. hindú). Certain ceremonies preliminary to a sacrifice. It also means a new birth- and a rite of initiation, Diksha - The wife of Ugra, one of the eight Rudras or manifestations of Brahma; or according to the Bhagavata, the wife of Vamadeva, another Rudra.

Dikshaniya Ishti: (sáns. hindú). A curious sacrificial ceremony, apparently suggested by " a feeling nearly akin to belief in original sin. The gods, and especially Vishnu and Agni, are invoked to come to the offering with the Diksha. * Grant the Diksha to the sacrifice.

Agni as fire, and Vishnu as the sun, are invoked to cleanse the sacrificer, by the combination of their rays, from all gross and material dross. The worshipper is then covered up in a cloth, on the outside of which is placed the skin of a black antelope; and, after a certain time has elapsed, and specified prayers have been recited, the coverings are removed, the new birth is considered to have been accomplished, and the regenerated man descends to bathe."* .

Dikshavisarjane: (sáns. hindú). A religious ceremony amongst brahmans; it is customary for a man to allow his hair to grow for six months after his marriage, and then go to his father-in-law's house to have his head shaved; this act, and the observances which accompany it, is termed Dikshavisarjane.

Dilipa: (sáns. hindú). The son of Ansuman and father of Bhagiratha who brought Ganga down to the earth.

Ansuman's son, Dilipa famed,
Begot a son Bhagirath named,
From him the great Kakutstha rose;
From him came Raghu feared by foes.

Dilipa is described in the Raghuvansa as a grand ideal of what a king should be.

"Tall and broad-shouldered, stout and strong of limb,
Valour incarnate fixed her throne in him.
Matchless in beauty and heroic might,
He towers like Meru in his lofty height.
Meet for his god-like form, his noble mind
To worthy studies in his youth inclined.
Thence great designs inspired his generous soul,
And mighty deeds with glory crowned the whole."

This monarch was the delight of his subjects, who followed him as their guide, and thereby obeyed the laws of Manu.

"And well they knew the tax they gladly paid,
For their advantage on the realm was laid.
The bounteous sun delights to drink the lakes,
But gives ten thousand-fold the wealth he takes."
*Mrs. Manning, A. and M. I.

Just as the earth and water, fire and ether, were given by the good Creator for the benefit of all mankind; so was the king, Dilipa, sent to bless his subjects, and find his own happiness in that of others. Theft was unknown in his dominions, and .

" He ruled the earth, from rival sceptre free.
Like one vast city girdled by the sea."

But one boon was wanting. He had a lovely queen, but no son.

"Oh ! how he longed, that childless king, to see
A royal infant smiling on her knee;
With his dear mother's eyes and face divine, - .
A second self to ornament his line !"

In the hope of attaining this boon he resolves to seek his holy guide, the renowned Vasishtha, who now lived far away in a secluded hermitage. His queen goes forth with him, and they travel in a car, which " tells his coming with the music of its bells.'* .

" Fresh on their cheeks the soft wind gently blows,
Wafting the perfume of the woodland rose: .
And, heavy with the dust of rifled flowers.
Waves the young branches of the mango bowers.
They hear the peacock's joyous cry; his head
Lifted in wonder at the courser's tread.
They watch the cranes in jubilant armies fly,
Crowning, like flowers, the portals of the sky.
From shady coverts by the way, the deer
Throw startled glances when the car is near.

* * * *

Through towns they pass, and many a hamlet fair.
Founded and cherished by their royal care."

Peasants bring them curds and milk; the king calls attention to the varied beauties of the woodland scene; and, lost in delight, they reach the end of their journey quite unexpectedly.

" Evening is come, and, weary of the road,
The horses rest before the saints' abode."

The hermitage reminds one of that described in Kalidasa's play, Sakuntala. Hermits from the neighbouring forest have come for grass and fuel; playful fawns are waiting to be fed with rice; young girls are watering the roots of trees, &c.

The king and the queen are most kindly received.

After " food and rest," the sage inquires of the king his wishes, and having heard that .

"Mother earth, whom tears nor prayers have won,
Is still ungracious, and denies a son,"

and that " the spirits of his fathers pine," seeing no hope of funeral offerings, the great Vasishtha falls into profound meditation, and, after a few minutes, announces the cause of the misfortune.

