martes, 6 de julio de 2010

Jñanam - Kurantika - The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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6.Jñanam - Kurantika

Jñanam: (sáns. hindú). Knowledge.

Jñana: (sáns. hindú). Higher knowledge derived from meditation on the Universal Spirit.

Jñankand: (sáns. hindú). Portion of the Vedas which relate to the knowledge of the Universal Spirit.

Juhi: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the white-flowered ixora.

Juhu: (sáns. hindú). 1. A sacrificial ladle. 2. Probably a proper name.

Juhu: (sáns. hindú). A carved wooden ladle for pouring sacrificial ghi into the fire.

Jumna: (sáns. hindú). The modern name of the river Yamuna.

Jushka: (sáns. hindú). A Turushka or Turk king who ruled in Kashmir and in Northern India. See Kanishka.

Jvalamukhi: (sáns. hindú). Mouth of fire. A volcano. A celebrated place of pilgrimage in the Lower Himalayas, north of the Panjab, where fire issues from the ground. According to the legend, it was in this fire that Sati, the wife of Shiva, created, and in which she burned herself.

Jyamagha: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Lunar race, proverbial as "most eminent among husbands submissive to their wives." Shaibya his wife, was barren, but he was afraid to take another wife until, having overcome an enemy and driven him from his country, the daughter of the vanquished king became his captive. She was beautiful, and Jyamagha desired to marry her. He took her in his chariot and carried her to his palace to ask the consent of his queen. When Shaibya saw the maiden, she was filled with jealousy, and angrily demanded who the "light-hearted damsel" was. The king was disconcerted, and humbly replied, "She is the young bride of the future son whom you shall bring forth." It had ceased to be with Shaibya after the manner of women, but still she bore a son who was named Vidarbha, and he married the captive princess.

Jyestha: (sáns. hindú). Lunar mansion or asterism that is sacred to Indra.

Jyothishtoma: (sáns. hindú). A very important Soma ceremony.

Jyotisha: (sáns. hindú). Astronomy. One of the Vedangas. The object of this Vedanga is to fix the most auspicious days and seasons for the performance of sacrifices.

There has been little discovered that is ancient on this subject; only one "short tract, consisting of thirty-six verses, in a comparatively modern style, to which scholars cannot assign an earlier date than 300 years B.C."

Jyoti: (sáns. hindú). Brilliance.

Jyotsna: (sáns. hindú). Moonlight personified. Jyotsna or Kaumundi, according to Ludwig, is the wife or power of the moon. Earlier concepts were that Jyotsna was the moon's light as borrowed from the sun.


Kabandha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A disciple of Sumantu, the earliest teacher of the Atharvaveda. 2. A monstrous Rakshasa slain by Rama. He is said to have been a son of Sri. He is described as "covered with hair, vast as a mountain, without head or neck, having a mouth armed with immense teeth in the middle of his belly, arms a league long, and one enormous eye in his breast. He was originally a Gandharva, and his hideous deformity arose, according to one account, from a quarrel with Indra, whom he challenged, and who struck him with his thunderbolt, and drove his head and thighs into his body.

According to another statement, his deformity arose from the curse of a sage. When mortally wounded, he requested Rama to burn his body, and when that was done he came out of the fire in his real shape as a Gandharva, and counselled Rama as to the conduct of the war against Ravana. He was also called Danu.

Kacha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Brihaspati. According to the Mahabharata he became a disciple of Shukra or Ushanas, the priest of the Asuras, with the object of obtaining from him the mystic power of restoring the dead to life, a charm which Shukra alone possessed. To prevent this the Asuras killed Kacha again and again, but on both occasions he was restored to life by the sage at the intercession of Devayani, his daughter, who had fallen in love with Kacha.

They killed him a third time, burned his body, and mixed his ashes with Shukra's wine, but Devayani again implored her father to bring back the young man. Unable to resist his daughter's importunity, Shukra once more performed the charm, and to his surprise heard the voice of Kacha come out from his own belly. To save his own life, Shukra taught his pupil the great charm. He then allowed himself to be ripped open, and Kacha, upon coming out, performed the charm, and restored his master to life. This incident is said to have caused Shukra to prohibit the use of wine to Brahmans. Kacha resisted the proposals of Devayani, and refused to make her his wife. She then cursed him, that the charms he had learned from her father should be powerless, and he in return condemned her to be sought by no Brahman, and to become the wife of a Kshatriya.

Kadambari: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Chitraratha and Madira. Her name has been given to a well-known prose work, a kind of novel, written by Vana or Banabhatta, in the seventh century.

Kadamba: (sáns. hindú). (nipa) A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Anthocephalus cadamba or indicus.

Kadamba: (sáns. hindú). An orange flower.

Kadara: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Acaci suma.

Kadavi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for an unknown plant.

Kaddu: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See alabu.

Kadhi: (sáns. hindú). (kam "water" + dhi "receptacle") 1. The water receptacle. 2. The ocean.

Kadruka days: (sáns. hindú). The days of the Abhiplava festival.

Kadru: (sáns. hindú). 1. A daughter of Daksha, and one of the thirteen married to Kashyapa.

She was mother of "a thousand powerful many-headed serpents, and chief amongst them were Shesha, Vasuki . . . . and many other fierce and venomous serpents," The Vishnupurana, from which this is taken, names twelve, the Vayupurana forty. Her offspring bear the metronymic Kadraveya. 2. A Vedic Rishi who, according to Griffith, is sometimes a Rishi and sometimes the Serpent-Queen Sarparajni.

Kahoda: (sáns. hindú). A learned Brahman, father of Ashtavakra. He with many others was overcome in an argument at the court of Janaka by a Buddhist sage, and as a penalty was thrown into the river. Some years afterwards he was recovered by his son, who overcame the supposed Buddhist sage, and thus brought about Khoda's restoration. See also Ashtavakra.

Kaikasi: (sáns. hindú). According to Muir (iv. 487-488), Kaikasi was a daughter of the Rakshasa Sumali and his wife Ketumati, She was a wife of Vishravas and mother of Ravana.

Kaikeyas: (sáns. hindú). The people of Kaikeya, one of the chief nations in the war of the Mahabharata. The Ramayana places them in the west, beyond the Sarasvati and Byas.

Kaikeya: (sáns. hindú). Name of a country and of its king. He was father-in-law of Krishna, and his five sons were allies of the Pandavas. His real name appears to have been Dhrishtaketu.

Kaikeyi: (sáns. hindú). A princess of Kaikeya, wife of King Dasharatha, and mother of Bharata his third son. She carefully tended Dasaratha when he was wounded in battle, and in gratitude he promised to grant any two requests she might make. Urged by the malignant counsels of Manthara, a female attendant, she made use of this promise to procure the exile of Rama, and to promote the advancement of her own son, Bharata, to his place. See also Dasaratha, Rama.

Kailasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. The crystalline (mountain). 2. The name of the abode of Shiva in the Himalayas.

Kailasa: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in the Himalayas, north of the Manasa lake. Shiva's paradise is said to be on Mount Kailasa, so also is Kuvera's abode. It is called also Ganaparvata and Rajatadri, "silver mountain."

Kairatika: (sáns. hindú). A special drug mentioned in the Atharvaveda.

Kairavan: (sáns. hindú). The name of a white lotus which blooms at night.

Kairavi: (sáns. hindú). Moonlight.

Kaitabha: (sáns. hindú). Kaitabha and Madhu were two horrible demons, who, according to the Mahabharata and the Puranas, sprang from the ear of Vishnu while he was asleep at the end of a kalpa, and were about to kill Brahma, who was lying on the lotus springing from Vishnu's navel. Vishnu killed them, and hence he obtained the names of Kaitabhajit and Madhusudana. The Markandeyapurana attributes the death of Kaitabha to Uma, and she bears the title of Kaitabha. The Harivansha states that the earth received its name of Medini from the marrow (medas) of these demons. In one passage it says that their bodies, being thrown into the sea, produced an immense quantity of marrow or fat, which Narayana used in forming the earth. In another place it says that the medas quite covered the earth, and so gave it the name of Medini. This is another of the many etymological inventions.

Kaitha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Feronia elephantum, commonly known as the wood apple.

Kaivalya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Absoluteness, aloneness, the separation of the Purusha and Prakriti. See the Yogasutras II:25; III:50,55; IV:26,34. 2. In Vedanta, the realization of the Self which dissolves Prakriti and leaves no duality behind.

Kakadaliya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See konhadu.

Kakambira: (sáns. hindú). A branching tree, symbolizing father and sons.

Kakanda: (sáns. hindú). 1. The golden. 2. The name of a king.

Kakoli: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Ziziphus napecea.

Kakshivant: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic sage, particularly connected with the worship of the Ashvins. He was the son of Dirghatamas and Ushij, and is author of several hymns in the Rigveda. He was also called Pajriya, because he was of the race of Pajra. In one of his hymns he lauds the liberality of King Svanaya.

The following legend, in explanation, is given by the commentator Sayana and the Nitimanjara: Kakshivant, having finished his course of study, took leave of his preceptor and departed homewards. As he journeyed night came on, and he fell asleep by the roadside. In the morning he was aroused by Raja Svanaya, who, being pleased with his appearance treated him cordially and took him home. After ascertaining his worthiness, he married him to his ten daughters, presenting him at the same time with a hundred nishkas of gold a hundred horses, a hundred bulls, a thousand and sixty cows, and eleven chariots, one for each of his ten wives, and one for himself, each drawn by four horses. With these he returned home to his father, and recited the hymn in praise of the munificence of Svanaya.

Kakshivan: (sáns. hindú). See Kakshivant.

Kakshivat: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi who was one of the seers of the Rigveda.

Kakubha: (sáns. hindú). The excelling.

Kakuda: (sáns. hindú). The highest.

Kakudmin: (sáns. hindú). A name of Raivata.

Kakuha: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Vedic prince.

Kakuna: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Celastrus paniculata.

Kakup: (sáns. hindú). A meter of twenty-eight syllables.

Kakusha mandala: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See konhadu.

Kakutstha: (sáns. hindú). See Puranjaya.

Kalamukhas: (sáns. hindú). Black faces. People who sprang from men and Rakshasa females.

Kalanemi: (sáns. hindú). 1. In the Ramayana a Rakshasa, uncle of Ravana. At the solicitation of Ravana, and with the promise of half his kingdom, he endeavored to kill Hanuman. Assuming the form of a hermit-devotee, he went to the Gandhamadana mountain, and when Hanuman proceeded there in search of medicinal herbs, the disguised Rakshasa invited him to his hermitage and offered him food. Hanuman refused, but went to bathe in a neighboring pond.

Upon his placing his foot in the water it was seized by a crocodile, but he dragged the creature out and killed it. From the dead body there arose a lovely Apsara, who had been cursed by Daksha to live as a crocodile until she should be released by Hanuman. She told her deliverer to be beware of Kalanemi; so Hanuman went back to Kalanemi, told him that he knew him, and, taking him by the feet, sent him whirling through the air to Lanka, where he fell before the throne of Ravana in the council-room. 2. In the Puranas a great Asura, son of Virochana, the grandson of Hiranyakashipu. He was killed by Vishnu, but was said to live again in Kansha and in Kaliya.

Kalayavana: (sáns. hindú). Black Yavana. (Yavana meaning a Greek or foreigner.) A Yavana or foreign king who led an army of barbarians to Mathura against Krishna.

Krishna lured him into the cave of the mighty Muchukunda, who being disturbed from sleep by a kick from Kalayavana, cast a fiery glance upon him and reduced him to ashes. This legend appears to indicate an invasion from the Himalayas. According to the Vishnupurana and Harivansha, Kalayavana was the son of a Brahman named Garga, who had a deep resentment against the Yadavas and was begotten by him on the wife of a childless Yavana king.

Kalabhairava: (sáns. hindú). (kala "dark" + bhairava "fearful") 1. The dark and fearful. 2. One of the eight "Bhairava" forms of Shiva.

Kalabhairavi: (sáns. hindú). (kala "dark blue, black" + bhairavi "fearful") The dark and fearful.

Kalabhaksha: (sáns. hindú). (kala "time" + bhaksha "devour") The time-devourer, a name of Shiva.

Kaladhara: (sáns. hindú). (kala "one-sixteenth of the moon" + dhara "bearer") The bearer of the crescent moon; a name of Shiva referring to his control of the mind.

Kalaghata: (sáns. hindú). (kala "time" + ghata "slayer") The time-slayer; a name of Shiva.

Kalahantri: (sáns. hindú). (kala "time" + hantri "slayer") 1. The time-slayer. 2. Lalita.

Kalakanjas: (sáns. hindú). Demon sons of Kashyapa by his wife Kalaka. There were many thousands of them, and they were "distinguished Danavas, who were powerful, ferocious, and cruel."

Kalakantha: (sáns. hindú). (kala "dark blue, black" + kantha "throat") The dark-throated or the blue-throated; a name of Shiva which refers to His blue throat, which became this color when He drank the deadly poison that came out during the churning of the milk ocean.

