martes, 6 de julio de 2010

Shyala - Uparati - The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms






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11.Shyala - Uparati







Shyala: (sáns. hindú). A brother in law. A Yadava prince who insulted the sage Gargya, and was the cause of his becoming the father of Kalayavana, a great foe of Krishna and the Yadava family.



Shyama: (sáns. hindú). 1. The dark. 2. A name of Krishna. 3. A name of Kali.



Shyavashva: (sáns. hindú). Son of Archananas. Both were Vedic Rishis. In a hymn he says "Shashiyasi has given me cattle, comprising horses and cows and hundreds of sheep." The story told in explanation is that Archananas, having seen the daughter of Raja Rathaviti, asked her in marriage for his son Shyavashva.



The king was inclined to consent, but the queen objected that no daughter of their house had ever been given to any one less saintly than a Rishi. To qualify himself Shyavashva engaged in austerities and begged alms. Among others, he begged of Shashiyasi, wife of Raja Taranta. She took him to her husband, with whose permission she gave him a herd of cattle and costly ornaments. The Raja also gave him whatever he asked for, and sent him on to his younger brother, Purumilha. On his way he met the Maruts, and lauded them in a hymn, for which they made him a Rishi. He then returned to Rathaviti, and received his daughter to wife.



Siddha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The perfected or accomplished. 2. A class of semidivine beings residing on higher planes. 3. Vishnu's 97th and 819 th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. Shiva's 324 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Siddhahemashabdanushana: (sáns. hindú). A writing by Hemacandra (10881172 CE) describing Krishna as looking longingly for a glimpse of Radha on his departure from Vraja to Mathura.



Siddhanta: (sáns. hindú). Any scientific work on astronomy or mathematics.



Siddhanta Kaumudi: (sáns. hindú). A modern and simplified form of Panini's Grammar by Bhattoji Dikshita.



Siddhantashiromani: (sáns. hindú). A work on astronomy by Bhaskaracharya.



Siddhartha: (sáns. hindú). (siddha "accomplished, perfected" + artha "aim") 1. He who has accomplished his goal. 2. Vishnu's 252nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Siddhas: (sáns. hindú). A class of semidivine beings of great purity and holiness, who dwell in the regions of the sky between the earth and the sun. They are said to be 88,000 in number.



Siddhavrindaravandita: (sáns. hindú). One who is saluted by Siddhas and Devas. Shiva's 217th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Siddhi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Perfection, accomplishment; the 86th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 2. Vishnu's 98th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Siddhida: (sáns. hindú). Bestower of siddhis. Shiva's 1079 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Siddhisadhana: (sáns. hindú). The means of achieving siddhis. Shiva's 1080th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Simha: (sáns. hindú). Lion. Shiva's 1048th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sindhu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The river Indus; also the country along that river and the people dwelling in it. From Sindhu came the Hind of the Arabs the Hindoi or Indoi of the Greeks, and our India. 2. A river in Milva. There are others of the name. See Saptasindhava, Sinhala-Lanka.



Sinhasana Dvatrinshat: (sáns. hindú). The thirtytwo stories told by the images which supported the throne of King Vikramaditya. It is the Singhasan Battisi in Hindustani, and is current in most of the languages of India.



Sinhika: (sáns. hindú). 1. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kashyapa; also a daughter of Kashyapa and wife of Viprachitti. 2. A Rakshasi who tried to swallow Hanuman and make a meal of him. Hanuman allowed her to do so and then rent her body to pieces and departed. Her habit was to seize the shadow of the object she wished to devour and, by doing so, drag the prey into her jaws.



Siradhvaja: (sáns. hindú). He of the plowbanner. An epithet for Janaka.



Sita: (sáns. hindú). In the Veda, Sita is the furrow, or husbandry personified, and worshipped as a deity Residing over agriculture and fruits. In the Ramayana and other works she is daughter of Janaka king of Videha, and wife of Rama The old Vedic idea still adhered to her, for she sprang from a furrow. In the Ramayana her father Janaka says, "As I was ploughing my field, there sprang from the plough a girl, obtained by me while cleansing my field, and known by name as Sita (the furrow). This girl sprung from the earth grew up as my daughter." Hence she is styled Ayonija, "not born from the womb." She is said to have lived before in the Krita age as Vedavati, and to be in reality the goddess Lakshmi in human form, born in the world for bringing about the destruction of Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka, who was invulnerable to ordinary means, but doomed to die on.account of a woman.



Sita became the wife of Rama, who won her by bending the great bow of Shiva. She was his only wife, and was the embodiment of purity, tenderness, and conjugal affection. She accompanied her husband in his exile, but was carried off from him by Ravana and kept in his palace at Lanka. There he made many efforts to win her to his will, but she continued firm against all persuasions, threats and terrors, and maintained a dignified serenity throughout. When Rama had slain the ravisher and recovered his wife, he received her coldly, and refused to take her back, for it was hard to believe it possible that she had retained her honor. She asserted her purity in touching language, and resolved to establish it by the ordeal of fire. The pile was raised and she entered the flames in the presence of gods and men, but she remained unhurt, and the god of fire brought her forth and placed her in her husband's arms. Notwithstanding this proof of her innocence, jealous thoughts passed through the mind of Rama, and after he had ascended his ancestral throne at Ayodhya, his people blamed him for taking back a wife who had been in the power of a licentious ravisher. So, although she was pregnant, he banished her and sent her to the hermitage of Valmiki, where she gave birth to twin sons, Kusha and Lava. There she lived till the boys were about fifteen years old. One day they strayed to their father's capital. He recognized and acknowledged them and then recalled Sita. She returned and publicly declared her innocence. But her heart was deeply wounded. She called upon her mother earth to attest her purity, and it did so. The ground opened, and she was taken back into the source from which she had sprung. Rama was now disconsolate and resolved to quit this mortal life. Sita had the appellations of Bhumija, Dharanisuta, and Parthivi, all meaning "daughter of the earth."



Sitabhirama: (sáns. hindú). (sita "the wife of Sri Rama" + abhirama "delight") Sita's delight; a name of Rama.



Skambha: (sáns. hindú). The supporter. A name sometimes used in the Rigveda to designate the Supreme Deity. There is considerable doubt and mystery about both this name and deity. Goldstücker (Müir's Texts, v. 378. claimed, "The meaning of the term is 'the fulcrum,' and it seems to mean the fulcrum of the whole world in all it physical, religious, and other aspects."



Skanda: (sáns. hindú). 1. The spurting or flowing. 2. A name of Shiva's son born to destroy the demon Taraka. He was thus called by the Gods because He flowed out of the holy Ganges at birth or because He was emitted from Shiva's divine seed. Some of His other names are Karttikeya, Subrahmanya, Guha, Kumara, etc. In the Chandogya Upanishad, Skanda is identified with Sanatkumara, and both were lifelong Brahmacaris. 3. Vishnu's 327 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. Shiva's 476 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Skandaguru: (sáns. hindú). Venerable father of Skanda. Shiva's 79th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Skandapurana: (sáns. hindú). Wilson claims, "The Skanda Purana is that in which the sixfaced deity (Skanda) has related the events of the Tatpurusha Kalpa, enlarged with many tales, and subservient to the duties taught by Masheshvara. It is said to contain 81,800 stanzas: so it is asserted amongst mankind." "It is uniformly agreed," says Wilson, "that the Skanda Purana, in a collective form, has no existence; and the fragments, in the shape of Sanhitas, Khandas, and Mahatmyas, which are affirmed in various parts of India to be portions of the Purana, present a much more formidable mass of stanzas than even the immense number of which it is said to consist The most celebrated of these portions in Hindusthan is the Kashi Khanda, a very minute description of the temples of Shiva in or adjacent to Benares, mixed with directions for worshipping Maheshvara, and a great variety of legends explanatory of its merits and of the holiness of Kashi. Many of them are puerile and uninteresting, but some of them are of a higher character. There is every reason to believe the greater part of the contents of the Kashi Khanda anterior to the first attack upon Benares by Mahmud of Ghazni. The Kashi Khanda alone contains 15,000 stanzas. Another considerable work is the Utkala Khanda, giving an account of the holiness of Orissa."



Skandha Skandhadhara: (sáns. hindú). Shoulder and bearer of shoulders. Shiva's 989th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sloka: (sáns. hindú). A thirtytwo syllable verse. According to tradition the sloka was first used by Valmiki.



Smarashasana: (sáns. hindú). Chastiser of Smara. Shiva's 77th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Smarta: (sáns. hindú). Appertaining to the Smriti. The Smartasutras. See Sutras.



Smriti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Memory. 2. Daughter of Daksha and wife of Angiras. 3. Daughter of Dharma and Medha. 4. The body of recollected scriptures having a human origin, distinguished from the Shruti or the revealed Vedas of nonhuman origin. Examples of scriptures classified as Smriti are the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Gita and Sutras. In its widest application, the term includes the Vedangas, the Sutras, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Puranas, the Dharmashastras, especially the works of Manu, Yajnavalkya, and other inspired lawgivers, and the Nitishastras or ethics, but its ordinary application is to the Dharmashastras; as Manu (ii. 10) says, "By Shruti is meant the Veda, and by Smriti the institutes of law.