The king, Dilipa, had once, thoughtlessly and unconsciously, omitted to pay reverence to " the holy cow," which was lying under a celestial tree near the falls of the Ganges.... Therefore, by way of penance, he and his queen must tend a cow, called Nandini, in the sacred woods close by; and when they have gained the love of this descendant of the affronted cow, the curse will be removed.

The attendance is given faithfully: the queen worships the cow, by walking round her and scattering grain; and the king cannot be persuaded, even by illusive phantoms, to desert his trust. He hastens to the queen; .


And though she read at once his looks aright,
He told her all again with new delight.
Then, at the bidding of the saint, he quaffed
Of Nandint's pure milk a precious draught,
As though, with thirst that rises from the soul.
He drank eternal glory from the bowl."

At the dawn of day,

" Swift towards their home the eager horses bound;
The car makes music o'er the grassy ground.
They reach the city, where the people wait,
Longing to meet their monarch, at the gate.
Dim are his eyes, his cheek is pale, his brow
Still bears deep traces of his weary vow."

In due time a son was born.

" There was a glory round the infant's head;
And e'en the unlit torches seemed to shine
As in a picture, with that light divine."

And, when all rites had been duly performed, - .

"Still greater glory crowned Dilipa's son."

A. and M. I., vol II, pp. 99-101.

Kalidisa in the Raghuvansa makes Raghu the son of Dilipa and great grandfather of Rama.

Dina-chariyawa: (sáns. hindú). The daily observances of Buddhist priests.

These are very numerous, and are prescribed with minute detail.

At the conclusion it is said the priest must maintain a course of good behaviour, he must keep under the five senses, with matured wisdom, and without any haughtiness of either body, speech or mind.

Dipaka: (sáns. hindú). The Illuminator. A figure of poetical rhetoric, throwing " a quickening ray of light upon the colouring of the poet's pictures; for its power it is indebted to arrangement in general, especially to the connection of the single verb, which (to use the expression of the commentator) lights up the whole description." - Colebrooke.

Contenido - Contents

Dipavali-habha: (sáns. hindú). A festival instituted in memory of two celebrated giants, Bala-chakravarti and Narak-asura. The latter had become the scourge of the human race and infested the earth with his crimes. Vishnu at length delivered both gods and men from the terror of this monster, whom he slew after a dreadful combat. The contest ended but with the day. Thus Vishnu not having it in his power to make his diurnal ablutions before the setting of the sun, had to perform them in the night. The Brahmans in commemoration of this great event, put off their ablutions to the night; and this is the only occasion, in the course of the year, in which they can transgress the ordinance of never bathing after sunset. But this exception of the nocturnal bathing, possesses a high degree of merit, and is conducted with solemnity.

The word Dipavali-habha signifies the Feast of Lamps; and the Hindus actually light a great number of lamps round the door of their houses. They make paper lanterns also, which they hang in the streetp. The husbandmen celebrate this festival in a different way. Being then the harvest time for grain they assemble in the ragi fields and offer prayers or sacrifices. Some sacrifice to the dunghill which is afterwards to enrich the ground. The offerings consist of burning lamps, fruits, or flowers which are deposited in the mass of ordure. - Abbe Dubois.

Diptimat : (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Krishna by Kohini. The Vishnu Purana says that Krishna had one hundred and eighty thousand sons, but the names of only a few are given.

Dirghabahu: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Khatwanga.

Dirghamukha: (sáns. hindú). A crane that figures in the Panchatantra; the name means " long bill."

Dirghatamas: (sáns. hindú). The son of Kasiraja and father of Dhanwantari.

Another Dirghatamas was the son of Utathaya, and some of the Puranas have an absurd story of the circumstances attending his birth.

Dis: (sáns. hindú). Space, which is said in the Bhagavata to be the deity which presides over the ear. Dis is also the name of a river in the Vishnu Purana.

Disa: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Bhima, one of the eight Rudras.

Dishta: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Manu Vaivaswata, the son of the celestial luminary.