Kalakanthi: (sáns. hindú). (kala "dark blue, black + kanthi "throat") Consort of the blue-throated; a name of Parvati.

Kalakarni: (sáns. hindú). A name of Lakshmi.

Kalaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Piper chaba. commonly known as pepper.

Kalaka: (sáns. hindú). A wife of Kashyapa. According to the Ramayana and Mahabharata she was a daughter of Daksha, but the Vishnupurana states that she and her sister Puloma were daughters of the Danava Vaishvanara, "who were both married to Kashyapa, and bore him 60,000 distinguished Danavas, called Paulomas and Kalakanjas, who were powerful, ferocious, and cruel." The Mahabharata states that she obtained from the deity, in reward for her severe devotion and penance, the privilege of bringing forth children without pain. The giants or Danavas were called "Kalakeyas" after her.

Kalakeyas: (sáns. hindú). See Kalakanjas.

Kalakhanda: (sáns. hindú). A name of Arjuna.

Kalakunja: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vishnu.

Kalamala: (sáns. hindú). (kala "the fine arts" + mala "garland") The garland of the fine arts.

Kalanas: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman who yielded to the inducement of Alexander the Great and left his native country to accompany the court of the conqueror. He afterwards repented of what he had done and burned himself at Pasargada. Also spelled "Kalyana."

Kalanatha: (sáns. hindú). (kala "time" + natha "master") 1. The master of time; a name of Shiva.

Kalanidhi: (sáns. hindú). (kala "one-sixteenth of the moon" + nidhi "receptacle") Receptacle or treasure of the moon's sixteen phases; a name of the Moon-God.

Kalash: (sáns. hindú). A waterpot, pitcher or jar.

Kalavan: (sáns. hindú). (kala "one-sixteenth of the moon, the fine arts" + van "having") 1.

Having sixteen phases (i.e. the moon). 2. Having the 64 fine arts. 3.

Having the crescent moon; a name of Shiva.

Kalavati: (sáns. hindú). (kala "one-sixteenth of the moon, the fine arts" + vati "having") 1. Having sixteen phases (i.e. the moon). 2. Having the 64 fine arts. 3. Having the crescent moon. 4. Lalita.

Kala: (sáns. hindú). 1. Time. 2. A name of Yama, the judge of the dead. 3. In the Atharvaveda. Time is addressed as the source and ruler of all things. "It is he who drew forth the worlds and encompassed them. Being their father, he became their son. There is no other power superior to him." The Vishnupurana, Bhagavatapurana, and Padmapunana state that Brahma existed in the form of Time, "but the Puranas do not generally recognize Time as an element of the first cause." In the Atharvaveda, Kala is again spoken of as the source and ruler of all things. 4. The Goddess of fine arts, which number 64. 5. One-sixteenth of the moon. 6. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for destiny.

Kali mircha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for black pepper.

Kalidasa: (sáns. hindú). A great poet and dramatist of India. He was one of "the nine gems" that adorned the court of King Vikramaditya at Ujjayini.

Kalidasa: (sáns. hindú). (kali "a name of Durga" + dasa "servant") 1. The servant of Kali. 2. The name of a famous poet who wrote several dramas and poems, such the "Shakuntala," the "Raghuvamsha" and the "Kumarasambhava."

Kalikapurana: (sáns. hindú). One of the eighteen Upapuranas. Wilson claims, "It contains about 9000 stanzas in 98 chapters, and is the only work of the series dedicated to recommend the worship of the bride of Shiva, in one or other of her manifold forms as Girija, Devi, Bhadrakali, Kali, and Mahamaya. It belongs, therefore, to the Shakta modification of Hindu belief, or the worship of the female powers of the deities. The influence of this worship shows itself in the very first pages of the work, which relate the incestuous passion of Brahma for his daughter, Sandhya, in a strain that has nothing analogous to it in the Vayupurana, Lingapurana, or Shivapurana.

The marriage of Shiva and Parvati is a subject early described, with the sacrifice of Daksha and the death of Sati. And this work is authority for Shiva's carrying the dead body about the world, and the origin of the Pithasthanas, or places where the different members of it were scattered, and where Lingas were consequently erected. A legend follows of the births of Bhairava and Vetala, whose devotion to the different forms of Devi furnishes occasion to describe, in great detail, the rites and formula of which her worship consists. Another peculiarity in this work is afforded by very verbose descriptions of a number of rivers and mountains at Kamarupa Tirtha in Assam, and rendered holy ground by the celebrated temple of Durga in that country, as Kamakshi or Kamakshya. It is a singular and yet uninvestigated circumstance, that Assam, or at least the northeast of Bengal, seems to have been, in a great degree, the source from which [proceeded] the Tantrika and Shakta [cults]."

Kalika: (sáns. hindú). The goddess Kali.

Kalindi: (sáns. hindú). A name of the river Yamuna, as daughter of Kalinda (the sun).

Kalindi: (sáns. hindú). The name of a wife of Krishna, who was the daughter of Surya, the Sun-God.

Kalinga: (sáns. hindú). The country along the Coromandel coast, north of Madras. The Calingæ proximi mari of Pliny. Dowson claimed that "The Puranas absurdly make it one of the sons of Bali."

Kalinja: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for rye.

Kalivilasin: (sáns. hindú). (kali "a name of Durga" + vilasin "delight, husband") The husband of Kali; a name of Shiva.

Kaliya: (sáns. hindú). A serpent king who had five heads, and dwelt in a deep pool of the Yamuna, with numerous attendant serpents. His mouths vomited fire and smoke, and he laid waste all the country around. Krishna, while yet a child, jumped into his pool, and was quickly laced and entwined in the coils of the snakes. His companions and friends were horrified, but Balarama called upon him to exercise his divine power. He did so, and the serpents were soon overcome. Placing his foot on the middle head of Kaliya, he compelled him and his followers to implore mercy. He spared them, but bade Kaliya and his followers to free the earth from their presence, and to carry themselves to the ocean. The Asura Kalanemi is said to have been animate in him.

Kaliyuga: (sáns. hindú). The fourth or present age of the world, which is to endure for 432,000 years. It commenced in 3102 BCE. See Yuga.

Kali: (sáns. hindú). 1. The black. 2. In Vedic days this name was associated with Agni (fire), who had seven flickering tongues of flame for devouring oblations of butter. Of these seven, Kali was the black or terrific tongue. This meaning of the word is now lost, but it has developed into the goddess Kali, the fierce and bloody consort of Shiva. 3. A Vedic Rishi. 4. The worst of a class or number of objects. 5. A name of Durga. See also Devi.

Kalki: (sáns. hindú). 1. The white horse. 2. Vishnu's tenth incarnation, which is yet to come. See Avatara.

Kalmali: (sáns. hindú). The dispeller of darkness.

Kalmashapada: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Solar race, son of Sudasa (hence he is called Saudasa), and a descendant of Ikshvaku. His legend, as told in the Mahabharata, relates that while hunting in the forest he encountered Shaktri, the oldest son of Vasishtha, and because the sage refused to get out of his way, he struck him with his whip. The incensed sage cursed him to become a cannibal. This curse was heard by Vishvamitra, the rival of Vasishtha, and he contrived that the body of the king became possessed by a man-eating Rakshasa. In this condition he caused human flesh to be served up to a Brahman named Mitrasaha, who discovered what it was, and intensified the curse of Shaktri by a new imprecation. One of Kalmashapada's first victims was Shaktri himself, and all the hundred sons of Vasishtha fell a prey to his disordered appetite. After remaining twelve years in this state he was restored to his natural condition by Vasishtha.

The Vishnupurana tell the story differently. The king went out to hunt and found two destructive tigers. He killed one of them, but as it expired it was changed into a Rakshasa. The other tiger disappeared threatening vengeance. Kalmashapada celebrated a sacrifice at which Vasishtha officiated. When it was over and Vasishtha went out, the Rakshasa assumed his appearance, and proposed that food should be served. Then the Rakshasa transformed himself into a cook, and, preparing human flesh, he served it to Vasishtha on his return. The indignant sage cursed the king that henceforth his appetite should be excited only by similar food. A wrangle ensued, and Vasishtha having found out the truth, limited the duration of his curse to twelve years. The angry king took water in his hands to pronounce, in his turn, a curse upon Vasishtha, but was dissuaded from doing it by his wife, Madayanti. "Unwilling to cast the water on the ground, lest it should wither up the grain, and equally reluctant to throw it up into the air, lest it should blast the clouds and dry up their contents, he threw it upon his own feet," and they were so scalded by it that they became black and white, and so gained for him the name of Kalmashapada, "spotted feet." Every day for twelve years, at the sixth watch of the day, he gave way to his cannibal appetite, "and devoured multitudes of men." On one occasion he devoured a Brahman in the midst of his connubial happiness, and the Brahman's wife passed upon him a curse that he should die whenever he associated with his wife. At the expiration of Vasishtha's curse, the king returned home, but being mindful of the Brahmani's curse, he abstained from sexual intercourse. By the interposition of Vaishtha, his wife, Madayanti, became pregnant, and bore a child in her womb for seven years, when she performed the Caesarean operation with a sharp stone, and a child came forth who was called Ashmaka (from Ashman, "a stone").

Kalmashapada: (sáns. hindú). A name of a King. In the Mahabharata he is said to have been transformed into a Rakshasa, and to have devoured 100 sons of Vasishtha. See Vasishtha.

Kalpa Sutras: (sáns. hindú). A ceremonial; one of the Vedangas. A ceremonial directory or rubric expressed in the form of Sutras, short technical rules.

Kalpa: (sáns. hindú). 1. The science of rituals. The most complete of the six Vedangas which prescribes the ritual and prescribes the rules for the performance of the sacrifice. 2. A day and night of Brahma, 4,320,000,000 years. See Yuga.

Kalyanasundaram: (sáns. hindú). (kalyana "beautiful, auspicious, blessed" + sundaram "beautiful") The beautiful and blessed.

Kalyanavartman: (sáns. hindú). (kalyana "beautiful, auspicious, blessed" + vartman "path") 1. He who follows the auspicious or noble path. 2. The name of a king.

Kalyana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beautiful. 2. The auspicious. 3. The blessed. 4. See also Kalanas.

Kalyani: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beautiful. 2. The auspicious. 3. The blessed. 4. The blissful. 5. Lalita. 6. The name of a medicine in the Atharvaveda.

Kalya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The healthy. 2. She who is the object of meditation. 3. Lalita.

Kama, Kamadeva: (sáns. hindú). The god of love; Eros, Cupid. In the Rigveda (x 19) desire is said to have been the first movement that arose in the One after it had come into life through the power of fervor or abstraction "Desire first arose in It, which was the primal germ of mind; (and which) sages, searching with their intellect have discovered in their heart to be the bond which connects entity with nonentity "It is well known," Muir observed, "that Greek mythology connected Eros, the god of love, with the creation of the universe somewhat in the same way." This Kama or desire, not of sexual enjoyment, but of good in general, is celebrated in a curious hymn of the Atharvaveda, which exalts Kama into a supreme God and Creator.

Kama was born the first. Him neither gods, nor fathers, nor men have equalled. Thou art superior to these and for ever great. In another part of the same Veda, Kama appears to be first desire, then the power which gratifies the desire. Kama is also in the same Veda often identified with Agni, and when distinguished from each other, Kama may be looked upon as a superior form of the other deity." According to the Taittiriya Brahmana, he is the son of Dharma, the god of justice, by Shraddha, the goddess of faith; but according to the Harivansha he is son of Lakshmi, Another account represents him as springing from the heart of Brahma. A fourth view is that he was born from water, wherefore he is called Iraja, "the water-born;" a fifth is that he is Atmabhu, "self-existent," and therefore he is called, like other of the gods, Aja, "unborn," or Ananyaja, "born of no other." In the Puranas his wife is Rati (coitus) or Reva, the goddess of desire. He inspired Shiva with amorous thoughts of Parvati while he was engaged in penitential devotion, and for this offence the angry god reduced him to ashes by fire from his central eye. Shiva afterwards relented and allowed Kama to be born again as Pradyumna, son of Krishna and Rukmini or Maya, "delusion." He has a son named Aniruddha, and a daughter, Trisha. He is lord of the Apsarasas or heavenly nymphs. He is armed with a bow and arrows: the bow is of sugar-cane, the bowstring a line of bees, and each arrow is tipped with a distinct power. He is usually represented as a handsome youth riding on a parrot and attended by nymphs, one of whom bears his banner displaying the Makara, or a fish on a red ground. The mysterious origin of Kama and the universal operation of the passion he inspires have accumulated upon him a great variety of names and epithets. Among his names are Ishma, Kanjana and Kinkira, Mada, Rama or Ramana, and Smara. As produced in the mind or heart he is Bhavaja and Manoja. As Pradyumna, son of Krishna, he is Karshni, and as son of Lakshmi he is Mayi or Mayasuta and Srinandana. As reduced to ashes by Shiva he is Ananga, "the bodiless." He is Abhirupa, "the beautiful"; Darpaka and Dipaka, the "inflamer"; Gadayitnu, Gridhu, and Gritsa, "lustful or sharp"; Kamana and Kharu "desirous"; Kandarpa, "the inflamer of Brahma"; Kantu, "the happy,"

Kalakeli, "the gay or wanton"; Mara, "destroyer"; Mayi, "deluder"; Madhudipa, "the lamp of honey" or "the lamp of spring"; Muhira, "the bewilderer"; Murmura, "the crackling fire"; Ragavrinta, "the stalk of passion"; Rupastra, "the weapon of beauty"; Ratanaricha, "the voluptuary"; Shamantaka, "destroyer of peace"; Sansaraguru, "teacher of the world"; Smara, "remembrance"; Sringarayoni, "source of love"; Titha, "fire"; Vama, "the handsome." From his bow and arrows he is called Kusumayudha, "armed with flowers"; Pushpadhanus, "whose bow is flowers"; and Pushpashara, "whose arrows are flowers." From his banner he is known as Makaraketu; and from the flower he carries in his hand he is Pushpaketana. 2. The object of desire. An ancient Rishi's name. 3. In the Atharvaveda, the name of the supreme God and Creator. 4. Vishnu's 297 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Kamadhenu: (sáns. hindú). The cow which grants desires, belonging to the sage Vasishta. She was produced at the churning of the ocean. Among the examples of her supernatural powers was the creation of a host of warriors who aided Vasishta against Kartavirya. She is called also Kamaduh, Shavala, and Surabhi.