Smriticandrika: (sáns. hindú). A treatise on law, according to the Dravidian or Southern school, by Devana Bhatta.



Smritishakti: (sáns. hindú). The power of memory. An epithet of Sarasvati.



Snataka: (sáns. hindú). A Brahmin who has completed his training.



Snehan: (sáns. hindú). 1. Loving or affectionate. 2. Friend of all. 3. A name of Shiva.



Snigdha: (sáns. hindú). Affectionate. Shiva's 318th and 967th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Soma: (sáns. hindú). 1. The nectar of immortality. The juice of a milky climbing plant (some say the Asclepias acida), extracted and fermented, forming a beverage offered in libations to the deities, and drunk by the Brahmans. Its exhilarating qualities were grateful to the priests, and the gods were represented as being equally fond of it. This soma juice occupies a large space in the Rigveda; one Mandala is almost wholly devoted to is praise and uses. It was raised to the position of deity, and represented to be primeval, all-powerful, healing all diseases, bestower of riches, lord of other gods, and even identified with the Supreme Being. As a personification, Soma was the god who represented and animated the soma juice, an Indian Dionysus or Bacchus. Whitney stated, "The . . . Arian people, whose whole religion was a worship of the wonderful powers and phenomena of nature, had no sooner perceived that this liquid had power to elevate the spirits and produce a temporary frenzy, under the influence of which the individual was prompted to, and capable of, deeds beyond his natural powers, than they found in it something divine: it was to their apprehension a god, endowing those into whom it entered with godlike powers; the plant which afforded it became to them the king of plants; the process of preparing it was a holy sacrifice; the instruments used therefor were sacred. The high antiquity of this cultus is attested by the reference to it found occurring in the Persian Avesta, it seems however, to have received a new impulse on Indian territory." 2. (sa "with" + Uma "name of Parvati") A name of Shiva meaning "He who is with Uma," and as such is Shiva's 126th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A name of the MoonGod, who presides over the mind, was born from the churning of the milk ocean, and is praised in many Vedic hymns. He is the Lord of plants, especially the Soma plant giving a relative immortality, sought after by Gods and men, and as such is Shiva's 131st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Somadeva: (sáns. hindú). An eleventh to twelfthcentury writer who wrote the Yashatilaka.



Somadeva Bhatta: (sáns. hindú). The writer or compiler of the collection of stories called Kathasaritsagara.



Somaka: (sáns. hindú). Grandfather of Drupada, who transmitted his name to his descendants.



Somaloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.



Somanatha: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the moon. The name of a celebrated Lingam or emblem of Shiva at the city of Somnathpattan in Gujarat. It was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni.



Somapa: (sáns. hindú). Imbiber of the Soma juice. Shiva's 129th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Somapas: (sáns. hindú). Somadrinkers. A class of Pitris or Manes who drank the soma juice. See Pitris.



Somarata: (sáns. hindú). Interested in the moon. Shiva's 127th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Somavansha: (sáns. hindú). See Candravansha.



Someshvara: (sáns. hindú). See Somanatha.



Spashtakshara: (sáns. hindú). Of clear syllables. Shiva's 382nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sphutaloka: (sáns. hindú). One whose luster is clear. Shiva's 830th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sri: (sáns. hindú). See Shri.



Stambhana: (sáns. hindú). A Tantric ritual from the Brihaddharmapurana and Mahabhagavatapurana that causes people to become paralyzed.



Stavapriya: (sáns. hindú). One fond of eulogy. Shiva's 1095th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Stavya: (sáns. hindú). One worthy of being eulogized. Shiva's 1094th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthalidevatas: (sáns. hindú). Gods or goddeses of the soil, local deities. See also Devatas.



Sthanada: (sáns. hindú). The bestower of (good) abodes. Shiva's 423rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthanu: (sáns. hindú). Shiva's 12 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthapati: (sáns. hindú). Architect. Shiva's 170 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthapatyaveda: (sáns. hindú). The science of architecture, one of the Upavedas.



Sthavira: (sáns. hindú). Ancient, aged. Shiva's 305 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthavishtha: (sáns. hindú). Largest, very strong. Shiva's 304th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthira: (sáns. hindú). Steady. Shiva's 171st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sthuna: (sáns. hindú). A Yaksha who is represented in the Mahabharata to have changed sexes for a while with Shikhandini, daughter of Drupada.



Sthunakarna: (sáns. hindú). See Sthuna.



Stotri: (sáns. hindú). One who eulogizes. Shiva's 1096 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Subahu: (sáns. hindú). Fivearmed. 1. A son of Dhritarashtra and king of Chedi. 2. A son of Shatrughna and king of Mathura.



Subala: (sáns. hindú). 1. A king of Gandhara, father of Gandhari, wife of Dhritarashtra. 2. a mountain in Lanka on which Hanuman alighted after leaping over the channel.



Subhadra: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + bhadra "auspicious, blessed") 1. The greatly blessed or auspicious. 2. The name of a wife of Arjuna, who was the daughter of Vasudeva, the younger sister of Krishna and the mother of Abhimanyu. Balarama, her elder brother, wished to give her to Duryodhana, but Arjuna carried her off from Dvaraka at Krishna's suggestion, and Balarama subsequently consented to their union. She was mother of Abhimanyu. She appears especially as sister of Krishna in his form Jagannatha, and according to tradition there was an incestuous intimacy between them. When the car of Jagannatha is brought out the images of Subhadra and Balarama accompany the idol, and the intimacy of Jagannatha and Subhadra is said to provoke taunts and reproaches.



Subhaga: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + bhaga "fortunate") 1. The very fortunate, elegant. 2. Shiva's 72nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Subhanu: (sáns. hindú). Son of Krishna and Satyabhama.



Subodhini: (sáns. hindú). A commentary by Vishveshvara Bhata on the lawbook Mitakshara.



Subrahmanya: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + brahmanya "dear to Brahmanas") 1. Very dear to the Brahmanas or holy men. 2. A name of the son of Shiva who is also known as Karttikeya, Kumara, Skanda, etc., God of war, used especially in the South. See Karttikeya .3. Perfectly conducive to the attainment of Brahman. Shiva's 449th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sucharu: (sáns. hindú). Son of Krishna and Rukmini.



Sudama: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + dama "giving") 1. He who gives greatly, the bountiful. 2. The name of a friend and devotee of Krishna, who was poor and became wealthy through the Lord's grace.



Sudaman: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + daman "giving") 1. The bountiful. 2. A name of Airavata, the elephant of Lord Indra, who came out of the milk ocean when it was churned by gods and demons.



Sudamini: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, highly" + damini "giving") 1. The bountiful. 2. The name of Shamika's wife.



Sudarshana: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, very" + darshana "seeing, looking at, knowing") 1. The goodlooking. 2. The name of the discus of Vishnu, with which He protects the worlds. It represents the mind principle (manas) and hence is swifter than the wind. 3. Vishnu's 417 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Sudarshana: (sáns. hindú). A name of Krishna's cakra or discus weapon. See Vajranabha.



Sudasa: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + dasa "servant") The good servant.



Sudas: (sáns. hindú). A king who frequently appears in the Rigveda, and at whose court the rivals Rishi Vasishtha and Rishi Vishvamitra are represented as living. He was famous for his sacrifices.



Sudeshna: (sáns. hindú). Son of Krishna and Rukmini.



Sudeva: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + deva "god") The excellent god.



Sudhama: (sáns. hindú). Having good abode. Shiva's 628 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sudhapati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the nectar. Shiva's 450 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sudharma: (sáns. hindú). The hall of Indra, "the unrivalled gem of princely courts," which Krishna commanded Indra to resign to Ugrasena, for the assembling of the race of Yadu. After the death of Krishna it returned to Indra's heaven.



Sudhi: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + dhi "intelligence") She who has the good intelligence that follows the revealed Vedic scriptures.



Sudhira: (sáns. hindú). (su "highly, very" + dhira "intelligent, firm") 1. Very intelligent. 2. Very firm. 3. Perfectly bold. Shiva's 512th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suditi: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + diti "flame") The bright flame, symbolizing the Light of pure Consciousness.



Sudyumna: (sáns. hindú). Son of the Manu Vaivasvata. At his birth he was a female, Ila, but was afterwards changed into a male and called Sudyumna. Under the curse of Shiva he again became Ila, who married Budha or Mercury, and was mother of Pururavas. By favor of Vishnu the male form was again recovered, and Sudyumna became the father of three sons. This legend evidently has reference to the origin of the Lunar race of kings.



Sugandhi: (sáns. hindú). (su "highly, very" + gandhi "fragrant") 1. The very fragrant. 2. A name of Shiva, meaning He is endowed with a divine fragrance and is as subtle in all beings as the fragrance in sandalwood. This name is used in the MahaMrityunjaya Mantra.