Diti: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Daksha, who became one of the wives of Kasyapa, and mother of the Daityas, q. v. She is termed the general mother of Titans and malignant beings. Diti having lost her children propitiated Kasyapa; and the best of ascetics promised her a boon: on which she prayed for a son of irresistible prowess who should destroy Indra. The Muni granted his wife the gift on one condition, "You shall bear a son," he said, if with thoughts wholly pious, and person entirely pure, you carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." Diti consented, and during gestation, observed the rules of mental and personal purity. Indra, aware of what was going on, tried to prevent it; and in the last year of the century an opportunity occurred. Diti retired one night to rest without performing the prescribed ablution of her feet, and fell asleep: on which the thunderer divided the embryo in her womb into seven portions. The child thus mutilated, cried bitterly. Indra not being able to console and silence it, divided each of the seven portions into seven, and thus formed the swift-moving deities called Maruts, (winds). " In this myth of Indra destroying the unborn fruit of Diti with his thunder-bolt, from which afterwards came the Maruts or gods of wind and storm, geological phenomena are, it seems, represented under mythical images. In the great mother of the gods is, perhaps, figured the dry earth: Indra the god of thunder rends it open, and there issue from its rent bosom the Maruts or exhalations of the earth, But such ancient myths are difficult to interpret with absolute certainty." - Gorriseo.

Divakara: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Prativyoman, of the family of Ikshwaku, q. v.

Divaratha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Para, a descendant of Anu.

Divaspati: (sáns. hindú). The Indra of the thirteenth Manwantara.

Divijata: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Pururavas, according to the list in the Matsya.

Divodasa: (sáns. hindú). l, A king mentioned in the Rig Veda who coveted one of the hundred impregnable cities of the black-skinned Sambara.

Indra hurled Sambara from the mountain; he destroyed ninetynine cities and gave the hundredth to Divodasa; 2, A king of Kasi (Benares) the son of Bhimaratha. There are some curious legends connected with this prince. It is said that Siva and Parvati, desirous of occupying Kasi, which Divodasa possessed, sent a teacher named Nikumbha, to lead the prince to ihe adoption of Buddhist doctrines; in consequence of which he was expelled from the sacred city, and founded another on the banks of the Gomti; or according to other accounts, he took a city on that river from the family of Bhadrasrenya; that Durdama the son of Bhadrasrenya, recovered the country; that the son of Divodasa Pratarddana, subsequently conquered it from his descendants.

Divya: (sáns. hindú). One of the eons of Satwata.

Dosha: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Kalpa, the son of Dhruva.

Dragons: (sáns. hindú). These are represented in the Vishnu Purana to be the progeny of Surasd; one of the Daityas.

Dravidian: (sáns. hindú). The term applied to designate the five languages of Southern India, viz: - the Tamil, the Telugu, the Canarese, the Malayalim, and the Toulava. South India was formerly called the Dravida country. The Tamil is the most cultivated of the Dravidian tongues; it contains the largest portion and the richest variety of undoubtedly ancient forms, and the smallest infusion of Sanskrit terms. It is the vernacular of about 1 2 millions of people.

The Telugu ranks next to the Tamil in respect of culture and copiousness; in point of euphonic sweetness it ranks in the first place. It is the vernacular of about 14 millions. The Canarese occupies the third place. Sanskrit words have been extensively introduced into the modern dialect, and during the reigns of Hyder and Tippu in Mysore, Hindustani words became common; but the ancient dialect, spoken from about 800 to 1500 a. d. was free from any admixture of foreign terms. It is the vernacular of about 10 millions. The Malayalim ranks next in order and is spoken along the Malabar Coast from Cannanore to Trevandrum by about 3 millions of people. The Toulava is the least important of the five, and is spoken by the smallest number of people.

Drauni: (sáns. hindú). The Vyasa of the Dwapara which immediately follows the twenty-eight Dwaparas enumerated in the Vishnu Purana.

Draupadi: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Raja Drupada of Panchala, whose capital was Kampilya. " She is the heroine of the Mahabharata."