Kamavivaha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for love marriage.

Kamadeva: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + deva "god") 1. The God of desire or love. 2. Vishnu's 651 st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. The name of Cupid, who was burned by a look of Shiva's third eye of knowledge.

Kamadhulika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Cassia latiflora, commonly known as the wild fig.

Kamadyu: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Vimada.

Kamakshi: (sáns. hindú). (kama desire" + akshi "eye") 1. Having loving eyes. 2. A name of Parvati as worshipped in Kancipuram, South India. 3. Lakshmi.

Kamakshi: (sáns. hindú). A form of Devi worshipped at Kamarupatirtha in Assam. See Kalikapurana.

Kamalabandhava: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + bandhava "friend") The friend of the lotus; a name of Surya, the Sun-God.

Kamalabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + bandhu "friend") The friend of the lotus; a name of Surya, the Sun-God.

Kamalakanta: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus, the Goddess Lakshmi" + kanta "beloved") 1. The beloved of Kamala (i.e. the Goddess Lakshmi) 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. The name of a Bengali mystical poet.

Kamalaksha: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + aksha "eye") The lotus-eyed, a name of Vishnu.

Kamalakshi: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + akshi "eye") 1. The lotus-eyed. 2. Lalita.

Kamalalaya: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + alaya "abode, seat") 1. Abiding in the lotus. 2. A name of Lakshmi referring to her rising from the milk ocean on a lotus. This incident symbolizes the awakening of Self-knowledge after hard and long spiritual practices.

Kamalalocana: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + locana "eye") 1. The lotus-eyed. 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. A name of Devi.

Kamalanabha: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + nabha "navel, center") 1. Lotus-navel; a name of Vishnu which refers to the whole universe springing from His navel as if it were a lotus with the Creator Brahma seated on it. 2. Lotus-centered. 3. A name of Vishnu which refers to His dwelling in the heart lotus of all beings.

Kamalanayana: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + nayana "eye") 1. The lotus-eyed. 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. A name of Devi.

Kamalanetra: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + netra "eye") The Lotus-eyed, a name of Vishnu.

Kamala, Kamla: (sáns. hindú). 1. Lotus. 2. Lakshmi. 3. One who is like a lotus. 4. A name of Brahma. 5. A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Utpala.

Kamalekshana: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + ikshana "eye") 1. The lotus-eyed. 2. name of Vishnu. 3. The lotus-eyed, a name of Devi.

Kamalika: (sáns. hindú). The little lotus.

Kamalini: (sáns. hindú). The day-lotus.

Kamalodbhava: (sáns. hindú). (kamala "lotus" + udbhava "born") 1. The lotus-born. 2. A name of the Creator Brahma, who is represented as seated on the lotus of creation springing from Lord Vishnu's navel. See the Bhagavad Gita.

Kamandaki: (sáns. hindú). Author of a work known by his name on "The Elements of Polity."

Kamanda: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi.

Kamaniya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The desirable or endearing. 2. Lalita.

Kamapala: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + pala "fulfiller") 1. The fulfiller of desires. 2. Vishnu's 652 nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. See the Bhagavad Gita.

Kamari: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + ari "enemy") The enemy of desire; a name of Shiva, referring to His turning of Cupid to ash with a look from His third eye of Knowledge. See the Bhagavad Gita.

Kamarupa: (sáns. hindú). The northeastern part of Bengal and the western portion of Assam.
The name still survives as Kamrup.

Kamavirya: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + virya "strength, vigor") 1. Vigorous at will. 2. A name of Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu.

Kambojas: (sáns. hindú). A race or tribe always associated with the tribes living to the northwest, and famous for their horses. They were among the races conquered by King Sagara.

Kambojini: (sáns. hindú). Born or coming from Kamboja; the name of an attendant of Devi, or the Divine Mother.

Kamesha: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord or master of desire. 2. A name of Shiva which may either mean He fulfills all desires or that He controls Cupid.

Kameshi: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + ishi "sovereign goddess") 1. The sovereign Goddess of desires. 2. Lalita.

Kameshvara: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord or master of desire. 2. A name of Shiva which may either mean He fulfills all desires or
that He controls Cupid.

Kameshvari: (sáns. hindú). (kama "desire" + ishvari "sovereign") 1. The sovereign Goddess of desires. 2. The sovereign Goddess of Kamadeva. 3. Lalita.

Kamla: (sáns. hindú). See Kamala.

Kampilya: (sáns. hindú). The city of King Drupada in the country of the Panchalas where the svayamvara of Draupadi was held. It corresponds with the Kampila of modern times, situated in the Doab on the old Ganges, between Badaun and Farrukh-abad.

Kamyaka: (sáns. hindú). The forest in which the Pandavas passed their exile on the banks of the Sarasvati.

Kamya: (sáns. hindú). One of the attributes of a fine wife-desirable, beautiful, amiable, agreeable.

Kanada: (sáns. hindú). The sage who founded the Vaisheshika school of philosophy. See Darshana.

Kanakapida: (sáns. hindú). The name of an attendant of Skanda.

Kanala: (sáns. hindú). The shining.

Kana: (sáns. hindú). The youthful.

Kanchuka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for sheath or artificial sex organ.

Kanci: (sáns. hindú). The name of a holy city in South India where Goddess Parvati is worshipped as "Kamakshi."

Kandaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Dioscorea elata.

Kandalayana: (sáns. hindú). The name of an ancient sage.

Kandali: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for banana.

Kandanaka: (sáns. hindú). The name of an attendant of Shiva.

Kandarpamathana: (sáns. hindú). (kandarpa "cupid" + mathana "destroyer) The destroyer of Cupid; a name of Shiva.

Kandarpa: (sáns. hindú). The Hindu Cupid. See Kama.

Kandarshi: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi who teaches one particular Kanda or part of the Vedas.

Kanda: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See bhanta.

Kandu: (sáns. hindú). A sage who was beguiled from long and severe austerities by Pramlocha, a nymph sent from heaven by Indra for this purpose. He lived with her some hundreds of years, which seemed to him only as a day, but he at length repudiated her and "went to the region of Vishnu." Pramlocha gave birth, in an extraordinary manner, to his daughter Marisha.

Kanera: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Neruim medicum, commonly known as oleander.

Kanguni: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kakuna.

Kanikasa: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kanera.

Kanishka: (sáns. hindú). "Hushka, Jushka, Kanishka." These are the names recorded in the Raja Tarangini of three great Turushka (Turk or Tatar) kings, who were of the Buddhist religion. It may, perhaps, be taken for granted that Hushka and Jushka come in their natural succession, for the names might be transposed without detriment to the meter; but the short syllable of the name Kanishka is required where it stands by the rules of prosody, so that the position of the name in the verse is not decisive of his place in the succession of kings. Nothing is known of Jushka beyond the simple recital of his name as above quoted, but the names of Kanishka and Hushka (or Huvishka) have been found in inscriptions and upon coins, showing that their dominions were of considerable extent in Northern India, and that they were, as the Raja Tarangini represents, great supporters of the Buddhist religion. The name of Kanishka has been found in inscriptions at Mathura, Manikyala, Bhavalpur, and Zeda, while his name appears on the corrupt Greek coins as Kanerki. Huvishka's name has been found at Mathura and on a metal vase from Wardak in Afghanistan; on the coins his name is represented as Oerki. Kanishka preceded Huvishka, and it is certain that their reigns covered a period of fifty-one years, and probably more. The time at which they reigned seems to have been just before the Christian era. A Roman coin of the date 33 BCE was found in the tope of Manikyala, which was built by Kanishka.

Kanita: (sáns. hindú). Patronymic of Prithushravas (a Vedic prince).

Kanjalocana: (sáns. hindú). (kanja "lotus" + locana "eye") 1. The lotus-eyed. 2. Lalita.

Kanjanabha: (sáns. hindú). (kanja "lotus" + nabha "navel, center") He who has a lotus-navel; a name of Vishnu.

Kanjara: (sáns. hindú). A name of the Creator Brahma.

Kanjavadana: (sáns. hindú). (kanja "lotus" + vadana "face") The lotus-faced.

Kanja: (sáns. hindú). (kam "water" + ja "born") 1. The water-born. 2. A name of a lotus. 3. The nectar of immortality born from the milk ocean. 4. The Creator Brahma seated on Lord Vishnu's lotus-navel, Himself lying on the milk ocean.

Kanka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See bhatakataiya.

Kannan: (sáns. hindú). 1. Tamil name of Krishna. 2. An Alvar name for Krishna.

Kannapan: (sáns. hindú). The name of a hunter who devoutly worshipped Lord Shiva, offering his eye to God.

Kanshabadha: (sáns. hindú). A drama in seven acts upon the destruction of Kansha by Krishna. The author is called Krishna Kavi.

Kansha: (sáns. hindú). A tyrannical king of Mathura, son of Ugrasena and cousin of Devaki, the mother of Krishna; so he was a cousin, not an uncle, of Krishna, as he is often called. He married two daughters of Jarasandba, king of Magadha.

He deposed his father. It was foretold that a son born of Devaki should kill him, so he endeavored to destroy all her children. But Balarama, her seventh son, was smuggled away to Gokula, and was brought up by Rohini.

When Krishna, the eighth son, was born his parents fled with him. The tyrant then gave orders for a general massacre of all vigorous male infants. Kansha became the great persecutor of Krishna, but was eventually killed by him. Kansha is also called Kalankura, "crane." He is looked upon as an Asura, and is in some way identified with the Asura Kalanemi.

Kantaravasini: (sáns. hindú). (kantara "great forest" + vasini "dweller") 1. The forest-dweller. 2. A name of Durga.

Kanta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beloved, or the lovely. 2. Vishnu's 296th and 654th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A feminine name.

Kantha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kaitha.

Kantimati: (sáns. hindú). (kanti '"lovely" + mati "having") Having loveliness.

Kanti: (sáns. hindú). 1. The lovely. 2. A name of Lakshmi. 3. A name of Durga.

Kanvas: (sáns. hindú). The descendants or followers of Kanva.

Kanvayanas: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Kanva.

Kanva: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Rishi to whom some hymns of the Rigveda are ascribed; he is sometimes counted as one of the seven great Rishis. There is a sage by this name who brought up Shakuntala as his daughter. There are several others of the same name. See also Shatapatha Brahmana.

Kanva: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi who was one of the seers of the Rigveda and was a descendant of Kashyapa and the foster-father of Shakuntala.

Kanya: (sáns. hindú). 1. A virgin girl. 2. The younger. 3. The daughter. 4. A name of Durga, represented as a virgin girl. 5. A medicinal herb in the Atharvaveda. 6. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for a seven-year-old girl.

Kanyakubja: (sáns. hindú). The modern form of the name is Kanauj or Kinnauj, spelled in a variety of ways. 1. An ancient city of Hindustan on the Kalinadi, an affluent of the Ganges, and lying a little to the west of the latter. It was once the capital of a powerful dynasty. It was known to classical geographers as "Canogyza" The name means "humpbacked damsel," and refers to a legend relating to the hundred daughters of King Kushanabha, who were all made crooked by Vayu for refusing to comply with his licentious desires. 2. A great national division of the Brahman caste. See Brahman.

Kanya: (sáns. hindú). Kumari: (sáns. hindú). 1. The virgin-damsel. 2. A name of Durga, Her worship extended to the southernmost extremity of India in the days of Pliny, and "Kumari" still appears in the name Cape Comorin.

