martes, 6 de julio de 2010

Citra - Dyutikara -The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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4.Citra - Dyutikara

Citra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The bright or variegated. 2. The clear-minded. 3. The name of one of Arjuna's wives. 3, A liberal prince. 4. The name of a medicine in the Atharvaveda.

Citrabhanu: (sáns. hindú). (citra "bright" + bhanu "sun, light") The bright light of either Surya, the Sun-God, or Agni, the Fire-God.

Citragupta: (sáns. hindú). A scribe in the abodes of the dead, he records the virtue and vice of men. The recorder of Yama.

Citraka: (sáns. hindú). The painter.

Citrakuta: (sáns. hindú). "Bright-peak." The seat of Valmiki's hermitage, in which Rama and Sita both found refuge at different times. It is the modern Citrakote, on the river Pishuni, about fifty miles southeast of Banda in Bundelkhand. It is a very holy place, and abounds with temples and Shrines, to which thousands attend annually.

Citralekha: (sáns. hindú). A picture. The name of a nymph who was skilled in painting and in the magic art. She was the friend and confidant of Usha.

Citran: (sáns. hindú). 1. The bright or variegated. 2. The clear-minded.

Citrangada: (sáns. hindú). 1. The oldest son of King Shantanu, and brother of Bhishma. He was arrogant and proud, and was killed in early life in a conflict with a Gandharva of the same name. 2, In the feminine gender, the daughter of King Critavahana of Manipura, wife of Arjuna and mother of Babhruvahana.

Citrarata: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for special tastes.

Citraratha: (sáns. hindú). "Having a fine car." The king of the Gandharvas. There are many others known by this name such as an Aryan king slain by Indra.

Citrasena: (sáns. hindú). 1) One of the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra. 2) A chief of the Yakshas.

Citravasu: (sáns. hindú). (citra "bright" + vasu "wealth") Rich in brightness like the stars.

Citravesha: (sáns. hindú). One of variegated guise. Shiva's 63rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Citrayajna: (sáns. hindú). A drama in five acts about the legend of Daksha. It is the work of a Pandit named Vaidyanatha Vacaspati.

Cittaavritti: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for inclinations.

Coha: (sáns. hindú). An unknown herb, spice, or sundry item found in the Kama Sutra.

Cudala: (sáns. hindú). The name of a saintly queen whose story is told in the YogaVasishtha.

Cumuri: (sáns. hindú). A demon, fiend, or savage.

Cuna: (sáns. hindú). A botannical term for Lime.

Cuta: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the mango, metaphorically, the anus.

Cyavana: (sáns. hindú). A sage, the son of the Rishi Bhrigu, and the father of Aurva who was also the author of some hymns. In the Rigveda it is said that when "Cyavana had grown old and had been forsaken, the Ashvins divested him of his decrepit body, prolonged his life, and restored him to youth, making him acceptable to his wife, and the husband of maidens." This story is thus amplified in the Shatapatha Brahmana: The sage Cyavana assumed a shriveled form and lay as if abandoned. The sons of Sharyata, a descendant of Manu, found this body, and pelted it with clods. Cyavana was greatly incensed, and to appease him Sharyata yoked his chariot, and taking with him his daughter Sukanya, presented her to Cyavana. The Ashvins endeavored to seduce her, but she remained faithful to her shriveled husband, and under his direction she taunted them with their incompleteness and imperfections, and consented to tell them in what respect they were deficient, if they would make her husband young again. They directed that he should bathe in a certain pond, and having done so, he would come out of the water with the age he desired. She informed them that they were imperfect because they were excluded from a sacrifice the other gods were performing. They departed and succeeded in getting admitted to join the other gods. According to the Mahabharata, Cyavana asked Indra to allow the Ashvins to partake of the libations of Soma. Indra replied that the other gods might do as they pleased, but he would not consent. Cyavana then commenced a sacrifice to the Ashvins; the other gods were subdued, but Indra, in a rage, rushed with a mountain in one hand and his thunderbolt in another to crush Cyavana. The sage having sprinkled him with water and stopped him, "created a fearful open-mouthed monster called Mada, having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth, the other the sky; and the gods, including Indra, are said to have been at the root of his tongue like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster." In this predicament "Indra granted the demand of Cyavana, who was thus the cause of the Ashvins becoming drinkers of the Soma." In another part of the Mahabharata he is represented as exacting many menial offices from King Kushika and his wife, but he afterwards rewarded them by "creating a magical golden palace," and predicted the birth of "a grandson of great beauty and heroism (Parashurama)." The Mahabharata, interpreting his name as signifying "the fallen," accounts for it by a legend which represents his mother, Puloma, wife of Bhrigu, as having been carried off by the demon Puloman. She was pregnant, and in her fright the child fell from her womb. The demon was softened, and let the mother depart with her infant. The version of the story as told in the Mahabharata and Puranas is that Cyavana was so absorbed in penance on the banks of the Narmada that white ants constructed their nests around his body and left only his eyes visible. Sukanya, daughter of King Sharyata, seeing two bright eyes in what seemed to be an anthill, poked them with a stick. Accordingly, the sage was greatly offended by Sharyata, and was appeased only by the king's promise to give him Sukanya in marriage. Subsequently the Ashvins, coming to his hermitage, felt great compassion for Sukanya because of her marriage to such an old and ugly husband, and tried to induce her to take one of them in his place. When their persuasions failed they told her they were the physicians of the gods, and would restore her husband to youth and beauty, when she could make her choice between him and one of them. Accordingly the three bathed in a pond and came forth of like celestial beauty. Each one asked her to be his bride, and she recognized and chose her own husband. Cyavana, in gratitude, compelled Indra to admit the Ashvins to a participation of the Soma ceremonial. Indra at first objected, because the Ashvins wandered about among men as physicians and changed their forms at will. But Cyavana was not to be refused; he stayed the arm of Indra as he was about to launch a thunderbolt, and he created a terrific demon who was on the point of devouring the king of the gods when he submitted. According to the Mahabharata, Cyavana was husband of Arushi or Sukanya and father of Aurva. He is also considered to be the father of Harita.

Cyavatana: (sáns. hindú). A liberal prince.


Dabhiti: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi who is protected by Indra.

Dadhigharma: (sáns. hindú). An offering of warm thickened milk. The milk is cooked twice. It is first matured in the cow's udder and then heated on a fire. During the Dadhigharma ceremony, Soma juice is mixed with curd or sour inspissated milk.

Dadhikra: (sáns. hindú). (dadhi "thickened milk" + kri "to scatter") 1. The name of a being often mentioned in the Vedas and the subject of four of the Rigveda's hymns. He is described as being a kind of divine horse and evidently like Tarkshya, a personification of the morning sun. At times, he is even considered to be a creation of heaven and earth and at other times the offspring of Mitra and Varuna. Dadhikras is evoked in mornings with Agni, Ushas, and the Ashvins. Some authorities claim that the name is derived from dadhi (thickened milk), and kri (to scatter), in an attempt to equate him with the rising sun which spreads the dew and frost like milk. 2. Some authorities hold the conclusion that the name refers to an actual war-horse and not a mythical being. 3. A personification of the morning sun.

Dadhikravan: (sáns. hindú). See Dadhikra.

Dadhyanch: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi, son of Atharvan, whose name frequently occurs. The legend about him, as it appears in the Rigveda, is that Indra taught him certain sciences, but threatened to cut off his head if he taught them to any one else. The Ashvins prevailed upon Dadhyanch to communicate his knowledge to them, and, to preserve him from the wrath of Indra, they took off his own head and replaced it with that of a horse. When Indra struck off the sage's equine head the Ashvins restored his own to him. A verse of the Rigveda says, "Indra, with the bones of Dadhyanch, slew ninety times nine Vritras;" and the story told by the scholiast in explanation is, that while Dadhyanch was living on earth the Asuras were controlled and tranquilized by his appearance; but when he had gone to heaven, they spread over the whole earth. Indra inquired for Dadhyanch, or any relic of him. He was told of the horse's head, and when this was found in a lake near Kurukshetra, Indra used the bones as weapons, and with them slew the Asuras, or, as the words of the Vedic verse are explained, he "foiled the nine times ninety stratagems of the Asuras or Vitras." The story as afterwards told in the Mahabharata and Puranas is that the sage devoted himself to death that Indra and the gods might be armed with his bone as more effective weapons than thunderbolts for the destruction of Vitra and the Asuras. According to one account he was instrumental in bringing about the destruction of "Daksha's sacrifice." See Daksha.

Dadima: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Punica granatum, commonly known as the pomegranate.

Daityas: (sáns. hindú). Titans. Descendants from Diti by Kashyapa. They are a race of demons and giants, who warred against the gods and interfered with sacrifices. They were in turn victorious and vanquished. They and the Danavas are generally associated, and are hardly distinguishable. As enemies of sacrifices they are called Kratudvishas.

Daiva: (sáns. hindú). 1. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for astral marriage with the officiating priest. 2. The divine (i.e. one who resembles God).

Daivavata: (sáns. hindú). Son of Devavata, another name for Abhyavartin.

Daivi Anushtup Chand: (sáns. hindú). Trisyllabic meter.

Daivi Brihati Chand: (sáns. hindú). Quadrisyllabic meter.

Daivi Gayatri Chand: (sáns. hindú). Monosyllabic meter.

Daivi Jagati Chand: (sáns. hindú). Heptasyllabic meter.

Daivi Pankti Chand: (sáns. hindú). Pentasyllabic meter.

Daivi Trishtup Chand: (sáns. hindú). Six syllabic meter.

Daivi Ushnik Chand: (sáns. hindú). Disyllabic meter.

Dakha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Draksha.

Dakini: (sáns. hindú). A kind of female imp or fiend attendant upon Kali that feeds upon human flesh. The Dakinis are also called Ashrapas, "blood drinkers."