" She is of dark complexion but of exceeding loveliness; and the only wish we have for her is that we could change her name, - Draupadi; for it is almost beyond the power of art to invest a heroine with so uncouth an appellation with the poetic charm belonging to her in the Sanskrit."* The reports of the extraordinary beauty of Draupadi attracted many Rajas and chieftains to her Swayamvara. The young Princess was led into the arena, elegantly dressed, adorned with radiant gems, and carrying in her hand the garland which she was to throw over the neck of the hero who might have the fortune to win her to be his wife. Prince Dhrishtadyumna stood by the side of his resplendent sister, and proclaimed that whoever shot the arrow through the revolving * Mrs. Manning. A. and M. I., Vol. ii. chakra on the first attempt, and struck the eye of the golden fish, should have the princess for his wife. Many Rajas tried to bend the bow but could not. Then the ambitious Kama entered the lists and to the surprise of all bent the bow and fitted the shaft to the string; but the proud Draupadi resolved that no son of a charioteer should be her lord, and cried out, "I wed not with the base-born." Kama was abashed and walked angrily out of the area. Then Sisupala, the Raja of Chedi; and Jarasandha, the Raja of Magadha, tried one after another to bend the bow, but they both failed. All this time the Pandavas had been standing amongst the crowd disguised as brahmans: suddenly Arjuna advanced and lifted the bow, bent it and drew the cord, then fitting the arrow to the string, he discharged it through the centre of the chakra and struck the eye of the golden fish. A roar of acclamation arose from the vast assembly; the beautiful Draupadi was filled with joy and wonder at the youth and grace of the hero; as commanded by her brother she came forward and threw the garland round the neck of Arjuna, and permitted him to lead her away according to the rule of the Swayamvara.

In the works of H.H. Wilson, Vol.iii, pp. 328-335, the following poetical version of the account of the Swayamvara is given In Panchala's spacious realm
The powerful monarch Drupada observes
A solemn feast; attending princes wait
With throbbing hearts, his beauteous daughter's choice;
The royal Draupadi, whose charms surpass
All praise, as far as her mild excellence
And mind transcend the beauties of her person.

And now the day of festival drew nigh; When Drupada, whose anxious hopes desired A son of Pandu for his daughter's lord.

And who had sent his messengers to search The banished chiefs, still sought by them in vain.

Devised a test- no other force but theirs He deemed could umlcro, lo win the bride.

A ponderous bow with magic skill he framed, Unyielding but to more than mortal strength.

And for a mark he hung a metal plate Suspended on its axle, swift revolving Struck by a shaft that from the centre strayed.

This done he bade proclaim - that he whose hand Should wing the arrow to its destined aim, Should win the Princess by his archery.

Before the day appointed, trooping came Princes and chiefs innumerous: 'midst the throng Duryodhana and all the hundred sons Of Dhritarashtra, with the gallant Karna, In haughty cohort at the court appeared.

With hospitable act the king received His royal guests and fitting welcome gave.

Between the North and East without the gates There lay a spacious plain; a fosse profound And lofty walls enclosed its ample circuit, And towering gates and trophied arches rose.

And tall pavilions glittered round its borders: Here ere the day of trial came, the sports Were held: and loud as ocean's boisterous waves, And thick as stai. suspended it on the brow of Airavata. The elephant took hold of the garland with his trunk and cast it to the ground. The chief of sages Durvdsas, was highly incensed at this treatment of his gift, and thus addressed the sovereign of the immortals. " Thou art an idiot not to respect the garland I gave thee * * * * thy sovereignty over the three worlds shall be subverted, &c." Indra descended from his elephant and endeavoured, but without effect, to appease the sinless Durvasas. Thenceforward the three worlds lost their vigour and fell into decay and ruin. The gods were then oppressed by the Danavas, had recourse to Vishnu, and were directed to churn the ocean. Durvasas was a Chiranjivi or immortal man, not limited to one age. In the drama of Sakuntala, his curse on that young woman for a slight delay in opening her door to him, brought on her sorrow and disgrace. In like manner, throughout the whole range of Hindu literature, the curse of Durvasas is at hand, to account for every contretemps, mishap or misadventure. A. and M. I.

Duryaman: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Dhrita, a descendant of Druhyu.

Duryodhana: (sáns. hindú). " Difficult to be fought with." The eldest of the Kurus. The eldest of the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra, and one of the principal actors, among the Kauravas, in the great war...

Pandu was the younger brother of Dhritarashtra, but Yudhishthira his eldest son was born before Duryodhana, and according to the customs of those times had in consequence a prior right to the throne of Hastinapura. This led to constant rivalry between Yudhishthira and Duryodhana for the post of Yuvaraja. As the five Pandavas had, on the death of Pandu, come under the guardianship of their uncle Dhritarashtra, the cousins were brought up together in the old palace of Hastinapura. It is stated in the Mahabharata that " about this time Duryodhana the eldest of the Kauravas, became very jealous of the strength of Bhima, and resolved to work evil against him. He attempted to take his life by poison, and throwing him into a lake while stupified from its effect. Bhima was not however killed but appeared again to play an important part in the struggles of their lives." .