Sugata: (sáns. hindú). Having good movement. Shiva's 616 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sugriva: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + griva "neck") Handsome neck. A monkey king who was dethroned by his brother Balin, but after the latter had been killed, Sugriva was reinstalled by Rama as king at Kishkindhya. He, with his adviser Hanuman and their army of monkeys, were the allies of Rama in his war against Ravana, in which he was wounded. He is said to have been son of the sun, and from his paternity he is called Ravinandana and by other similar names. He is described as being grateful, active in aiding his friends, and able to change his form at will. His wife's name was Ruma.



Suguna: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent, very" + guna "quality, virtue") Goodnatured, very virtuous, she whose mind predominates in the Sattva Guna or purity.



Suharta: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent, very" + harta "seizer") 1. The good seizer. 2. A name of Garuda, probably referring to his having seized the moon's nectar.



Suhma: (sáns. hindú). A country said to be east of Bengal.



Sukara: (sáns. hindú). One having good hands. Shiva's 987 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sukhi: (sáns. hindú). Happy. Shiva's 128th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sukirti: (sáns. hindú). One of good renown. Shiva's 178 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sukshma: (sáns. hindú). Subtle. Shiva's 111 th and 986th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sukta: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic hymn.



Sukumara: (sáns. hindú). Very tender. Shiva's 853 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sulabha: (sáns. hindú). Easily accessible. Shiva's 229th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sulocana: (sáns. hindú). Having good eyes. Shiva's 854 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suma: (sáns. hindú). Flower.



Sumahasvana: (sáns. hindú). Having a loud voice. Shiva's 771st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sumanas: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + manas "mind") Pureminded.



Sumangali: (sáns. hindú). (su "very, highly" + mangali "auspicious") Greatly auspicious.



Sumantra: (sáns. hindú). The chief counsellor of Raja Dasharatha and friend of Rama.



Sumantu: (sáns. hindú). The collector of the hymns of the Atharvaveda; he is said to have been a pupil of Veda Vyasa, and to have acted under his guidance.



Sumati: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + mati "thought, mind") Pureminded.



Sumeka: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent, very" + meka "fixed") Well fixed.



Sumeru: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent, very" + meru "name of a mountain") The beautiful Mount Meru, a mythical mountain spoken of as the axis of the universe and on which the assembly of gods takes place. It stands as the backbone in the human body and is symbolized as the most prominent bead in rosaries or malas used for doing japa.



Sumitra: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + mitra "friend") 1. The good friend. 2. The name of one of King Dasharatha's wives, who was the mother of both Lakshmana and Shatrughna. See Dasharatha.



Sumukha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Handsome face. 2. This epithet is used for both Garuda and for the son of Garuda. 3. Shiva's 770th and 985th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sumukhi: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent, very" + mukhi "face") The brightfaced, a face illuminated by the inner light of wisdom.



Sunaman: (sáns. hindú). Son of Ugrasena and brother of Kansha. He was king of the Shurasenas. When Kansha was overpowered in battle by Krishna, Sunaman went to succour him, but was encountered and slain by Balarama.



Sunanda: (sáns. hindú). A princess of Chedi who befriended Damayanti when she was deserted by her husband.



Sunara: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + nara "man") Virtuous man.



Sunara: (sáns. hindú). Glad or joyful.



Sunaya: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + naya "conduct") 1. He who has good or wise conduct. 2. The good leader.



Sunda: (sáns. hindú). 1. Melting, very tender. 2. Vishnu's 792nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Sunda and Upasunda, of the Mahabharata, were two Daityas, sons of Nisunda, for whose destruction the Apsara Tilottama was sent down from heaven. They quarrelled for her, and killed each other. See Sumbha.



Sundaram: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beautiful or handsome. 2. Vishnu's 791st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Sundareshvara: (sáns. hindú). (sundara "beautiful" + isvara "lord") 1. The beautiful Lord. 2. A name of Shiva as consort of Minakshi (Parvati) at Madurai.



Sundari: (sáns. hindú). The beautiful.



Sunirmala: (sáns. hindú). (su "highly, very" + nirmala "without a blemish") The perfectly immaculate. See Nirmala.



Sunishpanna: (sáns. hindú). One that has been evolved well. Shiva's 686th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suniti: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + niti "conduct or behavior") 1. She who has good conduct or behavior. 2. One who dispenses good justice. Shiva's 124th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suparna: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + parna " wing, leaf) 1. He who has beautiful wings. 2. A name of Vishnu's divine vehicle, the eagle Garuda. 3. He who has beautiful leaves. 4. Vishnu's 192 nd and 855th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 5. Shiva's 245 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 6. In the feminine gender (with a long terminal a), She who has beautiful leaves (i.e. who is like a lotus).



Suparnas: (sáns. hindú). Finewinged. Beings of superhuman character, as Garuda, and other birds of equally fanciful description; one of those classes first created by the Brahmadikas, and included in the daily presentation of water to deceased ancestors, Suparshva: (sáns. hindú). A fabulous bird in the Ramayana. He was son of Sampati and nephew of Jatayus.



Supatha: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent + patha "path") He who follows a virtuous path.



Suprasanna: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + prasanna "serene") The very serene. The 54th of Lakshmi's 108 names.



Supratika: (sáns. hindú). Having good symbol. Shiva's 678th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suprita: (sáns. hindú). One who is well pleased. Shiva's 984th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Supriya: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + priya "beloved") 1. Greatly beloved. 2. Chief of the Gandharvas.



Supunya: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + punya "virtuous, holy") The very virtuous or holy.



Supushpa: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + pushpa "flower") The beautiful flower.



Sura: (sáns. hindú). 1. (With a long u) a Yadava king who ruled over the Shurasenas at Mathura; he was father of Vasudeva and Kunti, and grandfather of Krishna. 2. (With a long a) wine or spirituous liquor, personified as Suradevi, a goddess or nymph produced at the churning of the ocean.



Surabhava: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + bhava "existence, state, feeling") 1. The divine state. 2. The divine feeling and meditation.



Surabhi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sweetsmelling. Shiva's 687 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. For further details see Vinata. 3. The "cow of plenty," produced at the churning of the ocean, who granted every desire, and is revered as "the fountain of milk and curds." See Kamadhenu and Nandini.



Suradeva: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + deva "god") 1. The God of gods. 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. A name of Shiva.



Suradhipa: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + adhipa "overlord") 1. The Lord of the gods. 2. A name of Indra.



Suradhyaksha: (sáns. hindú). Presiding deity of Devas. Shiva's 809th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suradri: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + adri "mountain") 1. The mountain of the gods. 2. A name of Mount Sumeru.



Suragana: (sáns. hindú). One having Devas as his attendants. Shiva's 405th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suramangsabalipriya: (sáns. hindú). She who is fond of offerings of meat and wine. An epithet of Devi found in the Aryastava, a hymn to Devi in the Harivamsha.



Suramuni: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + muni "thoughtful, sage") The divine sage.



Suranadi: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + nadi "river") 1. The river of the gods. 2. The divine river. 3. A name of the holy Ganges.



Suranayaka: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + nayaka "leader") 1. The leader of the gods. 2. A name of Indra.



Suranjana: (sáns. hindú). (su "greatly, very" + ranjana "charming") Greatly or very charming.



Surapatha: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + patha "path") 1. The path of the gods. 2. The milky way.



Surapati: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord or ruler of the gods. 2. A name of Indra. 3. A name of Shiva.



Surapushpa: (sáns. hindú). (sura god" + pushpa "flower") The celestial or divine flower.



Surasa: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + rasa "nectar") 1. The excellent nectar. See Soma. 2. A Rakshasi, mother of the Nagas. When Hanuman was on his flight to Lanka against Ravana, she tried to save her relative by swallowing Hanuman bodily. To avoid this Hanuman enlarged his body and continued to do so, while she stretched her mouth until it was a hundred leagues wide. Then he suddenly shrank up to the size of a thumb, darted through her, and came out at her right ear.



Suras: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedas, a class of beings connected with Surya, the sun. The lesser deities who inhabit Svarga; a god in general. According to some, the word is allied to svar, heaven; others think it to be a derivation assigned to asura, and as asura is said to signify "not a god," sura has come to mean "god."



Surashatruha: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of the enemies of the Devas. Shiva's 563rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Surasmi: (sáns. hindú). (su "excellent, good" + rasmi "ray") 1. He who has beautiful rays. 2. A name of the MoonGod.



Surasundara: (sáns. hindú). (sura "god" + sundara "beautiful") Having divine beauty.



Suravyaghra: (sáns. hindú). A tiger among Devas. Shiva's 788th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Surdas: (sáns. hindú). The name of a great devotee of God who lived in the 16th century CE and was known as the "blind bard of Agra."



Surendra: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + indra "chief") 1. The chief of the gods. 2. The God Indra.