Daksha: (sáns. hindú). Able, competent, intelligent. 1. This name generally carries with it the idea of a creative power. Daksha is a son of Brahma; he is one of the Prajapatis, and is sometimes regarded as their chief. There is a great deal of doubt and confusion about him, which of old the sage Parashara could only account for by saying that "in every age Daksha and the rest are born and are again destroyed." In the Rigveda it is said that "Daksha sprang from Aditi, and Aditi from Daksha." Upon this marvelous mutual generation Yaska in the Nirukta remarks, "How can this be possible? They may have had the same origin; or, according to the nature of the god, they may have been born from each other, and have derived their substance from each other." Roth's view is that Aditi is eternity, and that Daksha (spiritual power) is the male energy which generates the gods in eternity. In the Shatapatha Brahmana, Daksha is identified with Prajapati, the creator. As son of Aditi, he is one of the Adityas, and he is also reckoned among the Vishvadevas. According to the Mahabharata, Daksha sprang from the right thumb of Brahma, and his wife from that deity's left thumb. The Puranas adopt this view of his origin, but state that he married Prasuti, daughter of Priyavrata, and grand-daughter of Manu. By her he had, according to various statements, twenty-four, fifty, or sixty daughters. The Ramayana and Mahabharata agree in the larger number; and according to Manu and the Mahabharata he gave ten of his daughters to Dharma and thirteen to Kashyapa, who became the mothers of gods and demons, men, birds, serpents, and all living things. Twenty-seven were given in marriage to Soma, the moon, and these became the twenty-seven Nakshatras or lunar mansions. One of the daughters, named Sati, married Shiva, and killed herself in consequence of a quarrel between her husband and father. The Kasi Khanda represents that she became a sati and burned herself. Another legend of the Mahabharata and Puranas represents Daksha as being born a second time, in another Manvantara, as son of the Prachetasas and Marisha, and that he had seven sons, "the allegorical persons Krodha, Tamas, Dama, Vikrita, Angiras, Kardama, and Ashva" This second birth is said to have happened through his having been cursed to it by his son-in-law Shiva. Daksha was in a certain way, by his mother Marisha, an emanation of Soma, the moon; and as twenty-seven of his daughters were married to that luminary, Daksha is sometimes referred to as being both the father and the offspring of the moon, thus reiterating the duality of his nature. In the Harivansha, Daksha appears in another variety of his character. According to this authority, Vishnu himself became Daksha, and formed numerous creatures, or, in other words, he became the creator. Daksha, the first of males, by virtue of yoga, himself took the form of a beautiful woman, by whom he had many fair daughters, whom he disposed of in marriage in the manner related by Manu and above stated. An important event in the life of Daksha, and very frequently referred to, is "Daksha's sacrifice," which was violently interrupted and broken up by Shiva. The germ of this story is found in the Taittiriya Samhita, where it is related that the gods, having excluded Rudra from a sacrifice, he pierced the sacrifice with an arrow, and that Pushan, attempting to eat a portion of the oblation, broke his teeth The story is found both in the Ramayana and Mahabharata. According to the latter, Daksha was engaged in sacrifice, when Shiva in a rage, and shouting loudly, pierced the offering with an arrow. The gods and Asuras were alarmed and the whole universe quaked. The Rishis endeavored to appease the angry god, but in vain. "He ran up to the gods, and in his rage knocked out the eyes of Bhaga with a blow, and, incensed, Assaulted Pushan with his foot and knocked out his teeth as he was eating the offering." The gods and Rishis humbly propitiated him, and when he was appeased "they apportioned to him a distinguished share in the sacrifice, and through fear resorted to him as their refuge." In another part of the same work the story is again told with considerable variation. Daksha instituted a sacrifice and apportioned no share to Rudra (Shiva). Instigated by the sage Dadhichi, the god hurled his blazing trident, which destroyed the sacrifice of Daksha and fell with great violence on the breast of Narayana (Vishnu). It was hurled back with violence to its owner, and a furious battle ensued between the two gods, which was not intermitted until Brahma prevailed upon Rudra to propitiate Narayana. That god was gratified, and said to Rudra, "He who knows you knows me; he who loves you loves me." The story is reproduced in the Puranas with many embellishments. Daksha instituted a sacrifice to Vishnu, and many of the gods attended it, but Shiva was not invited, because the gods had conspired to deprive him of sacrificial offerings. The wife of Shiva, the mountain goddess Uma, perceived what was going on. Uma was a second birth of Sati, daughter of Daksha who had deprived herself of life in consequence of her fathers quarrel with herself and her husband, Shiva. Uma urged her husband to display his power and assert his rights. So he created Virabhadra, "a being like the fire of fate," and of most terrific appearance and powers. He also sent with him hundreds and thousands of powerful demigods whom he called into existence. A terrible catastrophe followed; "the mountains tottered, the earth shook, the winds roared, and the depths of the sea were disturbed." The sacrifice is broken up, and, in the words of Wilson, "Indra is knocked down and trampled on, Yama has his staff broken, Sarasvati and the Matris have their noses cut off, Mitra or Bhaga has his eyes pulled out, Pushan has his teeth knocked down his throat, Candra (the moon) is pummeled, Vahni's (fire's) hands are cut off, Bhrigu loses his beard, the Brahmans are pelted with stones, the Prajapatis are beaten, and the gods and demigods are run through with swords or stuck with arrows." Daksha then, in great terror, propitiated the wrathful deity and acknowledged his supremacy. According to some versions, Daksha himself was decapitated and his head thrown into the fire. Shiva subsequently restored him and the other dead to life, and as Daksha's head could not be found, it as replaced by that of a goat or ram. The Harivansha, in its glorification of Vishnu, gives a different finish to the story. The sacrifice was destroyed and the gods fled in dismay, until Vishnu intervened, and seizing Shiva by the throat, compelled him to desist and acknowledge his master. "This," says Wilson, "is a legend of some interest, as it is obviously intended to intimate a struggle between the worshippers of Shiva and Vishnu, in which at first the latter, but finally the former, acquired the ascendancy." Daksha was a lawgiver, and is reckoned among the eighteen writers of Dharma Shastras. The name Daksha was borne by several other persons. 2. Vishnu's 423rd and 917th name as in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. One of a Bhakta's qualities as described in the Bhagavad Gita (XII:16). 4. Shiva's 107 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dakshaja: (sáns. hindú). (daksha "son of Brahma" + ja "born, caused") 1. Born from Daksha. 2. A name of Sati previous to being born to Himavan as Parvati.

Dakshari: (sáns. hindú). Enemy of Daksha. Shiva's 838th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Daksha Savarna: (sáns. hindú). The ninth Manu. See Manu.

Dakshayana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Connected with Daksha. A son or descendant of that sage. 2. In the Atharvaveda, a yogi.

Dakshayani: (sáns. hindú). A name of Aditi as daughter of Daksha.

Dakshina: (sáns. hindú). 1. A present made to Brahmans; the honorarium for the performance of a sacrifice. This is a personified goddess, to whom various origins are assigned. 2. Southern name of one of the sacrificial fires; the fire on the south side in which the Vanaprasthis perform the sacrifice. 3. The dexterous or skillful. 4. The offering or gift. 5. The wife of Yajna, Sacrifice. 6. The south. 7. On the right-hand side. 8. Intelligence, right knowledge.

Dakshinacharis: (sáns. hindú). Followers of the right-hand form of Shakta worship. See Tantra.

Dakshinamurti: (sáns. hindú). (dakshina "right knowledge" + murti "form, image") 1. The embodiment of wisdom, or right knowledge. 2. Facing the south. 3. A form of Shiva as the Guru, or spiritual master, who reveals to the four Kumaras the nonduality of the Self and the Absolute through the hand-gesture known as Jnanamudra or Cinmudra. In this form Shiva is facing the south, which is the direction of death, so that He can give the "right knowledge" to those who transmigrate with Self-knowledge.

Dakshinanila: (sáns. hindú). Southern wind. Shiva's 988th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dakshinayan: (sáns. hindú). The winter solstice.

Dalachini: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Cinnamonum zeylanicum, commonly known as cinnamon.

Dama: (sáns. hindú). 1. A son or (according to the Vishnupurana), a grandson of King Marutta of the Solar race. He rescued his bride Sumana from his rivals, and one of them, named Vapushmat, subsequently killed Marutta, who had retired into the woods after relinquishing his crown to his son. Dama in retaliation killed Vapushmat and offered his blood in the funeral rites of Marutta, while he made an oblation of part of the flesh, and with the rest fed the Brahmans who were of Rakshasa descent. 2. Self-control. Shiva's 255th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Damaghosha: (sáns. hindú). King of Chedi and father of Shishupala.

Damanaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Artemisia absinthum, commonly known as absinthe.

Damayanti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Subduing, conquering, taming. 2. Wife of Nala and heroine of the tale of Nala and Damayanti (the Nalopakhyanam of the Mahabharata). The story is told to console Yudhishthira about suffering caused by gambling. Perhaps originally a regional folk-tale of northwest India, the story is prized for its graceful Sanskrit, attention to human motivations, wit, and lack of theologization. Some authorities claim that it was probably adapted to Mahabharata themes. Damayanti and Nala, never having met, conceive a "love of the unseen" for each other. She chooses him at her svayamvara marriage ceremony over four gods who impersonate Nala to trick her. She then becomes a typical "chaste wife": her loyalty unquestioned but tested, and a motive force behind her husband and their story's plot. Kali and Dvapara, Yuga and dice demons, resent Damayanti's choice of Nala and conspire to separate them. Kali possesses Nala, Dvapara enters the dice, and Nala gambles everything away to his brother. But he refuses to stake Damayanti (unlike Yudhisthira with Draupadi), and the pair go to the forest where Nala, still possessed, leaves her. After various adventures, both assume disguises, Damayanti as a low caste chambermaid (Draupadi's disguise). Damayanti's father finally recovers her, and she cleverly tracks down Nala. Having learned the secret of dice from a repentant Kali, Nala now stakes Damayanti and recovers his kingdom. She is also known by her patronymic Bhaimi. See Nala.

Damayita: (sáns. hindú). One who oppresses. Shiva's 254th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dambha: (sáns. hindú). Haughtiness. Shiva's 821 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dambhodbhava: (sáns. hindú). A king whose story is related in the Mahabharata as an antidote to pride. He had an overweening conceit of his own prowess, and when told by his Brahmans that he was no match for Nara and Narayana, who were living as ascetics on the Gandhamadana mountain, he proceeded thither with his army and challenged them. They endeavored to dissuade him but he insisted on fighting. Nara then took a handful of straws, and using them as missiles, the whitened all the air, and penetrated the eyes, ears, and noses of the assailants, until Dambhodbhava fell at Nara's feet and begged for peace.

Damodara: (sáns. hindú). (dama "cord, band" + udara "belly") 1. A name given to Krishna because his foster-mother tried to tie him up with a rope (dama) around his belly (udara). 2. A person who is known by controlling the senses and purifying the mind. 3. Vishnu's 367 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Damshtrojjvala: (sáns. hindú). She who has flaming tusks. An epithet of Devi. The 488th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Danastuti: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda, a eulogy of a prince's liberality.

Danavan: (sáns. hindú). (dana "offering, gift" + van "having") A charitable being.

Danavari: (sáns. hindú). Enemy of the Danavas. Shiva's 721st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Danavas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Descendants from Danu by the sage Kashyapa. They were giants who warred against the gods. See Daityas. 2. One of a class of demons.

Danda: (sáns. hindú). 1. Stick, staff, rod, club; coercion, punishment. The danda is a staff given at investiture of the Sacred Thread. It is an emblem of religious and political authority; a magical instrument, as well as an emblem of high rank and dignity. In Hindu polity, as the symbol of authority and punishment, the danda is one of the chief modes of statecraft. It is the active, applicatory arm of the universal law of right or cosmic order (See Dharma.). It is also the student's staff, which he carries as a symbol of his chastity and commitment to the renunciation of pleasures that may lead him away from his studies. 2. Shiva's 253rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dandadhara: (sáns. hindú). The rod-bearer. A title of Yama, the god of death .

Dandaka: (sáns. hindú). The aranya or forest of Dandaka, lying between the Godavari and Narmada. It was of vast extent, and some passages of the Ramayana represent it as beginning immediately south of the Yamuna. This forest is the scene of many of Rama and Sita's adventures, and is described as "a wilderness over which separate hermitages are scattered, while wild beasts and Rakshasas everywhere abound."

Dandin: (sáns. hindú). Having a staff. Shiva's 750 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dandotpalaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Echita pulescens.

Danta: (sáns. hindú). One with self-control. Shiva's 105th and 751st names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dantashatha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the lemon.

Dantavaktra: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Danava king of Karusha and son of Vriddhasharma. He took a side against Krishna, and was eventually killed by him.

Danu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The mother of the cosmic demon Vritra. In the Rigveda she is compared to a cow; however, the description of her son is that he is without hands and feet. Her son was defeated by Indra. 2. The waters of heaven. 3. The demon Kabandha.

Darada: (sáns. hindú). A country in the Hindu Kush, bordering on Kashmir. The Durds, the people of that country, according to Wilson, "are still where they were at the date of the text (of the Vishnupurana) and in the days of Strabo and Ptolemy; not exactly, indeed, at the sources of the Indus, but along its course above the Himalayas, just before it descends to India."

Darbas: (sáns. hindú). Tearers. Rakshasas and other destructive demons.

Darbha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A term used in the Kama Sutra for Imperata cylindrica, 2. The father of Rathaviti. 3. In the Yajurveda, Darbha-grass is the grass used during sacrificial rites. It is the Saccharum cylindricum.

Dardura: (sáns. hindú). The name of a mountain in the south; it is associated with the Malaya mountain in the Mahabharata.