" The jealousy and hatred of the Kurus towards the Pandavas increased as they all attained manhood. The father of the Kurus being blind, required a vice king, or Yuvaraja, i. e., " Little Raja." In this office Yudhishthira was installed, he being entitled to it as eldest son of the late king Pandu. But Duryodhana was highly discontented at this arrangement, and at length persuaded his blind father to send away the Pandavas to the city of Varanivata (the modern Allahabad). Here a splendid house was prepared for them; but hemp, resin, and other combustible substances, were secreted within; for the wicked Duryodhana plotted that the house should be set on fire, and the five Pandavas and their mother burnt to death. Warning, however, was given to these intended victims before they left Hastinapura; and, on taking possession of their splendid new habitation, they had an underground passage made, by which, when the expected fire took place, they all escaped."

Among the poor people whom Kunti had been feasting was a Bhil woman, with five sons, who, according to the practice of their tribe, drank deeply of intoxicating liquor, and then lay down and slept heavily. The next morning their bodies were found amid the ruins of the conflagration; and it was believed in Hastinapura that the Pandavas had perished, and Duryodhana pretended to mourn their death.

After the Pandavas (q. v.) had conquered their misfortunes " the very splendour of their success revived the dark jealousy of Duryodhana; for he and his brother Duhsasana, and one or two others, plot to deprive the newly-inaugurated king of his territories.

They first secure the co-operation of a relative, named Sakuni, who was a noted gambler, and then induce the blind old Maharaja to invite the Pandavas to a gambling festival at Hastinapura.

Yudhishthira accepts the invitation, with secret misgiving; for " he was not very skilful in throwing the dice," and he knows that " Sakuni is dwelling in Hastinapura." Of Sakuni, it is said that " he is very skilful in throwing dice, and in playing with dice that were loaded; insomuch, that whenever he played he always won the game." Nevertheless, Yudhishthira feels compelled to go; for " no true Kshatriya can refuse a challenge to war or play." The game they played at seems to have resembled backgammon, " pieces on a board being directed by the throwing of dice." Certain seeds or nuts served as dice; and dice of this description were used for the guidance of a portion of the religious sacrifice. So that, to throw dice, was not deemed objectionable; and only when a passion, or the stake immoderate, was it esteemed a vice. It was, of course, contrived that Yudhishthira should be led on to stake and to lose all that he possessed.* .

When the Pandavas returned from their second exile it was chiefly owing to Duryodhana that the great war was fought. He rejected all Krishna's proposals for peace, though Bhishma and Droua, as well as his aged father, were anxious that he should accept them... The war commenced.

" The Kuru host entrusted to his care.

The son of Bharadwaja marshals; first The chiefs of Sindhu, and Kalinga's king, With the young prince Vikarna on the right He stations, by Gandhara's martial chivalry; With glittering lances armed, and led by Sakuni, Their sovereign's son, supported. On his left Duhsasana and other chiefs of fame Commanded the array: around them rode Kamboja's horse, Sakas and Yavanas, On rapid coursers, mighty in the field.

The nations of the noj-th, and east, and south.

Composed his main battalions: in the rear Secure the monarch marched; whilst in the van The gallant Kama led his faithful bands, Exulting in their sovereign's stately stature, High raised upon his elephant of war, And gorgeous shining as the rising sun.

His warriors deemed the gods themselves were weak, With Indra at their head, to stem his prowess, And each to each their thoughts revealed, they moved, Secure of victory, to meet the foe."t A. and M. I. t Wilson's Worku, vol. iii- v. 291.

On the last day of the war Bhima fought Duryodhana in single combat with clubs, and killed him. It is said that he then fulfilled the vow he made to avenge the insult which Duryodhana had offered to Draupadi.

Dushan: (sáns. hindú). A giant slain by Rama in the forest of Dandaka.

Dushyanta: (sáns. hindú). The eldest son of Anila, and father of the emperor Bharata. The Mahabharata relates the following legend of this king. " Once upon a time the valiant Boja Dushyanta was hunting in the forest, when he beheld the beautiful Sakuntala, the adopted daughter of Kanwa the sage; and he prevailed on the damsel to become his wife by a Gandharva marriage, and gave her his ring as the pledge of his troth. Then Dushyanta returned to his own city, whilst Sakuntala remained in the hermitage of her father.

