martes, 6 de julio de 2010

Vikramaditya - Yuyutsu - The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

Dictionary Index Site Index

Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionary

The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

Use your browsers "Find" function (Ctrl F) to go to the article of your choice. To find a primary article, put a dash (-) behind your word.

Example: "Lakshmi-"

Note: You may have to set your browser's find function to find "Up" on your first search.

13.Vikramaditya - Yuyutsu


Vikramaditya: (sáns. hindú). A Hindu king who reigned at Ujjayini. He is said to have been the son of a king named Gardabhila. His name has been given to the Samvat era, commencing 57 BCE. He was a great patron of learning, and his court was made illustrious by the Navaratna, or nine gems of literature, who flourished there. He is a great hero of romance, and many stories are told of him. His real position is uncertain. He appears to have driven out the Shakas, and to have established his authority over Northern India. He is said to have fallen in battle with his rival Shalivahana, king of the Dakhin; who also has an era called Shaka dating from 78 CE.

Vikramorvashi: (sáns. hindú). The hero and the nymph. A drama by Kalidasa. See Pururavas.

Vikramottama: (sáns. hindú). Excellent in exploit (?). Shiva's 659th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vikrita: (sáns. hindú). Deformed. Shiva's 749th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vikukshi: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Solar race, who succeeded his father, Ikshvacu. He received the name of Shashada, "hare-eater." He was sent by his father to hunt and obtain flesh suitable for offerings. Being weary and hungry he ate a hare, and Vasishtha, the priest, declared that this act had defiled all the food, for what remained was but his leavings.

Vimada: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda it is said the Ashvins gave a bride to the youthful Vimada, and the commentator explains that Vimada had won his bride at a svayamvara, but was stopped on the way home by his unsuccessful competitors. The Ashvins came to his aid, repulsed the assailants, placed the bride in their chariot, and carried her to the home of the prince.

Vimala: (sáns. hindú). 1. The immaculate. 2. A name of Lakshmi. See Amala, Nirmala. 3. Pure. Shiva's 696 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vimalodaya: (sáns. hindú). One whose rise is devoid of impurities. Shiva's 550 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vimocana: (sáns. hindú). The Redeeming. A name of Shiva, which refers to His redeeming those who salute, praise and contemplate Him.

Vimukti: (sáns. hindú). Perfect liberation. See Moksha, Mukti.

Vina: (sáns. hindú). A type of Indian lute invented by Devarshi Narada and associated with Sarasvati, who presides over musical arts. The Vina's neck represents Sarasvati's slender body, the two gourds Her breasts, the frets Her bangles and anklets, the strings Her hair, and the sound Her very breath or voice. The Vina's musical sounds also represent the melodious and inspiring Vedic words imparting knowledge of the true Self.

Vinata: (sáns. hindú). 1. The humble, inclined. 2. A daughter of Daksha, one of the wives of Kashyapa, and mother of Garuda. According to the Bhagavatapurana she was the wife of Tarksha or Garuda. 3. A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce. There are numerous spirits of this nature but only ten of them are named. The other nine are; Putana, Raksasi, Aditi (also called Revati), Diti, Surabhi, Sarama, Kadru, Lohitayani, and Arya. These goddesses, with the exception of Vinata and Lohitayani, afflict and/or devour children or pregnant women. They are said to haunt the room where the child is born for the first ten days of the child's life and to afflict them until they are sixteen. After the child is sixteen years old they serve as a positive influence to them. These spirits like to eat flesh and drink strong liquor.

Vinaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The humble, modest. Placing humility at its highest level. 2. The Subduer. Vishnu's 508 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Vinayaka: (sáns. hindú). The remover (of obstacles); a name of Ganesha. See Ganesha.

Vinayapatrika: (sáns. hindú). A work by Tulsi Das. A sixteenth-century North India writer.

Vinda: (sáns. hindú). Vinda and Anuvinda were joint kings of Avanti, a fought in the great war.

Vindhya: (sáns. hindú). The mountains which stretch across India, and divide what Manu calls the Madhyadesha or "middle-land," the land of the Hindus, from the south, that is, they divide Hindustan from the Dakhin. In the Mahabharata there is a story in which Vindhya was jealous of Himavan (i.e. the Himalayas), and wished the sun to revolve around him. The Sun-God declined to do so. Thus Vindhya undertook to grow in height as to bar the course of both the sun and the moon. Alarmed, the gods went to Agastya for aid. The great Rishi approached Vindhya and made him bow as to open the way towards the south. He then requested that the mountain range continue bowing until he returned. Agastya however never returned and Vindhya could thus not surpass Himavan in height. See Agastya.

Vindhyavali: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Bali the Asura.

Vindhyavasini: (sáns. hindú). She who dwells in the Vindhya mountains. An epithet of Durga and the goddess featured in Vakpati's Gaudavaho. This goddess is worshipped by the Shabaras and is dressed in leaves and offered human sacrifices.

Vinitatman: (sáns. hindú). Humble soul. Shiva's 261 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vipaka: (sáns. hindú). Fruitful. Shiva's 710th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vipash: (sáns. hindú). The river Byas, the Hyphasis or Bibasis of the classical writers. A legend relates that it obtained its name through the sage Vasishtha, who, wishing to commit suicide, bound his limbs with cords and threw himself into the water. The river, declining to drown him, cast him unbound (vipasha) on its bank.

Vipinavihari: (sáns. hindú). (vipina "forest" + vihari "sporter") The sporter of the forests; a name of Krishna.

Vipracitti: (sáns. hindú). Son of Kashyapa and Danu. He is chief of the Danavas.

Vira: (sáns. hindú). Hero. Shiva's 649th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Virabhadra: (sáns. hindú). 1. A son or emanation of Shiva, created from his mouth, and having, according to the Vayupurana, "a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, wielding a thousand clubs, a thousand shafts; holding the shell, the discus, the mace, and bearing a blazing bow and battle-axe; fierce and terrific, shining with dreadful splendor, and decorated with the crescent moon; clothed in a tiger's skin, dripping with blood, having a capacious stomach and a vast mouth armed with formidable tusks," etc. The object of his creation was to stop Daksha's sacrifice, and harry away the gods and others who were attending. He is a special object of worship in the Mahratta country, and there are sculptures of him in the caves of Elephanta and Ellora, where he is represented with eight hands. Other authorities claim that Virabhadra is a demon created by Sati who, along with other demons created by her, destroyed Daksha's sacrifice. See Sita. 2. Shiva's 431 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Virabhrid: (sáns. hindú). One who sustains heroes. Shiva's 433rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Viracarita: (sáns. hindú). A book of tales by Ananta which describes the feuds between the descendants of Vikramaditya and Shalivahana.

Viracudamani: (sáns. hindú). The crest-jewel of heroes. Shiva's 435th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Viradha: (sáns. hindú). A horrible man-eating Rakshasa, son of Kala and Shatahrada. By penance he had obtained from Brahma the boon of invulnerability. He is described as "being like a mountain peak, a man-eater, loud-voiced, hollow-eyed, large-mouthed, huge, huge-bellied, horrible, rude, long, deformed, of dreadful aspect, wearing a tiger's skin, dripping with fat, wetted with blood, terrific to all creatures, like death with open mouth, bearing three lions, four tigers, two wolves, ten deer, and the great head of an elephant with the tusks, and smeared with fat, on the point of an iron pike, shouting with a loud voice." Rama, with Lakshmana and Sita, encountered him in the Dandaka forest, when he foully abused and taunted the brother, and seized upon Sita. The brothers proved with their arrows that he was not invulnerable, but he caught them, threw them over his shoulder, and ran off with them as if they had been children. They broke both his arms, threw him down, beat him with their fists, and dashed him to the earth, but they could not kill him, so they dug a deep hole and buried him alive. After his burial there arose from the earth a beautiful person, who said that he was a Gandharva who had been condemned by Kuvera to assume the shape of a Rakshasa, from which Rama had enabled him to escape. He was also called Tumburu.

Viragi: (sáns. hindú). The dispassionate. See Vairagi.

Viraha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Love in separation. 2. Slayer of heretic persons. Shiva's 432nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Viraja: (sáns. hindú). 1. The taintless, passionless. 2. The sacrificial rite performed during initiation into renunciation, Sannyasa-Diksha, is called Viraja Homa, the taintless or passionless sacrifice, in which a formula is repeated several times while oblations are poured into the sacred fire. 3. The name of a river in Brahmaloka, the highest heaven where the Creator Brahma lives. This river flows across the road to Brahma's palace. Thus one has to cross it in order to reach the palace. This means one should be free from Rajoguna or passion and be Sattvic or pure; otherwise, one cannot reach Satyaloka, the world of Truth. This process is revealed in the Kaushitaki Upanishad. 4. Accordingly, in the Mundaka Upanishad the Saguna worshippers are referred to as taintless or passionless.

Viraj: (sáns. hindú). 1. In reference to Viraj, Manu claimed: "Having divided his body into two parts, the lord (Brahma) became with the half a male, and with the (other) half a female; and in her he created Virij. Know that I (Manu), whom that male Viraj himself created, am the creator of all this world." (See Manu.) According to Muir (v. 50, 369), one passage in the Rigveda says, "From him (Purusha) sprang Viraj, and from Viraj (sprang) Purusha." In similar manner, Aditi is said to have sprung from Daksha, and Daksha from Aditi. Viraj, the male half of Brahma, is supposed to typify all male creatures; and Shatarupa, the female half, all female forms. 2. The all-sovereign, all-radiant, a name of the Self as present in the gross cosmic body during the waking state. It is symbolized as the "A" in the sacred syllable "AUM."

Virakta: (sáns. hindú). The dispassionate, discolored. See Vairagi.

Virama: (sáns. hindú). Final rest. Shiva's 287th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Viramata: (sáns. hindú). Mother of warriors. An epithet of Devi. The 836th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Viramitrodaya: (sáns. hindú). A law-book by Mitramishra, of authority in the Benares School. It is in the form of a commentary on the Mitakshara.

Viraradhya: (sáns. hindú). She who is worshipped by warriors. An epithet of Devi. The 777th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Virata: (sáns. hindú). A country in the vicinity of the modern Jaypur. The present town of Bairat is 105 miles south of Delhi. Its king was called Raja of Virata or Raja Virata. It was at his court that the Pandava princes and Draupadi lived in disguise. They rendered him great services against his enemies, and he fought on their side in the great war. He was killed by Drona. See Matsya.

Virat: (sáns. hindú). Supreme being. Shiva's 434th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vireshvara: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the heroes. Shiva's 430th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Virinca: (sáns. hindú). Brahma. Shiva's 641 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Virinci: (sáns. hindú). The Creator, a name of the God Brahma. See Brahma.

Virocana: (sáns. hindú). 1. One who increases appeal. Shiva's 404th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. Sun. Shiva's 475th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A Danava, father of Bali. He is also called Drishana. When the earth as milked, Virocana acted as the calf of the Asuras. See Prithi.