Darpaha: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of pride. Shiva's 961st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Darpita: (sáns. hindú). Proud. Shiva's 962nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Darshana: (sáns. hindú). Demonstration. The Shaddarsanas or six demonstrations, i.e., the six schools of Hindu philosophy. All these schools have one starting-point, ex nihilo nihil fit; and all have one and the same final object, the emancipation of the soul from future birth and existence, and its absorption into the supreme soul of the universe. These schools are: 1. Nyaya, founded by the sage Gotama. The word nyaya means propriety or fitness, the proper method of arriving at a conclusion by analysis. This school has been called the Logical School, but the term is applicable to its method rather than to its aim. It is also said to represent "the sensational aspect of Hindu philosophy because it has "a more pointed regard to the fact of the five senses than the others have and treats them more frankly as a solid reality." It is the exoteric school as the Vedanta is the esoteric. 2. Vaisheshika, founded by a sage named Kanada, who lived about the same time as Gotama. It is supplementary to the Nyaya, and these two schools are classified together. It is called the Atomic School, because it teaches the existence of a transient world composed of aggregations of eternal atoms. [Both the Nyaya and Vaisheshika recognize a supreme being.] 3. Sankhya. The Sankhya and Yoga are classed together because they have much in common, but the Sankhya is atheistic while the Yoga is theistic. The Sankhya was founded by the sage Kapila, and takes its name from its numeral or discriminative tendencies. The Sankhya Karika is the textbook of this school. 4. Yoga. This School was founded by Patanjali, and from his name is also called Patanjala. It pursues the method of the Sankhya and holds with many of its dogmas, but it asserts the existence not only of individual souls, but of one all-pervading spirit, which is free from the influences which affect other souls. 5. Purvamimansa. 6. Uttaramimansa. The prior and later Mimansas. These are both included in the general term Vedanta, but the Purvamimansa is commonly known as the Mimansa and the Uttaramimansa as the Vedanta, "the end or object of the Vedas." The Purvamimansa was founded by Jaimini, and the Uttaramimansa is attributed to Vyasa, the arranger of the Vedas. The object of both the schools is to teach the art of reasoning with the express purpose of aiding the interpretation of the Vedas, not only in the speculative but the practical portion." The principal doctrines of the Vedanta (Uttara) are that "God is the omniscient and omnipotent cause of the existence, continuance, and dissolution of the universe. Creation is an act of his will; he is both the efficient and the material cause of the world." At the consummation of all things all are resolved into him. He is the sole-existent and universal soul," and besides him there is no second principle; he is advaita, "without a second." Shankaracharya was the great apostle of this school. The period of the rise of these schools of philosophy is uncertain, and is entirely a matter of inference, but they are probably later than the fifth century BCE. The Vedanta (Uttaramimansa) is apparently the latest, and is supposed to have been evoked by the teaching of the Buddhists. This would bring it to within three or four centuries BCE. The other schools are to all appearance older than the Vedanta, but it is considered by some that all the schools show traces of Buddhist influences, and if so, the dates of all must be later. It is a question whether Hindu philosophy is or is not indebted to Greek teaching, and the later the date of the origin of these schools the greater is the possibility of Greek influence. Some authorities on the subject is of opinion that "the Hindus were in this instance the teachers, not the learners." Besides the six schools, there is yet a later system known a the Pauranik and the Eclectic school. The doctrines of this school are expounded in the Bhagavad Gita.

Darsharha: (sáns. hindú). Prince of the Dasharhas, a title of Krishna. The Dasharhas were a tribe of Yadavas.

Daruhaladi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Berberis asiatica, commonly known as tumeric.

Daruharidra: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See daruhaladi.

Daruka: (sáns. hindú). 1. The charioteer and attendant of Krishna's in the Avatar's last days. 2. A demon who can only be killed by a female. In the Lingapurana, Shiva asked Parvati to kill Daruka. In answer to Shiva's request, Parvati entered Shiva's body and absorbs the poison that is stored in Shiva's throat (see Amrita). Parvati then appears as Kali and summons the help of the flesh-eating pishacas (spirits) and then defeats the demon.

Darvi: (sáns. hindú). In the Atharvaveda, a species of serpents.

Dasa: (sáns. hindú). The servant of God.

Dasamahavidyas: (sáns. hindú). 1. The name of ten goddesses who were made manifest by Sati when she was angered over her father's failure to invite Shiva to his sacrifice (see Sita). 2. The ten great scenes, insights, or forms of transcendental knowledge. Ten forms of the goddess Mahadevi.

Dasara: (sáns. hindú). A Durga festival that takes place on the tenth tithi (lunar day) of the bright half of Ashvin. During this festival, tribute to Durga is paid and the celebration of military might and royal power is initiated along with a petition for military might for the following year. The worship of weapons also takes place during Dasara.

Dasas: (sáns. hindú). Slaves, barbarian, fiend. Tribes and people of India who opposed the progress of the intrusive Aryans.

Dashabhuja: (sáns. hindú). (dasha "ten" + bhuja "arm") 1. The ten-armed. 2. A name of Durga, or Kali when depicted as holding a sword, disc, mace, arrows, bow, club, spear, missile, skull and conch.

Dashadyu: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi.

Dashagvas: (sáns. hindú). An ancient priestly family.

Dashahara: (sáns. hindú). (dasha "ten" + hara "remover, destroyer) 1. A name of Ganges. 2. A name of Durga. 3. The remover or destroyer of the ten sins (i.e. those committed by the five sense-organs, such as hearing, seeing, etc., and the five organs of action, such as hands, feet, etc.).

Dashakumaracharita: (sáns. hindú). Tales of the ten princes, by Dandi. It is one of the few Sanskrit works written in prose, but its style is so studied and elaborate that it is classed as a Kavya or poem. The tales are stories of common life; and display a low condition of morals and a corrupt state of society.

Dashanaceda: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for bites.

Dashanana: (sáns. hindú). Ten faced. A name of Ravana.

Dasharatha: (sáns. hindú). (dasha "ten" + ratha "chariot") A prince of the Solar race, son of Aja, a descendant of Ikshvaku, and king of Ayodhya. Dasharatha had three wives, but being childless, he performed the sacrifice of a horse, and, according to the Ramayana the chief queen, Kaushalya, remained in close contact with the slaughtered horse for a night, and the other two queens beside her. Four sons were then born to him from his three wives Kaushalya bore Rama, Kaikeyi gave birth to Bharata, and Sumitra bore Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Rama partook of half the nature of Vishnu, Bharata of a quarter, and the other two shared the remaining fourth. The Ramayana, in explanation of this manifestation of Vishnu, says that he had promised the gods to become incarnate as man for the destruction of Ravana. He chose Dasharatha for his human parent; and when that king was performing a second sacrifice to obtain progeny, he came to him out of the fire as a glorious being, and gave him a vessel full of nectar to administer to his wives. Dasharatha gave half of it to Kaushalya, and a fourth each to Sumitra and Kaikeyi. They all in consequence became pregnant, and their offspring partook of the divine nature according to the portion of the nectar each had drunk. There were several others of the name. See Ramachandra.

Dasharupaka: (sáns. hindú). An early treatise on dramatic composition.

Dashashipra: (sáns. hindú). A proper name.

Dashavataracarita: (sáns. hindú). A writing by Kshemendra (1066 CE) about Krishna's move from Vraja to Mathura. It describes the pitiful weeping of Radha when Krishna leaves and Krishna as looking longingly for a glimpse of Radha.

Dashavraja: (sáns. hindú). A proper name.

Dashoni: (sáns. hindú). The name of a man.

Dashonya: (sáns. hindú). A man's name .

Dasonasi: (sáns. hindú). In the Atharvaveda, a species of serpents.

Dasras: (sáns. hindú). 1. Beautiful. 2. The elder of the two Ashvins, or in the dual (Dasrau), the two Ashvins. 3. A miracle-worker.

Dasyavevrika: (sáns. hindú). Wolf to the Dasyu. The name of a man.

Dasyus: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedas they are evil beings, enemies of the gods and men. They are represented as being of a dark color, and probably were the natives of India who contended with the immigrant Aryans. It has, however, been maintained that they were hermits and ascetics of Aryan race. In later times they are barbarians, robbers, outcasts, who, according to some authorities, was a descendant of Vishvamitra.

Data: (sáns. hindú). The giver.

Datta: (sáns. hindú). That which is given.

Dattaka Shiromani: (sáns. hindú). A digest of the principal treatises on the law of adoption.

Dattakachandrika: (sáns. hindú). A treatise on the law of adoption by Devana Bhatta.

Dattakamimansa: (sáns. hindú). A treatise on the law of adoption by Nanda Pandita.

Dattatreya: (sáns. hindú). (datta "given" + atreya "the son of Atri") 1. Son of Atri and Anasuya. A Brahman saint in whom a portion of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, or more particularly Vishnu, was incarnate. He had three sons, Soma, Datta, and Durvasas, to whom also a portion of the divine essence was transmitted.

He was the patron of Kartavirya, and gave him a thousand arms. 2. The author of the Avadhuta Gita, a Vedantic treatise. See the Puranas for his story.

Datura: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See dhatura.

Dauna: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See damanaka.

Daya: (sáns. hindú). Mercy, compassion.

Dayabhaga: (sáns. hindú). Law of inheritance. This title belongs especially to the treatise of Jimuta Vahana.

Dayadrama Sangraha: (sáns. hindú). A treatise on the law of inheritance.

Dayakara: (sáns. hindú). Merciful. Shiva's 106th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dayalan: (sáns. hindú). (A Tamil name.) Merciful or compassionate.

Daya Tatva: (sáns. hindú). A treatise on the law of inheritance.

Dayavan: (sáns. hindú). Merciful or compassionate.

Deasil: (sáns. hindú). Gaelic.

Dehatita: (sáns. hindú). (deha "body" + atita "beyond") The being who has transcended the body.

Deva: (sáns. hindú). (devas "Deus" from the root Div "to shine") 1. The shining. 2. A deity. The gods are spoken of as thirty-three in number, eleven for each of the three worlds. A deva is a shining or dazzling being, composed of light and considered an embodiment and source of light, warmth, and life. The plural refers to the entire company of gods, vishvadevas ("all the gods"), as a class of deities to whom sacrifice is offered. The devas are regarded as high, exalted, mighty, powerful, immortal, protectors of humankind, drinkers of Soma, and largely free from malice and treachery, and reservoirs of benevolence. Devotees approach them for such boons as progeny, wealth, power, strength, military victory, glory, fertility, and general well-being. All hymns and sacrificial oblations of food and drink belong uniquely to the devas. One early text states, "Even as men must eat [food], so the gods must eat." It is the faith of some that the "sustenance" derived from the offerings enables the gods to lengthen or shorten the life-span of creatures, to grant or withhold rain and other types of fertility, and to provide the wherewithal necessary to the effective operation of the cosmos. The gods are strong and powerful and often imagined to be celestial soldiers. As celestial soldiers, the gods ride on a vehicle (animal, bird, or chariot) or are carried by another being. Significantly, the devas are the half-brothers of the Asuras (demons), and as such they are locked into an eternal and indissoluble conflict. 3. Vishnu's 375th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. Shiva's 734th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + bandhu "friend, relative") A being who is the friend of God.

Devabodha: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + bodha "knowledge") A being who has the knowledge of God (i.e. who knows his true Self)

Devacintaka: (sáns. hindú). One thinking about Devas. Shiva's 952nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devadaru: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the deodar cedar.

Devadasa: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + dasa "servant") A being who is servant of God.

Devadatta: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + datta "given") 1. A being who is God-given. 2. The name of Arjuna's conch.

Devadeva: (sáns. hindú). Lord of Devas. Shiva's 46 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devadideva: (sáns. hindú). The first Deva of all Devas. Shiva's 776th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devaduta: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + duta "messenger) 1. A being who is the messenger of God (of the gods). 2. The divine messenger.

Devadutta: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten vital airs (life breaths) exhaled while yawning.

Devahuti: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + huti "sacrifice") 1. The title of the invocation of the gods given at the beginning of a Vedic sacrifice. 2. Manu's daughter and wife of Kardama and mother of sage Kapila.

Devaja: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god + ja "born, caused") Born of the gods.

Devajna: (sáns. hindú). Knower of Devas. Shiva's 951 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devajyoti: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + jyoti "light") Divine light.

Devaka: (sáns. hindú). 1. Father of Devaki and brother of Ugrasena. 2. In the Rigveda, a fiend or savage.

Devaki: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Vasudeva, mother of Krishna and cousin of Kansha. She is sometimes called an incarnation of Aditi, and is said to have been born again as Prishni, the wife of King Sutapas.