After this Durvasas the sage visited the hermitage of Kanwa, but the thoughts of Sakuntala were fixed upon her husband, and she heard not the approach of the sage. And Durvasas cursed the damsel, that she should be forgotten by the man she loved; but after a while he relented, and promised that the curse should be removed as soon as Dushyanta saw the ring. When Sakuntala found that she was with child, she set off for the palace of her husband; but on her way she bathed in a sacred pool, and the ring dropped from her finger and was lost beneath the waters.

When she reached the palace of the Raja, his memory had departed from him, and he would not own her to be his wife; and her mother came and carried her away to the jungle, and there she gave birth to a sou, who was named Bharata. And it so happened that a large fish was caught by a fisherman, and the ring of Dushyanta was found in the belly of the fish, and carried to the Raja; and Dushyanta saw the ring, and he remembered the beautiful Sakuntala, who had become his wife by a Gandharva marriage. And the Raja went into the jungle and saw the boy Bharata sporting with young lions and setting at nought the lioness that gave them suck; and his heart burned towards the lad; and presently he beheld the sorrowing Sakuntala, and he knew that Sakuntala was his wife, and that Bharata was his son. So Raja Dushyanta took Sakuntala and Bharata to his own city; and he made Sakuntala his chief Rani, and appointed Bharata to succeed him in the Raj."

The story of Sakuutala is the subject of the beautiful drama of Kalidasa, " The Lost Ring."

Dutas: (sáns. hindú). Messengers. The Gananatas or Dutas are divided into three classes; 1, Siva-dutas, who are represented as red, short, and thick like the Bhuta. Their hair-locks twisted together, rest on their heads like a cap, and from their mouths project two great lion's teeth. They have four hands in which they hold, respectively, a snake, a cord, a trident, and a wine-jug; whilst their body is adorned with various ornaments. By means of these messengers Isvara fetches the souls of his devotees at their death to his seat of bliss, called Kailasa, and that in a Pushpakavimana, i. e.f B. self-moving chariot.

2. The Vishnu-dutas have their hair dressed like the Siva-dutas, and also like them a lion's teeth, but otherwise they resemble Vishnu, being of a blue color, and wearing the Tirunama on their forehead, arms, and breasts; and round their necks a rosary of Tulasimani; whilst they hold in their four hands, respectively, a Sankha, a Chakra, a battle-axe, and a club. Through these messengers Vishnu fetches the souls of his faithful devotees into his abode of bliss called Vaikuntha.

3. The Yama-dutas, the messengers of Yama, the king of death and hell, are painted quite black, like demons, with horrible faces and great teeth. In their four hands they carry a trident, a club and many ropes; and in their girdles, daggers. Their business consists in carrying the souls of the wicked into Naraka or hell; but they are not allowed to lay hold on any one before his fixed life-time is elapsed, and the souls of the pious they cannot touch at all. When, however, such die as are neither virtuous nor wicked, then it happens that the messengers of Yama and those of Siva or Vishnu come into conflict with each other, each party claiming the indifferent souls." .

Dwapara: (sáns. hindú). The third Yuga or age, which lasts 2,400 divine years; these are converted into years of mortals by multiplying them by 360, a year of men being a day of the gods- thus 2,400 X 360 = 864,000 mortal years, the duration of the Dwdpara or third Yuga. The predominant duties of the four Yugas are said to be austere fervour on the Krita age, knowledge in the Treta, sacrifice in the Dwapara, and liberality alone in the Kali Yuga. O. S. T., vol. i, p. 39.

Dwaraka: (sáns. hindú). The city of Krishna; after he had conquered many difficulties in his position, he solicited a space of twelve furlongs from the ocean, and there he built the city of Dwaraka; defended by high ramparts, and beautiful with gardens and reservoirs of water, crowded with houses and buildings, and splendid as the capital of Indra, Amaravati. After Krishna abandoned his mortal body, Arjuna conducted his many wives and all the people from Dwaraka, with tenderness and care. The ocean then rose and submerged the whole of Dwaraka except the dwelling of Krishna.