Kanyaratna: (sáns. hindú). (kanya "maiden" + ratna "jewel) The maiden jewel.

Kapardini: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having matted locks. 2. A name of the Goddcss Kali.

Kapardin: (sáns. hindú). "Wearing the kaparda," a peculiar braid or knot of hair. This epithet is applied to Shiva, to one of the Rudras, and some others.

Kapidhvaja: (sáns. hindú). An epithet of Arjuna, because he bore an ape (kapi) on his standard (dhvaja).

Kapikacchu: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See ancila.

Kapilavastu: (sáns. hindú). A town on the river Rohini, an affluent of the Rapti, which was the capital of Shuddhodana the father of Gotama Buddha.

Kapiladeva: (sáns. hindú). (kapila "tawny" + deva "god") 1. The tawny God. 2. The name of the author of a Smriti text.

Kapiladhara: (sáns. hindú). (kapila "tawny" + dhara "stream") 1. Having a tawny stream. 2. A name of Ganga (i.e. the holy River Ganges).

Kapilapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.

Kapilarudra: (sáns. hindú). (kapila "tawny" + rudra "destroyer") 1. The tawny Rudra (i.e. Lord Shiva). 2. The name of a poet.

Kapila: (sáns. hindú). 1. The tawny. 2. A name of Brahma. 3. A celebrated sage, the founder of the Sankhya philosophy. The Harivansha makes him the son of Vitatha. He is sometimes identified with Vishnu and sometimes with Agni. He is said to have destroyed the hundred thousand sons of King Sagara with a glance. See the Bhagavad Gita. See also Sagara.

Kapinjala: (sáns. hindú). A species of partridge.

Kapiprabhu: (sáns. hindú). (kapi "monkey" + prabhu "lord") 1. The Lord of the monkeys. 2. A name of Rama.

Kapiratha: (sáns. hindú). (kapi "monkey" + ratha "chariot") 1. He who has the monkeys as a chariot. 2. A name of Rama.

Kapishayana: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See draksha.

Kapisha: (sáns. hindú). Mother of the Pishachas, who bear the metronymic Kapisheya.

Kapishthala: (sáns. hindú). A patronymic of Durga.

Kapittha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kaitha.

Kapi: (sáns. hindú). An ape.

Kapusavarta: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See baigana.

Karali: (sáns. hindú). Dreadful, terrible. In Vedic times, one of the seven tongues of Agni (fire), but in later days a name of the terrible consort of Shiva. See Devi.

Karanja: (sáns. hindú). 1. A term used in the Kama Sutra for Pongamia glabra. 2. A Vedic demon.

Karata: (sáns. hindú). A name of Ganesha.

Karayitri: (sáns. hindú). 1. The causative. 2. Lalita.

Kardama: (sáns. hindú). 1. The shadow. 2. According to the Mahabharata and Ramayana he is one of the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma's shadow. According to other
authorities he, or another sage of the same name, was a son of Daksha or a son of Pulaha.

Karihari: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See indrayana.

Karikrata: (sáns. hindú). A species of serpents.

Karkandhu: (sáns. hindú). A protege of the Ashvins.

Karkati: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for cucumber.

Karma kanda: (sáns. hindú). The part of the Shruti relating to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites.

Karma yoni: (sáns. hindú). The active life of cognizant beings.

Karmamimansa Sutra: (sáns. hindú). A work on the Vedanta philosophy, ascribed to Jaimini.

Karmamimansa: (sáns. hindú). The Purvamimansa. See Darshana.

Karmanda: (sáns. hindú). The name of the author of the Bhikshu Sutras.

Karnapravaranas: (sáns. hindú). Men whose ears served them for coverings. They are mentioned in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, and other works.

Karnapita: (sáns. hindú). (karna "man's name" + pita "father") 1. Karna's father. 2. A name of Surya, the Sun-God.

Karnata, Karnataka: (sáns. hindú). The country where the Canarese language is spoken, in the central districts of the Peninsula including Mysore. The name "Carnatic" is derived from this.

Karna: (sáns. hindú). Son of Pritha or Kunti by Surya, the sun, before her marriage to Pandu. Karna was thus half-brother of the Pandavas, but this relationship was not known to them until after his death. Kunti, on one occasion, paid such attention to the sage Durvasas, that he gave her a charm by virtue of which she might have a child by any god she preferred to invoke. She chose the sun, and the result was Karna, who was born equipped with arms and armor. Afraid of censure and disgrace, Kunti exposed the child on the banks of the Yamuna, where it was found by Nandana or Adhiratha, the suta or charioteer of Dhritarashtra. The charioteer and his wife, Radha, brought him up as their own, and the child passed as such. When Karna grew up, Indra disguised himself as a Brahman, and cajoled him out of his divine cuirass. He gave him in return great strength and a javelin charged with certain death to whomsoever it was hurled against. Karna became king of Anga or Bengal. Some authorities represent his foster-father as having been ruler of that country, but others say that Karna was made king of Anga by Duryodhana, in order to qualify him to fight in the passage of arms at the svayamvara of Draupadi. This princess haughtily rejected him, saying, "I wed not with the base-born." Karna knew that he was half-brother of the Pandavas, but he took the side of their cousins, the Kauravas, and he had a special rivalry and animosity against Arjuna, whom he vowed to kill. In the great battle he killed Ghatotkacha, the son of Bhima, with Indra's javelin.

Afterwards there was a terrific combat between him and Arjuna, in which the latter was nearly overpowered, but he killed Karna with a crescent-shaped arrow. After Karna's death his relationship to the Pandavas became known to them, and they showed their regret for his loss by great kindness to his widows, children and dependants. From his father, Vikarttana (the sun), Karna was called Vaikarttana; from his foster-parents, Vasusena; from his foster-father's profession, Adhirathi and Suta; and from his foster-mother, Radheya. He was also called Angaraja, "king of Anga"; Champadhipa, "king of Champa"; and Kanina, "the bastard."

Karnikacala: (sáns. hindú). (karnika "central" + acala "mountain") 1. The central mountain. 2. A name of Mount Meru.

Karpani: (sáns. hindú). Gladness or happiness.

Karpasa: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for cotton.

Karpura: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Camphora officinarum, commonly known as camphor.

Karshni: (sáns. hindú). The descendant of Krishna.

Kartavirya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Kritavirya, king of the Haihayas. This is his patronymic, by which he is best known; his real name was Arjuna. "Having worshipped a portion of the divine being called Dattatreya, sprung from the race of Atri, he sought and obtained boons such as a thousand arms and a golden chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go; the power of restraining wrong by justice; the conquest of the earth and the disposition to rule it righteously; invincibility by enemies, and death at the hands of a man renowned over the whole world. By him this earth was perfectly governed," and of him it is said, "No other king shall ever equal Kartavirya in regard to sacrifices, liberality, austerities, courtesy, and self-restraint."

"Thus he ruled for 85,000 years with unbroken health, prosperity, strength, and valor." He visited the Hermitage of Jamadagni, and was received by his wife with all respect; but he made an ill return for her hospitality, and carried off by violence "the calf of the milch-cow of the sacred oblation."

For this outrage Parashurama cut off his thousand arms and killed him. In another place a different character is given to him, and more in accordance with his behavior at Jamadagni's hut. "He oppressed both men and gods," so that the latter appealed to Vishnu for help. Vishnu came down to the earth as Parashurama for the specific purpose of killing him. Kartavirya was the contemporary of Ravana, and when Ravana came "in the course of his campaign of conquest to Mahishmati (the capital of Kartavirya), he was captured without difficulty, and was confined like a wild beast in a corner of his city." The statement of the Vayupurana is that Kartavirya invaded Lanka, and there took Ravana prisoner.

Kartika: (sáns. hindú). 1. Month, such as from mid-October to mid-November. 2. A term used in the Kama Sutra for Lagenaria vulgaris. 3. The son of the six Pleiads (i.e. Krittikas). 2. One of the names of Shiva's son who is also known as Kumara, Muruga, Skanda, Subrahmanya, etc. The gods asked Lord Shiva to produce a son who would be able to kill a powerful demon. Thus Lord Shiva sent His energy first into the Fire-God Agni, then into the Goddess Ganga and finally into a thicket of reeds where the six Pleiades became his foster-mothers. According to many traditions this son remained a Brahmacari. He is identified with Brahma's son Sanatkumara. The Skandapurana bears his name. See the Bhagavad Gita.

Karttikeya: (sáns. hindú). The god of war and the planet Mars, also called Skanda. It is said in the Mahabharata and Ramayana that he was the son of Shiva or Rudra, and to have been produced without the intervention of a woman. Shiva cast his seed into fire, and it was afterwards received by the Ganges and Karttikeya was the result; hence he is called Agnibhu and Gangaja. He was fostered by the Pleiades (Krittika), and hence he has six heads and the name Karttikeya. His paternity is sometimes assigned to Agni (fire), and Ganga (the Ganges) and Parvati are variously represented to be his mother.

He vas born for the purpose of destroying Taraka, a Daitya whose austerities had made him formidable to the gods. He is represented riding on a peacock called Paravani, holding a bow in one hand and an arrow in the other. His wife is Kaumari or Sena. He has many titles: as a warrior he is called Mahasena; Senapati; Siddhasena, "leader of the Siddhas"; and Yudharanga; also Kumara, the boy; Guha, "the mysterious one"; Shaktidhara, "spear-holder"; and in the south he is called Subrahmanya. He is Gangaputra, "son of the Ganges"; Sharabhu, "born in the thicket"; Tarakajit, "vanquisher of Taraka"; Dvadashakara and Dvadashaksha, "twelve-handed" and "twelve-eyed;" Rijakaya, "straight-bodied." See Krauncha.

Karulati: (sáns. hindú). A name of Pushan.

Karunavati: (sáns. hindú). (karuna "compassion" + vati "having") Compassionate.

Karuna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Compassion. 2. Lakshmi.

Karushas: (sáns. hindú). A people of Malva, inhabiting the back of the Vindhya mountains.

They are said to be descended from Karusha, one of the sons of the Manu Vaivasvata.

Karu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The singer or poet. 2. The maker. 3. A name of the universal architect, Vishvakarma.

Karvari: (sáns. hindú). A name of Durga.

Kasarika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Gmelina arborea.

Kasarnila: (sáns. hindú). A species of serpents.

Kasarpila: (sáns. hindú). A species of serpents.

Kaseru: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kasarika.

Kashi Khanda: (sáns. hindú). A long poem, forming a part of the Skandapurana. It gives a very minute description of the temples of Shiva in and around Benares, and is presumably anterior to the Mohammedan conquest. See Skandapurana.

Kashinatha: (sáns. hindú). (kashi "shining" + natha "master") 1. The master of the shining city. 2. A name of Shiva as the patron of Benares.

Kashisha: (sáns. hindú). (kashi "shining" + isha "lord") The Lord of the shining city; a name of Shiva as the patron of Benares.

Kashishvara: (sáns. hindú). (kashi "shining" + ishvara "lord") The Lord of the shining City; a name of Shiva as the patron of Benares.

Kashishvari: (sáns. hindú). (kashi "shining" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") The sovereign Goddess of the shining city. A name of Parvati or Annapurna.

Kashi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The shining. 2. A name of the holy city of Benares.

Kashmari: (sáns. hindú). See khumbari.

Kashoju: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Vedic Prince.

Kashtha: (sáns. hindú). The culmination.

Kashu: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic prince.

Kashyapa: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic sage to whom some hynns are attributed. Most authorities agree in assigning to him a large part in the work of creation. According to the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas, he was the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma, and he was father of Vivashvat, the father of Manu, the progenitor of humankind. The following, from the Shatapatha Brahmana gives a different and not very intelligible account of his origin, "Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot); hence the word kurma (tortoise), Kashyapa means tortoise; hence men say, 'All creatures are descendants of Kashyapa.' This tortoise is the same as Aditya." The Atharvaveda says, "The self-born Kashyapa sprang from Time," and Time is often identical with Vishnu. The Mahabharata and later authorities agree in representing that Kashyapa married Aditi and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Through his union with Aditi he begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Vivashvat, and "to Vivashvat was born the wise and mighty Manu." The Ramayana and Vishnupurana also state that "Vishnu was born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi and Kashyapa." By his other twelve wives he had a numerous and very diversified offspring-demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is sometimes called Prajapati. He is one of the seven great Rishis, and he appears as the priest of Parashurama and Ramachandra.

Kashyapa: (sáns. hindú). The name of a great Rishi who was the son of Marici the husband of Aditi and the father of Vishnu in His dwarf incarnation. He is called Prajapati, "the progenitor of beings."

Kasturi: (sáns. hindú). 1. In the Atharvaveda, the plant Amaryllis zeylanica. This plant is mentioned, among others, as being a cure for leprosy, bronchitis, diabetes, boils and wounds. 2. The term used also in the Kama Sutra for musk.

Katapru: (sáns. hindú). 1. Worm. 2. A class of beings similar to or identical with the Vidyadharas.