Devakinandana: (sáns. hindú). (devaki "name of Krishna's mother" + nandana "joy") 1. The joy (i.e. son) of Devaki; a name of Krishna. In the Mahabharata, it is written, "The bright luminaries in the world, the three worlds the protectors, of the worlds, the three Vedas, the three sacred fires, the five oblations and all the gods are nothing but the Son of Devaki (i.e. Krishna)." 2. Vishnu's 989th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Devala: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Vedic Rishi, to whom some hymns are attributed. There are several men of this name; one was author of a code of law, another was an astronomer, and one the grandfather of Panini. 2. In the feminine gender, Music, personified as a woman.

Devalila: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + lila "play, sport") Divine play. In the Brahmasutras, Vyasa claims that creation is mere play for God.

Devaloka: (sáns. hindú). The world of the gods, i.e., Svarga, Indra's heaven.

Devamani: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + mani "pearl, gem") 1. The divine gem or jewel. 2. One of Shiva's names.

Devamatri: (sáns. hindú). Mother of the gods. An appellation of Aditi.

Devamaya: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + maya "illusion") The illusionary power of God.

Devamsha: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + amsha "part, portion") 1. Being a part or portion of God. 2. The incarnation of God.

Devamuni: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + muni "silent meditator") 1.. A name for a Rishi or a being who meditates on the Divine. 2. A Divine being that meditates.

Devamurti: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + murti "image") An image of God.

Devanatha: (sáns. hindú). Lord of Devas. Shiva's 950 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devangana: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + angana "woman") A divine woman.

Devanika: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + anika "front") 1. The Divine or celestial host. 2. The splendor of God (Divine splendor).

Devapati: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + pati "lord") 1. A name of Indra as Lord of the Gods. 2. A name of Brihaspati as Lord of the Gods.

Devapi: (sáns. hindú). A Kshatriya who acted as Hotar.

Devapriya: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + priya "beloved") 1. Beloved of God. 2. Fond of Devas. Shiva's 949 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devaputra: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + putra "son") Son of God.

Devaraja: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + raja "king") A name of Indra as the King of the Gods.

Devarata: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + rata "delighted") 1. A being who is delighted in God. 2. A royal Rishi of the Solar race, who dwelt among the Videhas, and had charge of Shiva's bow, which descended to Janaka and was broken by Rama. 3. A name given to Shunahshephas.

Devarati: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + rati "delight") God's delight; delighting in God, having one's delight in God.

Devarshi: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + rishi "seer") 1. Divine seer. 2. A contraction of Devarishis. Rishis or saints of the celestial class, who dwell in the regions of the gods, such as Narada. 3. Sages who have attained perfection upon earth and have been exalted as demigods to heaven. 4. The sage of Devas. Shiva's 777 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devarupa: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + rupa "form") A being that has a divine form.

Devasena: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + sena "conquering army") 1. Divine commander. 2. A name of Karttikeya, Shiva's son.

Devashakti: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + shakti "energy, power") The power or energy of the Divine.

Devashis: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + ashis "wish") 1. God's blessing. 2. Desire for God.

Devashravas: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi.

Devasimha: (sáns. hindú). A lion among Devas. Shiva's 789 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasri: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + Sri "splendor, beauty") 1. Divine light or splendor. 2. Name of a Rishi.

Devasuraguru: (sáns. hindú). Preceptor of Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 772nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasuramahamatra: (sáns. hindú). High official of the Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 774th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasuramahashraya: (sáns. hindú). The great support of the Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 775th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasuramaheshvara: (sáns. hindú). Great lord of the Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 781st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasuranamaskrita: (sáns. hindú). One who is bowed to by the Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 773rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasuravaraprada: (sáns. hindú). One who bestows boons on Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 778th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devasureshvara: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the Devas and Asuras. Shiva's 779th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devata: (sáns. hindú). 1. A divine being or god. 2. The name Devata includes the gods in general, or as most frequently used, the whole body of secondary gods. Also Sthalidevatas. 3. The chosen Deity that one worships.

Devatadhyaya Brahmana: (sáns. hindú). The fifth Brahmana of the Samaveda.

Devatatma: (sáns. hindú). Having the deities within. Shiva's 784th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devatman: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + atman "Self") 1. Divine Self. 2. Self which is God.

Devavan: (sáns. hindú). Father or ancestor of Sudas.

Devavrata: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + vrata "vow") 1. A being who takes a divine vow. 2. Name of Bhishma, who maintained celibacy throughout his life.

Devayani: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Sukra, priest of the Daityas. She fell in love with her father's pupil Kacha, son of Brihaspati, but he rejected her advances. She cursed him, and in return he cursed her, that she, a Brahman's daughter, should marry a Kshatriya. Devayani was companion to Sarmishtha, daughter of the king of the Daityas. One day they went to bathe, and the god Vayu changed their clothes. When they were dressed, they began to quarrel about the change, and Devayani spoke "with a scowl so bitter that Sarmishtha slapped her face, and pushed her into a dry well." She a rescued by King Yayati, who took her home to her father. Shukra, at his daughter's vehement persuasion, demanded satisfaction from Sarmishtha's father, the Daitya king. He conceded Devayani's demand, that upon her marriage Sarmishtha should be given to her for a servant Devayani married King Yayati, a Kshatriya, and Sarmishtha became her servant. Subsequently Yayati became enamored of Sarmishtha, and she bore him a son, the discovery of which so enraged Devayani that she parted from her husband, and went home to her father, having borne two sons, Yadu and Turvasa or Turvasu. Her father, Sukra, charged Yayati with the infirmity of old age, but afterwards offered to transfer it to any one of Yayati's sons who would submit to receive it. Yadu, the oldest, and progenitor of the Yadavas, refused, and so did all the other sons, with the exception of Sarmishtha's youngest son, Puru. Those who refused were cursed by their father, that their posterity should never possess dominion; but Puru, who bore his father's curse for a thousand years, succeeded his father as monarch, and was the ancestor of the Pandavas and Kauravas.

Devayoni: (sáns. hindú). 1. Of divine birth. 2. A general name for the secondary gods, the Adityas, Vasus, Vishvadevas, and others.

Devdutta: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten vital airs (life breaths) exhaled while yawning.

Devendra: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + indra "chief") 1. Name of Indra as the chief of the gods. 2. Lord of Devas. Shiva's 745 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Devesha: (sáns. hindú). (deva "god" + isha "lord") 1. Lord of the gods. 2. Vishnu's 492nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Name of Shiva.

Devi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The goddess (or Mahadevi the great goddess). 2. Wife of the god Shiva, and daughter of Himavat, i.e., the Himalaya mountains. She is mentioned in the Mahabharata under a variety of names, and with several of her peculiar characteristics, but she owes her great distinction to the Puranas and later works. As the Shakti or female energy of Shiva she has two characters, one mild, the other fierce; and it is especially under the latter that she is worshipped. She has a great variety of names, referable to her various forms, attributes, and actions, but the names are not always used accurately and distinctively. In her milder form she is Uma, "light," and a type of beauty; Gauri, "the yellow or brilliant;" Parvati, "the mountaineer;" and Haimavati, from her parentage; Jaganmata, "the mother of the world;" and Bhavani. In her terrible form she is Durga, "the inaccessible;" Kali and Shyama, "the black;" Candi and Candika, "the fierce;" and Bhairavi, "the terrible." It is in this character that sacrifices of blood are offered to her; that the notable rituals of the Durgapuja and Carakpuja were perpetrated in her honor, and that the orgiastic rituals of the Tantrics are held to propitiate her favors and celebrate her powers. She has ten arms, and in most of her hands there are weapons. As Durga, she is a beautiful yellow woman, riding on a tiger in a fierce and menacing attitude. As Kali or Kalika, "the black," she is represented with a black skin, a hideous and terrible countenance, dripping with blood, encircled with snakes, garlanded with skulls and human heads, and in all respects resembling a fury rather than a goddess. As Vindhyavashini, "the dweller in the Vindhyas," she is worshipped at a place of that name where the Vindhyas approaches the Ganges, near Mirzapur, and nineteenth-century British reports said that the blood before her image there was never allowed to get dry. As Mahamaya she is the great illusion. The Candimahatmya, which celebrates the victories of this goddess over the Asuras, speaks of her under the, following names: I. Durga, when she received the messengers of the Asuras. II. Dashabhuja. "Ten-armed," when she destroyed part of their army. III. Sinhavahini. "Riding on a lion," when she fought with the Asura General Raktavija.IV. Mahishamardini. "Destroyer of Mahisha," an Asura in the form of a buffalo. V. Jagaddhatri. "Fosterer of the world," when she again defeated the Asuran army. VI. Kali. "The black." She killed Raktavija. VII. Muktakeshi. "With disheveled hair." Again defeats the Asuras. VIII. Tara. "Star." She killed Shumbha. IX. Chinnamastaka. "Decapitated," the headless form in which she killed Nishumbha. X. Jagadgauri. "World's fair one," as lauded by the gods for her triumphs. The names which Devi obtains from her husband are: Babhravi (Babhru), Bhagavati, Ishani, Ishvari, Kalanjari, Kapalini, Kaushiki, Kirati, Maheshvar, Mrida, Mridani, Rudrani, Sharvani, Shiva, Tryambaki. From her origin she is called Adrija and Girija, "mountain-born;" Kuja, "earth-born;" Dakshaja "sprung from Daksha." She is Kanya, "the virgin;" Kanyakumari "the youthful virgin;" and Ambika, "the mother;" Avara, "the youngest;" Ananta and Nitya, "the everlasting;" Arya, "the revered;" Vijaya, "victorious;" Riddhi, "the rich;" Sati, "virtuous;" Dakshina, "right-handed;" Pinga, "tawny dark;" Karburi, "spotted;" Bhramari, "the bee;" Kotari, "the naked;" Karnamoti, "pearl-eared;" Padmalanchhana, "distinguished by a lotus;" Sarvamangala, "always auspicious;" Shakambhari, "nourisher of herbs;" Shivaduti, "Shiva's messenger;" Sinharathi, "riding on a lion." As addicted to austerities she is Aparna and Katyayani. As Bhutanayaki she is chief or leader. of the goblins, and as Gananayaki, the leader of the Ganas. She is Kamakshi, "wanton-eyed;" and Kamakhya, "called by the name of Kama, "desire." Other names, most of them applicable to her terrible forms, are Bhadrakali, Bhimadevi, Camunda, Mahakali, Mahamari, Mahasuri, Matangi, Rajasi, "the fierce;" and Raktadanti, "red or blood toothed." 3. The 50 th, 96th and 102nd of the 108 names of Lakshmi.

Devi Bhagavata Purana: (sáns. hindú). A Shaiva Purana, which is by some placed among the eighteen Puranas instead of the Sri Bhagavata, which is devoted to Vishnu. This is devoted to the worship of the Shaktis.

Devika: (sáns. hindú). God in a feminine manifestation as Goddess or Divine Mother, who always symbolizes knowledge of the true Self. Her three main forms are Sarasvati, Lakshmi, and Parvati.

Devimahatmya: (sáns. hindú). The Greatness of Devi. A poem of 700 verses, which celebrates the triumphs of Devi over various Asuras. It is the textbook of the worshippers of Devi, and is read daily in her temples. It is an episode of the Markandeyapurana, and is also called Candipatha.

Dhairyagryadhurya: (sáns. hindú). One who is considered chief and foremost in courage. Shiva's 1106th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhairyan: (sáns. hindú). A being who is firm, steady or bold.

Dhairyavan: (sáns. hindú). (dhairya "firm, steady" + van "having") A being who is firm, steady or bold.

Dhanada: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + da "giver") 1. A being who is a giver of wealth. 2. Kubera, the god of riches. 3. Name of Lakshmi.

Dhanadhipa: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + adhipa "lord") 1. Lord of wealth; a name of Kubera. 2. Lord of wealth. Shiva's 802nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanagama: (sáns. hindú). The augment of wealth. Shiva's 614th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanakrit: (sáns. hindú). Maker of wealth. Shiva's 819 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanalakshmi: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + lakshmi "prosperity") The wealth of prosperity i.e., Lakshmi.