The Vishnu Purana says the sea has never been able to wash that temple away, as Krishna still abides there. The Mahabharata declares that the sea did not spare any part whatever. " It is clear, therefore ;" says Professor Wilson, " that when the latter was compiled the temple was not standing, and that it was erected between the date of the compilation and the two Puranas. The present shrine, which is held in great repute, stands at the extremity of the peninsula of Guzerat. It is still an object of pilgrimage; it was so in the reign of Akbar; and has been no doubt, from a remote period." .

Dwesha: (sáns. hindú). Hatred; one of the five afflictions of the Patanjali philosophy.

Dwija: (sáns. hindú). Twice-born; a brahman, whose investiture with the sacred thread constitutes, religiously and metaphorically, their second birth. In this sense it may be applied to the Kshatriya and Vaishya.

Dwimidha: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Hastin, founder of Hastinapura.

Dwimurddha: (sáns. hindú). One of the Danavas, a son of Kasyapa by Danu.

Dwipas: (sáns. hindú). Insular continents, of which there are seven chief, and with the seven seas are supposed to form alternate concentric circles, viz: 1, Jambu Dwipa, surrounded by a salt sea (Lavana); 2, Plaksha, by a sea of sugar-cane juice, (Ikshu); 3, Salmali, by a sea of wine, (Sui*d); 4, Kusa, by a sea of clarified butter, or ghee, (Sarpi); 5, Krauncha, by a sea of curds, (Dugdha); 7, Pushkara, by a sea of fresh water. The whole is surrounded by a circular mountain designated Chakravaligiri. An account of the kings, divisions, inhabitants, &c., of these Dwipas will be found in the Vishnu Purana, Chap. IV, Book I. The geography of the Puranas, says Prof. Wilson, occurs in most of these works; and in all the main features, the seven Dwipas, seven seas, the divisions of Jambudwipa, the situation and extent of Meru, and the sub-division of Bharata, is the same. It has been stated that the first rudiments and general outline of this fiction, including the circular mountain, are rabbinical, and may be found in the Talmud.

Dwivida: (sáns. hindú). An Asura, the foe of the friends of the gods, which in the form of an ape, committed great devastation. " The whole world, disordered by this iniquitous monkey, was deprived of sacred study and religious rites, and was greatly afflicted." (V. P.) .

On one occasion, when Bala Rama was enjoying himself in the groves of Raivata, the monkey Dwivida came there, threw over the wine and groaned at the company. An encounter followed, in which the monkey struck the Yadava on the breast with his paws. Bala Rama replied with a blow of his fist upon the forehead of Dwivida, which felled him lifeless to the earth. The crest of the mountain on which he fell was splintered into a hundred pieces by the weight of his body, as if the thunderer had shivered it with his thunderbolt. V. P., &c.

Dwivida: (sáns. hindú). One of the sous of the Asvins, famed for his beauty.

Dyaus and Prithivi: (sáns. hindú). Heaven and Earth, seemed to have been veiy ancient Aryan divinities, and are in many passages of the Rig Veda described as the parents of the other gods. There are several hymns specially devoted to their honour. In the hymns.

Heaven and Earth are characterized by a profusion of epithets, not only such as are suggested by their various physical characteristics, as vastness, breadth, profundity, productiveness, unchangeableness, but also by such as are of a moral or spiritual nature, as innocuous or beneficent, wise promoters of righteousness.

While Heaven and Earth are described as the universal parents, they are spoken of in other places as themselves created. Thus it is said in the Rig Veda that * he who produced heaven and earth must have been the most skilful artizan of all the gods.' Indra also is described as their creator; as having beautifully fashioned them by his power and skill; as having bestowed them on his worshippers; as sustaining and upholding them, &c.

"In other passages we encounter various speculations about their origin. In one hymn the perplexed poet inquires which of these two was the first ? and which the last ? How have they been produced ? Sages who knows ? In another hymn the creation of heaven and earth is ascribed to the sole agency of the god Visvakarman. Some are of opinion that the functions which in the older Indian Mythology were assigned to Dyaus, were at a later period transferred to Indra. O. S. T., vol. v., pp. 21 - 34.

Dyumat: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Rishi Vasishtha, according to the list in the Bhagavata, which differs altogether from that in the Vishnu Purana.

Dyutimat: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sons of Priyavrata: three of them adopted a religious life: Priyavrata having divided the earth into seven continents, gave them respectively to his other seven sons.

Dyutimat was king of Krauncha-dwipa, where the inhabitants resided without apprehension, associating with the bands of divinities.

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