Katantra: (sáns. hindú). A Sanskrit grammar by Sarvavarman.

Kata: (sáns. hindú). The name of a sage.

Kathasaritsagara: (sáns. hindú). The ocean of the rivers of stories. A collection of popular stories by Somadevabhatta of Kashmir, made about the beginning of the twelfth century CE. It is drawn from a larger work called Brihatkatha.

Kathaka: (sáns. hindú). A school or recension of the Yajurveda, occupying a position between the Black and the White. It is supposed to be lost.

Katharnava: (sáns. hindú). Sea of stories. A compilation of miscellaneous stories in four books; the first two are the originals of the Hindi Baital Pachisi and Singhasan Battisi.

Katha: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Upanishad.

Kattha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See khadira.

Katyayana: (sáns. hindú). An ancient writer of great celebrity, who came after Panini, whose grammar he completed and corrected in what he called Varttikas, "supplementary rules and annotations." He is generally identified with Vararuchi, the author of the Prakrita Prakasha. Max Müller placed him in the second half of the fourth century CE. Goldstücker placed him in the first half of the second century BCE; Weber about twenty-five years BCE.

Besides his additions to Panini's Grammar, he was the author of the Shrauta Sutras which bear his name, and of the Yajurveda Pratishakhya. A story in the Kathasaritsagara makes him the incarnation of a demigod named Pushpadanta. A Katyayana was author also of a Dharma Shastra.

Katyayani: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Durga. 2. The name of Yajnavalkya's second wife.

Katyayani: (sáns. hindú). A name of Durga. See Devi.

Kaumara: (sáns. hindú). The creation of the Kumaras.

Kaumodaki: (sáns. hindú). The mace of Krishna, presented to him by Agni when engaged with
him in fighting against Indra and burning the Khandava forest.

Kaumundi: (sáns. hindú). Moonlight personified. Kaumundi or Jyotsna, according to Ludwig, is the wife or power of the moon. Earlier concepts were that Kaumundi was the moon's light as borrowed from the sun.

Kauncha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See ancila.

Kaundinya: (sáns. hindú). An ancient sage and grammarian. He offended Shiva, but was saved from his wrath by Vishnu; therefore, he was called Vishnugupta, "saved by Vishnu."

Kaunteya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Kunti. A metronymic applicable to Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna, but commonly applied to Arjuna.

Kaurauana: (sáns. hindú). Patronymic of a Vedic prince.

Kauravas: (sáns. hindú). Descendants of Kuru. A patronymic especially applied to the sons of Dhritarashtra. See Mahabharata.

Kausalya: (sáns. hindú). (This word is feminine if the terminal "a" is long.) Belonging to the Kosala nation. There are several women known by this name. The wife of Puru and mother of Janamejaya. The wife of Dasharatha and mother of Rama (See Dasharatha) The mother of Dhritarashtra and the mother of Pandu both were known by this name, being daughters of a king of Kashi.

Kaushambi: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Vatsa, near the junction of the Ganges and Jumna.

An inscription found at Karra on the Ganges mentions it as being situated in Kaushambi-mandala-the circle of Kaushambi.

Kaushikapriya: (sáns. hindú). (kaushika "son of Kusika" + priya "beloved") 1. Beloved of Kaushika (i.e. of Vishvamitra). 2. A name of Rama who was given divine weapons and mantras by Rishi Vishvamitra.

Kaushikas: (sáns. hindú). Descendants of Kaushika. In one of the hymns of the Rigveda the epithet is given to Indra.

Kaushika: (sáns. hindú). 1. A devotee mentioned in the Mahabharata as having gone to a hell of torment for having pointed out to robbers a road by which they pursued and killed some persons who fled from them. 2. God of Kushikas, Indra. 3. The son of Kushika. 4. A name of King Vishvamitra who was born as a Kshatriya and raised to a Brahmarshi through his great power of asceticism. He is the seer of the Gayatri Mantra.

Kaushiki: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Durga. 2. The river Koshi in Bihar, but there were more rivers than one bearing this name. Satyavati, mother of Jamadagni is said to have been changed into a river of this name.

Kaushitaki: (sáns. hindú). 1. A shakha (recension) of the Rigveda. 2. The name of a Brahmana, an Aranyaka, and a Upanishad. See the individual terms.

Kaushya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for natural silk.

Kaustubha: (sáns. hindú). The jewel of the milk ocean (i.e. the fabulous jewel which came out of the churning of the milk ocean and which became the ornament of Vishnu's chest). This represents pure consciousness shining in all luminous manifestations.

Kautilya: (sáns. hindú). Another name of Chanakya, the minister of Chandragupta. See Chanakya.

Kautsa: (sáns. hindú). A rationalistic philosopher, who lived before the days of Yaska the author of the Nirukta. He regarded "the Veda as devoid of meaning, and the Brahmanas as false interpretations." Yaska replied to his objections.

Kavacha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See ancila.

Kavacin: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having an armor, which is the name of Shiva.

Kavasha, Kavasha-ailusha: (sáns. hindú). Son of Ilusha by a slave girl. He was the author of several hymns in the tenth book of the Rigveda. The Aitareya Brahmana relates that the Rishis were performing a sacrifice on the banks of the Sarasvati, and that Kavasha was with them; but they drove him from among them because he was the son of a slave, and therefore unworthy to drink the water of the Sarasvati. When he was alone in the desert, a prayer was revealed to him by which he prevailed over the Sarasvati and its waters came and surrounded him. The Rishis saw this, and knowing that it was by the special favor of the gods, they admitted him to their society. He may have been a priest of one of the Vaikarna tribes.

Kavela: (sáns. hindú). A name meaning "The lotus."

Kaveri: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the seven holy rivers of India. It is the holy river of Tamil Nadu, South India.

Kavindra: (sáns. hindú). (kavi "poet" + indra "chief") The chief of poets; a name of Valmiki.

Kavindu: (sáns. hindú). (kavi "poet" + indu "moon") The moon of poets; a name of Valmiki.

Kavishvara: (sáns. hindú). (kavi poet" + ishvara "lord") The lord of poets; a name of Valmiki.

Kavita: (sáns. hindú). Poetry.

Kavi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Poet, sage, seer. 2. Vishnu's 132nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. See the Bhagavad Gita. 3. A name of several Gods. 4. A name of Valmiki. 5. A name of Ushana, the teacher of the Asuras. 6. The father of Urshana.

Kavyalola: (sáns. hindú). (kavya "poetry" + lola "fond of) 1. Fond of poetry. 2. Lalita.

Kavyas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Pitris. According to some they are the Manes of men of the third caste.

Kavya: (sáns. hindú). Ushana, Kavi's son.

Kayavya: (sáns. hindú). The son of a Kshatriya by a Nishada female, who is related in the Mahabharata to have risen by virtue, knowledge, and devotion from the state of a Dasyu to perfection.

Ka: (sáns. hindú). The interrogative pronoun "who." This word has been raised to the position of a deity. In the words of Max Müller, "The authors of the Brahmanas had so completely broken with the past that, forgetful of the poetical character of the hymns (of the Veda) and the yearning of the poets after the unknown god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun itself into a deity, and acknowledged a god Ka or Who? In the Taittiriya Brahmana, in the Kaushitaki Brahmana, in the Tandya Brahmana and in the Shatapatha Brahmana, wherever interrogative verses occur, the author states that Ka is Prajapati, or the lord of creatures. Nor did they stop here. Some of the hymns in which the interrogative pronoun occurred were called "Kadvat," i.e., having kad or quid. But soon a new adjective was formed, and not only the hymns but the sacrifice also offered to the god were called Kaya or Who-ish . . . At the time of Panini, this word had acquired such legitimacy as to call for a separate rule explaining its formation. The commentator here explains Ka by Brahman. After this we can hardly wonder that in the later Sanskrit literature of the Puranas, Ka appears as a recognized god, as a supreme god, with a genealogy of his own, perhaps even with a wife; and that in the laws of Manu one of the recognized forms of marriage, generally known by the name of the Prajapati marriage, occurs under the monstrous. title of Kaya." The Mahabharata identifies Ka with Daksha, and the Bhagavatapurana applies the term to Kashyapa, no doubt in consequence of their great generative powers and similarity to Prajapati.

Kedaresha, Kedaranatha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Shiva. 2. The name of one of the twelve great Lingas. It is a shapeless mass of stone at Kedaranatha in the Himalayas. See Linga.

Kekayas: (sáns. hindú). See Kaikeyas.

Kekaya: (sáns. hindú). See Kaikeya.

Keli-kela: (sáns. hindú). A demigod attendant upon Shiva.

Kena, Kenopanishad: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Upanishad.

Kerakas: (sáns. hindú). According to the Mahabharata, the Kerakas are one-footed men who live in forests.

Kerala: (sáns. hindú). The country of Malabar proper on the western coast of India.

Kereshani: (sáns. hindú). Iranian form of Krishanu.

Kesara: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for saffron.

Keshava: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beautiful-haired. 2. A name of Krishna. 3. Vishnu's 23rd and 648th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. He who controls Brahma (ka), Vishnu (a) and Shiva (isha) is Keshava (ka + a + isha), 5. He who Killed the demon Keshi is called Keshava. 6. He who owns the rays of the sun and other luminaries.

Keshi, Keshin: (sáns. hindú). In the Mahabharata, a demon who fought with and was defeated by Indra. In the Puranas, a Daitya who took the form of a horse and attacked Krishna, but was killed by Krishna's thrusting of his arm into the demon's jaws and tearing him to pieces.

Keshidhvaja: (sáns. hindú). Son of Kritadhvaja. Keshidhvaja "was endowed with spiritual Knowledge," and he had a cousin, Khandikya, who "was diligent in the way of works and was renown for religious rites." There was contention and hostilities between them, and Khandikya was driven from his dominion. They subsequently became useful to each other and friendly. Khandikya, by his practical religion, enabled Keshidhvaja to make atonement for the killing of a cow, and Keshidhvaja initiated Khandikya in the mysteries of spiritual meditation (yoga).

Keshini: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Vishravas and mother of Ravana; also called Kaikasi.

Keshins: (sáns. hindú). Long-haired. A name for Agni, Vayu, or Surya.

Ketaki: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Pandanus odoratissimus, commonly known as the screw pine.

Ketu: (sáns. hindú). The descending node in astronomy, represented by a dragon's tail; also a comet or meteor, and the ninth of the planets. He is said to be a Danava, and son of Viprachitti and Sinhika. He is also called Akacha, "hairless"; Ashleshabhava, "cut off"; Munda, "bald." See Rahu.

Kevala: (sáns. hindú). 1. The alone. 2. The one. 3. The absolute.

Kevalini: (sáns. hindú). See Kevala.

Khadira: (sáns. hindú). 1. A species of tree mentioned in the Vedas, the Acacia catechu.

Khadi: (sáns. hindú). A circular object such as a ring, discus, or quoit.

Khadyotana: (sáns. hindú). (kha "sky, space" + dyotana "illuminator") 1. The sky-
illuminator. 2. A name of Surya, the Sun-God.

Khaga: (sáns. hindú). (kha "sky, space" + ga "to go") 1. Moving in space. 2. A name of the divine eagle Garuda.

Khajit: (sáns. hindú). (kha "sky, space" + jit "conqueror") 1. The conqueror of heaven. 2. The name of a Buddha.

Khakamini: (sáns. hindú). (kha "sky, space" + kamini "desiring") Desiring or loving the sky.

Khakuntala: (sáns. hindú). (kha "sky, space" + kuntala "hair") He whose hair is the sky; a name of Shiva.

Khalaraga: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for degrading love.

Khandava, Khandavaprastha: (sáns. hindú). A forest and country on the banks of the Yamuna, which the Pandavas received as their moiety when Dhritarashtra divided his kingdom. In it they built the city of Indraprastha and made it their capital. The forest was consumed with fire by the god Agni assisted by Krishna and Arjuna.

Khandikya: (sáns. hindú). See Keshidhvaja.

Khapaga: (sáns. hindú). (kha "sky, space" + apaga "river") The heavenly stream; a name of Ganga.

Khara: (sáns. hindú). A man-eating Rakshasa, the younger brother of Ravana. He was killed by Ramachandra.

Kharva: (sáns. hindú). A dwarf. See Valakhilya.

Khasa: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kashyapa, and mother of the Yakshas and Rakshasas, called after her Khashatmajas.

Khashas, Khasakas, Khashikas: (sáns. hindú). An outlying or border people classed with the Shakas and other northern tribes. Professor Wilson thought that traces of them might be sought among the barbarous tribes on the northeast of Bengal, the Khasiyas.

Khasha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Angara.

Khatvanga: (sáns. hindú). 1. A prince of the Solar race. In a battle between the gods and the demons he rendered great assistance to the gods, who desired him to ask a boon. He begged that he might know the duration of his life, and the answer was, "Only an hour." He hastened to the world of mortals, and by earnest prayer he became united with the supreme being, Vishnu. The Vishnupurana states, "Like unto Khatvanga will there be no one upon earth, who, having come from heaven and dwelt an hour amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his liberality and knowledge of truth." See also Dilipa. 2. A club: the club of Shiva; it is also called Khinkhira and Panshula.