Dhananeta: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + neta "bringer, leader") 1. A being who is a bringer or leader of wealth. 2. Title for a king.

Dhananetri: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + netri "bringer, leader") 1. A being who is the bringer or leader of wealth; a name of Lakshmi.

Dhananjaya: (sáns. hindú). Conqueror of riches. A title of Arjuna and of several others. 2. A vital air (life breath) that nourishes the body, One of the ten vital airs that should be controlled for acquiring spiritual happiness.

Dhananjaya Vijaya: (sáns. hindú). Victories of Dhananjaya (Arjuna). A drama in one act on the exploits of Arjuna when in the service of the Raja Virata.

Dhanapala: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + pala "guardian") 1. Guardian of a treasure. 2. Title for a king. 3. Name of Kubera.

Dhanapati: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + pati lord") The Lord (or master) of wealth; name of Kubera.

Dhanesha: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + isha "lord") Lord of wealth; name of Kubera.

Dhaneshvara: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + ishvara "lord") 1. Lord of wealth. 2. Vishnu's 474th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Name of Kubera.

Dhaneshvari: (sáns. hindú). (dhana "wealth" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") 1. The sovereign Goddess of wealth. 2. A name of Lakshmi. 3. The consort of Kubera.

Dhaniya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Coriandrum sativum, commonly known as coriander.

Dhanuh: (sáns. hindú). Bow. Shiva's 395 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanurdhara: (sáns. hindú). One who holds the bow. Shiva's 247th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama .

Dhanurveda: (sáns. hindú). The science of archery, the military art. A treatise considered as an upaveda connected with the Yajurveda and derived from Vishvamitra and Bhrigu.

Dhanurveda: (sáns. hindú). The science of archery. Shiva's 248th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanvantari: (sáns. hindú). 1. Moving in a curve. 2. Name of a Vedic deity to whom offerings at twilight were made in the northeast quarter. 3. The physician of the gods, who was produced at the Churning of the Ocean (see Amrita). He was a teacher of medical science, and the Ayurveda is attributed to him. In another birth he was son of Dirghatamas, and his "nature was exempt from human infirmities, and in every existence he had been master of universal knowledge." He is called also Sudhapani "carrying nectar in his hands,: and Amrita, "the immortal." Other physicians seem to have had the name applied to them, as Bhela, Divodasa, and Palakapya. 4. A celebrated physician, who as one of "the nine gems" of the court of Vikrama. See Navaratna.

Dhanvin: (sáns. hindú). Holding the bow. Shiva's 338 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanya: (sáns. hindú). Blessed. Shiva's 1078th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhanyaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Coriandrum sativum, commonly known as coriander.

Dhara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Support. 2. Name of the Earth-Goddess. 3. An epithet of Devi. 4. Lalita's 955th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Dharani: (sáns. hindú). The earth. The wife of Parashurama.

Dharanishvara: (sáns. hindú). (dharan "support" + ishvara "lord") 1. Lord of the Supporter (i.e. of the Earth Goddess). 2. Name of Vishnu as supporter of the Earth in His serpent form, Shesha.

Dharitri: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Supporter. 2. Name of the Earth-Goddess.

Dharma: (sáns. hindú). 1. The support, religious law, virtue, merit, one's righteous action in life. 2. An ancient sage, sometimes classed among the Prajapatis. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of Daksha, and had a numerous progeny; but all his children, according to Wilson, "are manifestly allegorical, being personifications of intelligences and virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion and morals, or the equally allegorical representation of that code, Dharma, moral and religious duty." 3. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for virtue. 4. The inner-strength of a thing that governs its growth. 5. Vishnu's 403rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 6. The God of religious law, virtue, support, who was incarnated as Arjuna's brother, King Yudhishthira.

Dharmabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + bandhu "friend, relative") A being who is friend of dharma, or religious law.

Dharmacakra: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + cakra "wheel") Wheel of duty.

Dharmacarin: (sáns. hindú). One performing pious deeds. Shiva's 801st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dharmacarini: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + carini "conduct") A being who has virtuous conduct.

Dharmadeva: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + deva "god") God of dharma or justice.

Dharmadhenu: (sáns. hindú). Cow of piety. Shiva's 613th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dharmakarmakshama: (sáns. hindú). One competent to perform righteous rites. Shiva's 96th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dharmanatha: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + natha "lord") 1. Lord of dharma or justice. 2. Name of Yama, God of death. 3. Supreme God, Ishvara.

Dharmanitya: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + nitya "eternal") Ever-virtuous.

Dharmapara: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + para "supreme") The person for whom virtue (Dharma) is supreme.

Dharmapatha: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + patha "path") Path of righteousness or virtue.

Dharmaputra: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + putra "son") 1. Son of Dharma. 2. Name of King Yudhishthira, the brother of Arjuna.

Dharmaraja: (sáns. hindú). Name of Yama, the judge of the dead. 2. One of the names of Yudhishthira who was mythically a son of Yama.

Dharmaranya: (sáns. hindú). A sacred grove. 1. A forest in Madhyadesha into which Dharma retired. 2. A city mentioned in the Ramayana as founded by Amurtarajas, son of Kusha.

Dharmarata: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + rata "delighted") A person who delights in virtue (Dharma).

Dharmarthadrishti: (sáns. hindú). One who has real vision. Shiva's 1111th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dharmasabha: (sáns. hindú). Assembly for administration of the moral and spiritual needs of the people.

Dharmasavarni: (sáns. hindú). The eleventh Manu. See Manu.

Dharmashakti: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + shakti "energy, power") A being who has virtuous power, or energy.

Dharmashastra: (sáns. hindú). A law-book or code of laws. This term includes the whole body of Hindu law, but more applicable to the laws of Manu, Yajnavalkya, and other inspired sages who first recorded the Smriti or "recollections" of what they had received from a divine source. These works are generally in three parts: 1) Achara, rules of conduct and practice; 2) Vyavahara, judicature; 3) Prayashcitbta, penance. The inspired lawgivers are spoken of as being eighteen in number, but the names of forty-two old authorities are mentioned. Manu and Yajnavalkya stand apart by themselves at the head of these writers. After them the eighteen other inspired sages are recognized as the great authorities on law, and the works ascribed to them are still extant, either wholly or partially, or in an abridged form. They are: 1) Atri; 2) Vishnu; 3) Harita; 4) Ushanas; 5) Angiras; 6) Yama; 7) Apastamba; 8) Samvarta; 9) Katyayana; 10) Brihaspati; 11) Parashara; 12) Vyasa; 13 and 14) Shankha and Likhita, whose joint treatise is frequently quoted; 15) Daksha; 16) Gotama; 17) Shatatapa; 18) Vasishtha. But there are others who are more frequently cited than many of these, as Narada, Bhrigu, Marichi, Kashyapa, Vishvamitra, and Baudhayana. Other names that are met with are Pulastya, Gargya, Paithinasi, Sumantu, Lokakshi, Kuthumi, and Dhaumya. The writings of some of these lawgivers have appeared in different forms, and are referred to with the descriptive epithets of Vriddha, "old"; Brihat, "great"; and Laghu, "light or small."

Dharmasutras: (sáns. hindú). The Dharmasutras belong to the Vedic canon and are the most ancient of extant judicial treatises. Even though they are of a legal nature, they are nevertheless primarily religious in content. It is believed that these texts were written between the sixth and third century BCE. See Sutras.

Dharmatman: (sáns. hindú). (dharma "virtuous, dutiful, righteous, law, rule" + atman "Self, Soul") Having a virtuous soul.

Dharmavardhana: (sáns. hindú). Increaser of piety. Shiva's 820th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dharmavyadha: (sáns. hindú). The pious huntsman. This man is represented in the Mahabharata as living by selling boar and buffalo meat, and yet as being learned in the Vedas and in all the knowledge of a Brahman. This is accounted for by his having been a Brahman in a former birth, and cursed to this vile occupation for having wounded a Brahman when hunting.

Dharmayukta: (sáns. hindú). Endowed with piety. Shiva's 190th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dharmika: (sáns. hindú). The righteous or virtuous.

Dharmini: (sáns. hindú). The virtuous (i.e. she who follows the ordinances of Scriptures).

Dharmishtha: (sáns. hindú). The greatly virtuous.

Dharni Deota: (sáns. hindú). Earth, the deity. A village deity. The chief village deity of the central provinces. Her husband is Bhatarsi Deota.

Dharuna: (sáns. hindú). Probably the name of a Rishi from the family of Atri.

Dhatar: (sáns. hindú). See Dhatri.

Dhatri: (sáns. hindú). 1. Maker or creator. In the later hymns of the Rigveda, Dhatri is a deity of no very defined powers and functions, but he is described as operating in the production of life and the preservation of health. He promotes generation, brings about matrimony, presides over domestic life, cures diseases, heals broken bones, etc. He is said to "have formed the sun, moon, sky, earth, air, and heaven as before." He appears also as one of the Adityas, and this character he still retains. In the later mythology he is identified with Prajapati or Brahma the creator; and in this sense of "maker" the term is used as an epithet of Vishnu and Krishna. Sometimes he is a son of Brahma. 2. Shiva's 928 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhatrisha: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the earth. Shiva's 1107 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhatura: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Dhatura alba, commonly known as datura.

Dhaumya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The younger brother of Devala and family priest of the Pandavas. There are several others of the same name. 2. Author of a work on law.

Dhava: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Atharvaveda for a shrub; the Grislea tomentosa.

Dhenuka: (sáns. hindú). A demon killed by Balarama. Krishna and Balarama, as boys, picked some fruit in a grove belonging to Dhenuka, when he took the form of an ass, and running to the spot began to kick Balarama The young hero seized him by the heels, whirled him around until he was dead, and cast his carcass on to the top of a palm tree. Several of Dhenuka's companions who ran to his assistance were treated in the same way, so that "the trees were laden with dead asses."

Dhiman: (sáns. hindú). A wise, or intelligent being. Shiva's 273rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhimati: (sáns. hindú). A being who is a possessor of intelligence.

Dhira: (sáns. hindú). 1. A wise or intelligent being. 2. The resolute, brave, firm.

Dhirtarashtra: (sáns. hindú). The oldest son of Vyasa by Vichitravirya's widow. He was the brother of Pandu and Vidura.

Dhishana: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Soma bowl. 2. A wish or Wish-Goddess. 3. A Goddess of prosperity.

Dhishna: (sáns. hindú). A Goddess of prosperity.

Dhishnya: (sáns. hindú). Sacrificial fires.

Dhishnyas: (sáns. hindú). Side-altars.

Dhrishtadyumna: (sáns. hindú). A brother of Draupadi, and commander-in-chief of the Pandava armies. He killed, somewhat unfairly in combat, Drona, who had beheaded his father, and he in his turn was killed by Drona's son, Ashvatthaman, who stamped him to death with his feet as he lay asleep.

Dhrishtaketu: (sáns. hindú). 1. A son of Dhrshtadyumna. 2. A son of Shishupala, king of Chedi, and an ally of the Pandavas. 3. A king of the Kekayas, also an ally of the Pandavas. 4. Son of Satyadhriti. 5. Son of Nriga.

Dhritarashtra: (sáns. hindú). (dhrita "firm" + rashtra "empire") 1. Having a firm empire. 2. The oldest son of Vichitravirya or Vyasa, and brother of Pandu. His mother was Ambika. He married Gandhari, and by her had a hundred sons, the oldest of whom was Duryodhana. Dhritarashtra was blind, and Pandu was affected with a disease supposed, from his name, "the pale," to be a leprous affection. The two brothers in turn renounced the throne, and the great war recorded in the Mahabharata was fought between their sons, one party being called Kauravas, from an ancestor, Kuru, and the other Pandavas, from their father Pandu. Dhritarashtra and his wife were burned in a forest fire. (See Mahabharata.) 3. An enormous serpent of many heads and immense strength.