Suresha: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of the gods. 2. Vishnu's 85th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. See Sureshvara. 3. Shiva's 94 th and 1054th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sureshvara: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord of the gods. 2. Vishnu's 286th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama 3. The name of one of Shankara's four great disciples who was considered a partial incarnation of Brahma. While still a householder and upholder of ritualism, he entered into a long debate with Shankara. When the great master won, he renounced the married life and followed the Acarya as a Sannyasin or renunciate. He is well known as the VarttikaKara, the author of the Varttikas or versified commentaries on some of Shankara's works. His chief work is entitled the "NaishkarmyaSiddhi" or "Perfection of Actionlessness." He was reborn as Vacaspati Mishra, the reputed commentator on the six Darshanas. He was the head of the Shringeri monastery and is thus connected with the three Sannyasa branches known as Sarasvati, Puri, and Bharati.



Sureshvari: (sáns. hindú). (sura "of gods" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") 1. Sovereign Goddess of the gods. 2. A name for any manifestation of the Divine Mother.



Suri: (sáns. hindú). The Goddess.



Surya Siddhanta: (sáns. hindú). A work on astronomy, said to have been revealed by the sun (Surya).



Surya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The impeller or acquirer, begetter. 2. Vishnu's 883rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A name of the SunGod. He is one of the three chief deities in the Vedas, as the great source of light and warmth, but the references to him are more poetical than precise. Sometimes he is identical with Savitri and Aditya, sometimes he is distinct. Sometimes he is called son of Dyaus, sometimes of Aditi. In one passage, Ushas, the dawn, is his wife, in another he is called the child of the dawns; he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares. Surya has several wives, but, according to later legends, his twin sons the Ashvins, who are ever young and handsome and ride in a golden car as precursors of Ushas, the dawn, were born of a nymph called Ashvini, from her having concealed herself in the form of a mare. In the Ramayana and Puranas, Surya is said to be the son of Kashyapa and Aditi, but in the Ramayana he is otherwise referred to as a son of Brahma. His wife was Sanjna, daughter of Vishvakarma, and by her he had three children, the Manu Vaivasvata, Yama, and the goddess Yami, or the Yamuna river. His effulgence was so overpowering that his wife gave him Chhaya (shade) for a handmaid, and retired into the forest to devote herself to religion. While thus engaged, and in the form of a mare, the sun saw her and approached her in the form of a horse, and from that coition, sprang the two Ashvins and Revanta. Surya brought back his wife Sanjna to his home, and her father, the sage Vishvakarma, placed the luminary on his lathe and cut away an eighth of his effulgence trimming him in every part except the feet. The fragments that were cut off fell blazing to the earth, and from them Vishvakarma formed the discus of Vishnu, the trident of Shiva, the weapon of Kuvera, the lance of Karttikeya, and the weapons of the other gods.



According to the Mahabharata, Karna was his illegitimate son by Kunti He is also fabled to be the father of Shani and the monkey chief Sugriva. The Manu Vaivasvata was father of Ikshvaku, and from him, the grandson of the sun, the Suryavansha, or Solar race of kings, draws its origin. In the form of a horse Surya communicated the White Yajurveda to Yajnavalkya, and it was he who bestowed on Satrajit the Syamantaka gem. A set of terrific Rakshasas called Mandehas made an attack upon him and sought to devour him, but were dispersed by his light. According to the Vishnupurana he was seen by Sattrajita in "his proper form," "of dwarfish stature, with a body like burnished copper, and with slightly reddish eyes." Surya is represented in a chariot drawn by seven horses, or a horse with seven heads, surrounded with rays. His charioteer is Aruna or Vivasvat, and his city Vivasvati or Bhasvati. There are temples of the sun, and he receives worship. 4. Shiva's 284th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suryadeva: (sáns. hindú). (surya "name of the SunGod" + deva "god") The God Surya.



Suryakanta: (sáns. hindú). The sungem. A crystal supposed to be formed of condensed rays of the sun, and though cool to the touch, to give out heat in the sun's rays.



It is also called Dahanopala. There is a similar moonstone. See Candrakanta, Suryatapana: (sáns. hindú). Scorcher of the sun. Shiva's 95th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suryavansha: (sáns. hindú). The Solar race. A race or lineage of Kshatriyas which sprank from Ikshvaku, grandson of the sun. Rama was of this race, and so were many other great kings and heros. Many Rajputs claim descent from this and the other great lineage, the Lunar race. The Rana of Udaypur claim to be of the Suryavansha, and the Jharejas of Cutch and Sindh assert a descent from the Candravansha. There were two dynasties of the Solar race. The elder branch, which reigned at Ayodhya, descended from Ikshvaku through his oldest son, Vikukshi The other dynasty, reigning at Mithila, descended from another of Ikshvaku's sons, named Nimi.



Susharana: (sáns. hindú). Perfect refuge. Shiva's 448 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Susharman: (sáns. hindú). A king of Trigartta, who attacked the Raja of Virata and defeated him and made him prisoner, but Bhima rescued the Raja and made Susharman prisoner.



Sushena: (sáns. hindú). 1. A son of Krishna and Rukmini. 2. A physician in the army of Rama, who brought the dead to life and performed other miraculous cures. 3. Having a good army. Shiva's 562nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sushila: (sáns. hindú). (su "very, greatly" + shila "virtuous") The greatly virtuous.



Sushruta: (sáns. hindú). A medical writer whose date is uncertain, but his work was translated into Arabic before the end of the eighth century.



Sushuti: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + uti "birth") Of good birth.



Suta: (sáns. hindú). Charioteer. A title given to Karna.



Sutantu: (sáns. hindú). Good supreme being. Shiva's 201st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sutikshna: (sáns. hindú). A hermit sage who lived in the Dandaka forest, and was visited by Rama and Sita.



Sutradhara: (sáns. hindú). (sutra "thread" + dhara "holder") 1. The thread holder. 2. The Self associated with the cosmic subtle body. 3. A name given to stagedirectors.



Sutrakara: (sáns. hindú). Compiler of aphorisms. Shiva's 140th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sutras: (sáns. hindú). A thread or string. A rule or aphorism. A verse expressed in brief and technical language. The Sutra is a favorite form among the Hindus of embodying and transmitting rules. There are Sutras upon almost every subject, but "the Sutras" generally signify those who are connected with the Vedas, such as the Kalpa Sutras, relating to ritual; the Grihya Sutras, to domestic rites; and the Samayacharika Sutras, to conventional usages.



The Kalpa Sutras, having special reference to the Veda or Shruti, are called Shrauta; the others are classed as Smarta, being derived from the Smriti. The Sutras generally are anterior to Manu, and are probably as old as the sixth century BCE. The most famous of the sutras is, perhaps, the Yoga Sutras by Patanjali. See also Yoga Sutras.



Suvahu: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa, son of Taraka. He was killed by Rama.



Suvarna: (sáns. hindú). (su "good, excellent" + varna "color) 1. Having a beautiful color. 2. Golden. 3. A name of Lakshmi.



Suvela: (sáns. hindú). One of the three peaks of the mountain Trikuta, on the midmost of which the city of Lanka was built.



Suvipra: (sáns. hindú). (su "very, greatly" + vipra "learned, inspired") 1. Very wise, learned or inspired. 2. A name used for Brahmins versed in Vedic lore.



Suvrata: (sáns. hindú). One of good rites. Shiva's 230th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Suyodhana: (sáns. hindú). Fair fighter. A name of Duryodhana

Svabhava: (sáns. hindú). Having one's own form.



Svabhavarudra: (sáns. hindú). One who is naturally fierce. Shiva's 1032nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svadha: (sáns. hindú). Oblation. Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti according to one statement, and of Agni according to another. She is connected with the Pitris or Manes, and is represented as wife of Kavi or of one class of Pitris, and as mother of others.



Svadhrita: (sáns. hindú). One who is held by himself. Shiva's 997th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svaha: (sáns. hindú). (su "well" + aha "pouring") 1. Oblation. The sacrificial formula uttered while pouring oblations into the sacred fire for the gods. 2. A daughter of Daksha and the wife of the FireGod Agni. 3. The 13 th of Lakshmi's 108 names.



Svana: (sáns. hindú). Sound. Shiva's 816th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svar: (sáns. hindú). See Vyahriti.



Svaraj: (sáns. hindú). (sva "self" + raja "ruling, shining") Selfruling, selfluminous.



Svaramaya: (sáns. hindú). One identical with notes. Shiva's 815 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svarga: (sáns. hindú). sadhanaOne who is the means of achieving heavenly abode. Shiva's 43rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svarga: (sáns. hindú). 1. Heaven from a Vedic perspective. There are fourteen worlds or planes, seven of which are inferior and seven superior. Among the superior planes, heaven is the third alone or it may include the other four above it also, namely, Mahah, Janah, Tapah and Satyam. The realm of Indra is the third plane and like the other planes does not endure eternally. If one goes beyond the third plane, one may attain gradual liberation or Krama Mukti, gaining final knowledge in the seventh plane. If one cannot go higher than the third plane, one will be reborn according to his own karma, until he either attains liberation while alive (Jivan Mukti) or goes beyond the third plane after death. 2. Shiva's 157th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svargapavargada: (sáns. hindú). She who bestows heaven and liberation. An epithet of Devi. The 764th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Svargasvara: (sáns. hindú). One whose voice is above heaven. Shiva's 814th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svarloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.