Virupa: (sáns. hindú). Hideous. Shiva's 748 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Virupaksha: (sáns. hindú). (virupa "diverse, multiform" + aksha "eye") The diversely-eyed. A name of Shiva which refers to His three eyes. See Nitalaksha.

Virupaksha: (sáns. hindú). Deformed as to the eye. A name of Shiva, who has three eyes. Also one of the Rudras. Also a Danava, son of Kashyapa.

Virupaksha: (sáns. hindú). One with hideous eyes. Shiva's 54th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Virya: (sáns. hindú). (Spiritual) Vigor, strength.

Viryavan: (sáns. hindú). (virya "vigor" + van "having") 1. Vigorous. 2. Powerful. Shiva's 1053rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishakha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Muruga. 2. Shiva's 161st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishakhadatta: (sáns. hindú). Author of the drama "Mudrarakshasa" He is said to be of royal descent, but his family has not been identified.

Vishala: (sáns. hindú). A name of the city Ujjayini.

Vishalaksha: (sáns. hindú). (vishala "large" + aksha "eye") Large-eyed. Shiva's 92nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishalakshi: (sáns. hindú). (vishala "large" + akshi "eye") The large-eyed, a name of Durga.

Vishalya: (sáns. hindú). Having no torment. Shiva's 725th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishamaksha: (sáns. hindú). Having deformed eyes. Shiva's 953rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishampati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of subjects. Shiva's 915 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishanka: (sáns. hindú). The fearless.

Visharada: (sáns. hindú). Adept. Shiva's 259th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishishta: (sáns. hindú). Most distinguished. Shiva's 391st and 519th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishishtambha: (sáns. hindú). Having distinguished waters (?). Shiva's 797th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishnu: (sáns. hindú). (vish "to pervade") 1. The Pervader. 2. Shiva's 602nd and 922nd names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. Author of a Dharmashastra or law-book. as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. The second god of the Hindu triad. In the Rigveda Vishnu is not in the first rank of gods. He is a manifestation of the solar energy, and is described as striding through the seven regions of the universe in three steps, and enveloping all things with the dust (of his beams). These three steps are explained by commentators as denoting the three manifestations of light-fire, lightning, and the sun; or the three places of the sun-its rising, culmination, and setting. In the Veda he is occasionally associated with Indra. He has very little in common with the Vishnu of later times, but he is called "the unconquerable preserver," and this distinctly indicates the great preserving power which he afterwards became. In the Brahmanas, Vishnu acquires new attributes, and is invested with legends unknown to the Vedas, but still very far distant from those of the Puranas.

In Manu, the name is mentioned, but not as that of a great deity. In the Mahabharata and in the Puranas he is the second member of the triad, the embodiment of the Satvaguna, the quality of mercy and goodness, which displays itself as the preserving power, the self-existent, all-pervading spirit. As such, his votaries associate him with the watery element which spread everywhere before the creation of the world. In this character he is called Narayana, "moving in the waters," and is represented pictorially in human form slumbering on the serpent Shesha and floating on the waters. This, too, is the position he assumes during the periods of temporary annihilation of the universe. The worshippers of Vishnu recognize in him the supreme being from whom all things emanate. In the Mahabharata and in the Puranas he is the Prajapati (creator) and supreme god. As such, he has three Avasthas or conditions: 1) Brahma, the active creator, who is represented as springing from a lotus which grew from Vishnu's navel while he was sleeping afloat upon the waters. 2) Vishnu himself, the preserver, in an Avatara or incarnate form, as in Krishna 3) Shiva or Rudra, the destructive power, who, according to a statement of the Mahabharata, sprang from his forehead. But though the Mahabharata generally allows Vishnu the supremacy, it does not do so invariably and exclusively. There are passages which uphold Shiva as the greatest of the gods, and represent Vishnu as paying him homage.

The Shaivapuranas of course make Shiva supreme. Vishnu's preserving and restoring power has been manifested to the world in a variety of forms called "Avataras," literally "descents," but more intelligibly "incarnations," in which a portion of his divine essence was embodied in a human or supernatural form possessed of superhuman powers. All these Avatara became manifest for correcting some great evil or effecting some great good in the world. The Avataras are ten in number, but the Bhagavatapurana increases them to twenty-two, and adds that in reality they are innumerable. All the ten Avataras are honored, but the seventh and eighth, Rama and Krishna are honored as great mortal heroes and receive worship as great gods. Krishna is looked upon as a near complete manifestation of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself, and he is the object of a widely extended and very popular worship. See Avatara. The holy river Ganges is said to spring from the feet of Vishnu. As preserver and restorer, Vishnu is a very popular deity, and the worship paid to him is of a joyous character. He has a thousand names (Sahasranama), the repetition of which is a meritorious act of devotion.

His wife is Lakshmi or Sri, the goddess of fortune, his heaven is Vaikuntha, and his vehicle is the bird Garuda. He is represented as a comely youth of a dark-blue color, and dressed like an ancient king. He has four hands. One holds the Panchajanya, a Shankha or conch-shell; another the Sudarshana or Vajranabha, a cakra or quoit weapon; the third, a Gada or club called Kaumodaki; and the fourth, a Padma or lotus. He has a bow called Sharnga, and a sword called Nandaka. On his breast are the peculiar mark or curl called Srivatsa and the jewel Kaustubha, and on his wrist is the jewel Syamantaka He is sometimes represented seated on a lotus with Lakshmi beside him, or reclining on a lotus leaf. Sometimes he is portrayed reclining on the serpent Shesha, and at others as riding on his gigantic bird Garuda. Of the thousand names of Vishnu the following are some of the most common. Achyuta, "unfallen, imperishable"; Ananta, "the endless;" Anantashayana, "who sleeps on the serpent Ananta"; Chaturbhuja, "four-armed"; Damodara, "bound round the belly with a rope," as Krishna; Govinda or Gopala, "the cowkeeper" (Krishna); Hari; Hrishikesha, "lord of the organs of sense"; Jalashayin, "who sleeps on the waters"; Janarddana, "whom men worship"; Keshava, "the hairy, the radiant"; Kiritin, "wearing a tiara"; Lakshmipati, "lord of Lakshmi"; Madhusudana, "destroyer of Madhu"; Madhava, "descendant of Madhu"; Mukunda, "deliverer"; Murari, "the foe of Mura"; Nara, "the man"; Narayana, "who moves in the waters"; Panchayudha, "armed with five weapons "; Padmanabha, "lotus-navel"; Pitambara, "clothed in yellow garments"; Purusha, "the man, the spirit"; Purushottama, "the highest of men, the supreme spirit"; Sharngin or Sharngipani, "carrying the bow Sharnga"; Vasudeva, Krishna, son of Vasudeva; Varshneya, "descendant of Vrishni"; Vaikunthanatha, "lord of Vaikuntha (paradise)"; Yajnesha, Yajneshvara, "lord of sacrifice."

Vishnukandharapatana: (sáns. hindú). One who struck down the head of Vishnu. Shiva's 835th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishnupriya: (sáns. hindú). (vishnu "the all-pervading" + priya "beloved") 1. The beloved of Vishnu. A name of Lakshmi. 2. A name of the holy basil plant. See Tulasi.

Vishnupurana: (sáns. hindú). This Purana generally stands third in the lists, and is described as "that in which Parashara, beginning with the events of the Varaha Kalpa, expounds all duties, is called the Vaishnava, and the learned know its extent to be 23,000 stanzas" The actual number of stanzas does not amount to 7,000, and there is no appearance of any part having been omitted. Wilson, one of the translators of this Purana says, "Of the whole series of Puranas the Vishnu most closely corresponds to the definition of a Panchalakshana Purana, or one which treats of five specified topics (Primary Creation, Secondary Creation, Genealogies of Gods and Patriarchs, Reigns of the Manus, History) It contains them all; and although it has infused a portion of extraneous and sectarial matter, it has done so with sobriety and judgment, and has not suffered the fervor of its religious zeal to transport it to very wide deviations from the prescribed path. The legendary tales which it has inserted are few, and are conveniently arranged, so that they do not distract the attention of the compiler from objects of more permanent interest and importance."

Vishoka: (sáns. hindú). (vi not" + shoka "sorrow") 1. The sorrowless. 2. Shiva's 905th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See Ashoka.

Vishrama: (sáns. hindú). Rest. Shiva's 454th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishravas: (sáns. hindú). Son of the Prajapati Pulastya. or, according to a statement of the Mahabharata, a reproduction of half Pulastya himself. By a Brahmani wife, daughter of the sage Bharadvaja, named Idavida or Ilavida, he had a son, Kuvera, the god of wealth. By a Rakshasi named Nikasha or Kaikasi, daughter of Sumali, he had three sons, Ravana, Kumbhakarna, and Vibhishana and a daughter named Surpanakha. The Vishnupurana substitutes Keshini for Nikasha. The account given by the Mahabharata is that Pulastya, being offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, reproduced half of himself as Vishravas, and Kuvera to recover his favor gave him three Rakshasi handmaids: Pushpotkata, the mother of Ravana and Kumbhakarna; Malini, the mother of Vibhishana; and Raka, the mother of Khara and Surpanakha.

Vishrinkhala: (sáns. hindú). Free from fetters. Shiva's 1075th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishtarashravas: (sáns. hindú). Having his own ears as abode i.e., quick in hearing. Shiva's 642nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishuddhi: (sáns. hindú). (vi "all" + shuddhi "purity") 1. All purity. 2. The name of the throat cakra which is connected with the element of space and the quality of sound.

Vishva: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Universe, the All. 2. Vishnu's first name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. In Vedantic terminology Vishva refers to the Self as associated with the individual gross body during the waking state. being then seated in the right eye. It is symbolized by the letter "A" of "AUM" (The spelling of "OM" when it is split into "A," "U" and "M," as the diphthong "O" consists of "A" + "U"). 4. Shiva's 427 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvabharta: (sáns. hindú). Ruler of the universe. Shiva's 511 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvabhartri: (sáns. hindú). The overlord of the universe. Shiva's 419th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvabhojana: (sáns. hindú). Having the universe as food. Shiva's 671st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvadeha: (sáns. hindú). One having cosmic bodies. Shiva's 457th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvadevas: (sáns. hindú). All the gods. In the Vedas they form a class nine in number. All the deities of subordinate order. They are addressed in the Veda as "preservers of men, bestowers of rewards." In later times, a class of deities particularly interested in exequial offerings. The accounts of them are rather vague They are generally said to be ten in number, but the lists vary, both as to the number and the names. The following is one list 1) Vasu, 2) Satya, 3) Kratu, 4) Daksha, 5) Kala, 6) Kama, 7) Dhriti, 8) Kuru, 9) Pururavas, 10) Madravas. Two others are sometimes added, Rochaka or Lochana and Dhuri or Dhvani.