Dhritatman: (sáns. hindú). (dhrita "firm" + atman "Self, Soul") 1. Having a controlled mind. 2. Vishnu's 160th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Dhriti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Firmness, will-power. 2. Dharma's wife.

Dhruva: (sáns. hindú). 1 . The firm, permanent. 2. The polar star. according to the Vishnupurana, the sons of Manu Svayambhuva were Priyavrata and Uttanapada.

The latter had two wives; the favorite, Suruchi, was proud and haughty; the second, Suniti or Sunrita was humble and gentle. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and Suniti gave birth to Dhruva. While quite a child Dhruva was contemptuously treated by Suruchi, and she told him that her own son Uttama would alone succeed to the throne. Dhruva and his mother submitted, and he declared that he wished for no other honors than such as his own actions should acquire. He was a Kshatriya, but he joined a society of Rishis, and becoming a Rishi himself, he went through a rigid course of austerities of withstanding the efforts of Indra to distract him. At the end he obtained the favor of Vishnu, who raised him to the skies as the pole-star. He has the patronymic Auttanapadi, and he is called Grahadhara "the stay or pivot of the planets." 3. Vishnu's 388 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. Shiva's 306 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 5. A special Soma libation. 6. The largest of three sacrificial ladles.

Dhumavarna: (sáns. hindú). Smoke colored. A king of the serpents. A legend in the Harivansha relates that Yadu, the founder of the Yadava family, went for a trip of pleasure on the sea, where he was carried off by Dhumavarna to the capital of the serpents. Dhumavarna married his five daughters to Yadu, and from them sprang seven distinct families of people.

Dhumavati: (sáns. hindú). (dhuma "smoke" + vati "having") 1. The possessor of smoke. 2. The name of a place of pilgrimage connected with the Divine Mother. 3. One of the ten Mahavidyas. Dhumavati has a quarrelsome nature. She has a pale complexion and is tall and very unkempt. She has an unsmiling expression and dresses as a widow with dirty clothes, disheveled hair, toothless, long pendulous breast, and a large crooked nose. She looks as if she is starving for both food and water. She holds a winnowing fan and rides a crow.

Dhundhu: (sáns. hindú). An Asura who harassed the sage Uttanka in his devotions. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand, but was dug out and killed by King Kuvalayashva and his 21,000 sons, who were undeterred by the flames which checked their progress, and were all killed but three. This legend probably originated from a volcano or some similar phenomenon. From this exploit Kuvalayashva got the name of Dhundhumara, "slayer of Dhundhu."

Dhundhumara: (sáns. hindú). See Dhundhu and Kuvalayashva.

Dhuni: (sáns. hindú). A demon.

Dhuradhara: (sáns. hindú). Bearer of burden. Shiva's 346 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhurjati: (sáns. hindú). Having heavy matted locks. Shiva's 840 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhurtanartaka: (sáns. hindú). The rogue actors. A farce in two parts by Sama Raja Dikshita. Dowson, in his Classical Dictionary, quoted someone as stating, "The chief object of this piece is the ridicule of the Shaiva ascetics."

Dhurtisamagama: (sáns. hindú). Assemblage of rogues. A comedy by Shekhara or Jyotir Ishvara. Dowson, in his Classical Dictionary, quoted someone as stating, "It is somewhat indelicate, but not devoid of humor."

Dhurya: (sáns. hindú). One who carries burdens of responsibility. Shiva's 990th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhvani: (sáns. hindú). Sound. Shiva's 622nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhvanya: (sáns. hindú). The name of a man.

Dhvanyalokalocana: (sáns. hindú). An early tenth century CE writing by Abhinavagupta. In this writing Krishna leaves the village Vraja for Mathura to begin his adult life. It describes the pitiful weeping of Radha when Krishna leaves.

Dhvasanti: (sáns. hindú). A protege of the Ashvins.

Dhvasra: (sáns. hindú). The name of a King.

Dhyana: (sáns. hindú). (dhya, "to think of, imagine, contemplate, meditate on) 1. Thought, reflection, meditation. 2. The seventh limb (anga) of the eight-limbed Yoga of Patanjali, referring to the steady awareness that the Yogin attains during meditation. It is the second component in the threefold practice of samyama or complete restraining.

Dhyanadhara: (sáns. hindú). Basis for meditation. Shiva's 36th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dhyanapara: (sáns. hindú). (dhyana "meditation" + para "intent on, engaged in") A being who is intent on meditation.

Dhyanarata: (sáns. hindú). (dhyana "meditation" + rata "delighted") A being who is delighted through or in meditation.

Dhyanavan: (sáns. hindú). (dhyana "meditation" + van "having") A being who is meditative.

Dhyanavrata: (sáns. hindú). (dhyana "meditation" + vrata "vow") A being whose vow consists of meditation.

Dhyayini: (sáns. hindú). The meditative.

Dhyeya: (sáns. hindú). Worthy of being meditated upon. Shiva's 498th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Digambara: (sáns. hindú). 1. A being who is clothed with space. 2. A naked mendicant. 3. A title of Shiva.

Diggajas: (sáns. hindú). The elephants who protect the eight points of the compass: 1) Airavata; 2) Pundarika; 3) Vamana; 4) Kumuda; 5) Anjana; 6) Pushpadanta; 7) Sarvabhauma; 8) Supratika.

Digvijaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Conquest of the regions. 2. A part of the Mahabharata which commemorates the conquests effected by the four younger Pandava princes, and in virtue of which Yudhishthira maintained his claim to universal sovereignty. 3. A work by Shankaracharya in support of the Vedanta philosophy, generally distinguished as Shankara Digvijaya.

Dikpala: (sáns. hindú). Supporters of the regions. The supporter of the eight points of the compass. See Diggaja.

Diksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Initiation. 2. Soma's wife.

Dikshini: (sáns. hindú). A being who is consecrated or initiated.

Dilipa: (sáns. hindú). Son of Anshumat and father of Bhagiratha. He was of the Solar race and ancestor of Rama. On one occasion he failed to pay due respect to Surabhi, the "cow of fortune," and she passed a curse upon him that he should have no offspring until he and his wife Sudakshina had carefully tended Surabhi's daughter Nandini. They obediently waited on this calf Nandini, and Dilpa once offered his own life to save hers from the lion of Shiva. In due time the curse was removed, and a son, Raghu, was born to them. This story is told in the Raghuvansa There was another prince of the name. See Khatvanga.

Dimbhaka: (sáns. hindú). A warrior who committed suicide. See Hansa.

Dinabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (dina "afflicted" + bandhu "friend, relative") A being who is friend of the afflicted.

Dinabharta: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + bharta "master") 1. The master of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinadhisha: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + adhisha "lord") 1. The Lord of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinakara: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + kara "maker") 1. The day-maker. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinakarta: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + karta "maker") 1. The day-maker. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinamani: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + mani "pearl, gem") 1. The jewel of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinanatha: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + natha "lord") 1. The Lord of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinapati: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinaraja: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + raja "king") 1. The king of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dinesha: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dineshvara: (sáns. hindú). (dina "day" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Dipa: (sáns. hindú). Lamp, lantern, beacon, illuminating.

Dipavali: (sáns. hindú). An important festival held in the autumn for Lakshmi. There are three important themes in this festival; Lakshmi's association with wealth and prosperity, her association with fertility and abundant crops, and her association with good fortune. During this festival ghosts of the dead are said to return and the demon Bali is said to come up from the underworld and rule for three days. Goblins and malicious spirits are present and boisterous activity, profligate spending, and gambling are commanded. Lakshmi is continually invoked during Dipavali to ward off these evil influences. Alakshmi (the opposite of Lakshmi) is associated with this festival and her influence is warded off by lighting lamps and by banging pots and pans together. In Bengal an image of Alakshmi is made and disfigured by cutting off the image's nose and ears. An image of Lakshmi then replaces the disfigured Alakshmi in an effort to replace ill-luck with good-luck.

Dirghashravas: (sáns. hindú). Son of Dirghatamas, and therefore a Rishi, but in a time of famine he took to trade for a livelihood, the Rigveda calls him "the merchant."

Dirghatamas: (sáns. hindú). Long darkness. A son of Kashiraja, according to the Mahabharata; of Uchathya, according to the Rigveda; and of Uhthya and Mamata in the Puranas. His appellations of Auchathya and Mamateya favor the latter parentage. He was born blind, but is said to have obtained sight by worshipping Agni (Rigveda iii, 128). He was father of Kakshivat and Dhanvantari; and he is said (in the Vishnupurana) to have had five children by Sudeshna, wife of Bali; that is, the countries Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Pundra, and Suhma.

Dirghatapas: (sáns. hindú). Performing austerities of long duration. Shiva's 303rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See also Dirghatamas.

Diti: (sáns. hindú). 1. A goddess or personification in the Vedas who is associated with Aditi, and seems to be intended as an antithesis or as a complement to her. In the Ramayana and Puranas she is daughter of Daksha, wife of Kashyapa, and mother of the Daityas. The Vishnupurana relates that having lost her children, she begged of Kashyapa a son of irresistible prowess, who should destroy Indra. The boon was granted, but with this condition: "If, with thoughts wholly pious and person entirely pure, you carefully carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." She assiduously obeyed the condition; but Indra knew what was preparing for him. So he went to Diti and attended upon her with the utmost humility, watching his opportunity. In the last year of the century, Diti retired one night to rest without washing her feet. Indra then with his thunderbolt divided the embryo in her womb into seven portions. Thus mutilated, the child cried bitterly, and Indra being unable to pacify it, became angry, and divided each of the seen portions into seven, thus forming the swift moving deities called Maruts, from the words, Marodih (meaning "weep not) which Indra used to quiet them. 2. A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. For further details see Vinata.

Div: (sáns. hindú). Personified heaven.

Divakara: (sáns. hindú). (diva "day" + kara "maker") 1. The day-maker. 2. The Sun-God, Surya. 3. Shiva's 790th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Divali: (sáns. hindú). See Dipavali.

Divamani: (sáns. hindú). (diva "day" + mani "pearl, gem") 1. The jewel of the day. 2. The Sun-God, Surya.

Divodasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. A pious liberal king mentioned in the Rigveda, for whom it is said that Indra demolished a hundred stone cities meaning perhaps the mythological aerial cities of the Asuras. 2. A Brahman who was the twin brother of Ahalya. He is represented in the Vedas as a "very liberal sacrificer," and as being delivered by the gods from the oppressor Shambara. He is also called Atithigva, "he to whom guest should go." 3. A king of Kashi, son of Bhimaratha and father of Pratardana. He was attacked by the sons of King Vitahavya and all his sons were slain. His son Pratardana was born to him through a sacrifice performed by Bharadana. He was celebrated as a physician and was called Dhanvantari.

Divya: (sáns. hindú). Divine. Shiva's 780th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Divyajyoti: (sáns. hindú). (divya "divine" + jyoti "light") Divine light.

Divyamati: (sáns. hindú). (divya "divine" + mati "thought") Divine thought.

Divyashakti: (sáns. hindú). (divya "divine" + shakti "energy, power") Posessing divine power, energy.

Doha: (sáns. hindú). Milking. Shiva's 720th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Draksha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Vitis vinifera, commonly known as the grape.

Draupadi: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Drupada, king of Panchala, and wife of the five Pandu princes. Draupadi was a damsel of dark complexion but of great beauty, "as radiant and graceful as if she had descended from the city of the gods." Her hand was sought by many princes, and so her father determined to hold a svayamvara and allow her to exercise her own choice in the selection of a husband. The svayamvara was proclaimed, and princes assembled from all parts to contend in the lists for the hand of the princess; for although in such contests the lady was entitled to exercise her svayamvara or own choice, it generally followed that the champion of the arena became her husband. Most astonishing feats of arms were performed, but Arjuna outshone all by his marvelous use of the bow, and he became the selected bridegroom. When the five brothers returned to the house where their mother, Kunti, was staying, they told her that they came with alms (bhiksha), and she told them to share it among them. These words raised great difficulty, for if they could not be adroitly evaded they must be obeyed.