Khayar: (sáns. hindú). See Khadira.

Khela: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Vedic king.

Khidira: (sáns. hindú). An ascetic.

Khumbari: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Gynandropis pentaphylla, commonly known as the yellow grape.

Kichaka: (sáns. hindú). A brother in-law of the king of Virata, who was commander of the forces and general director of the affairs of the kingdom. He mated with Draupadi, and was slain by Bhima, who rolled his bones and flesh into a ball, so that no one could tell how he was killed.

Kikatas: (sáns. hindú). A nonAryan people.

Kikata: (sáns. hindú). A country inhabited by people who were not Aryans; it is identified with Magadha or South Bihar.

Kilakila: (sáns. hindú). The sound of joy; a name of Shiva.

Kilala: (sáns. hindú). Ambrosia.

Kilatakuli: (sáns. hindú). (Kilata + Akuli). Two priests of the Asuras, who, according to the Shatapatha Brahmana, exercised a special influence between Manu and an "Asura-slaying voice."

Kimpurusha: (sáns. hindú). 1. What man? An indescribable man; one of a low type, partaking of the nature and appearance of animals. In later times it is synonymous with Kinnara. 2. Name of a region between Himavat and Hemakuta. See Jambudvipa. A king of the latter region was also called by the name.

Kimidins: (sáns. hindú). Mischievous fiends.

Kimshuka: (sáns. hindú). A tree; the Butea frondosa.

Kinnaras: (sáns. hindú). What men? Mythical beings with the form of a man and the head of a horse. They are celestial choristers and musicians, dwelling in the paradise of Kuvera on Kailasa. They spring from the toe of Brahma with the Yakshas, but according to others, they are sons of Kasyapa. They are also called Ashvamukhas, Turangavaktras (both words) meaning "horse-faced," and Mayus, "bleater," or "bellower."

Kine: (sáns. hindú). Rays of light, streams of rain.

Kiratarjuniya: (sáns. hindú). A poem descriptive of the combat between Shiva in the guise of a Kirata or mountaineer and the Pandu prince Arjuna. The story is first told in the Mahabharata, and has been worked up in this artificial poem of eighteen cantos by Bharavi. See Arjuna.

Kiratas: (sáns. hindú). Foresters and mountaineers living in the mountains east of Hindustan. They are described in the Ramayana as "islanders, who eat raw fish, live in the waters, and are men-tigers" (according to some commentators they are men below and tigers above). Their females are described as "gold-colored and pleasant to behold," and as having
"sharp-pointed hair-knots." They are perhaps the Cirrhadæ placed on the Coromandel coast by classic writer. There is a tribe in the Central Himalayas called Kirantis.

Kirata: (sáns. hindú). A mountain tribe residing in woods and mountains and living by hunting. These people were degraded for having neglected the prescribed rituals. They came to be regarded as Mlecchas.

Kirati: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Durga. 2. A name of Ganga.

Kirin: (sáns. hindú). The praiser, poet.

Kirmira: (sáns. hindú). A monster Rakshasa, brother of Vaka. He opposed the entrance of the Pandavas into the Kamyaka forest, and threatened that he would eat Bhima. A furious combat ensued, in which Bhima and he hurled large trees at each other, but the demon was, at length, strangled and had all his bones broken by Bhima.

Kirti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Fame, glory. 2. The wife of Dharma, virtue.

Kishkindhya: (sáns. hindú). A country on the peninsula, thought to be in the Mysore, which was taken by Rama from the monkey king Bali, and given back to his brother Sugriva, the friend and ally of Rama The capital city was Kishkindhya.

Kishora: (sáns. hindú). The youthful.

Kishori: (sáns. hindú). 1. The youthful. 2. A name of Kumari.

Kodanda: (sáns. hindú). 1. He who has a bow. In the Mundaka Upanishad there is a simile for a bow: "OM is the bow, the individual self is the arrow and the Absolute is said to be the target." 2. A name of Shiva. 3. A name of Rama.

Kohala: (sáns. hindú). An ancient sage, to whom the invention of the drama is attributed; also a writer on music.

Kokilaksha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Asterakantha longifolia.

Kolambi: (sáns. hindú). The lute of Shiva.

Konavadin: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva.

Konhadu: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for an unknown plant or herb.

Kophen: (sáns. hindú). The Greek name for the Kabul river.

Kosala: (sáns. hindú). A country on the Sharayu river, having Ayodhya for its capital. The name is variously applied to other countries in the east, and in the south, and in the Vindhya mountains. It probably widened with the dominions of its rulers, and part of Birar is called Dakshina-Kosala, the Southern Kosala.

Koshala: (sáns. hindú). The modern Oudh.

Kotavi, Kotari, Kottavi: (sáns. hindú). A naked woman. A mystical goddess, the tutelary deity of the Daityas, and mother of Bana, the demon. The name is sometimes applied to Durga.

Kramapatha: (sáns. hindú). See Patha.

Kratu: (sáns. hindú). 1. One of the Prajapatis, and sometimes reckoned among the great Rishis and mind-born sons of Brahma. (See Rishi). The Vishnupurana says that his wife Samnati brought forth the 60,000 Valikhilyas, pigmy sages no bigger than a joint of the thumb. 2.According to Wilson, as quoted by Griffith, either an act (karma) or power (prajna).

Krauncha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A pass situated somewhere in the Himalayas, said to have been opened by Parasurama with his arrows to make a passage from Kailasa to the south. The Vayupurana attributes the splitting of the mountain to Karttikeya. Indra and Karttikeya had a dispute about their respective powers, and agreed to decide it by running a race around the mountain. They disagreed as to the result, and therefore appealed to the mountain, who deceitfully decided in favor of Indra. "Karttikeya hurled his lance at the mountain and pierced, all at once, the mountain and the demon Mahisha." 2. A confederate of the demon Taraka, against whom Karttikeya led the gods and triumphed. 3. One of the seven Dvipas. See Dvipa.

Kravyad: (sáns. hindú). A flesh-eater. A Rakshasa or any carnivorous animal. In the Veda, Agni is in one place called a Kravyad of terrible power. Fire is also a Kravyad in consuming bodies on the funeral pyre. See Agni.

Krikla: (sáns. hindú). One of the vital airs.

Krimi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for silk.

Kripadhara: (sáns. hindú). (kripa "compassion, mercy" + dhara "bearer") The bearer of mercy or compassion.

Kripalu: (sáns. hindú). (kripa "compassion, mercy" + alu "having the disposition of") The compassionate, merciful.

Kripamayi: (sáns. hindú). (kripa "compassion, mercy" + mayi "full of") Full of compassion (i.e. compassionate, merciful).

Kripanyu: (sáns. hindú). The praiser of God.

Kripapara: (sáns. hindú). (kripa "compassion, mercy" + apara "unrivalled") Having unrivalled mercy or compassion.

Kripasagara: (sáns. hindú). (kripa "compassion, mercy" + sagara "ocean") The ocean of mercy or compassion.

Kripa: (sáns. hindú). Mercy, compassion, grace.

Kripa: (sáns. hindú). Son of the sage Sharadvat, and the adopted son of King Shantanu. He became one of the privy council at Hastinapura, and was one of the three surviving Kuru warriors who made the murderous night attack upon the camp of the Pandavas. He was also called Gautama and Sharadvata.

Kripi: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Drona and mother of Ashvatthaman. The sage Sharadvat (or Gotama) so alarmed Indra by his austerities that the god sent a nymph to tempt him. Though she was unsuccessful, two children were found born to the sage in a tuft of grass. King Shantanu found them and brought them up out of compassion (kripa), whence their names, Kripa and Kripi. The children passed as Shantanu's own. Drona was a Brahman and Shantanu a Kshatriya; the myth makes Kripi a Brahmani, and so accounts for her being the wife of Drona. The Vishnupurana represents them as children of Satyadhriti, grandson of Sharadvat by the nymph Urvashi, and as being exposed in a clump of long grass.

Krishanga: (sáns. hindú). (krisha "thin" + anga "limb") 1. The thin-bodied. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His subtleness beyond the range of senses.

Krishanu: (sáns. hindú). A guardian of the Celestial Soma.

Krisha: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi.

Krishkara: (sáns. hindú). (krish "carry away" + kara "doer, maker) 1. The withdrawer. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His dissolving the whole universe at the end of a cosmic cycle.

Krishna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Black. This name occurs in the Rigveda, but without any relation to the great deity of later times. The earliest mention of Krishna, the son of Devaki, is in the Chandogya Upanishad, where he appears as a scholar.

There was a Rishi of the name who was a son of Vishvaka. There was also a great Asura so named, who with 10,000 followers committed fearful devastation, until he was defeated and skinned by Indra. In another Vedic hymn, 50,000 Krishnas are said to have been slain, and it is added in another that his pregnant wives were slain with him that he might leave no posterity. This is supposed to have reference to the Rakshasas or to the dark-colored aborigines of India. The modern deity Krishna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology, and the most popular of all the deities. He is said to be the eighth Avatara or incarnation of Vishnu, or rather a direct manifestation of Vishnu himself. This hero, around whom a vast mass of legend and fable has been gathered, probably lived in the Epic age, when the Hindu had not advanced far beyond their early settlements in the northwest. He appears prominently in the Mahabharata, where his character is invested with a certain degree of mysticism. Additions and interpolations have raised him to divinity, and it is in the character of the "Divine One" that he delivered the celebrated song, Bhagavad-Gita, a production of comparatively late date, now held to be part of the great epic. In this work he distinctly declares himself to be the Supreme Being.

He says, "All this universe has been created by me; all things exist in me;" and Arjuna addresses him as "the supreme universal spirit, the supreme dwelling, the eternal person, divine, prior to the gods, unborn, omnipresent." The divine character of Krishna having thus been established, it was still further developed in the Harivansha, a later addition to the Mahabharata; and in the Puranas, especially in the Bhagavatapurana, it attained full expansion. There the story of the life of Krishna, from his earliest days, is related with minute details, and it is upon this portion of his life that the popular mind delights to dwell. The mischievous pranks of the child, the follies of the boy, and the amours of the youth, are the subjects of boundless wonder and delight. All these stories, as told in the Bhagavatapurana, have been made accessible and popular by the Hindi translation known by the name Prem Sagar, "ocean of love," and other versions. Much of the story of the early days of Krishna is thus of comparatively modern invention, while the incidents of his relations with the Pandava princes are among the most ancient. Krishna was of the Yadava race, being descended from Yadu, one of the sons of Yayati. The Yadavas of old were a pastoral race, and dwelt on the river Yamuna (Jumna), in Vrindavana, on the western side, and in Gokula on the other. In those days, Kansha, Raja of the Bhojas, having deposed his father, Ugrasena, ruled in the city of Mathura, near Vrindavana. Ugrasena had a brother named Devaka, and Devaka had a daughter named Devaki, who married Vasudeva, son of Shura, also a descendant of Yadu. The history of Krishna's birth, as given in the Mahabharata and followed by the Vishnupurana, is that Vishnu plucked out two of his own hairs, one white, the other black. These two hairs entered the wombs of Rohini and Devaki; the white hair became Balarama and the black (krishna) hair (kesa) became Krishna or Kesava. His reputed father, Vasudeva, was brother of Kunti, the wife of Pandu, and so Krishna was cousin of the three older Pandava princes.

The Mahabharata gives two summaries of his exploits, of which the following are abridgments: "While Krishna was growing up as a high-souled boy in the tribe of cowherds, the force of his arms was rendered famous by him in the three worlds." He slew the king of the Hayas (horses), dwelling in the woods of the Yamuna. He slew the direful Danava, who bore the form of a bull. He also slew Pralambha, Naraka, Jambha, and Pitha, the great Asura, and Muru. He overthrew and slew Kansha, who was supported by Jarasandha. With the help of Balarama he defeated and destroyed Sunaman, brother of Kansha and king of the Shurasenas. He carried off the daughter of the king of the Gandharas at a svayamvara, and princes were yoked to his car. He secured the death of Jarasandha and slew Shishupala. He overthrew Saubha, the self-supporting or flying city of the Daityas, on the shore of the ocean. He conquered the Angas and Bangas, and numerous other tribes. Entering the ocean filled with marine monsters, he overcame Varuna. In Patala he slew Panchajana, and obtained the divine shell Panchajanya. With Arjuna he propitiated Agni in the Khandava forest, and obtained the fiery weapon the discus.