Svarochisha: (sáns. hindú). Name of the second Manu. See Manu.



Svarupa: (sáns. hindú). (sva "self, own" + rupa "form") One's own form or true nature, which in Vedanta is the true nature of the Absolute, the "Sat CidAnanda," "TruthKnowledgeBliss."



Svarupashakti: (sáns. hindú). (sva "self, own" + rupa "form" + shakti "energy, power") The power in one's own form. Inner strength.



Svastida: (sáns. hindú). Bestower of welfare. Shiva's 148th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svastika: (sáns. hindú). A mytical religious mark placed upon persons or things. It is in the form of a Greek cross with the ends bent around.



Svavasha: (sáns. hindú). One submissive of himself. Shiva's 812 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svayambhu: (sáns. hindú). The selfexistent. A name of Brahma the creator.



Svayambhuva: (sáns. hindú). A name of the first Manu. See Manu.



Svayamjyotih: (sáns. hindú). One who is self luminous. Shiva's 568th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Svetadvipa: (sáns. hindú). The white island or continent. Some authorities have attempted to identify it with Britain.



Svetaketu: (sáns. hindú). A sage who, according to the Mahabharata, put a stop to the practice of married women consorting with other men, especially with Brahmans. His indignation was aroused at seeing a Brahman take his mother by the hand and invite her to go away with him. The husband saw this, and told his son that there was no ground of offence, for the practice had prevailed from time immemorial. Svetaketu would not tolerate it, and introduced the rule by which a wife is forbidden to have coitus with another man unless specially appointed by her husband to raise up seed to him.



Svetashvatara: (sáns. hindú). A Upanishad attached to the Yajurveda. It is one of the most modern.



Syamantaka: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated gem given by the sun to Satrajita "It yielded daily eight loads of gold, and dispelled all fear of portents, wild beasts, fire, robbers, and famine." But though it was an inexhaustible source of good to the virtuous wearer, it was deadly to a wicked one. Satrajita being afraid that Krishna would take it from him, gave it to his own brother, Prasena but he, being a bad man, was killed by a lion. Jambavat, king of the bears, killed the lion and carried off the gem, but Krishna, after a long conflict, took it from him, and restored it to Satrajita. Afterwards Satrajita was killed in his sleep by Shatadhanvan, who carried off the gem.



Being pursued by Krishna and Balarama, he gave the gem to Akrura and continued his flight, but he was overtaken and killed by Krishna alone. As Krishna did not bring back the jewel, Balarama suspected that he had secreted it, and consequently he upbraided him and parted from him, declaring that he would not be imposed upon by perjuries. Akrura subsequently produced the gem, and it was claimed by Krishna, Balarama, and Satyabhama. After contention it was decided that Akrura should keep it, and so he moved about like the sun wearing a garland of light.





T





Tadaka: (sáns. hindú). See Taraka.



Tadrupa: (sáns. hindú). (tat "That" + rupa "form") The form or nature of That (i.e. of the Absolute).



Taittiriya: (sáns. hindú). This term is applied to the Sanhita of the Black Yajurveda. (See Veda.) It is also applied to the Brahmana, to an Aranyaka, to a Upanishad, and a Pratishakhya of the same Veda.



Taksha: (sáns. hindú). Son of Bharata, and nephew of Ramacandra. The sovereign of Gandhara, who resided at and probably founded Takshashila or Taxila in the Panjab.



Takshaka: (sáns. hindú). One who cuts off; a carpenter. A name of Vishvakarma. A serpent, son of Kadru, and chief of snakes.



Takshashila: (sáns. hindú). A city of the Gandharas, situated in the Panjab. It was the residence of Taksha, son of Bharata and nephew of Ramacandra, and perhaps took its name from him. It is the Taxila of Ptolemy and other classical writers. Arrian describes it as "a large and wealthy city, and the most populous between the Indus and Hydaspes." It was three days' journey east of the Indus, and Cunningham claimed to have found its remains at Sahhdhari, one mile northeast of Kalakisarai.



Takvara: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva.



Talajangha: (sáns. hindú). Son of Jayadhvaja, king of Avanti, of the Haihaya race, and founder of the Talajangha tribe of Haihayas. See Haihaya.



Talaketu: (sáns. hindú). Palm-banner. An appellation of Bhishma, also of an enemy killed by Krishna. had the synonymous appellation Taladhvaja.



Talam: (sáns. hindú). The throne of Durga.



Talavakara: (sáns. hindú). A name of the Kena Upanishad.



Tamasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. (with a long initial a,) the fourth Manu. See Manu. 2. (with a long terminal a), the river "Tonse," rising in the Riksha mountains, and falling into the Ganges.



Tamasi: (sáns. hindú). Darkness. An epithet of Durga.



Tamisraha: (sáns. hindú). Dispeller of darkness. Shiva's 679th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tamohara: (sáns. hindú). Remover of darkness. Shiva's 65 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tamopaha: (sáns. hindú). (tamah "darkness" + apaha "dispeller") 1. The dispeller of darkness. 2. A name of the Sun-God. 3. A name of the Moon-God. 4. A name of the Fire-God. 5. A name of Vishnu. 6. A name of Shiva. 7. A name of the Guru or spiritual master. 8. An epithet of Devi. The 361st name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Tamralipta: (sáns. hindú). The country immediately west of the Bhagirathi; Tamlook, Hijjali, and Midnapore. Its inhabitants are called Tamraliptakas.



Tamraparna: (sáns. hindú). Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the ancient Taprobane. There was a town in the island called Tamraparni, from which the whole island has been called by that name.



Tandaka: (sáns. hindú). See Tandya.



Tandava: (sáns. hindú). The dance of Shiva.



Tandi: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi who saw and praised Shiva.



Tandu: (sáns. hindú). The name of an attendant of Shiva, who was Bharata's dance teacher. He was skilled in music, and invented the dance called Tandava. See Shiva.



Tandya: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight Brahmanas of the Samaveda. It is considered by many to be the most important.



Tanmaya: (sáns. hindú). (tat "That" + maya "consisting") Consisting of "That" (i.e. Brahman).



Tantra: (sáns. hindú). Rule, ritual. The title of a numerous class of religious and magical works, generally of later date than the Puranas, and representing a later development of religion, although the worship of the female energy had its origin at an earlier period. The chief peculiarity of the Tantras is the prominence they give to the female energy of the deity, his active nature being personified in the person of his Shakti, or mate. There are a few Tantras which make Vishnu's wife, or Radha, the object of devotion, but the great majority of them are devoted to one of the manifold forms of Devi, the Shakti of Shiva, and they are commonly written in the form of a dialogue between these two deities. Devi, as the Shakti of Shiva, is the special energy connected with coitus and magical powers, and these are the leading topics of the Tantras. Each Shakti has a twofold nature, white and black, gentle and ferocious. Thus Uma and Gauri are gentle forms of the Shakti of Shiva, while Durga and Kali are fierce forms. The Shaktas or worshippers of the Shaktis are divided into two classes, Dakshinacharis and Vamacharis, the right-handed and the left-handed. The worship of the right-hand Shaktas is comparatively decent, but that of the left-hand is addressed to the fierce forms of the Shaktis, and is licentious. The female principle is worshipped, not only symbolically, but in the actual woman, and promiscuous coitus forms part of the orgies. Tantra worship prevails chiefly in Bengal and the Eastern provinces. There are five requisites for Vamacharis (left-handed Tantra worship, the five Makaras or five M's: 1) Madya, wine; 2) Mansa, flesh; 3) Matsya, fish; 4) Mudra, parched grain and mystic gesticulations; 5) Maithuna, coitus.



Tantuvardhana: (sáns. hindú). One who increases offspring. Shiva's 202nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tanu: (sáns. hindú). Body. Shiva's 719th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tanunapat: (sáns. hindú). Fire. Shiva's 675 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tapana: (sáns. hindú). Sun. Shiva's 681 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Taparloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.



Tapas: (sáns. hindú). (tapas "heat, ascetcism") The act of doing more than is required to show the sincerity of the worshipper. The following essay was written by C. Moon at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. It gives a good example of Hindu tapas.



All religions have their own ways of devotion to what they believe is sacred. Hinduism is no exception. The concept of worship to a Hindu is a serious duty. Their devotion focuses around the concept of tapas, which can take several forms. However, this conduct of devotion can also show characteristics that most Western civilizations would find extremely bizzare.



The sacred scriptures of Hinduism have many references to sacrifice and worship, in fact, the oldest writ coined, the Vedas, contain the Rig Veda, which contain several stories of creation. All living things, the heavens and the earth came into being because of the great sacrifice of Purusha.



Through his dissembled body the universe was formed. Due to this, devotional sacrifices can take form on a personal or a social level in Hinduism.