Vishvadhara: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + adhara "support") 1. The Support of the universe, a name of Vishnu. 2. A name of Shiva. 3. A name of Ganesha.

Vishvadharini: (sáns. hindú). She who supports the universe. An epithet of Devi. The 759th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Vishvadhika: (sáns. hindú). She who transcends the world. An epithet of Devi. The 334th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Vishvadipti: (sáns. hindú). Illuminator of the universe. Shiva's 144th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvagarbha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having the universe in the womb. Shiva's 766th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. She whose womb contains the universe. An epithet of Devi. The 637th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Vishvagopta: (sáns. hindú). Protector of the universe. Shiva's 510th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvaharta: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of the universe. Shiva's 490th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvacarma: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + karma "maker") 1. Vishnu's 51st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 2. This name seems to have been originally an epithet of any powerful god, as of Indra and Surya, but in course of time it came to designate a personification of the creative power. In this character Vishvacarma was the great architect of the universe, and is described in two hymns of the Rigveda as the one "all-seeing god, who has on every side eyes, faces, arms, and feet, who, when producing heaven and earth, blows them forth (or shape them) with his arms and wings; the father, generator, disposer, who knows all worlds, gives the gods their names, and is beyond the comprehension of mortals." In these hymns also he is said to sacrifice himself or to himself and the Nirukta explains this by a legend which represents that "Vishvacarma, son of Bhuvana, first of all offered up all worlds in a Sarvamedha (general sacrifice), and ended by sacrificing himself.

"In the Epic and Puranic periods Vishvacarma is invested with the powers and offices of the Vedic Tvashtri, and is sometimes so called. He is not only the great architect, but the general artificer of the gods and maker of their weapons. It was he who made the Agneyastra or "fiery weapon," and it was he who revealed the Sthapatyaveda, or science of architecture and mechanics. The Mahabharata describes him as "the lord of the Arts, executor of a thousand handicrafts, the carpenter of the gods, the fashioner of all ornaments, the most eminent of artisans, who formed the celestial chariots of the deities, on whose craft men subsist, and whom, a great and immortal god, they continually worship." In the Ramayana, Vishvacarma is represented as having built the city of Lanka for the Rakshasas, and as having generated the ape Nala, who constructed Rama's bridge from the continent to Lanka. The Puranas make Vishvacarma the son of Prabhasa, the eighth Vasu, by his wife "the lovely and virtuous Yogasiddha. "His daughter Sanjna was married to Surya, the sun; but as she was unable to endure his effulgence, Vishvacarma placed the sun upon his lathe and cut away an eighth part of his brightness. The fragments fell to the earth, and from these Vishvacarma formed "the discus of Vishnu, the trident of Shiva, the weapon of Kuvera the god of wealth, the lance of Karttikeya god of war, and the weapons of the other gods" Vishvacarma is also represented as having made the great image of Jagannatha. In his creative capacity he is sometimes designated Prajapati. He also has the appellations Karu, "workman"; Takshaka, "woodcutter"; Devavardhika, "the builder of the gods"; Sudhanvan, "having a good bow."

Vishvacarman: (sáns. hindú). Of universal action. Shiva's 258th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvamitra: (sáns. hindú). 1. Shiva's 625th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. A sage who was born a Kshatriya, but by intense austerities raised himself to the Brahman caste, and became one of the seven great Rishis. According to the Rigveda he was son of a king named Kushika, a descendant of Kusha, but later authorities make him the son of Gathin or Gadhi, king of Kanyakubja, and a descendant of Puru; so Vishvamitra is declared in the Harivansha to be "at once a Paurava and a Kaushika" by linage. According to some, Gadhi was of the Kaushika race, descended from Kushika. Vishvamitra is called Gadhija and Gadhinandana "son of Gadhi." The story of Vishvamitra's birth, as told in the Vishnupurana, is that Gadhi had a daughter named Satyavati, whom he gave in marriage to an old Brahman of the race of Bhrigu named Richika.

The wife being a Kshatriya, her husband was desirous that she might bear a son having the qualities of a Brahman, and he gave her a dish of food which he had prepared to effect this object. He also gave her mother a dish intended to make her conceive a son with the character of a warrior. At the instigation of the mother, the dishes were exchanged, so the mother gave birth to Vishvamitra, the son of a Kshatriya with the qualities of a Brahman; and Satyavati bore Jamadagni, the father of Parashurama, the warrior Brahman and destroyer of the Kshatriyas. The most noteworthy and important feature in the legends of Vishvamitra is the active and enduring struggle between him and the Brahman Rishi Vasishtha, a fact which is frequently alluded to in the Rigveda, and is supposed to typify the contentions between the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas for superiority. Both these Rishis occupy a prominent position in the Rigveda, Vishvamitra being the Rishi of the hymns in the third Mandala, which contains the verse Gayatri, and Vasishtha of those of the seventh. Each of them was at different times the Purohita or family priest of King Sudas, a position of considerable importance and power, the possession of which stimulated, if it did not cause, their rivalry. The two sages cursed each other, and carried their enmity into deeds of violence. Vishvamitra's hundred sons are represented a having been eaten or burned up by the breath of Vasishtha. On the other hand, the hundred sons of Vasishtha were, according to one legend, eaten up by King Kalmashapada, into whom a man-eating Rakshasa had entered under the influence of Vishvamitra, or, according to another legend, they were reduced to ashes by Vishvamitra's curse "and reborn as degraded outcasts for seven hundred births." The Aitareya Brahmana states that Vishvamitra had a hundred sons, but that when he adopted his nephew Shunahshephas he proposed to make him the oldest of his sons.

Fifty of them assented, and Vishvamitra blessed them with the blessing that they should "abound in cattle and sons;" the other and older fifty dissented, and Vishvamitra cursed them with the curse "that their progeny should possess the furthest ends (of the country)," and from them have ascended many of the border tribes and most of the Dasyus. The Mahabharata has a legend of Vishvamitra having commanded the river Sarasvati to bring his rival Vasishtha that he might kill him, and of having turned it into blood when it flowed in another direction and carried Vasishtha out of his reach. Vishvamitra's relationship to Jamadagni naturally places him in a prominent position in the Ramayana. Here the old animosity between him and Vasishtha again appears. Vishvamitra, as a king, paid a visit to Vasishtha's hermitage, and was most hospitably entertained; but he wished to obtain Vasishtha's wondrous cow, the Kamadhenu, which had furnished all the dainties of the feast. His offers were immense, but were all declined. The cow resisted and broke away when he attempted to take her by force, and when he battled for her, his armies were defeated by the hosts summoned up by the cow, and his "hundred sons were reduced to ashes in a moment by the blast of Vasishtha's mouth."

A long and fierce combat followed between Vasishtha and Vishvamitra in which the latter was defeated; the Kshatriya had to submit to the humiliation of acknowledging his inferiority to the Brahman, and he therefore resolved to work out his own elevation to the Brahmanical order. While he was engaged in austerities for accomplishing his object of becoming a Brahman, he became connected with King Trishanku. This monarch was a descendant of King Ikshvacu, and desired to perform a sacrifice in virtue of which he might ascend bodily to heaven. His priest, Vasishtha, declared it to be impossible. Vasishtha's hundred sons were approached by the King and they further refused to undertake what their father had declined. When the king told them that he would seek some other means of accomplishing his object, they condemned him to become a Chandala. In this condition he had resort to Vishvamitra who, taking pity on him, raised him to heaven in his bodily form, notwithstanding the opposition of the sons of Vasishtha.

The Harivansha version of the foregoing story is different. In this version, Trishanku, who is also called Satyavrata, had attempted the abduction of the young wife of a citizen. For this his father banished him, and condemned him to "the performance of a silent penance for twelve years." During his exile there was a famine, and Trishanku succored and supported the wife and family of Vishvamitra who were reduced to the direst extremity in that sage's absence. Vasishtha, the family priest, had done nothing to assuage the wrath of the aggrieved father, and this offended Trishanku. At the end of his penance, being in want of meat, he killed Vasishtha's wonder-working cow and partook of her flesh; for this act Vasishtha gave him the name of Trishanku, "guilty of three sins. Vishvamitra was grateful for the assistance rendered by Trishanku, and gave him the choice of a boon. He begged that he might ascend bodily to heaven. Vishvamitra then installed Trishanku in his father's kingdom, "and in spite of the resistance of the gods and of Vasishtha he exalted the king alive to heaven." The Mahabharata and the Ramayana tell the story of Vishvamitra's amour with Menaka.

His austerities had so alarmed the gods that Indra sent this Apsaras to seduce Vishvamitra "by the display of her charms and the exercise of all her allurements." she succeeded, and the result was the birth of Shakuntala. Vishvamitra at length became ashamed of his passion, and "dismissing the nymph with gentle accents, he retired to the northern mountains where he practiced severe austerities for a thousand years." He is said also to have had an amour with the nymph Rambha. The result of the struggle between Vasishtha and Vishvamitra is as follows in the Ramayana. "Vasishtha, being propitiated by the gods, became reconciled to Vishvamitra, and recognized his claim to all the prerogatives of a Brahman Rishi. . . . Vishvamitra, too, having attained the Brahmanical rank, paid all honour to Vasishtha." The Ramayana gives many particulars of Vishvamitra's connection with Rama. It was Vishvamitra who prevailed upon King Dasharatha to send his son Rama for the protection of the Brahmans against the attacks of Ravana and his Rakshasas. He acted as his guru, and returned with Rama to Ayodhya, where the prince obtained the hand of Sita. In the Markandeya and other Puranas the story is told of Vishvamitra's implacable persecution of King Harishcandra (see Harishcandra), one result of which was that Vasishtha and Vishvamitra cursed each other so that they were turned into birds, and fought together most furiously until Brahma put an end to the conflict, restored them to their natural form, and compelled them to be reconciled.

Vishvamurti: (sáns. hindú). One of universal form. Shiva's 41st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvanatha: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + natha "lord") The Lord of the universe. A name of Shiva as worshipped in Benares where He is the presiding deity.

Vishvarupa: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + rupa "form") 1. Having universal form. See the eleventh chapter of the Bhagavad Gita which is devoted to this concept of God. 2. Shiva's 53 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. An epithet of Vishnu.

Vishvasaha: (sáns. hindú). One who endures everything. Shiva's 497th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvasrik: (sáns. hindú). Creator of the universe. Shiva's 156 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvavahana: (sáns. hindú). Having the universe as vehicle. Shiva's 697th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvavasa: (sáns. hindú). Abode of the universe. Shiva's 557th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishvavasu: (sáns. hindú). A chief of the Gandharvas in Indra's heaven.

Vishvedevas: (sáns. hindú). See Vishvadevas.