Mounted on Garuda, he alarmed Amaravati, the city of Indra, and brought away the Parijata tree from there. In another passage, Arjuna rehearses some of Krishna's exploits. He destroyed the Bhoja kings in battle, and carried off Rukmini for his bride. He destroyed the Gandharas, vanquished the sons of Nagnajit, and released King Sudarshana, whom they had bound. He slew Pandya with the fragment of a door, and crushed the Kalingas in Dantakura. Through him the burned city of Benares was restored. He killed Ekalavya, king of the Nishadas, and the demon Jambha. With the aid of Balarama he killed Sunaman, the wicked son of Ugrasena, and restored the kingdom to the latter. He conquered the flying city of Saubha and the king of the Shalvas, and there he obtained the fiery weapon Shataghni. Naraka, son of the earth, had carried off the beautiful jewelled earrings of Aditi to Pragjyotisha, the impregnable castle of the Asuras. The gods, headed by Indra, were unable to prevail against Naraka, so they appointed Krishna to slay him.

Accordingly he killed Muru and the Rakshasa Ogha; and finally he slew Naraka and brought back the earrings. It further appears in different parts of the Mahabharata that Krishna, prince of Dvaraka, was present at the svayamvara of Draupadi, and gave his judgment that she had been fairly won by Arjuna. While the Pandavas were reigning at Indraprastha, he paid them a visit, and went out hunting with them in the Khandava forest. There he and Arjuna allied themselves with Agni, who was desirous of burning the Khandava forest, but was prevented by Indra. Agni having secured the help of Krishna and Arjuna, he gave the former the celebrated cakra (discus).

Vajranabha, and the club Kaumodaki. Then Indra was defeated and Agni burned the forest. Arjuna afterwards visited Krishna at Dvaraka, and was received with great demonstrations of joy. Arjuna, with the connivance of Krishna, eloped with Subhadra, Krishna's sister, much to the annoyance of Balarama her elder brother. When Yudhishthira was desirous of performing the Rajasuya sacrifice, Krishna told him that he must first conquer Jarasandha, King of Magadha. Jarasandha was attacked and slain, and Krishna was thus revenged upon the enemy who had forced him to leave Mathura and emigrate to Dvaraka. Krishna attended the Rajasuya sacrifice performed by Yudhishthira, and there he met Sishupala, whose betrothed wife he had carried off.

Sishupala reviled him and acted very violently, so Krishna cast his discus and cut off his enemy's head. He was present at the gambling match between Yudhishthira and the Kauravas. When Draupadi had been staked and lost, she was dragged into the public hall by Duhshasana, who tore off her clothes, but Krishna pitied her, and renewed her clothes as fast as they were torn away. After the close of the exile of the Pandavas, Krishna was present, and took part in the council which preceded the great war, and strongly advised a peaceful settlement. Then he returned to Dvaraka. Thither Arjuna and Duryodhana followed him with the object of enlisting his services in the coming war, but he refused to take any active part because he was related to both parties. He gave them the choice of his personal attendance or of the use of his army. Arjuna, who had arrived first, and therefore had the first choice, asked for Krishna himself, and Duryodhana joyfully accepted the army. Krishna then became the charioteer of Arjuna. After this, at the request of the Pandavas, he went in splendid state to Hastinapura as a mediator, but his efforts were unavailing, and he returned. Preparation for action were then made and the forces drawn out.

On the eve of the battle, while acting as Arjuna's charioteer, he is represented as relating to Arjuna the Bhagavad Gita or divine song. He rendered valuable services to Arjuna throughout the battle, but on two occasions he suggested unfair dealing. He prompted the lie by which Yudhishthira broke down the prowess of Drona, and he suggested the foul blow by which Bhima shattered the thigh of Duryodhana. He afterwards went to Hastinapura with the conquerors, and he also attended their Ashvamedha sacrifice. On returning to Dvaraka he issued a proclamation forbidding the use of wine. Portents and fearful signs appeared, and a general feeling of alarm spread among all in Dvaraka. Krishna gave directions that the inhabitants should go out to Prabhasa on the seashore and endeavor to propitiate the deity. He gave permission also that wine might be drunk for one day. A drunken brawl followed, in which his son Pradyumna was killed in his presence, and nearly all the chiefs of the Yadavas were slain. Balarama went out from the fray and died peacefully under a tree, and Krishna himself was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras, who shot him with an arrow, mistaking him at a distance for a deer. Arjuna proceeded to Dvaraka and performed the obsequies of Krishna.

A few days afterwards the city was swallowed up by the sea. Five of Krishna's widows were subsequently burned upon a funeral pyre in the plain of Kurukshetra. Muir stated, "Among the texts of the Mahabharata, there are some in which Krishna is distinctly subordinated to Mahadeva (Shiva), of whom he is exhibited as a worshipper, and from whom, as well as from his wife Uma, he is stated to have received a variety of boons. Even in these passages, however, a superhuman character is ascribed to Krishna. The popular history of Krishna, especially of his childhood and youth, is given in the Puranas, and is the subject of many stories. The Bhagavatapurana is the great authority, and from that the following account is condensed: The sage Nrarada had foretold to Kansha that a son of Devali, his brother's daughter, should destroy him and overthrow his kingdom. To obviate this danger, Kansha kept his cousin Devaki confined in his own palace, and six children that she bore he caused to be put to death. She conceived a seventh time, but the child was an incarnation of Vishnu, and was miraculously preserved by being transferred from the womb of Devaki to that of Rohini, who was Vasudeva's second wife.

This child was Balarama. Devaki again conceived, and her eighth child was born at midnight with a very dark skin, hence he was called Krishna. He had a peculiar curl of hair, called Srivatsa, upon his breast. The gods interposed to preserve the life of this divinely begotten child. The guards of the palace were overpowered with sleep, and bolts and barriers were removed. Vasudeva took up the child and escaped with him from Mathura. He repaired to the bank of the Yamuna (Jumna), and, crossing the river, went to the house of Nanda, a cowherd, whose wife, Yasoda, had on that very night been delivered of a female child. Vasudeva secretly changed the infants, and carried back the daughter of Yasoda to his wife Devaki. Kansha discovered that he had been cheated, and in his wrath he ordered that every male infant that gave signs of vigor should be put to death. Vasudeva and Devaki, being no longer dangerous, were set at liberty. Nanda, alarmed by the order for the massacre, took the young child and removed with Yasoda, Rohini and Balarama to Gokula. There Krishna was brought up, and wandered about in company of his elder brother Balarama. They played many pranks and passed many practical jokes; but they exhibited such marvellous strength and such godlike powers that they soon became famous. Kansha was continually forming schemes for the death of Krishna. The female demon Putana assumed a lovely form, and tried to kill Krishna by suckling him, but the child sucked away her life instead.

Another demon tried to drive a cart over him, but he dashed the cart to pieces. A demon named Trinavartta took the form of a whirlwind and flew off with him, but the child brought the demon to the ground with such violence that he died. One day Krishna broke the vessels of milk and curds and ate the butter, which made Yasoda angry. She fastened a rope around his body, and tied him to a large bowl, but he dragged the bowl away until it caught between two trees and uprooted them. From this feat he acquired the name of Damodara (rope-belly). He had a terrible conflict with the great serpent Kaliya, who lived in the Yamuna, and Krishna compelled Kaliya to go away.

On one occasion, when the gopis or milkmaids were bathing, he took away all their clothes and climbed up a tree, and there he remained until the damsels came to him naked to recover them. He persuaded Nanda and the cowherds to give up the worship of Indra, and to worship the mountain Govardhana, which sheltered them and their cattle. Incensed at the loss of his offerings, Indra poured down a heavy rain, which would have deluged them, but Krishna lifted up the mountain Govardhana, and held it upon his finger as a shelter for seven days and nights, until Indra felt that he was foiled. From this feat he obtained the name of Govardhanadhara and Tungisha. As he had protected the cattle, Indra expressed his satisfaction, and gave him the title of Upendra. He was now approaching manhood, and was very handsome. The gopis were all enamored of him, and he dispensed his favors very freely. He married seven or eight of them, but his first and favorite wife was Radha. At this period of his life he is represented with flowing hair and with a flute in his hand. One of his favorite pastimes was a round dance, called Mandalanritya or Rasamandala, in which he and Radha formed the center while the gopis danced around them. But his happiness was interrupted by the machinations of Kansha, who sent formidable demons to destroy him Arihta in the form of a bull, and Keshin in the form of a horse.

Those attempts having failed, Kansha sent his messenger, Akrura, to invite Krishna and Balarama to Mathura to attend some games, and he formed several plans for their destruction. They accepted the invitation, and went to Mathura. Near the city they found Kansha's washer-man engaged in his work. They threw down some of his clothes, and he addressed them insolently, upon which they killed him, and took such clothes as they liked. In his progress he met Kubja, a crooked damsel, who gave him some unguent, and he repaid her gift by making her straight. In the games he killed Chunura, the king's boxer. Afterwards he killed Kansha himself, and replaced Ugrasena on the throne. He remained in Mathura and studied the science of arms under Sandipani. He went down to the infernal regions and brought back his six brothers, whom Kansha had killed, and these, having tasted the milk of their mother, ascended to heaven. During this period he killed a demon named Panchajana, who had attacked the son of his teacher.

Panchajana lived in the sea in the form of a conch-shell, and Krishna afterwards used this shell, called Panchajanya, as a trumpet. Kansha's two wives were daughters of Jarasandha, king of Magadha. Jarasandha assembled his forces and marched against Mathura to chastise Krishna, but he was defeated. He renewed his attacks eighteen times, and was as often defeated.

A new enemy then threatened Krishna, a Yavana or foreigner named Kalayavana, and Krishna had been so weakened that he knew he must succumb either to him or to his old enemy the king of Magadha, so he and all his people migrated to the coast of Guzerat, where he built and fortified the city of Dvaraka. [The Mahabharata makes no mention of this foreign king, and says that Krishna retired before the eighteenth attack of Jarasandha.

Dowson simplified this by the unsavory conjecture that, "The foreign king would, therefore, seem to be an invention of the Puranas for saving Krishna's reputation."] After his settlement at Dvaraka, Krishna carried off and married Rukmini, daughter of the Raja of Vidarbha, and the betrothed of Shishupala. An incident now occurred which brought him two more wives. A Yadava chief named Satrajit had a beautiful gem called Syamantaka, which Krishna wished to possess. Satrajit, for the sake of security, gave the gem into the charge of his brother Prasena, and Prasena was killed in the forest by a lion, who carried off the jewel in his mouth.

The lion was killed by Jambavat, the king of the bears. Satrajit suspected Krishna of taking the jewel, and Krishna, in order to clear himself, went out into the forest, ascertained the manner of Prasena's death, fought with Jambavat, and recovered the jewel. Krishna then married Jambavati, the daughter of Jambavat, and Satyabhama, the daughter of Satrajit. But the number of his wives was practically unlimited, for he had 16,000 and a hundred or so besides, and he had 180,000 sons. By Rukmini he had a son Pradyumna and a daughter Charumati. His son by Jambavati was Shamba, and by Satyabhama he had ten sons. Indra came to visit Krishna at Dvaraka, and implored him to suppress the evil deeds of the demon Naraka. Krishna accordingly went to the city of Naraka, killed the demon Muru, who guarded the city, and then destroyed Naraka himself. Krishna next went to pay a visit to Indra in Svarga, taking with him his wife Satyabhama. At her request he requited the hospitality shown him by carrying off the famed Parijata tree, which was produced at the churning of the ocean. The tree belonged to Sachi, wife of Indra, and she complained to her husband. Indra drew out his forces and tried to recover it, but was defeated by Krishna.

Pradyumna, son of Krishna, had a son named Aniruddha, with whom a female Daitya, Usha, daughter of Bana, fell in love. She induced a companion to carry off the young man, and Krishna, Balarama, and Pradyumna went to rescue him. Bana, with the whole Daitya host, and assisted by Shiva and Skanda the god of war, encountered them. Krishna, "with the weapon of yawning, set Shiva agape," and so overpowered him. Skanda was wounded. Bana maintained a fierce combat with Krishna, and was severely wounded, but Krishna spared his life at the intercession of Shiva, and Aniruddha was released. There was a man named Paundraka, who was a Vasudeva, or descendant of one Vasudeva. Upon the strength of the identity of this name with that of Vasudeva, the father of Krishna, this man Paundraka assumed the insignia and title of Krishna, and he had the king of Kashi or Benares for an ally. Krishna slew Paundraka, and he hurled his flaming discus at Benares and destroyed the city. Such are the principal incidents of the life of Krishna as given in the Harivansha, the Puranas, and the Prem Sagar. Similarity, the sound of the name, and some incidents in the life of Krishna, have led some to believe that the legend of Krishna had its origin in the life of Christ, but this is not the general opinion. Krishna has many appellations derived from his family relations, his exploits, and personal characteristics; and there are many which apply both to the full deity, Vishnu, and his incarnation, Krishna. 2. A Vedic Rishi. 3. Vedic demon. 4. In the Atharvaveda Krishna is the name of a medicine. 5. The personal name of Draupadi. 6. One whose nature is truth and bliss. 7. Vishnu's 58th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 8. A name of Kali.

Krishna Dvaipayana: (sáns. hindú). See Vyasa.

Krishnabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (krishna "incarnation of Vishnu" + bandhu "friend") Friend of Krishna.

Krishnagata: (sáns. hindú). (krishna "incarnation of Vishnu" + agata "attained") He who has attained Krishna.

Krishnajanaka: (sáns. hindú). (kishna "incarnation of Vishnu" + janaka "begetter") The begetter or father of Krishna; a name of Vasudeva.

Krishnanetra: (sáns. hindú). (krishna "black" + netra "eye") The black-eyed; a name of Shiva.

Krishodari: (sáns. hindú). (krisha "thin" + udari "belly, waist") 1. The slender-waisted Goddess. 2. A name of Kali.

Krita Yuga: (sáns. hindú). The first age of the world, a period of 1,728,000 years. See Yuga.

Kritavarman: (sáns. hindú). A Kuru warrior. One of the last surviving three Kurus warriors who made the murderous night attack upon the camp of the Pandavas. (See Mahabharata.) He was killed in a drunken brawl at Dvaraka. He was also called Bhoja.

Kritavirya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Dhanaka and father of the Arjuna who is better known by his patronymic Kartavirya. Kritavirya was a great patron of the Bhrigus, and according to the Puranas, "he ruled over the whole earth with might and justice, and offered 10,000 sacrifices. Of him this verse is still recited, 'The kings of the earth will assuredly never pursue his steps in sacrifice, in munificence, in devotion, in courtesy, and in self-control.'"

Kritadharma: (sáns. hindú). (krita "what is done" + dharma "duty") Having accomplished duty. See the Bhagavad Gita XV:20.

Kritajna: (sáns. hindú). (krita "what is done" + jna "knower") 1. The knower of what is done. 2. Vishnu's 82nd and 532nd names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Kritakara: (sáns. hindú). (krita "accomplished" + kara "doer, accomplisher") 1. The accomplished accomplisher. 2. A name of Shiva.

Kritanta: (sáns. hindú). A name of Yama, the god of death.

Kritaprajna: (sáns. hindú). (krita "accomplished" + prajna "wisdom, knowledge") He who has accomplished wisdom. See the Bhagavad Gita II:55-72.

Kritatirtha: (sáns. hindú). (krita "accomplished" + tirtha "pilgrimage") He who has accomplished a pilgrimage.

Kritin: (sáns. hindú). "Crowned with a diadem." A title of Indra and also of Arjuna.

Kritnu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The skillful. 2. The name of a Rishi.

Kritrimaraga: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for feigned love.

Krittikas: (sáns. hindú). The Pleiades. The six nurses of Karttikeya, the god of war. They were daughters of a king according to one legend, wives of Rishis according
to another.

Krittika: (sáns. hindú). The name for a constellation, the Pleiads.

Krittivasa: (sáns. hindú). (kritti "skin" + vasa "wearing") 1. Clad in (tiger or elephant) skin. 2. Shiva.

Kritya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Magic personified. 2. A female deity or fiend.

Krivi: (sáns. hindú). 1. A cloud demon. 2. The eponymus of a warlike tribe. 3. A name of Rudra (i.e. Shiva).

Kriya Yoga Sara: (sáns. hindú). A portion of the Yadmapurana about rites and ceremonies. See Padmapurana.

Kriya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Religious or purified action. See the Yoga Sutras II:1, where tapas, svadhyaya and Ishvarapranidhana are spoken of as Kriya Yoga. 2. A name of Durga as Kriyashakti, or the power of action.

Krodha or Krodhavasa: (sáns. hindú). One of the many daughters of Daksha and sister-wives of Kashyapa. She was the mother "of all sharp-toothed monsters, whether on the earth, amongst the birds, or in the waters, that were devourers of flesh"

Krumu: (sáns. hindú). A tributary of the Indus.

Kshama: (sáns. hindú). 1. Patience or forbearance. 2. A name of the Earth-Goddess.

Kshanadacara: (sáns. hindú). Night walkers. Ghosts of evil character, goblins, Rakshasas.

Kshapanaka: (sáns. hindú). An author who was one of "the nine gems" at the court of Vikramaditya. See Navaratna.

Kshatram: (sáns. hindú). The Ruling Power, the military and princely order.

Kshatrapati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the Field, Genius, Loci.

Kshatra: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Vedic Rishi.

Kshatriya: (sáns. hindú). The second or regal and warrior caste. See Varna.

Kshattri: (sáns. hindú). A name by which Vidura was familiarly called. The term, as explained in Manu, means the son of a Shudra father and Brahman mother, but Vidura's father was a Brahman and his mother a slave girl.

Kshauma: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for vegetable silk.

Kshemashiras: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for a sect of magicians.

Kshemavriddhi: (sáns. hindú). A general of the Salvas who had a command in the army which attacked Dvaraka, and was defeated by Krishna's son, Shamba.

Kshemaka: (sáns. hindú). Son of Niramitra or Nimi, and the last prince of the Lunar race.

There is a memorial verse quoted in the Vishnupurana that claims, "The race which gave origin to Brahmans and Kshatriyas, and which was purified by regal sages terminated with Kshemaka in the Kali age."

Kshirakakoli: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for a variety of kakoli.

Kshiravriksha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Ficus religiosa, commonly known as the milk tree.

Kshirika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Mimusops hexandra.

Kubera: (sáns. hindú). See Kuvera.

Kuberabandhava: (sáns. hindú). (kubera "lord of the divine treasure" + bandhava "friend") 1. Friend of Kubera. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His conferring lordship over His treasure to Kubera for his great devotion.

Kuberabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (kubera "lord of the divine treasure" + bandhu "friend) 1. Friend of Kubera. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His conferring lordship over His treasure to Kubera for his great devotion.

Kuberacala: (sáns. hindú). (kubera "lord of the divine treasure" + acala "steady, mountain") Kubera's mountain (i.e. Mount Kailasa where Kubera has his abode near Shiva).

Kuberagiri: (sáns. hindú). (kubera "lord of the divine treasure" + giri "mountain") Kubera's mountain (i.e. Mount Kailasa where Kubera has his abode near Lord Shiva).

Kubha: (sáns. hindú). The Kabul river.

Kucela: (sáns. hindú). (ku "badly" + cela "clothed") The name of a very poor yet good childhood friend and devotee of Krishna. By his devotion, Kucela received the boon of wealth from Krishna.

Kuhavati: (sáns. hindú). (kuha "name of a plant" + vati "having") A name of Durga.

Kuhu: (sáns. hindú). A lunar Goddess.

Kuili: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kshirika.

Kulaparvatas: (sáns. hindú). Family mountains. A series or system of seven chains of mountains in South India. They are Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Shuktimat, Riksha (for which Gandhamandana is sometimes substituted), Vindhya and Paripatra. Mahendra is the Orissa chain; Malaya, the hills of Malabar proper, the south part of the Western Ghats; Sahya, the northern parts of the Western Ghats; Shuktimat is doubtful; Riksha, the mountains of Gondvana; Vindhya is here applied to the eastern division of the Vindhya mountains; and Paripatra or Pariyatra as it is frequently written, applies to the northern and western portions of the same range. The classification seems to have been known to Ptolemy, for he specifies seven ranges of mountains, but his names are not in accord.

Kulaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Trichosanthes dioeca, commonly known as the gourd.

Kulata: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for nymphomaniac.

Kulattha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Dolichos biflorus.

Kulika: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight serpent kings, described as of a dusky brown color and having a half-moon on his head.

Kulindas: (sáns. hindú). A people living in the northwest.

Kulishi: (sáns. hindú). An unidentified stream in the Rigveda.

Kulitara: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic demon or savage, said to be the father of Shambara.

Kullukabhatta: (sáns. hindú). The famous commentator on Manu.

Kulmul: (sáns. hindú). A medicinal herb in the Atharvaveda.

Kumarasambhava: (sáns. hindú). The birth of the war god (Kumara). A poem by Kalidasa. The complete work consists of eighteen cantos, but only seven are usually given.

Kumara: (sáns. hindú). 1. The youthful; a boy or a son. 2. A name of Shiva's son who is also known as Karttikeya, Murugan or Skanda the god of war. 3. A name for Lord Brahma's four mind-born sons who, declining to create progeny, remained ever boys and ever pure and innocent. Their names are Sanatkumara, Sananda, Sanaka, and Sanatana; a fifth, Ribhu, is sometimes added.

Tradition has it that they renounced the world and learned the Truth in silence from the Guru Dakshinamuri. See Vishnupurana. 4. In the Brahmanas their name is applied to Agni.

Kumarika: (sáns. hindú). A drug in the Atharvaveda.

Kumarilabhatta or Kumarila Swami: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated teacher of the Mimansa philosophy and opponent of the Buddhists, whom he is said to have extirpated by argument and by force. He was prior to Shankaracharya, in whose presence he is recorded to have burned himself.

Kumarila: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated philosopher.

Kumari: (sáns. hindú). 1. The damsel. 2. An epithet of Sita. 3. An epithet of Durga. 4. Cape Comorin. 5. A term used in the Kama Sutra for aloes.

Kumbhakarna: (sáns. hindú). Son of Vishravas by his Rakshasa wife Keshini, and full brother of Ravana. A monster who, under the curse of Brahma (or, as otherwise represented, as a boon), slept for six months at a time and remained awake for only a single day. When Ravana vas hard pressed by Rama he sent to arouse Kumbhakarna. This was elected with great difficulty. After drinking 2,000 jars of liquor he went to consult with his brother, and then took the field against the monkey army. He beat down Sugriva, the monkey chief, with a large stone, and carried him as prisoner into the city of Lanka. When he returned to the battle he encountered Rama, and after a stout fight he was defeated, and Rama cut off his head.

Kumbhadasi: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for a female waterbearer.

Kumbhari: (sáns. hindú). A name of Durga.

Kumhara: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Hedisarum gangeticum, commonly known as the prickly pear.

Kumuda: (sáns. hindú). 1. Lotus. 2. A Naga or serpent king whose sister Kumudvati, married Kusha, son of Rama.

Kumuda: (sáns. hindú). (ku "earth" + muda "delight") 1. The Earth's delighter. 2. Vishnu's 589th and 807 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. The white night lotus.

Kumudini: (sáns. hindú). The white night lotus.

Kumudvati: (sáns. hindú). A Naga or serpent princess whose marriage to Kusha, son of Rama, is described in the Raghuvansha.

Kunaru: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic demon.

Kundalini: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having coils. 2. The name of a form of the Divine Mother or Shakti said to be coiled like a serpent at the base of the spinal cord.

Kundamalla: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for an unknown plant or herb.

Kundapayya: (sáns. hindú). A proper name mentioned in the Veda..

Kundara: (sáns. hindú). 1. The bestower of a jasmine-like reward. 2. Vishnu's 808th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Kunda: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See surana.

Kundinapura: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Vidarbha. It survives as the modern Kundapur, situated about 40 miles east of Amaravati, in Birar.

Kundini: (sáns. hindú). Jasmine-like.

Kunjala: (sáns. hindú). The name of an attendant of Skanda.

Kunjaviharin: (sáns. hindú). (kunja "thicket" + viharin "delighting in") 1. He who sports in the forest. 2. A name of Krishna.

Kunkuma: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron.

Kuntala: (sáns. hindú). A country in the Dakhin, about Adoni; the Dakhin.

Kuntibhoja: (sáns. hindú). King of the people called Kuntis. The adoptive father of Kunti.

Kunti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Daughter of the Yadava prince Shura, king of the Shurasenas, whose capital was Mathura on the Yamuna. She was a sister to Vasudeva. Some claim that she was originally named Pritha and her name was changed to Kunti when she was given by her father to his childless cousin King Kuntibhoja, by whom she was brought up. In her maidenhood she showed such respectful devotion to the sage Durvasas, that he gave her a charm by means of which she might have a child by any god she pleased to invoke. She called upon the sun, and by him had a son named Karna, but without any detriment to her virginity; still, to keep the affair secret, the child was exposed on the banks of the Yamuna. Subsequently she married Pandu, whom she chose at a svayamvara, and bore three sons, Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna, who were called Pandavas although they were said to be the sons of the gods Dharma, Vayu, and Indra respectively. This may have happened, as is stated, from the potency of the old charm, but if so, it is strange that Madri, the second wife of Pandu, should have enjoyed the same privilege, and have borne twin children to the Ashvins. This difficulty, however, is overcome by a statement that Kunti imparted to her the charm. Kunti was a discreet and devoted mother, and although rather jealous of Madri, she was a kind mother to her children after Madri was burned on her husband's pyre. After the end of the great war she retired into the forest with Dhritarashtra and his wife Gandhari, and there they all perished in a forest fire. 2. Name of a people and country in Upper India.

Kurangakshi: (sáns. hindú). (kuranga "antelope, gazelle" + akshi "eye") The fawn-eyed.

Kurantaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Barleria prionitis nevara, commonly known as the yellow amaranth.

Kurantika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Celosia argentea.

  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  5. Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation

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