Hindu worship has several avenues one can practice; Puja is the worship of a deity or the image of Puja (Kinsley, 186) Tantra is a term that refers to non-Vedic or post-Vedic rituals. Plus, it expresses the accepted everyday beliefs and practices of Hinduism. Another term associated with worship is the earlier stated tapas. Tapas translates to "heat" or "ardour". Manu says, "Whatever is hard to be traversed or reached my be accomplished by tapas " (Walker, 79). It is the general term for ascetic practices (Klostermaier, 51) and is the main focus of this paper.



The early Vedic scriptures stress the greatness of tapas. The world was created and is sustained by the tapas of Brahma and the god Indra is said to have gained heaven by tapas (Walker, 79). Another god, Kusambha performed tapas in order to get a son equal to Indra (Spratt, 78).



The most common tapas are fasting, japa (repetition of a name of god or a short mantra), pranayama (breath control), and the study of the scriptures (Klostermaier, 51).



One of the most common model, fasting, can last for days or even several months. One example of this is a story of a twelve year old girl named Valliyamma, who was possessed by the god Murukan, who asked her to become his slave which she accepted. At that moment he ordered her to "fast and keep silent". Her fast lasted six months (Waghorne & Cutler, p. 115).



In the Tamil society tapas of fasting seems to be entrusted to the wife. Through her fasting and other religious observances her husband and children are spared or relieved from woes which are burnt by her ascetic practices (Waghorne & Cutler, p. 118).



Another practice that would fit in the extreme fasting category is that of Dhauti or the cleaning process. One would take a moistened piece of cloth which is 22 1/2 feet long and swallow it and allow it to remain in the stomach for at least a half hour and then all substance in the stomach is vomited up and the linen is pulled out. Sai Baba of Shirdi, who is considered a saint, practiced this method (Rigopoulos, p. 47).



Other forms of tapas that are not common, but excessive and regularly practiced are listed below. Since more than one person can perform these they are categorized as classes. Some tapas are as follows:



jalasayi those who remain immersed up to their waist in
water for day or weeks.
nish-chalin (non-movers), those who stand or sit still in
one spot for years. In fact, sometimes birds will make nests
in their hair, creeping animals will climb up their limbs,
and even ants will build their homes around their feet.



khad sri those who live standing they will


go without ever lying down.
kutilaka (crooked), these people always remain bent. They do
not stand, sit, or lie in a straight position.
sankusi (spike lying) those who spend hours daily on a bed
of nails.
urdhva-mukhi (up faced) those who raise their heads so that
their face is towards the sky. Their opposite followers,
nicha-sirasi (down headed) lower their heads so that their
face is towards the ground. Because of the way the follower
is positioned after a while their muscles will harden and
they will permanently stay this way. This phenomena is also
observed in the urdhua-bahu who keep their arms upraised
until they stiffen into that position.



nakhi-musht (nail fist) those who keep their hands closed
fist for so long that their nails will grow into their
flesh.
chhinnaka these individuals will lacerate, mutilate or maim
themselves.



(Walker, p. 79 - 80).



This last category will be observed more closely. Those who practice self-mutilation can do it alone or within a group. An example of this occurrence in a group setting can be found in Durban, Africa during the month of July (Kavadi) in which 60 temples participated. At this time there is an annual celebration to the Lord Muruga. One will find devotees carrying heavy shoulder arches with small spears or hooks piercing their skin with a skewer stuck to their cheeks (Jantilal, 16).



Another example of the group setting tapas was eye witnessed by P.



Spratt in the 19th century in southern Indian villages. "A vertical pole, 30 or 40 feet hight, carried a pivoted horizontal pole of about the same length on the top. These were sometimes decorated with leaves and cloth.



The devotee hung by iron hooks thrust through the flesh of the back and tied to one end of the crosspole, while men holding ropes tied to the other end ran around, rotating him high in the air. Alternatively, a similar structure was mounted on a cart and carried round the temple. The hooks were sometimes inserted in other parts of the body, and there were also less painful variants. Sometimes the devotee would put on a beak and wings to resemble Garuda. Hook-swingers (as Spratt coined them) were expected to give no sign of pain or fear. They made martial gestures with weapons, or showered down flowers, or held a child in thier arms" (281-2).



The practice of tapas can be anything from "real self-torture and record-breaking austerity to the recitation of sacred syllables and chanting of melodies" (Klostermaier, 51). It is through these actions that the rishis or mystic poets collect their divine powers and the average mortal can receive miraculous powers of yoga or siddhis, spiritual enlightenment and liberation from samsara (Walker, 79). According to devoted Hindus, one can store psycho-physical energy performing tapas and through this change his/her position in the universe and receive great power (Klostermaier, p. 53). The reasons for performing tapas is varied; they can be for commemorations of a sati; in atonement of an offense, in fufillment of a vow, to obtain a favor, or to give thanks (Klostermaier, 171; Waghorne & Cutler, 104).



In the above paragraphs it is clear that many Hindus can practice several extreme ways to express their devotion. Here in the West, many would find these practices repulsive and even unnecessary. However, to the Hindu it is his way to connect to a god and to other people. His ways may be unique, but the purity of his faith is what makes his faith beautiful.



BIBLIOGRAPHY Hopkins, Thomas J. The Hindu Religious Tradition. Encino, CA: Dickenson Publishing Company, Inc., 1971. Jantilal, Rajesh. "Trance Parades Draw Thousands." Hinduism Today October 1993. http://www.HinduismToday.Kauai.hi.us, October 27, 1997. Kinsley, David R. Hinduism / A Cultural Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ; Prentice Hall, 1993.



Klostermaier, Klaus K. A Survey of Hinduism. New York: State University of New York Press, 1989. Rigopoulos, Antonio. The Life and Teachings of Sai Baba of Shirdi. Albany, NY: State of New York Press, 1993. Spratt, P. Hindu Culture & Personality. Bombay, India: Karnatak Printing Press, 1966.



Waghorne, Joanne Punzo & Cutler, Norman. Gods of Flesh / Gods of Stone. Chambersburg, PA: Anima Publications, 1984.



Walker, Benjamin. The Hindu World. New York: Fredrick A. Praeger, Inc., 1968.



Tapasa: (sáns. hindú). An ascetic, one who has heat or tapas. See Tapasvi.



Tapasvi: (sáns. hindú). (tapas "heat, ascetcism" + vin "having") 1. An ascetic, one who has "heat" or Tapas, which refers to Knowledge or Omni science as the creative power of God in a divine context and to an effort to purify the mind in a human context. 2. God's divine Tapas is revealed in the Mundaka Upanishad as, ". . . Yasya Jnanamayam Tapah," ". . . whose Tapas is constituted by Knowledge or Omniscience," and the Taittirrya Upanishad reveals God as creating the worlds through such omniscient Tapas thus: "Sa Tapas Taptva, Idam Sarvam Asrijata," "Having exercised His Tapas (Omniscience), He created all this." 3. As to the human tapas it is enjoined in the Taittirrya Upanishad by the Water-God Varuna who tells his son the Maharshi Bhrigu: "Tapasa Brahma Vijijnasasva, Tapo Brahma," "Crave to know Brahman through Tapas! Tapas is Brahman." 4. Throughout the Ramayana the life of ascetics in their Ashramas or Tapovanas (Tapas groves) is beautifully described. 5. In his law-book Manu describes the supreme tapas as the breath-retention done while repeating the Gayatri Mantra at dawn, noon, and dusk during Sandhya prayers. 6. It is through their power of tapas that the Rishis see the Vedic Mantras in the beginning. Great ascetics or Tapasvins are King Vishvamitra the seer of the Gayatri, whose unrivalled tapas raised him to the level of a Brahmarshi, and the Parvati or Uma, who practiced the utmost tapas for gaining Shiva as her consort. 7. In the Yogasutras, tapas is the first component of Kriya-Yoga and the third of the five Niyamas.



According to Vyasa it means Dvandva-Sahanam or bearing the pairs of opposites. It is he or she who, for the purification of the ego, willingly accepts pain that comes naturally (not self-inflicted) and who does not cause pain in return.



Tapasvin: (sáns. hindú). 1. Ascetic. Shiva's 271st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. Performing penance. Shiva's 262nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tapati: (sáns. hindú). 1. She who is warming. 2. The river Tapti personified as a daughter of the Sun by Chhaya. She was mother of Kuru by Samvarana.



Tapodhana: (sáns. hindú). (tapas "heat" + dhana "rich) Rich in tapas. See Tapasvi.



Tapoloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.



Taponidhi: (sáns. hindú). (tapas "heat" + nidhi "treasure, abode") Treasure or abode of tapas. See Tapasvi.



Taponitya: (sáns. hindú). (tapas "heat" + nitya "constant") 1. Constant in tapas. See Tapasvi. 2. Name of a teacher mentioned in the Taittirrya Upanishad.