Vishvesha: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + isa "lord") Lord of the universe. Shiva's 549th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See Vishvanatha.

Vishveshvara: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + ishvara "lord") 1. Lord of all. 2. A name of Shiva as the presiding deity of Benares. 3. The Linga or emblem of Shiva at Benares. See Linga. See Vishvanatha.

Vishveshvara: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the universe. Shiva's 31st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vishveshvari: (sáns. hindú). (vishva "all, universe" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") Sovereign Goddess of the universe.

Vismapana: (sáns. hindú). Astounding. The aerial city of the Gandharvas, which appears and disappears at intervals.

Visvarupa: (sáns. hindú). Containing all forms within her. An epithet of Sarasvati.

Vitabhaya: (sáns. hindú). Devoid of fear. Shiva's 418 th and 489th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vitadosha: (sáns. hindú). One devoid of defects. Shiva's 836th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vitahavya: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Haihayas. His sons attacked and slew all the family of Divodasa, king of Kashi. A son named Pratardana, was subsequently born to Divodasa, and he attacked the Haihayas and compelled Vitahavya to fly to the sage Bhrigu for protection. Pratardana pursued him, and demanded that he should be given up. Then "Vitahavya, by the mere word of Bhrigu, became a Brahman Rishi and an utterer of the Veda" (Mahabharata). Vitahavya's son, Gritsamada was a highly honored Rishi, and author of several hymns in the Rigveda. He was the founder of the tribe of Haihaya called Vitahavyas.

Vitaraga: (sáns. hindú). One devoid of passion. Shiva's 260th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vitasta: (sáns. hindú). The classic Hydaspes, the Behat of later days, and the modern Jhelam.

Vittakapati: (sáns. hindú). (vittaka "wealth" + pati "lord") The Lord of wealth; a name of Kubera. See Kubera.

Vittanatha: (sáns. hindú). (vitta "weal" + natha "lord") The Lord of wealth; a name of Kubera. See Kubera.

Vittapati: (sáns. hindú). (vitta "wealth" + pati "lord") The Lord of wealth; a name of Kubera. See Kubera.

Vittesha: (sáns. hindú). (vitta "wealth" + isha "lord") The Lord of wealth; a name of Kubera. See Kubera.

Vitthala: (sáns. hindú). (vid "brick" + sthala "standing") Standing on a brick. The name of an incarnation of Krishna at Pandharpur in Deccan. There, the Lord blessed a Brahmana named Pundarika who was reputed for his filial piety. Vitthala is represented standing on a brick (Vid) with His arms akimbo.

Vivada Bhangarnava: (sáns. hindú). A code of Hindu law according to the Bengal school, composed by Jagannatha Tarkalankara at the end of the seventeenth century CE. It is commonly known as Colebrooke's Digest.

Vivadacandra: (sáns. hindú). A law-book of the Benares school by Lakhima Devi, a learned lady.

Vivadacintamani: (sáns. hindú). A law-book of the Mithila school by Vachaspati Mishra.

Vivada Ratnakara: (sáns. hindú). A law-book of the Benares school by Chandeshvara, who lived about 1314 CE.

Vivadatandava: (sáns. hindú). A law-book of the Benares school by Ratnakara.

Vivarta: (sáns. hindú). One who transforms himself. Shiva's 410 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vivasvan: (sáns. hindú). (vi "forth" + vasvat "shining") 1. Brilliant, shining forth. 2. A name of the Sun-God as father of Yama and the sage Manu. 3. Sun. Shiva's 582nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vivasvat: (sáns. hindú). "The bright one." The sun. (See Surya) Used sometimes perhaps for the firmament.

Viveka: (sáns. hindú). 1. (Spiritual) discrimination, discernment, which is the first among the fourfold Vedantic Sadhana. [The fourfold Vedantic Sadhana consists of 1. Viveka (discrimination), 2. Vairagya (dispassion) 3. Shatsampatti (the sixfold wealth) which in turn consists of: a) Shama (mind-control) b) Dama (sense-control) c) Uparati (withdrawal) d) Titiksha (endurance) e) Shraddha (faith) f) Samadhana (concentration) 4. Mumukshutva (desire for salvation).] To the great Acarya beholding the world as impermanent (Anitya) means pondering over its illusory state (Mithyatva), because desire may arise even for impermanent things while it completely turns back if their hollowness or unreality be well-discerned. Such Viveka arises in a mind purified through Karma-Yoga or detachment from the fruits of action, and it generates Vairagya or dispassion, which in turn opens the path of knowledge (Jnana) and renunciation (Sannyasa). 2. Discrimination personified as the son of Manas (Mind), and Nivritti (Renunciation).

Viveki: (sáns. hindú). The discriminating, discerning.

Vivikta: (sáns. hindú). Isolated. Shiva's 1026th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vivindhaya: (sáns. hindú). A Danava killed in battle by Charudeshna, son of Krishna. See Mahabharata.

Vopadeva: (sáns. hindú). A grammarian who lived about the thirteenth century CE at Devagiri, and wrote the Mugdhabodha.

Vraja: (sáns. hindú). A pastoral district about Agra and Mathura, where Krishna passed his boyhood with the cowherds.

Vrata: (sáns. hindú). Observing a spiritual vow. The main spiritual vows are contained in the first limb of Yoga called Yama: non-injury, truthfulness, nonstealing, continence and non-greed. When these are fully observed, it is called the Mahavratam, the Great Vow, corresponding to entry into the Sannyasa order. See also Bratas.

Vrati: (sáns. hindú). Observing a spiritual vow. The main spiritual vows are contained in the first limb of Yoga called Yama: non-injury, truthfulness, nonstealing, continence and non-greed. When these are fully observed, it is called the Mahavratam, the Great Vow, corresponding to entry into the Sannyasa order.

Vratya: (sáns. hindú). Manu stated, "Persons whom the twice-born beget on women of their own classes, but who omit the prescribed rites and have abandoned the Gayatri, are to be designated as Vratyas."

Vriddha: (sáns. hindú). Old. An epithet frequently found prefixed to the books of ancient writers, and evidently implying that there are one or more versions or recensions-As Vriddha Manu, Vriddha Harita. See Dharmashastra.

Vrihan Naradiya Purana: (sáns. hindú). A Upapurana. See Purana.

Vrihaspati: (sáns. hindú). See Brihaspati.

Vrihatkatha: (sáns. hindú). Great story. A large collection of tales from which the Kathasaritsagara was drawn.

Vrihatsanhita: (sáns. hindú). The astronomical work of Varaha Mihira.

Vrikodara: (sáns. hindú). Wolf belly. An epithet of Bhima.

Vrinda: (sáns. hindú). 1. A cluster of holy basil (Tulasi) used in worship services. See Tulasi. 2. A name of Radha. See Radha.

Vrindavana: (sáns. hindú). A wood in the district of Mathura where Krishna passed his youth, under the name of Gopala, among the cowherds.

Vrishakapi: (sáns. hindú). Shiva's 601st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vrishanka: (sáns. hindú). Bull-emblemed. Shiva's 58th and 955th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vrishavahana: (sáns. hindú). Bull-vehicled. Shiva's 59th and 389th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vrishavardhana: (sáns. hindú). One who increases piety. Shiva's 956th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vrishni: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Yadu, and the ancestor from whom Krishna got the name Varshneya.

Vrishnis: (sáns. hindú). The descendants of Vrishni, son of Madhu, whose ancestor was the oldest son of Yadu. Krishna belonged to this branch of the Lunar race.

Vritra: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedas he is the demon of drought and inclement weather, with whom Indra, the god of the firmament, is constantly at war, and whom he is constantly overpowering, and releasing the rain. Sometimes called Vritrasura.

Vritrahan: (sáns. hindú). The slayer of Vritra. A title of Indra.

Vyadhaka: (sáns. hindú). Hunter. Shiva's 467th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyadi: (sáns. hindú). An old grammarian and lexicographer, Somewhat later in time than Panini. A story in the Vrihatkatha represents him as contemporary with Vararuchi.

Vyaghracarmadhara: (sáns. hindú). One who wears the tiger skin. Shiva's 218th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyagranashana: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of excited state. Shiva's 1093rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyahritis: (sáns. hindú). Three mystical words said by Manu to have been milked from the Vedas by Prajapati-The word bhur, from the Rigveda; the word bhuvah, from the Yajurveda; and the word svar, from the Samaveda (Manu, ii. 76). The Shatapatha Brahmana defines them as "three luminous essences" which Prajapati produced from the Vedas by heating them. He uttered the word bhur, which became this earth; bhuvah, which became this firmament; and svar, which became that sky." A fourth word, mahar, is sometimes added. and is probably intended to represent the Atharvaveda. See Loka.

Vyajamardana: (sáns. hindú). One who suppresses sham. Shiva's 978th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyakarana: (sáns. hindú). Grammar. One of the Vedangas. The science of grammar has been carefully studied among the Hindus from very ancient times, and studied for its own sake as a science rather than as a means of acquiring or regulating language. The grammar of Panini is the oldest of those known to survive, but Panini refers to several grammarians who preceded himself. One of them was named Shakatayana, a portion of whose work is said to have been discovered.

Vyaktavyakta: (sáns. hindú). One who is manifest and unmanifest. Shiva's 914th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyalakalpa: (sáns. hindú). One having serpents for ornaments. Shiva's 652nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyalin: (sáns. hindú). One who possesses snakes. Shiva's 219th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyapi: (sáns. hindú). (vi "all" + api "pervading") 1. The All-pervading. Vishnu's 467th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 2. A name of Brahman occuring in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad.

Vyapini: (sáns. hindú). (vi "all" + apini "pervading") 1. The All-pervading. A name of the supreme Goddess or Parameshvari. 3. She who pervades all. An epithet of Devi. The 400th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Vyapti: (sáns. hindú). Pervasion. Shiva's 309th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyasa: (sáns. hindú). An arranger. This title is common to many old authors and compilers but it is especially applied to Vedavyasa the arranger of the Vedas, who, from the imperishable nature of his work, is also called Shashvatas, "the immortal." The name is given also to the compiler of the Mahabharata, the founder of the Vedanta philosophy and the arranger of the Puranas; all these persons being held to be identical with Vedavyasa. But this is impossible, and the attribution of all these works to one person has arisen either from a desire to heighten their antiquity and authority, or from the assumed identity of several different "arrangers."

Vedavyasa was the illegitimate son of the Rishi Parashara and Satyavati, and the child, who was of a dark color, was brought forth on an island (dvipa) in the Yamuna. Being illegitimate he was called Kanina, the "bastard;" from his complexion he received the name Krishna and from his birthplace he was called Dvaipayana. His mother afterwards married King Shantanu, by whom she had two sons. The oldest was killed in battle, and the younger, named Vichitravirya, died childless. Krishna Dvaipayana preferred a life of religious retirement, but in accordance with law and at his mother's request, he took the two childless widows of her son, Vichitravirya. By them he had two sons, Dhritarashtra and Pandu, between whose descendants the great war of the Mahabharata was fought. The Puranas mention no less than twenty-eight Vyasas, incarnations of Vishnu or Brahma, who descended to the earth in different ages to arrange and promulgate the Vedas.