The sage Vyasa settled the matter by saying, "The destiny of Draupadi has already been declared by the gods; let her become the wife of all the brethren." So she became their common wife, and it was arranged that she should stay successively two days in the house of each, and that no one of them but the master of the house should enter it while she was there. Arjuna was her favorite, and she showed her jealousy when he married Subhadr. In the great gambling match which the oldest brother, Yudhishthira, played at Hastinapura against his cousins, the Kauravas, he lost his all-his kingdom, his brothers, himself, and their wife Draupadi. So she became slave, and Duryodhana called her to come and sweep the room. She refused, and then Duhshasana dragged her by the hair into the pavilion before all the chieftains, and tauntingly told her that she was a slave girl, and had no right to complain of being touched by men. He also abused her and tore off her veil and dress, while Duryodhana invited her to sit on his thigh. Krishna took compassion upon her, and restored her garments as fast as they were torn. She called vehemently upon her husbands to save her, but they were restrained by Yudhishthira. Bhima was in a rage of passion; he was prevented from action; but he vowed in loud words that he would drink the blood of Duhshasana and smash the thigh of Duryodhana in retaliation of these outrages, which vows he eventually fulfilled. Draupadi vowed that her hair should remain disheveled until Bhima should tie it up with hands dripping with the blood of Duhshasana. The result of the gambling match was that the Pandavas, with Draupadi, went into exile for twelve years, and were to dwell quite incognito during another year. The period of thirteen years being successfully completed, they were at liberty to return.

Twelve years of exile were passed in the jungle, and in the course of this period Jayadratha, king of Sindhu, came to the house of the Pandavas while they were out hunting. He was courteously received by Draupadi, and was fascinated by her charms. He tried to induce her to elope with him, and when he was scornfully repulsed, he dragged her to his chariot and drove off with her. When the Pandavas returned and heard of the rape, they purged Jayadratha, and pressed him so close that he put down Draupadi, and endeavored to escape alone. Bhima resolved to overtake and punish him; and although Yudhishthira pleaded that Jayadratha was a kinsman, and ought not to be killed, Draupadi called aloud for vengeance, so Bhima and Arjuna continued the pursuit. Bhima dragged Jayadratha from his car, kicked and beat him until he was senseless, but spared his life. He cut off all of Jayadratha's hair except five locks, and made him publicly acknowledge that he was a slave. Draupadi's revenge was then slaked, and Jayadratha was released at her intercession. In the thirteenth year, in which her husbands and she were to live undiscovered, they entered the service of the king of Virata, and she, without acknowledging any connection with them, became a waiting-maid to the queen. She stipulated that she should not be required to wash feet or to eat food left by others, and she quieted the jealous fears which her beauty excited in the queen's mind by representing that she was guarded by five Gandharvas, who would prevent any improper advances.

She lived a quiet life for a while, but her beauty excited the passions of Kichaka, the queen's brother who was commander-in-chief, and the leading man in the kingdom. His importunities and insults greatly annoyed her, but she met with no protection from the queen, and was rebuked for her complaints and petulance by Yudhishthira. Her spirit of revenge was roused, and she appealed as usual to Bhima, whose fiery passions she well knew how to kindle. She complained of her menial position, of the insults she had received, of the indifference of her husbands, and of the base offices they were content to occupy. Bhima promised revenge. An assignation was made with Kichaka which Bhima kept, and he so mangled the unfortunate gallant that all his flesh. and bones were rolled into a ball, and no one could discover the manner of his death. The murder was attributed to Draupadi's Gandharvas, and she was condemned to be burned on Kichaka's funeral pile.

Then Bhima disguised himself, and tearing up a tree for a club, went to her rescue. He was supposed to be the Gandharva, and every one fled before him. He released Draupadi, and they returned to the city by different ways. After the term of exile was over, and the Pandavas and she were at liberty to return, she was more ambitious than her husband, and complained to Krishna of the humility and want of resolution shown by Yudhishthira. She had five sons, one by each husband-Prativindhy, son of Yudhishthira; Shrutasoma, son of Bhima; Shrutakirtti, son of Arjuna; Satanika, son of Nakula; and Shrutakarman, son of Sahadeva. She, with these five sons, was present in camp on the eighteenth and last night of the great battle, while her victorious husbands were in the camp of the defeated enemy.

Ashvatthaman with two companions entered the camp of the Pandavas, cut down these five youths; and all whom they found. Draupadi called for vengeance upon Ashvatthaman. Yudhishthira endeavored to moderate her anger, but she appealed to Bhima. Arjuna pursued Ashvatthaman, and overtook him, but he spared his life after taking from him a celebrated jewel which he wore as an amulet. Arjuna gave this jewel to Bhima for presentation to Draupadi. On receiving it she was consoled, and presented the jewel to Yudhishthira as the head of the family. When her husbands retired from the world and went on their journey towards the Himalayas and Indra's heaven, she accompanied them, and was the first to fall on the journey. See Mahabharata. Draupadi's real name was Krishna. She was called Draupadi and Yajnaseni, from her father; Parshati, from her grandfather Prishata; Panchali, from her country; Sairindhri, "the maid-servant" of the queen of Virata; Panchami, "having five husbands"; and Nitayauvani, "the ever-young."

Dravana: (sáns. hindú). A Tantric ritual from the Brihaddharmapurana and Mahabhagavatapurana that causes people to flee.

Dravanti: (sáns. hindú). In the Atharvaveda, the name of a medicine.

Dravida: (sáns. hindú). The country in which the Tamil language is spoken. According to Manu, the people of this country were originally Kshatriyas, but sank to the condition of Shudras from the extinction of sacred rites and the absence of Brahmans.

Dravinodas: (sáns. hindú). Wealth-giver, a name given to Agni.

Dribhika: (sáns. hindú). The name of a demon.

Dridha: (sáns. hindú). Firm. Shiva's 52 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dridhaprajna: (sáns. hindú). One of steady intellect. Shiva's 45th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dridhayudha: (sáns. hindú). One having strong weapons. Shiva's 78th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dripta: (sáns. hindú). Haughty. Shiva's 963 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Drishadavat: (sáns. hindú). Rocky, the name of a stream, perhaps the Kagar before its junction with the Sarsuti.

Drishadvati: (sáns. hindú). A common female name. 1. The wife of King Divodasa. 2. A river forming one of the boundaries of Brahmavarta, perhaps the Kagar before its junction with the Sarsuti.

Drishana: (sáns. hindú). 1. A seer, or discerner. 2. Name of a Rishi. 3. Title of a wise Brahmana.

Drishtanta: (sáns. hindú). Illustration.

Drishti: (sáns. hindú). See Drishya.

Drishtishakti: (sáns. hindú). See Drishyashakti.

Drishya: (sáns. hindú). A concept generally used in the sense of "vision, view, revelation; eye; world view, theory."

Drishyashakti: (sáns. hindú). The power of being seen; even though the subject may or may not have become manifest, the subject has the power to become so.

Drona: (sáns. hindú). 1. Bucket. 2. A Brahman so named from his having been generated by his father, a Rishi named Bharadvaja, in a type of bucket. In the Mahabharata, the story is told that Bharadvaja was performing a Soma sacrifice and ejaculated when he saw the skirt fall from the nymph Ghritaci, and put the semen in a drona (a wooden vessel used in connection with the Soma sacrifice.), and Drona was generated from the semen in the bucket. (See also Drupada for a similar birth.) Drona married Kripa, half-sister of Bhishma, and by her was father of Ashvatthaman. He was acharya, or teacher of the military art, both to the Kaurava and Pandava princes, and so he was called Dronacharya. He had been slighted by Drupada, king of Panchala, and became his enemy. Through the instrumentality of the Pandavas he made Drupada prisoner, and took from him half of his kingdom; but he spared his life and gave him back the other half of his country. But the old animosity continued and mounted, and ended in the death of both. In the great war Drona sided with the Kauravas, and after the death of Bhishma he became their commander-in-chief. On the fourth day of his command he killed Drupada, and in his turn he was unfairly slain in combat by Dhrishtadyumna, who had sworn to avenge his father's death. In the midst of this combat Drona was told that his son was dead, which so unnerved him that he laid down his arms and his opponent decapitated him. But Drona was a Brahman and an Acharya, and the crime of killing him was enormous, as it is glossed over by the statement that Drona "transported himself to heaven in a glittering state like the sun, and Dhrishtadyumna decapitated merely his lifeless body." Drona was also called Kutaja. The common meaning of Kuta is "mountain-top" but one of its many other meanings is "water-jar." His patronymic is Bharadvaja.

Dronakalasha: (sáns. hindú). A large Soma reservoir.

Druh: (sáns. hindú). A spirit of mischief, an oppressor.

Druhyu: (sáns. hindú). Son of Yayati, by Sarmishtha, daughter of the Daitya king Vrishaparvan. He refused to exchange his youth for the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in consequence Yayati cursed him that his posterity should not possess dominion. His father gave him a part of his kingdom, but his descendants became "princes of the lawless barbarians of the north."

Drupada: (sáns. hindú). 1. Fast feet or Rapid step. 2. Drupada was given such an unusual name because of his unusual birth. The story goes that Drupada's father, Prishata, ejaculated at seeing the skirt fall from the apsara Menaka, the wife of a Gandharva. Prishata tried to trample out the semen but, nevertheless, Drupada was born. (See also Drona for a similar birth.) Drupada was also called Yajnasena and was the king of Panchala. He was a schoolmate of Drona, the preceptor of the Kaurava and Pandava princes, and he mortally offended his former friend by repudiating his acquaintance.

Drona, in payment of his services as preceptor, required his pupil to make Drupada prisoner. The Kauravas attacked him and failed, but the Pandavas took Drupada captive and occupied his territory. Drona spared his life and restored the southern half of his kingdom to him. Drupada returned home burning for revenge, and, to procure it, he prevailed upon two Brahmans to perform a sacrifice, by the efficacy of which he obtained two children, a son and a daughter, who were called "the altar-born," because they came forth from the sacrificial fire. These children were named Dhrishtadyumna and Krishna, but the latter is better known by her patronymic Draupadi.

After she had chosen Arjuna for her husband at her svayamvara, and she had become, with Drupada's consent, the wife of the five Pandavas, he naturally became the ally of his sons-in-law. He took an active part in the great battle, and on the fourteenth day he was killed and beheaded by Drona, who on the following day was killed by Dhrishtadyumna, the son whom Drupada had obtained for wreaking his vengeance on Drona. Besides the two children mentioned, Drupada had a younger son named Shikhandin and a daughter Shikhandini.

Druti: (sáns. hindú). Melting.

Duhsaha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Unable to bear. Shiva's 503rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. A sage who was given Jyeshtha for a wife. She was a hideous looking female produced at the churning of the ocean of milk. See Jyeshtha.

Duhshala: (sáns. hindú). The only daughter of Dhritarashtra and wife of Jayadratha.

Duhshasana: (sáns. hindú). Hard to rule. One of the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra. When the Pandavas lost their wife Draupadi in gambling with Duryodhana Duhshasana dragged her forward by the hair and otherwise ill-used her. For this outrage Bhima vowed he would drink his blood, a vow which he afterward performed on the sixteenth day of the great battle.

Duhshasu: (sáns. hindú). The name of a prince.

Duhshima: (sáns. hindú). The name of an institutor of sacrifice.

Duhsvapnanashana: (sáns. hindú). One who destroys evil dreams. Shiva's 499th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dundubhi: (sáns. hindú). One who has the war-drum. Shiva's 425th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Duradharsha: (sáns. hindú). One who cannot be attacked. Shiva's 1061st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durasada: (sáns. hindú). 1. The one who is hard to approach. 2. Shiva's 195th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama, who is nirguna, or attributeless, and thus hard to approach.