Tara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Star and Savior. 2. A name of Devi, the Divine Mother, used in the Tantras. 3. A very fierce Mahavidya. This goddess is normally depicted as being dark, pregnant, and having her hair in a single matted braid. She is usually standing on a funeral pyre with one foot on a corpse. She wears a tiger's skin and a necklace of severed heads. She terrifies with her laughter. 4.Wife of the monkey king Balin, and mother of Aganda. After the death of Balin in battle she was taken to wife by his brother, Sugriva. 5. Wife of Brihaspati (also called Taraka). According to the Puranas, Soma, the moon, carried her off, which led to a great war between the gods and the Asuras. Brahma put an end to the war and restored Tara, but she was delivered of a child which she declared to be the son of Soma, and it was named Budha. See Brihaspati.



Taraka: (sáns. hindú). 1. The deliverer. 2. The 105th of Shiva's 108 names. 3. Knowledge born of discrimination. 4. Son of Vajranaka. A Daitya whose austerities made him formidable to the gods, and for whose destruction Skanda, the god of war, was miraculously born. 5. A female Daitya, daughter of the Yaksha Suketu or of the demon Sunda, and mother of Maricha. She was changed into a Rakshasi by Agastya. The Ramayana relays the story that there is a forest called by her name on the Ganges, opposite the confluence of the Sarju, and she ravaged all the country around her. Vishvamitra wanted Ramacandra to kill her, but he was reluctant to kill a woman. He resolved to deprive her of the power of doing harm, and cut off her two arms. Lakshmana cut off her nose and ears. She, by the power of sorcery, assailed Rama and Lakshmana with a fearful shower of stones, and at the earnest command of Vishvamitra, Rama killed her with an arrow. 6. A demon who was granted a boon of being invincible to any being except a child of Shiva. 7. Redeemer. Shiva's 272nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tarakamaya: (sáns. hindú). The war which arose in consequence of Soma, the moon, having carried off Tara, the wife of Brihaspati.



Tara Kurukulla: (sáns. hindú). A fierce form of Tara. Her special power is to subjugate or destroy evil spirits or the personal enemies of her devotees. The ritual that invokes her is quite extraordinary in that she enters the body of her petitioner. The rituals require an exceptionally strong adept because she is a most powerful goddess. The petitioner is said to dress in red garments and through the power of visualization, he takes on her form. The petitioner then recites her mantra ten thousand times and makes certain offerings to her as he asks her to subjugate the demon or person who is the object of the ritual.



Tarana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Rescuing, saving. 2. Vishnu's 337th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Tarani: (sáns. hindú). Sun. Shiva's 212th and 1077 th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tarasara: (sáns. hindú). (tara "saving, a name of the sacred syllable 'OM'" + sara "essence") The essence of the sacred syllable "OM." This is known as Tara, "the Saving." See the Tarasara Upanishad.



Taravati: (sáns. hindú). (tara "star" + vati "having") Having stars, a name of Durga.



Tarendra: (sáns. hindú). (tara "star" + indra "chief") The chief of stars; a name of the Moon-God.



Tarika: (sáns. hindú). The Savior.



Tarini: (sáns. hindú). The Saving Goddess, a name of the Durga, which refers to Her delivering Her devotees from all calamity.



Tarkshya: (sáns. hindú). 1. An ancient mythological personification of the sun in the form of a horse or bird. In later times the name was applied to Garuda. 2. Identical with Garuda. Shiva's 102 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Taruna: (sáns. hindú). The (ever) young.



Tatkarta: (sáns. hindú). (tat "that" + karta "creator") The Creator of that (universe), the Absolute or Brahman personified as the Creator Brahma.



Tattvam: (sáns. hindú). (tat "that" + tvam "nominizing suffix, -ness") 1. Truth, reality, essence. 2. Vishnu's 963 rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. In philosophy like Sankhya-Darshana the name given to the different principles such as Prakriti and Purusha, Matter, and Spirit.



Tattva Samasa: (sáns. hindú). A textbook of the Sankhya philosophy, attributed to Kapila himself.



Tattvatattvavivekatman: (sáns. hindú). One who naturally discriminates between the real and the unreal. Shiva's 531 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tavisha: (sáns. hindú). The strong and energetic, a name for the ocean and heaven.



Tejas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Effulgence, brilliance, energy; a name of the fire element.



Tejaskara: (sáns. hindú). Cause of splendor. Shiva's 373 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tejasvi: (sáns. hindú). (tejas "effulgence" + vin "having") Effulgent, brilliant. This name occurs (in neuter gender) in the Shanti Mantra recited at the beginning and end of some of the Upanishads.



Tejomaya: (sáns. hindú). (tejas "effulgence" + maya "consisting of") 1. Filled with, or consisting of effulgence, which stands for the Light of pure Consciousness.


2. Shiva's 890 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tejonidhi: (sáns. hindú). Store of splendor. Shiva's 708 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tejorashi: (sáns. hindú). (tejas "effulgence" + rashi "mass, heap") 1. Mass of splendor or effulgence 2. Shiva's 1049th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.. 3. A name of Mount Meru. 4. A name of Vishnu used by Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita.



Tejovan: (sáns. hindú). (tejas "effulgence" + van "having") He/she who has effulgence; the effulgent.



Telinga: (sáns. hindú). The Telugu country, stretching along the cost from Orissa to Madras.



Tigmamshu: (sáns. hindú). Having hot rays. Shiva's 445 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tilaka: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sacred mark. 2. The red dot applied to the forehead. representing Shiva's third eye of knowledge.



Tilottama: (sáns. hindú). Name of an Apsaras. She was originally a Brahman female, but for the offence of bathing at an improper season she was condemned to be born as an Apsaras, for the purpose of bringing about the mutual destruction of the two demons Sunda and Upasunda.



Timin: (sáns. hindú). The Timin is a large fabulous fish. The Timingila, "swallower of the Timin," is a still larger one; and there is one yet larger, the Timingilagila or Timitimingila, "swallower of the Timin gila." Cf. the Arabic Timin, sea-serpent. It is also called Samudraru.



Timingila: (sáns. hindú). See Timin.



Tirtha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Holy, sacred. 2. A name given to holy waters. 3. A name given to sacred lore. 4. One of the ten Sannyasa orders traced back Shankara, which has its seat in Dvaraka. 5. Shiva's 733 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tirthadeva: (sáns. hindú). (tirtha "holy" + deva "god") The holy God, a name of Shiva.



Tirthakara: (sáns. hindú). Maker of holy centers. Shiva's 860th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tirtham: (sáns. hindú). Holy water.



Tirthas: (sáns. hindú). A place where one fords a river. It is at times used in a sacred sense in that it may be a place where one may cross from the profane to the sacred such as the Ganges.



Tirthaseva: (sáns. hindú). (tirtha "holy, saint" + seva "service, visit") 1. Service or worship of saints. 2. Pilgrimage.



Tishya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Kali Yuga or fourth age. 2. Shiva's 826 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. The name of a celestial archer.



Tishyaketu: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva.



Titiksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Endurance or forbearance. In Vedanta the fourth virtue of the Shatsampatti, or the "Sixfold wealth." 2. The daughter of Daksha, wife of Dharma and mother of Kshema.



Titikshu: (sáns. hindú). Enduring, forbearing. He who practices Titiksha, endurance, which is one of the sixfold wealth (Shatsampatti) described in the Brihad: (sáns. hindú). Aranyaka Upanishad.



Tittiri: (sáns. hindú). Partridge. An ancient sage who was the pupil of Yaska, and is an authority referred to by . Some attribute the Taittiriya Sanhita of the Yajurveda to him. See Veda.



Tivranada: (sáns. hindú). One whose sound is poignant. Shiva's 437th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tosalaka: (sáns. hindú). An athlete and boxer who was killed by Krishna in the public arena in the presence of Kansha.



Totila: (sáns. hindú). A name of Durga.



Traigarttas: (sáns. hindú). The people of Trigartta.



Trasadasyu: (sáns. hindú). A royal sage and author of hymns. According to Sayana, he was son of Purukutsa. When Purukutsa as a prisoner, "his queen propitiated the seven Rishis to obtain a son who might take his father's place. They advised her to worship Indra and Varuna, in consequence of which Trasadasyu was born." He was renowned for his generosity. According to the Bhagavatapurana he was father of Purukutsa.



Trayastambha: (sáns. hindú). Having three columns. Shiva's 796th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Trayi: (sáns. hindú). The triple. As denoting the Vidya or sacred lore (i.e. the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Samaveda).



Treta Yuga: (sáns. hindú). The second age of the world, a period of 1,296,000 years. See Yuga.



Tribandhu: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + bandhu "friend") The friend of the three worlds, a name of Indra. See Indra and Svarga,

Tribhuvana: (sáns. hindú). The three worlds, Svarga, Bhumi, Patala, i.e., heaven, earth, and hell.



Tridasha: (sáns. hindú). Three times ten, thirty. In round numbers, the thirty-three deities, twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, and two Ashvins.



Tridashadhipa: (sáns. hindú). Overlord of Devas. Shiva's 509th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tridhama: (sáns. hindú). Having the three syllables or worlds as abode. Shiva's 150th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Trigartta: (sáns. hindú). The country of the three strongholds. Lately identified with the northern hill state of Kotoch. Wilson claimed that it is still called by the people of the area "the country of Traigart." According to Dowson, Cunningham clearly identified it with the Julandhar Doab and Kangra.