Vyasamurti: (sáns. hindú). One having the form of Vyasa. Shiva's 1097 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyavaharachintamani: (sáns. hindú). A law-book of the Benares school by Vachaspati Mishra.

Vyavaharamayukha: (sáns. hindú). A law-book of the Mahratta school by Nilakantha Bhatta.

Vyavaharatatva: (sáns. hindú). A modern work on law according to the Bengal school by Raghunandana, who is also called Smarta: (sáns. hindú). Bhattacharya.

Vyavasaya: (sáns. hindú). Energy. Shiva's 421st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyavasthana: (sáns. hindú). One with perseverance. Shiva's 422nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Vyoman: (sáns. hindú). 1. The ethereal; he who is like space. 2. A name of Vishnu, which refers both to His being the cause of the space element and to His similarity with space with respect to subtleness, purity and pervasiveness. 3. A name of Brahman.

Vyudhoraska: (sáns. hindú). Broad-chested. Shiva's 1084 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.


Yadahpati: (sáns. hindú). (yadah "water-beings" + pati "lord") The Lord of the water-beings; a name of Varuna. In the Bhagavad Gita X:29, the Lord says, "Varuno Yadasam-Aham" "Among water-beings, I am Varuna." See Varuna.

Yadava: (sáns. hindú). 1. A descendant of Yadu. The Yadavas were the celebrated race in which Krishna was born. At the time of his birth they led a pastoral life, but under him they established a kingdom at Dvaraka in Gujarat. All the Yadavas who were present in Dvaraka after the death of Krishna perished in it when it was submerged by the ocean. Some few were absent, and perpetuated the race, from which many princes and chiefs still claim their descent. The great Rajas of Vijayanagara asserted themselves as its representatives. The Vishnupurana says of this race, "Who shall enumerate the whole of the mighty men of the Yadava race, who were tens of ten thousands and hundreds of hundred thousands in number?" 2. A name of Krishna. See Yadu.

Yadu: (sáns. hindú). The name of an ancient king and hero, who was the son of King Yayati of the Lunar race. Yadu was the brother of Puru and the ancestor of Krishna. Yadu refused to bear the cure of decrepitude passed upon his father by the sage Shukra, and in consequence he incurred the paternal cure, "Your posterity shall not possess dominion." Still he received from his father the southern districts of his kingdom, and his posterity prospered.

Yadunandana: (sáns. hindú). (yadu "name of a king" + nandana "joy") The joy (i.e. son) of Yadu, a name of Akrura, Krishna's paternal uncle.

Yadunatha: (sáns. hindú). (yadu "name of a king" + natha "lord") The Lord of the Yadus; a name of Krishna as the preeminent descendant of King Yadu.

Yadupati: (sáns. hindú). (yadu "name of a king" + pati "lord") The Lord of the Yadus; a name of Krishna as the preeminent descendant of King Yadu.

Yaja: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman of great sanctity, who, at the earnest solicitation of King Drupada, and for the offer of ten million cattle, performed the sacrifice through which his "altar-born" children, Dhrishtadyumna and Draupadi, came forth from the sacrificial fire.

Yaj: (sáns. hindú). The sacrificing (i.e. he who performs one or another among the numerous Yajnas or sacrifices). Manu extolls Self-knowledge as the highest sacrifice in his law-code.

Yajaka: (sáns. hindú). The sacrificer (i.e. he who performs one or another among the numerous Yajnas or sacrifices).

Yajamana: (sáns. hindú). The sacrificing (i.e. he who performs one or any of the numerous Yajnas or sacrifices).

Yajna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sacrifice. 2. Sacrifice personified in the Puranas as son of Ruchi and husband of Dakshina. He had the head of a deer, and was killed by Virabhadra at Daksha's sacrifice. According to the Harivansha he was raised to the planetary sphere by Brahma, and made into the constellation Mrigadhiras (deer-head).

Yajna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sacrifice. 2. Vishnu's 445th and 971st names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 538 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yajnadattabadha: (sáns. hindú). The death of Yajnadatta. An episode of the Ramayana.

Yajnadhara: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + dhara "bearer") 1. The sacrifice-bearer. 2. A name of Vishnu. See Yajna.

Yajnamurti: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + murti "form, image") 1. The image or embodiment of sacrifice. 2. A name of Vishnu. See Yajna.

Yajnanga: (sáns. hindú). 1. A part of the yajna. 2. Shiva's 546th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yajnanta: (sáns. hindú). 1. One who is the end of yajna. 2. Shiva's 541st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yajnaparibhasha: (sáns. hindú). A Sutra work by Apastambha.

Yajnapati: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord or protector of sacrifices. 2. Vishnu's 972 nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 539th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yajnapriya: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + priya "fond of, beloved") 1. Fond of sacrifices. 2. A name of Krishna.

Yajnari: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + ari "enemy") Foe of (Daksha's) 1. Sacrifice. 2. A name of Shiva, which refers to His having destroyed Daksha's sacrifice when Daksha did not want to invite Him, the Lord, to his sacrifice.

Yajnasena: (sáns. hindú). A name of Drupada.

Yajnatrata: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + trata "protector") 1. Protector of sacrifices. 2. A name of Vishnu. See Yajnapati.

Yajnavahana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Yajna-vehicled. 2. Shiva's 547th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yajnavalka: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + valka "expounder") The expounder of sacrifice. See Devarata.

Yajnavalkya: (sáns. hindú). A sage to whom is attributed the White Yajurveda, the Shatapatha Brahmana, the Brihad Aranyaka, and the code of law called Yajnavalkyasmriti. He lived before the grammarian Katyayana, and was probably later than Manu; at any rate, the code bearing his name is posterior to that of Manu. He was a disciple of Bashkali and more particularly of Vaishampayana. The Mahabharata makes him present at the Rajasuya sacrifice performed by Yudhishthira; and according to the Shatapatha Brahmana he flourished at the court of Janaka, king of Videha and father of Sita. Janaka had long contentions with the Brahmans, in which he was supported, and probably prompted, by Yajnavalkya who was a dissenter from the religious teaching and practices of his time, and is represented as contending with and silencing Brahmans at the court of his patron. A Brahman named Vidagdha Shakalya was his special adversary, but he vanquished him and cursed him, so that "his head dropped off, and his bones were stolen by robbers." Yajnavalkya also is represented as inculcating the duty and necessity of religious retirement and meditation, so he is considered as having been the originator of the Yoga doctrine, and to have helped in preparing the world for the preaching of Buddha. He had two wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani, and he instructed the former in his philosophical doctrine.

Max Müller, in his Ancient Sanskrit Literature, quoted a dialogue between them from the Shatapatha Brahmana in which the sage gets forth his views. The White Yajurveda originated in a schism, of which Yajnavalkya was a leader, if not the author. He was the originator and compiler of this Veda, and according to some it was called Vajasaneyi Sanhita, from his surname Vajasaneya. See Veda. What share Yajnavalkya had in the production of the Shatapatha Brahmana and Brihad Aranyaka is very doubtful. Some part of them may, perhaps, have sprung directly from him, and they were probably compiled under his superintendency; but it may be, as some think, that they are so called because they treat of him and embody his teaching. One portion of the Brihad Aranyaka, called the Yajnavalklya Kanda, cannot have been his composition, for it is devoted to his glorification and honor, and was probably written after his death. The Smriti, or code of law which bears the name of Yajnavalkya, is posterior to that of Manu, and is more precise and stringent in its provisions. Its authority is inferior only to that of Manu, and as explained and developed by the commentary Mitakshara, it is in force all over India except in Bengal proper, but even there the original textbook is received. The second century CE has been named as the earliest date of this work. Like Manu, it has two recensions, the Brihad and Vriddha, perhaps more.

Yajnesha: (sáns. hindú). (yajna "sacrifice" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of sacrifices. 2. A name of Vishnu. See Yajnapati.

Yajue: (sáns. hindú). The second Veda. See Veda.

Yajush: (sáns. hindú). The second Veda. See Veda Yajushpati (yajuh "Yajur-Vedic Hymns" + pati "lord") The Lord of Yajurvedic hymns; a name of Vishnu.

Yajva: (sáns. hindú). One who sacrifices. Shiva's 540th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yaksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The mysterious or supernatural. 2. The name of a class of semi-divine beings, attendants of Kubera, their king. 3. In the Kena Upanishad, Brahman appears to the gods as one of these semi-divine beings to remove their self-conceit.

Yakshaloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.

Yakshas: (sáns. hindú). 1. The mysterious or supernatural. 2. The name of a class of semi-divine beings, attendants of Kubera, their king. In the Kena Upanishad, Brahman appears to the gods as one of these semi-divine beings to remove their self-conceit. Authorities differ as to their origin. They have no very special attributes, but they are generally considered as inoffensive, and so are called Punyajanas, "good people," but they occasionally appear as imps of evil. It is a Yaksha in whose mouth Kalidasa placed his poem Meghadiita (cloud messenger). They are generally thought of as being in the forests and uncivilized areas. They are connected with fertility and often shown as embracing trees or leaning against trees. They may even be pictured as pouring out vegetation from their navels and mouths.

Yakshi: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Female Yaksha. 2. A female demon or imp attendant on Durga.

Yakshini: (sáns. hindú). The name of Kuvera's wife.

Yama: (sáns. hindú). Restrainer. Pluto, Minos. In the Vedas Yama is god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell. He was the son of Vivasvat (the Sun), and had a twin-sister named Yami or Yamuna. These are by some looked upon as the first human pair, the originators of the race; and there is a remarkable hymn, in the form of a dialogue, in which the female urges their cohabitation for the purpose of perpetuating the species. Another hymn says that Yama "was the first of men that died, and the first that departed to the (celestial) world." It was Yama who found the way to the home which cannot be taken away. "Those who are now born follow) by their own paths to the place where our ancient fathers have departed." "But," says Muir, "Yama is nowhere represented in the Rigveda as having anything to do with the punishment of the wicked." So far as is yet known, "the hymn of that Veda contain no prominent mention of any such penal retribution. . . . Yama is still to some extent an object of terror. He is represented as having two insatiable dogs with four eyes and wide nostrils, which guard the road to his abode, and which the departed are advised to hurry past with all possible speed. These dogs are said to wander about among men as his messengers, no doubt for the purpose of summoning them to their master, who is in another place identified with death, and is described as sending a bird as the herald of doom."