Durashravas: (sáns. hindú). One who hears from far off. Shiva's 496th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Duratikrama: (sáns. hindú). One who cannot be transgressed. Shiva's 898th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Duravasa: (sáns. hindú). One whose abode is not easily accessible. Shiva's 194 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durbhara: (sáns. hindú). One who is difficult to control and boss over. Shiva's 544th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durdharsha: (sáns. hindú). One who cannot be attacked. Shiva's 502nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durga: (sáns. hindú). 1. Inaccessible or The Unfathomable One. 2. The wife of Shiva and one of the oldest and most widely used names for the Divine Mother, the consort of Shiva. Her ten-armed figure, standing on the back of a lion, symbolizes the great power that the Vedic texts describe her as wielding, either to punish or to confer grace on human beings. She destroys the demon of ignorance, nourishes the poor, and confers blessings of love and knowledge upon all those who strive for God-realization. See Devi. 3. A commentator on the Nirukta. 4. Shiva's 198th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durgaha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The father of Purukutsa. 2. A chief.

Durgama: (sáns. hindú). Very difficult of access. Shiva's 196th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durgapuja: (sáns. hindú). A ceremony that takes place from the first to the ninth tithi (lunar day) of the bright half of Ashvin. This great festival coincides with the autumn harvest in Northern India and in certain respects has definite harvest overtones that petitions Durga as a fertility goddess. In Bengal lasts for at least five days. It opens with an invocation to call Durga from her heavenly realm. On the last day of the festival, the image of Durga that has been fashioned for the occasion is lowered into a river or the sea.

Durjaya: (sáns. hindú). One who is unconquerable. Shiva's 897th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durjneya: (sáns. hindú). Very difficult to be known. Shiva's 244th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durlabha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The one who is hard to obtain (i.e. God). 2. Vishnu's 777th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 197th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durmitra: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi.

Durmukha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Bad face. 2. Name of one of Dhritarashtra's sons. 3. One of Rama's monkey allies, and of several others.

Durva: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Bhargavi.

Durvasas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Ill-clothed. 2. A sage, the son of Atri and Anasuya, but, according to some authorities, he was a son or emanation of Shiva. He was noted for his irascible temper, and many fell under his curse. He cursed Shakuntala for keeping him waiting at the door, and so caused the separation between her and King Dushyanta. To his credit, however, he blessed Kunti, so that she became a mother by the sun. In the Vishnupurana he is represented as cursing Indra for treating, with disrespect a garland which the sage presented to him. The curse was that "his sovereignty over the three worlds should be subverted," and under it Indra and the gods grew weak and were overpowered by the Asuras. In their extremity they resorted to Vishnu, who directed them to churn the ocean of milk for the production of the Amrita (water of life) and other precious things. In the Mahabharata it is stated that on one occasion Krishna entertained him hospitably, but omitted to wipe the fragments of food from the foot of the sage. At this the latter grew angry and foretold how Krishna should be killed. The Vishnupurana states that Krishna fell according to "the imprecation of Durvasas," and in the same work Durvasas is made to describe himself as one "whose nature is stranger to remorse." 3. Shiva's 76th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Durvasasapurana: (sáns. hindú). One of the eighteen Upa-puranas. See Purana.

Duryodhana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Hard to conquer. 2. The oldest son of King Dhritarashtra, and leader of the Kaurava princes in the great war of the Mahabharata. His birth was somewhat marvelous (See Gandhari) Upon the death of his brother Pandu, Dhritarashtra took his five sons, the Pandava princes, to his own court, and had them educated with his hundred sons. Bickering and jealousies soon sprang up between the cousins, and Duryodhana took a special dislike to Bhima on account of his skill in the use of the club.

Duryodhana had learned the use of this weapon under Balarama, and was jealous of any rival. He poisoned Bhima and threw his body into the Ganges, but Bhima sank to the regions of the Nagas, where he was restored to health, and vigor. When Dhritarashtra proposed to make Yudhishthira heir-apparent, Duryodhana strongly remonstrated, and the result was that the Pandavas went into exile. Even then his animosity pursued them and he laid a plot to burn them in their house, from which they escaped and retaliated upon his emissaries. After the return of the Pandavas from exile, and their establishment at Indraprastha, his anger was further excited by Yudhishthira's performance of the Rajasuya sacrifice. He prevailed on his father to invite the Pandavas to Hastinapura to a gambling match, in which, with the help of his confederate Shakuni, he won from Yudhishthira everything he possessed, even to the freedom of himself, his brothers, and his wife Draupadi. Duryodhana exultantly sent for Draupadi to act as a slave and sweep the room. When she refused to come, his brother, Duhsasana, dragged her in by the hair of her head, and Duryodhana insulted her by inviting her to sit upon his knee. This drew from Bhima a vow that he would one day mash Duryodhana's thigh. Dhritarashtra interfered, and the result of the gambling was that the Pandavas again went into exile, and were to remain absent thirteen years. While the Pandavas were living in the forest, Duryodhana went out for the purpose of gratifying his hatred with a sight of their poverty. He was attacked and made prisoner by the Gandharvas, probably hill people, and was rescued by the Pandavas. This incident greatly mortified him. The exile of the Pandavas drew to a close.

War was inevitable, and both parties prepared for the struggle. Duryodhana sought the aid of Krishna, but made the great mistake of accepting Krishna's army in preference to his personal attendance. He accompanied his army to the field, and on the eighteenth day of the battle, after his party had been utterly defeated, he fled and hid himself in a lake, for he was said to possess the power of remaining under water. He was discovered, and with great difficulty, by taunts and sarcasms was induced to come out. It was agreed that he and Bhima should fight it out with clubs. The contest was long and furious, and Duryodhana was getting the best of it, when Bhima remembered his vow, and, although it was unfair to strike below the waist, he gave his antagonist such a violent blow on the thigh that the bone smashed and Duryodhana fell. Then Bhima kicked him on the head and triumphed over him. Left wounded and alone on the field, he wag visited by Ashvatthaman, son of Drona, and two other warriors, the only survivors of his army. He thirsted for revenge, and directed them to slay all the Pandavas, and especially to bring him the head of Bhima. These men entered the camp of the enemy, and killed the five youthful sons of the Pandavas. The version of the Mahabharata used by Wheeler adds that these warrior brought the heads of the five youths to Duryodhana, presenting them to be the heads of the five brothers. Duryodhana was unable in the twilight to distinguish the features, but he exulted greatly, and desired that Bhima's head might be placed in his hand. With dying energy he pressed it with all his might, and when he found that it crushed, he knew that it was not the head of Bhima. Having discovered the deception that had been played upon him, with a redeeming touch of humanity, he reproached Ashvatthaman for his horrid deed in slaying the harmless youths, saying with his last breath, "My enmity was against the Pandavas, not against these innocents." Duryodhana was called also Suyodhana, "good fighter."

Dushana: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa who fought as one of the generals of Ravana, and was killed by Rama. He was generally associated with Ravana's brother, Khara.

Dushkritiha: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of evil actions. Shiva's 501st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dushmanta: (sáns. hindú). A valiant king of the Lunar race, and descendant of Puru. He was husband of Shakuntala, by whom he had a son Bharata. The loves of Dushyanta and Shakuntala, her separation from him, and her restoration through the discovery of his token-ring in the belly of a fish, form the plot of Kalidasa's celebrated play Shakuntala.

Dushyanta: (sáns. hindú). See Dushmanta.

Duta: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for go-between.

Dutangada: (sáns. hindú). The Ambassador Angada. A short play founded on the mission of Angada to demand from Ravana the restoration of Sita. It is attributed to a poet named Subhata.

Dvadashaha: (sáns. hindú). A twelve-day sacrifice.

Dvaipayana: (sáns. hindú). See Vyasa.

Dvaita: (sáns. hindú). Dualism. That type of Vedanta philosophy that emphasized the absolute distinctions between God, man, and the world, as well as the plurality of things in the world. This philosophy was pioneered by Madhva and stands in direct opposition to Advaita.

Dvaparayuga: (sáns. hindú). The third age of the world, extending to 864,000 years. See yuga.

Dvaracati: (sáns. hindú). See Dvaraka.

Dvaraka: (sáns. hindú). The city of gates. Krishna's capital in Gujarat, which is said to have been submerged by the ocean seven days after his death. It is one of the seven sacred cities. Also called Abdhinagari.

Dvija: (sáns. hindú). Twice-born. This is an epithet given to a member of the upper three castes after he has been invested with the "sacred thread." The investiture is considered his second or spiritual birth, his first birth being from his mothers womb.

Dvijarshis: (sáns. hindú). (Dvijarishis.) See Brahmarshia.

Dvijottama: (sáns. hindú). The most excellent among brahmins. Shiva's 626th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dvipa: (sáns. hindú). An insular continent. The Dvipas stretch out from the mountain Meru as their common center, like the leaves of a lotus, and are separated from each other by distinct circumambient oceans. They are generally given as seven in number: 1) Jambu, 2) Plaksha or Gomedaka, 3) Shalmala, 4) Kusha, 5) Krauncha, 6) Shaka, and 7) Pushkara. The seas which surround them are: 1) Lavana, salt water; 2) Ikshu, sugar-cane juice; 3) Sura, wine; 4) Sarpis or Ghrita, clarified butter; 5) Dadhi, curds; 6) Dugdha or Kshira, milk; 7) Jala, fresh water. In the Mahabharata four Dvipas are named: 1) Bhadrashva, 2) Ketumala, 3) Jambudvipa, 4) Uttara Kuru. Jambudvipa has nine varshas or subdivision: 1) Bharata, 2) Kimpurusha, Kinnara, 3) Harivarsha, 4) Ilavrita, which contains Meru; 5) Ramyaka, 6) Hiranmaya, 7) Uttara Kuru, 8) Bhadrashva, 9) Ketumala According to the Vishnupurana, Bharatavarsha or India is divided into nine Dvipas or portions: 1) Indradvipa, 2) Kasherumat, 3) Tamravarna, 4) Gabhastimat, 5) Nagadvipa, 6) Saumya, 7) Gandharva, 8) Varuna; 9) generally left without name in the books, but Bhaskaracharya calls it Kumaraka.

Dvipada: (sáns. hindú). A meter consisting of two padas.

Dvipautra: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Smilax officinalis, commonly known as sarsaparilla.

Dvita: (sáns. hindú). Second, perhaps a form of Agni; nonetheless, the name of a God.

Dvivida: (sáns. hindú). 1. An Asura in the form of a great ape, who was an implacable foe of the gods. He stole Balarama's plowshare weapon and derided him. This was the beginning of a terrific fight, in which Dvivida was felled to the earth, and "the crest of the mountain on which he fell was splintered into a hundred pieces by the weight of his body, as if the Thunderer had shivered it with his thunderbolt." 2. A monkey ally of Rama.

Dyaus: (sáns. hindú). 1. The sky, heaven. 2. In the Vedas he is a masculine deity, and is called occasionally Dyauspitri, "heavenly father," the earth being regarded as the mother. He is father of Ushas, the dawn. (Cf. Zeus, Deus, Jovis, Jupiter.) Dyavaprithivi, "heaven and earth," are represented as the universal parents, not only of men but of gods; but in other places they are spoken of as having been themselves created; and then, again, there are speculations as to their origin and priority. In one hymn it is asked, "Which of these two was the first and which the last? How have they been produced? Who knows?" The Shatapatha Brahmana declares in favor of the earth, saying, "This earth is the first of created beings.".

Dyaushpitar: (sáns. hindú). Father Heaven. Pita Dyaus = Pater Zeus which is Jupiter.

Dyavaprithivi: (sáns. hindú). (dyaus "Heaven" + prithivi "earth in a compound dual") Heaven-Earth.

Dyotana: (sáns. hindú). Enlightening through knowledge.

Dyotana: (sáns. hindú). Probably the name of a king. Indra compelled some conquered enemies to come before Dyotana as submissively as a son would come before his mother.

Dyumani: (sáns. hindú). (dyu "sky" + mani "pearl, gem") 1. The sky-jewel. 2. The Sun-God, Surya. 3. Shiva's 1076th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dyumna: (sáns. hindú). Splendor. Probably the name of a Rishi.

Dyuti: (sáns. hindú). Luminous through knowledge.

Dyutidhara: (sáns. hindú). Having luster. Shiva's 891 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Dyutikara: (sáns. hindú). One who diffuses light. Shiva's 374th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

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