In the epic poems Yama is the son of the Sun by Sanjna (conscience), and brother of Vaivasvata (Manu). Mythologically he was the father of Yudhishthira. He is the god of departed spirits and judge of the dead. A soul when it quits its mortal form goes to his abode in the lower regions; there the recorder, Citragupta, reads out his account from the great register called Agrasandhani, and a just sentence follows, when the soul either ascends to the abodes of the Pitris (Manes), or is sent to one of the twenty-one hells according to its guilt, or it is born again on earth in another form. Yama is regent of the south quarter, and as such is called Dakshinashapati. He is represented as having a green color and clothed with red. He rides upon a buffalo, and is armed with a ponderous mace and a noose to secure his victims. In the Puranas a legend is told of Yama having lifted his foot to kick Chaya, the handmaid of his father. She cursed him to have his leg affected with sores and worms, but his father gave him a cock which picked off the worms and cured the discharge.

Through this incident he is called Shirnapada, "Shrivelled foot." Yama had several wives, as Hemamala, Sushila, and Vijaya. He dwells in the lower world, in his city Yamapura. There, in his palace called Kalichi, he sits upon his throne of judgment, Vicharabhu. He is assisted by his recorder and councillor, Citragupta, and waited upon by his two chief attendants and custodians, Canda or Mahacanda, and Kalapursusha. His messengers, Yamadutas, bring in the souls of the dead, and the door of his judgment-hall is kept by his porter, Vaidhyata. Yama has many names descriptive of his office. He is Mrityu, Kala, and Antaka, "death"; Kritanta, "the finisher"; Shamana "the settler"; Dandi or Dandadhara, "the rod-bearer"; Bhimashasana, "of terrible decrees"; Pashi, "the noose-carrier"; Pitripati, "lord of the manes"; Pretaraja, "king of the ghosts"; Shraddhadeva, "god of the exequial offerings"; and especially Dharmaraja, "king of justice." He is Audumbara, from Udumbara, "the fig-tree," and from his parentage he is Vaivasvata. There is a Dharmashastra which bears the name of Yama.

Yamajit: (sáns. hindú). (Yama "God of Death" + jit "conqueror") The Conqueror of Yama (i.e. the God of Death); a name of Shiva who kicked Yama when the latter came to take Sage Markandeya's soul to his abode. See Markandeya.

Yamakila: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vishnu.

Yamavaivasvata: (sáns. hindú). Yama as son of Vivasvat.

Yami: (sáns. hindú). 1. The goddess of the Yamuna river. 2. Yama's twin sister, who is identified with the holy Yamuna River.

Yamuna: (sáns. hindú). 1. The river Jumna, which rises in a mountain called Kalinda (Sun). The river Yamuna is personified a the daughter of the Sun by his wife Sanjna. So she was sister of Yama. Balarama, in an intoxicated state, called upon her to come to him that he might bathe, and as she did not heed, he, in a great rage, seized his plowshare-weapon, dragged her to him and compelled her to follow him wherever he wandered through the wood. The river then assumed a human form and besought his forgiveness, but it was some time before she could appease him. Wilson thinks that "the legend probably alludes to the construction of canals from the Jumna for the purposes of irrigation." The river is also called Kalindi, from the place of its source; Suryaja, from her father; and Triyama. 2. The Ida Nadi in the subtle body.

Yashas: (sáns. hindú). Glory, fame; one of the six attributes given in the definintion of Bhagavan. See Bhagavan.

Yashasvi: (sáns. hindú). (yashah "glory" + vin "having") 1. The glorious. 2. A name of Lakshmi.

Yashatilaka: (sáns. hindú). An late eleventh or early twelfth-century writing by Somadeva. See Candamari.

Yashoda: (sáns. hindú). (yashah "glory" + da "giver") 1. The bestower of fame. 2. The name of the cowherd Nanda's wife who was Krishna's foster-mother.

Yashovara: (sáns. hindú). (yashah "glory" + vara "excellent") 1. Having excellent fame. 2. The name of a son of Krishna and Rukmini.

Yaska: (sáns. hindú). The author of the Nirukta, the oldest known gloss upon the text of the Vedic hymns. Yaska lived before the time of Panini, who refers to his work, but he was not the first author who wrote a Nirukta, as he himself refers to several predecessors. See Nirukta.

Yasoda: (sáns. hindú). Wife of the cowherd Nanda, and foster-mother of Krishna.

Yati: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Ascetic. 2. A name of Shiva as assuming the form of an ascetic engaged in constant self-restraint and Samadhi. 3. The (spiritual) striver. A name for the Sannyasis who habitually strive for Moksha or liberation. In the Narada-Parivrajaka Upanishad (IV:10-13) the Brahma expounds to Narada the duties of the ascetics and their fruit.

Yatiraja: (sáns. hindú). (yati "striver" + raja "king") 1. The king of strivers or ascetics. 2. A name of Ramanuja.

Yatudhanas: (sáns. hindú). See Yatus.

Yatus: (sáns. hindú). Demons or evil spirits of various forms, as dogs, vultures, hoofed animals, etc. In ancient times the Yatus or Yatudhanas were distinct from the Rakshasas though associated with them, but in the epic poems and Puranas they are identified. Twelve Yatudhanas are named in the Vayupurana, and they are said to have sprung from Kashyapa and Surasa. They are associated with the Dasyus, and are thought to be one of the native races which opposed the progress of the immigrant Aryans.

Yavakri: (sáns. hindú). 1. Bought with barley. 2. The Mahabharata states that Yavakri was the son of the sage Bharadvaja and that he had performed great penances in order to obtain a knowledge of the Vedas without study. Having obtained this and other boons from Indra, he became arrogant and treated other sages with disrespect. He made love to the wife of Paravasu, son of his father's friend, Raibhya. Paravasu, in his anger, performed a sacrifice which brought into being a fearful Rakshasa who killed Yavakrita at his father's chapel. Bharadvaja, in grief for his son, burned himself upon the funeral pile. Before his death he cursed Paravasu to be the death of his father, Raibhya, and the son killed his father in mistake for an antelope. All three were restored to life by the gods in recompense of the great devotions of Arvavasu, the other son of Raibhya.

Yavanas: (sáns. hindú). Greeks, the Yavans of the Hebrew. The term is found in Panini, who speaks of the writing of the Yavanas. The Puranas represent them to be descendants of Turvasu, but they are always associated with the tribes of the northwest frontier, and there can be little doubt that the Macedonian or Bactrian Greeks are the people most usually intended by the term. In the Bactrian Pali inscriptions of King Priyadarshi the word is contracted to Yona, and the term Yonaraja is associated with the name of Antiochus, probably Antiochus the Great, the ally of the Indian prince Sophagasenas, about 210 BCE. The Puranas characterize them as "wise and eminently brave." They were among the races conquered by King Sagara, and "he made them shave their heads entirely." In a later age they were encountered on the Indus by Pushpamitra, a Mauryan general, who dethroned his master and took the throne. In modern times the term has been applied to the Muhammadans.

Yayati: (sáns. hindú). The fifth king of the Lunar race, and son of Nahusha. He had two wives, Devayani and Sarmishtha, from the former of whom was born Yadu, and from the latter Puru, the respective founders of the two great lines of Yadavas and Pauravas. In all he had five sons, the other three being Druhyu, Turvasu, and Anu. He was a man of amorous disposition, and his infidelity to Devayani brought upon him the curse of old age and infirmity from her father, Shukra. This curse Shukra consented to transfer to any one of his sons who would consent to bear it. All refused except Puru, who undertook to resign his youth in his father's favor. Yayati, after a thousand years spent in sensual pleasures, renounced sensuality, restored his vigor to Puru, and made him his successor. This story of Puru's assuming Yayati's decrepitude is first told in the Mahabharata. The above is the version of the Vishnupurana. In the Padmapurana it is told in a different manner. Yayati was invited to heaven by Indra, who sent Matali, his charioteer, to fetch his guest. On their way they held a philosophical discussion, which made such an impression on Yayati that, when he returned to earth, he, by his virtuous administration, rendered all his subjects exempt from passion and decay.

Yama complained that men no longer died, and so Indra sent Kamadeva, god of love, and his daughter, Ashruvindumati, to excite a passion in the breast of Yayati. He became enamored, and in order to become a fit husband for his youthful charmer (Ashruvindumati) he made application to his sons for an exchange of their youth and his decrepitude. All refused but Puru, whose manly vigor his father assumed. After awhile the youthful bride, at the instigation of Indra, persuaded her husband to return to heaven, and he then restored to Puru his youth. The Bhagavatapurana and the Harivansha tell the story, but with variations. According to the latter, Yayati received from Indra a celestial car, by means of which he in six nights conquered the earth and subdued the gods themselves. This car descended to his successors, but was lost by Jamamejaya through a curse of the sage Gargya. Yayati after restoring his youth to Puru, retired to the forest with his wife and gave himself up to mortification. Abstaining from food, he died and ascended to heaven. He and his five sons are all called Rajarshis.

Yayaticaritra: (sáns. hindú). A drama in seven acts on the life of Yayati. It is attributed to Rudradeva. The subject is Yayati's intrigue with Sarmishtha.

Yoga: (sáns. hindú). A school of philosophy. See Darshana, Yajnavalkya, and Sadhu.

Yogacarya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Preceptor of the yoga system. 2. Shiva's 584th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yoganidra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The sleep of meditation. 2. Personified delusion. 3. The great illusory energy of Vishnu and the illusory power manifested in Devi as Mahamaya, the great illusion.

Yogasutras: (sáns. hindú). The following is from an introduction to the Yogasutras by Lin Yutang: The most curious, most distinctive and at the same time probably the most widely known aspect of Hindu mysticism is the philosophy and practice of yoga. If the sum of Brahmanism may be defined as teaching the mystic union of man's true self with the world-soul (brahman, God, etc.), yoga represents the most direct and well-formulated method for achieving that goal, and as such constitutes a form of religious experience and a religious technique. The reason for the popularity of yoga philosophy and its particular appeal to the modern world is twofold; it arises from the combination of a system of physical regimen that has something to do with physical and mental health with a mystic search for inner stability and the psychic depths of man's soul, which seems to underly a broad and deep undercurrent of modern life.

"To me," says C. G. Jung, "the crux of the spiritual problem of today is to be found in the fascination which psychic life exerts upon the modern man." It is needless to point out that it is modern psychoanalysis itself, which has awakened our interest in, and opened our way to the exploration of, the subconscious, and by changing our whole conception of the human "mind," has exhibited to us the tyrannous demoniac power of our primordial instincts, impulses and "urges" which govern our lives in that vast psychological underworld. Lastly, it must be pointed out that popularity of yoga is due to its claims of supernatural powers and to the general interest in the hocus-pocus of all forms of occultism. Yoga (meaning "yoke") represents a form of personal discipline, with the object of "yoking" the body to the soul, and the individual soul to the universal soul. From a practical aspect, its aim is to help cultivate emotional stability. It begins with a unique and unparalleled exploration in the region of the involuntary muscles and bringing them under the control of the mind, and proceeds to the liberation of the mind from its sense impressions and the deeper residuents and impedimenta that not only clog but form the very fabric of our subconscious life which Freud has summed up as Eros, or the life-principle, comprising the sex instinct and the ego-instinct.

Finally, it aims at the destruction of the "mind" for the liberation of the "soul" (which is variously interpreted), at which point it has a religious character and goes beyond the fields and aims of psychoanalytic research. Before the coming of Freud and Jung, we might have easily laughed off yoga philosophy and put it on the same level with the much debated Hindu rope trick and levitation. Yoga does claim powers of levitation. In the first week of July, 1942, I read in the New York Herald Tribune a factual account by a responsible Hindu professor of a yogi buried under publicly tested conditions and coming to life again after six months in the presence of thousands of Hindu peasants. It is these sensational reports that appeal to the popular fancy. After the modern experiments of freezing of patients under ice, these feats seem less incredible and are not any more inexplicable than the hibernation of animals. Still, they are bound to detract our attention from the more normal and earnest problems of achieving emotional stability and psychological health. Luckily, modern psychology offers the key to our understanding of yoga. Breathing exercises and the mastery of ordinarily involuntary muscles by practice require no explanation; the deeper problems of the psyche do. Jung has written a full and highly illuminating introduction to a Chinese yoga book (The Secret of the Golden Flower, Harcourt, Brace, 1938, not to be confused with the Buddhistic Lotus Gospel; see especially the sections, "Difficulties encountered by a European in trying to understand the East," and "Modern psychology offers a possibility of understanding").

Kovoor T. Behanan, in his "Yoga: a Scientific Evaluation" (Macmillan, 1937) has also drawn interesting parallels in the chapter, "Yoga and Psychoanalysis." The curious thing about this book is that in Behanan, a Hindu by birth, his scientific training in Toronto and Yale seems to have got the upper hand of his native Hindu blood and his early training at Calcutta; I rather think his approach to yoga is more "university trained" and therefore more trivial than that of a continental mind like Jung. Readers of the yoga section of the Bhagavad Gita must have been impressed by its concern with what lies in the subconscious life. The overwhelming emphasis on the subconscious and the dependence of the yoga disciple upon the guru, or spiritual teacher, are points of similarity with the practice of psychoanalysis. "Yoga can only be safely learned by direct contact with a teacher," warns Swami Vivekananda. When we come to the analysis of the mind itself, only modern psychology makes the doctrine intelligible to us. The process of destruction of the mind (chitta) in order to save the soul (purusha) can be understood only in psychological terms.

The mind with its incrusted layers of sense-attachments, which yoga teaches as the hindrances to our seeing of the ultimate soul, is no more than the sepulchre of primordial life-urges that psychology has shown us; the doctrine of the rebirth is no more than that survival in individual of a superpersonal or collective race inheritance phylogenetically acquired; the impersonal, collective nature of these primordial forces is apparently the same as that of the "collective unconscious" of Jung. Finally, the urge for release and liberation is what Freud has negatively called the "death-instinct," the opposite of the "life-instinct," very inadequately illustrated, I am afraid, in sadism and masochism. Freud says very correctly, in the subconscious, "instinctive impulses . . . exist independently side by side, and are exempt from mental contradiction. . . . There is in this system no negation, no dubiety, no varying degrees of certainty. . . . Its processes are timeless, they are not ordered temporarily, are not altered by the passage of time, in fact bear no relation to time at all." It is these forces, as well as the body that must be brought under control by yoga practice.

It is also important to point out that the theories of psychoanalysis, like the theories of yoga, are speculative, and only a portion of these subjective interpretations are amenable to proof by experimentation. We have not even the vocabulary for these inner phenomena, and when psychoanalysis begins to tackle the depths of the psyche, it is compelled to invent terms that are in their nature quasi-scientific make-shifts - terms like life-urge, the 1d, animus, anima, libido (a form of discharge of energy which unfortunately cannot be measured in volts), and that elusive spiritual entity called Eros. Hindu psychology, Buddhist and non-Buddhist, abounds in such terms. It is said that there is a greater psychological vocabulary in Sanskrit and Pali than in the "modern languages" combined. (For example, see the "Table of the Eighty-Nine Consciousnesses" in Henry Clarke Warren's Buddhism in Translations.) Jung says, "We have not yet clearly grasped the fact that Western Theosophy is an amateurish imitation of the East. We are just taking up astrology again, and that to the Oriental is his daily bread. Our studies of sexual life, originating in Vienna and England, are matched or surpassed by Hindu teachings on the subject. Oriental texts ten centuries old introduce us to philosophical relativism, while the idea of indetermination, newly broached in the West, furnishes the very basis of Chinese science. Richard Wilhelm has even shown me that certain complicated processes discovered by analytical psychology are recognizably described in ancient Chinese texts. Psychoanalysis itself and the lines of thought to which it gives rise - surely a distinctly Western development - are only a beginner's attempt compared to what is an immemorial art in the East." I can do no better than quote Swami Vivekananda on the nature and character of the yoga discipline. "For thousands of years such phenomena have been studied, investigated, and generalised, the whole ground of the religious faculties of man has been analysed, and the practical result is the science of Raja-Yoga. . . . It declares that each man is only a conduit for the infinite ocean of knowledge and power that lies beyond mankind.

It teaches that desires and wants are in man, that the power of supply is also in man; and that wherever and whenever a desire, a want, a prayer has been fulfilled, it was out of this infinite magazine that the supply came, and not from any supernatural being. The idea of supernatural beings may arouse to a certain extent the power of action in man, but it also brings spiritual decay. It brings dependence; it brings fear; it brings superstition. It degenerates into a horrible belief in the natural weakness of man. There is no supernatural, says the Yogi, but there are in nature gross manifestations and subtle manifestations. The subtle are the causes, the gross the effects. The gross can be easily perceived by the senses; not so the subtle. The practice of Raja-Yoga will lead to the acquisition of the more subtle perceptions." The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali is the classic and textbook of yoga, acknowledged by all schools to be the highest authority on the subject. It was written, according to Professor J. H. Woods, in the fourth or fifth centuries of our era. In this complete text, without the commentaries, a brief glimpse may be had of the contents of yoga teachings. I have used the free and easily understandable translation of Swami Vivekananda, and those who are interested should read his commentaries (Raja-Yoga, Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, New York, 1939).

The classic Comment, and Explanations of the Comment, together with Professor James Haughton Woods' scholarly translation of the text Yoga System of Patanjali, Harvard Oriental Series, Vol. 17, may be consulted only by the academically-minded. Professor Woods seems to err on the scholarly side: his "sources-of-valid-ideas" are translated by Vivekananda as "right knowledge," his "predicate-relation" (vikalpa) is simply the latter's "verbal delusion," and "Memory is not-adding-surreptitiously to a once experienced object" simply means, according to the Hindu yoga teacher, "Memory is when perceived objects do not slip away." In the same way, I believe "non-attachment" is better English than "passionlessness" and "egoism" better than "feeling-of-personality." "Undifferentiated-consciousness" may be etymologically more exact than "ignorance" for the rendering of avidya, but the important thing is what a Hindu word means to a Hindu, for etymological meaning is always altered by a current meaning which usage has acquired. A brief, but clear exposition of the yoga mysticism may be found in Hindu Mysticism, by S. N. Dasgupta (Open Court), a lucid introduction to Hindu thought, in general, as against the same author's heavy and scholarly History of Indian Philosophy. I have supplied the sectional headings for the convenience of the reader.

Yogavid: (sáns. hindú). 1. Knower of the yogas. 2. Shiva's 945th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yogesha: (sáns. hindú). (yoga "oneness, of Atman and Brahman" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of Yoga. A name of Krishna. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Yogeshvari: (sáns. hindú). (yoga "oneness, of Atman and Brahman" + ishvari "ruling goddess") 1. The sovereign Goddess of Yoga. 2. A name of Durga.

Yogi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Possessed of Yoga; one who follows the teachings of Yoga. 2. Vishnu's 849th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Yogin: (sáns. hindú). Shiva's 321 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yogini: (sáns. hindú). 1. Possessed of Yoga 2. One who follows the teachings of Yoga. 2. A name of Durga. 3. A sorceress. 4. The Yoginis are eight female demons attendant on Durga. Their names are Marjani, Karpuratilaka, Malayagandhini Kaumudika, Bherunda, Matali, Nayaki, and Jaya or Shubhachara; Sulakshana, Sunanda.

Yogya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Fit for Yoga; the capable or qualified for Self-Realization. See the Yogasutras II:41, where the Atma-Darshana-Yogyatva (fitness for Self-Realization) is said to be the outcome of Shauca, or purity. 2. Worthy. 3. Shiva's 322nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yoni: (sáns. hindú). The female sex organ (vagina). Alone, or in combination with the Linga, it is an object of worship by the followers of the Shaktis.

Yudhishthira: (sáns. hindú). (yudhi "in battle" + sthira "firm") Firm in battle. The name of the eldest of the five Pandava brothers, who succeeded Pandu as king and is considered an incarnation of the God Dharma (i.e. the God of Justice or Righteousnss also known as Yama or the Death-God). His story and entry into heaven is told in the celebrated Mahabharata.

Yudhishthira: (sáns. hindú). The oldest of the five Pandu princes, mythologically the son of Dharma, the god of justice. With the Hindus he is the favorite of the five brothers, and is represented as a man of calm, passionless judgment, strict veracity, unswerving rectitude, and rigid justice. He was renown as a ruler and director, but not as a warrior. Educated at the court of his uncle, Dhritarashtra, he received from the family preceptor, Drona, a military training, and was taught the use of the spear. When the time came for naming the Yuvaraja or heir-apparent to the realm of Hastinapura, the Maharaja Dhritarashtra selected Yudhishthira in preference to his own oldest son, Duryodhana. A long-standing jealousy between the Pandava and Kaurava princes then broke forth openly. Duryodhana expostulated with his father, and the end was that the Pandavas went in honorable banishment to the city of Varanavata. The jealousy of Duryodhana pursued them, and his emissaries laid a plot for burning the brothers in their dwelling-house. Yudhishthira's sagacity discovered the plot and Bhima frustrated it.

The bodies of a Bhil woman and her five sons were found in the ruins of the burned house, and it was believed for a time that the Pandavas and their mother had perished. When Draupadi had been won at the svayamvara, Yudhishthira, the oldest of the five brothers, was requested by his juniors to make her his wife, but he desired that she should become the wife of Arjuna, by whose prowess she had been won. Through the words of their mother, Kunti, and the decision of the sage Vyasa, the princess became the common wife of the five brothers. An arrangement was made that Draupadi should dwell in turn with the five brothers, passing two days in the separate house of each, and that under pain of exile for twelve years not one of the brothers but the master of the house should enter while Draupadi was staying in it. The arms of the family were kept in the house of Yudhishthira, and an alarm of robbery being raised, Arjuna rushed there to procure his weapons while Draupadi was present. He thus incurred the pain of exile, and departed, though Yudhishthira endeavored to dissuade him by arguing that the elder brother of a fatherless family stood towards his juniors in the position of a father.

After the return of the Pandavas from exile and their establishment at Indraprastha, the rule of Yudhishthira is described as having been most excellent and prosperous. The Raja "ruled his country with great justice, protecting his subjects as his own sons, and subduing all his enemies round about, so that every man was without fear of war or disturbance, and gave his whole mind to the performance of every religious duty. And the Raja had plenty of rain at the proper season, and all his subjects became rich; and the virtues of the Raja were to be seen in the great increase of trade and merchandise, in the abundant harvests and the prolific cattle. Every subject of the Raja was pious; there, were no liars, no thieves, and no swindlers; and there were no droughts, no floods, no locusts, no conflagrations, no foreign invasions, and no parrots to eat the grain. The neighboring Rajas, despairing of conquering Raja Yudhishthira, were very desirous of securing his friendship. Meanwhile Yudhishthira, though he would never acquire wealth by unfair means, yet prospered so exceedingly that had he lavished his riches for a thousand years no diminution would ever have been perceived."

After the return of his brother Arjuna from exile, Yudhishthira determined to assert his supremacy by performing the Rajasuya sacrifice, and this led to a war with Jarasandha, Raja of Magadha, who declined to take part in it, and was in consequence defeated and killed. The dignity which Yudhishthira had gained by the performance of the sacrifice rekindled the jealousy of Duryodhana and the other Kauravas. They resolved to invite their cousin to a gambling match, and to cheat Yudhishthira of his kingdom. Yudhishthira was very unwilling to go, but could not refuse his uncle's invitation. Shakuni, maternal uncle of Duryodhana, was not only a skilful player but also a dexterous cheat. He challenged Yudhishthira to throw dice with him, and Yudhishthira, after stipulating for fair-play, began the game. He lost his all, his kingdom, his brothers, himself, and his wife, all of whom became slaves. When Draupadi was sent for as a slave and refused to come, Duhshasana dragged her into the hall by the hair, and both he and Duryodhana grossly insulted her.

Bhima was half mad with rage, but Yudhishthira's sense of right acknowledged that Draupadi was a slave, and he forbade Bhima and his brothers to interfere. When the old Maharaja Dhritarashtra was informed of what had passed, he came into the assembly, and declaring that his sons had acted wrongfully, he sent Draupadi and her husbands away, imploring them to forget what had passed. Duryodhana was very wroth, and induced the Maharaja to allow another game to avoid war, the condition being that the losers should go into exile for thirteen years, and should remain concealed and undiscovered during the whole of the thirteenth years. The game was played, and loaded dice gave Shakuni the victory, so the Pandavas went again into exile. During that time they rendered a service to Duryodhana by rescuing him and his companions from a band of marauders who had made them prisoners. When Jayadratha, king of Sindhu, was foiled in his attempt to carry off Draupadi, the clemency of Yudhishthira led him to implore his brothers to spare their captive's life. As the thirteenth year of exile approached, in order to keep themselves concealed, the five brothers and Draupadi went to the country of Virata and entered into the service of the Raja.

Yudhishthira's office was that of private companion and teacher of dice-playing to the king. Here Yudhishthira suffered his wife Draupadi to be insulted, and dissuaded his brothers from interfering, lest by so doing they should discover themselves. When the term of exile was concluded, Yudhishthira sent an envoy to Hastinapura asking for a peaceful restoration to the Pandavas of their former position. The negotiations failed, and Yudhishthira invited Krishna to go as his representative to Hastinapura. Notwithstanding Yudhishthira's longing for peace the war began, but even then Yudhishthira desired to withdraw, but was overruled by Krishna. Yudhishthira fought in the great battle, but did not distinguish himself as a soldier. Other versions of the Mahabharata, such as Wheeler's, makes Yudhishthira guilty of downright cowardice. At the instigation of Krishna he compassed the death of Drona by conveying false intelligence to him of the death of his son Ashvatthaman, and his character for veracity was used to warrant the truth of the representation. His conscience would not allow him to tell a downright lie, but it was reconciled to telling a lying truth in killing an elephant named Ashvatthaman, and informing the fond father that Ashvatthaman was dead. He retreated from a fight with Karna, and afterward reproached Arjuna for not having supported him and Bhima.

This so irritated Arjuna that he would have killed him on the spot had not Krishna interposed. After the great battle was over Krishna saluted him king, but he showed great disinclination to accept the dignity. His sorrow for those who had fallen was deep, especially for Karna, and he did what he could to console the bereaved Dhritarashtra and Gandhari, as well as the many other sufferers. He was made king, and was raised to the throne with great pomp, he acting as ruler under the nominal supremacy of the old king Dhritarashtra There, after an interval, he asserted his universal supremacy by performing the great Ashvamedha sacrifice. The death of Krishna at Dvaraka and regrets for the past embittered the lives of the Pandavas, and they resolved to withdraw from the world. Yudhishthira appointed Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, to be his successor, and the five brothers departed with Draupadi to the Himalayas on their way to Svarga. The story of this journey is told with great feeling in the closing verses of the Mahabharata. See Mahabharata. Yudhishthira had a son named Yaudheya by his wife Devika; but the Vishnupurana makes the son's name Devaka and the mother's Yaudheyi.

Yuga: (sáns. hindú). An age of the world. Each of these ages is preceded by a period called its Sandhya or twilight, and is followed by another period of equal length called Sandhyansha, "portion of twilight," each being equal to one-tenth of the Yuga. The Yugas are four in number, and their duration is first computed by years of the god. But a year of the gods is equal to 360 years of men, so: 4,800x360=1,728,000; 3,600x360=1,296,000; 2,400x360=864,000; 1,200x360=432,000; forming the period called a Mahayuga or Manvantara. Two thousand Mahayugas or 8,640,000,000 years make a Kalpa or night and a day of Brahma. This elaborate and practically boundless system of chronology was invented between the age of the Rigveda and that of the Mahabharata. No traces of it are to be found in the hymns of the Rigveda, but it was fully established in the day of the great epic. In this work the four ages are described at length by Hanumat, the learned monkey chief, and from that description the following account has been abridged. The Krita is the age in which righteousness is eternal, when duties did not languish nor people decline.

No efforts were made by men, the fruit of the earth was obtained by their mere wish. There was no malice, weeping, pride, or deceit; no contention, no hatred, cruelty, fear, affliction, jealousy, or envy. The castes alike in their functions fulfilled their duties, were unceasingly devoted to one deity, and used one formula, one rule, and one rite. Though they had separate duties, they had but one Veda and practiced one duty. In the Treta Yuga sacrifice commenced, righteousness decreased by one-fourth; men adhered to truth, and were devoted to a righteousness dependent on ceremonies. Sacrifices prevailed with holy acts and a variety of rites. Men acted with an object in view, seeking after reward for their rites and their gifts, and were no longer disposed to austerities and to liberality from a simple feeling of duty. In the Dvapara Yuga righteousness was diminished by a half. The Veda became four-fold. Some men studied four Vedas, others three, others two, others one, and some none at all. Ceremonies were celebrated in a great variety of ways.

From the decline of goodness only few men adhered to truth. When men had fallen away from goodness, many diseases, desires, and calamities, caused by destiny, assailed them, by which they were severely afflicted and driven to practice austerities. Others desiring heavenly bliss offered sacrifices. Thus men declined through unrighteousness. In the Kali Yuga righteousness remained to the extent of one-fourth only. Practices enjoined by the Vedas, works of righteousness and rites of sacrifice ceased. Calamities, diseases, fatigue, faults, such as anger, etc., distresses, hunger, and fear prevailed. As the ages revolve righteousness declines, and the people also decline. When they decay their motives grow weak, and the general decline frustrates their aims. In the Krita Yuga the duration of life was four thousand years, in the Treta three thousand in the Dvapara two thousand. In the Kali Yuga there is no fixed measure. Other passages of the Mahabharata indicate "that the Krita Yuga was regarded as an age in which Brahmans alone existed, and that Kshatriyas only began to be born in the Treta."

Yugadhyaksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Presiding deity of the yugas. 2. Shiva's 810th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yugadikrit: (sáns. hindú). 1. One who makes the beginning of the yugas. 2. Shiva's 386th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yugandhara: (sáns. hindú). A city in the Punjab. A people dwelling there and in the vicinity.

Yugavaha: (sáns. hindú). 1. One causing the yugas. 2. Shiva's 811th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yugavarta: (sáns. hindú). 1. Cause of the repetition of the yugas. 2. Shiva's 387th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yukta: (sáns. hindú). Concentrated; one whose mind is intent on the Self alone.

Yukteshvara: (sáns. hindú). (yukta "concentrated" + ishvara "lord") Concentrated on the Lord as being one's own true Self or Atman.

Yukti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Oneness of Atman and Brahman. 2. Reasoning in the light of Vedantic Scripture which leads to Oneness or realization of the Self as Brahman alone. 3. Cogent reason. Shiva's 480th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Yuvan: (sáns. hindú). 1. The youthful. 2. A name given to several Vedic Gods such as Agni, Indra and the Maruts. 3. A name of Shiva.

Yuvanashva: (sáns. hindú). A king of the Solar race, father of Mandhatri. A legend represents this son as being conceived by and born of his father.

Yuvaraja: (sáns. hindú). 1. Young king. 2. The heir apparent to a throne.

Yuvati: (sáns. hindú). 1. The youthful. 2. A name of several Goddesses such as Durga and Usha.

Yuyudhana: (sáns. hindú). A name of Satyaki.

Yuyutsu: (sáns. hindú). A son of Dhritarashtra by a Vaishya handmaid. On the eve of the great battle he left the side of the Kauravas and joined the Pandavas. When Yudhishthira retired from the world he established Yuyutsu in the kingdom of Indraprastha.

Enciclopedia Hindu, Manurishi Fundación

  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  5. Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  6. Jñanam - Kurantika - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  7. Kurira - Nagaharadhrik - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  8. Nagakesara - Prajapala - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  9. Prajapati - Saha - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  10. Sahadeva - Shvashva - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  11. Shyala - Uparati - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  12. Uparichara - Vikarna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation

Fuentes - Fonts

bai_____.ttf  - 46 KB
  - 47 KB
bab_____.ttf  - 45 KB
  - 56 KB
  - 64 KB
  - 12 KB
  - 12 KB
  - 66 KB
  - 45 KB
indevr20.ttf  -
53 KB

free counters

Cuadro General

Disculpen las Molestias

jueves 11 de marzo de 2010


No hay comentarios:

Correo Vaishnava

Mi foto
Correo Devocional

Archivo del blog