Trijata: (sáns. hindú). An amiable Rakshasi who befriended Sita when she was the captive of Ravana in Lanka. She is also called Dharmajna.



TrikandaShesha: (sáns. hindú). A Sanskrit vocabulary in three chapters, composed as a supplement to the Amarakosha.



Trikuta: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three + kuta "forehead, peak") 1. The name of the space between the eyebrows, also known as the Ajna Cakra, which is considered the seat of wisdom. This name for the Ajna Cakra refers to the meeting point of the three Nadis (the Ida, the Pingala, and the Sushumna). 2. The name of several mountains, meaning "having three peaks." 3. The mountain on which the city of Lanka was built. 4. A mountain range running south from Meru.



Trilocana: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + locana "eye") The Three-Eyed, a name of Shiva referring to His having a third eye on His forehead, which symbolizes knowledge of the true Self. The Mahabharata relates that the third eye burst from Shiva's forehead with a great flame when his wife playfully placed her hands over his eyes after he had been engaged in austerities in the Himalayas. This eye has been very destructive. It reduced Kama, the god of love, to ashes. Shiva's 47th and 145th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Triloka: (sáns. hindú). The three worlds, Svarga, Bhumi, Patala, i.e., heaven, earth, and hell.



Trilokapathagamini: (sáns. hindú). She who flows in the three worlds. An epithet of the Ganges.



Trilokatman: (sáns. hindú). The soul of the three worlds. Shiva's 907 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Trilokesha: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the three worlds. Shiva's 908th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Trimurti: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + murti "form") 1. Triple form. 2. The Hindu triad. This was foreshadowed in the Vedic association of the three gods Agni, Vayu, and Surya. The triad consists of the gods Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu, the representatives of the creative, destructive, and preservative principles. Brahma is the embodiment, according to Wilson, "of the Rajoguna, the quality of passion or desire, by which the world was called into being; Shiva is the embodied Tamoguna, the attribute of darkness or wrath, and the destructive fire by which the earth is annihilated; and Vishnu is the embodied Satvaguna, or property of mercy and goodness by which the world is preserved. The three exist in one and one in three, as the Veda is divided into three and is yet but one; and they are all Ashrita, or comprehended within that one being who is Parama or 'supreme,' Guhya or 'secret,' and Sarvatma, 'the soul of all things.'" 3. The Padmapurana, which is a Vaishnava work and gives the supremacy to Vishnu, says, "In the beginning of creation, the great Vishnu, desirous of creating the whole world, became three-fold: creator, preserver, and destroyer. In order to create this world, the supreme spirit produced from the right side of his body himself as Brahma; then in order to preserve the world he produced from the left side of his body Vishnu; and in order to destroy the world he produced from the middle of his body the eternal Shiva. Some worship Brahma, others Vishnu, others Shiva; but Vishu, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroy, therefore let the pious make no difference between the three." The representation of the Trimurti is one body with three heads: in the middle Brahma on the right Vishnu, and on the left Shiva. The worship of Brahma is almost extinct, but Vishnu and Shiva receive unbounded adoration from their respective followers, and each is elevated to the dignity of the supreme being. 4 A name of Sage Dattatreya, who is considered the incarnation of the Trimurti.



Trinabha: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + nabha "navel") The navel or center of the three (worlds), a name of Vishnu which refers to His supporting the three worlds on the lotus of creation, which springs from His navel and on which Brahma is seated.



Trinavartta: (sáns. hindú). A demon who assumed the form of a whirlwind and carried off the infant Krishna, but was overpowered and killed by the child.



Trinetra: (sáns. hindú). (tri three" + netra "eye") The Three-Eyed, a name of Shiva referring to His having a third eye on His forehead, symbolizing knowledge of the true Self and through which He burned the God of Desire, Kamadeva, to ashes.



Tripada: (sáns. hindú). Three-footed. Fever personified as having three feet, symbolizing the three stages of fever, i.e., heat, cold, and sweat.



Tripta: (sáns. hindú). The satisfied or contented. See Santosha.



Tripti: (sáns. hindú). Satisfaction, contentment. See Santosha.



Tripura: (sáns. hindú). 1. Triple city. 2. According to the Harivansha the city was aerial, and was burned in a war with the gods. 3. A name of the demon Bana, because he received in gift three cities from Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu. He was killed by Shiva. His name at full length is Tripurasura. The name is also applied to Shiva.



Tripura Bhairavi: (sáns. hindú). A Mahavidya. Tripura Bhairavi is described as having a reddish complexion and wears a mala (garland) of severed heads. Her breasts are smeared with blood and with two of her hands she is holding a rosary and a book; with the other two she is giving the mudras of fearlessness and the giving of boons. She is also known as Bhairavi. In the Kalikapurana Tripura Bhairavi is described as reeling from intoxication and standing on a corpse.



Tripurahara: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + pura "city" + hara "destroyer") The Destroyer of the three cities; a name of Shiva, who destroyed the three cities built by demons in the three worlds. It means as the true Self the Lord is different from the three bodies and the three states.



Tripurari: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + pura "city" + ari "enemy") The Enemy of the three cities; a name of Shiva, who destroyed the three cities built by demons in the three worlds. It means, as the true Self the Lord is different from the three bodies and the three states.



Tripurasundari: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + pura "city" + sundari "beauty") 1. The Beauty of the three cities. 2. A name of Devi, the Divine Mother, which refers to Her pervading the gross, subtle, and causal bodies. Having a divine beauty She attracts the devotees to Her blissful Self and helps them to transcend the three bodies or cities. 3. A Mahavidya. Tripurasundari is a sixteen year old girl with a red complexion. She is shown astride Shiva with whom she is having coitus. The couple are on a pedestal made of the gods Vishnu, Brahma, Rudra, and . In some lists of the Mahavidyas Tripurasundari is identified with Shodashi.



Tripuri: (sáns. hindú). The capital city of the Chedis, now traceable in the village of Tevar, on the banks of the Narmada.



Trishanku: (sáns. hindú). See Satyavrata.



Trishanku: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi in the Taittiriya Upanishad, who having realized the supreme Truth, revealed a Mantra to be recited in Svadhyaya or Japa for the sake of mind purification and attainment of knowledge.



Trishiras: (sáns. hindú). Three-headed. 1. In the Vedas, a son of Tvashtri; also called Vishvarupa. 2. Fever personified as a demon with three heads, typical of the three stages of heat, cold, and sweating. 3. Kuvera, god of wealth. 4. An Asura killed by Vishnu. 5. A son or a friend of Ravana killed by Rama.



Trishula: (sáns. hindú). A trident. The trident of Shiva.



Trishuli: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + shuli "armed with a spear") The Possessor of the trident, a name of Shiva which refers to His possessing the trident, a symbol of His sovereignty over the three gunas: sattva, rajas and tamas.



Trishulin: (sáns. hindú). Trident-bearing. Shiva's 440 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Trita: (sáns. hindú). A minor deity mentioned occasionally in the Rigveda, and generally in some relation to Indra. Thus "Indra broke through the defences of Vala, as did Trita through the coverings (of the well)." In explanation of this and similar allusions, a legend is told by the commentator to the effect, that Ekata, Dvita, and Trita (first, second, and third), were three men produced in water by Agni, for the purpose of rubbing off the remains of an oblation of clarified butter. Agni threw the cinders of the offerings into water, and from them sprang the three brothers, who, from their origin in water (ap), were called Aptyas. Trita went one day to draw water from a well and fell into it. The Asuras then heaped coverings over the mouth of the well to prevent Trita from getting out, but he broke through them with ease. The Nitimanjari tells the story differently. Ekata, Dvita, and Trita were travelling in a desert and suffered from thirst. They came to a well from which Trita drew water and gave it to his brothers. In order to appropriate his property the two brothers threw him into the well, placed a cart-wheel over it, and there left him. Trita prayed earnestly to the gods, and with their help he escaped.



Trita aptya: (sáns. hindú). See Trita.



Tritsus: (sáns. hindú). A people frequently mentioned in the Veda. Sayana says they were "priests who were Vasishtha's disciples." Vasishtha himself is said to have belonged to the tribe.



Trivarga: (sáns. hindú). One who fulfils the three aims of life. Shiva's 42nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Triveni: (sáns. hindú). The triple braid. A name of Prayaga. It is so called because the Ganges and Jumna here unite, and the Sarasvati is supposed to join them by an underground channel.



Trividya: (sáns. hindú). Having three Vidyas. Shiva's 701st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Trivikrama: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vishnu used in the Rigveda and referring to three steps or paces which he is represented a taking. These steps, according to the opinion of one commentator as quoted by Dowson, are "the three periods of the sun's course, i.e., his rising, culminating and setting." Wilson also quotes an old commentator as saying, "Vishnu stepped by separate strides over the whole universe. In three places he planted his step, one step on the earth, a second in the atmosphere, and a third in the sky, in the successive forms of Agni, Vayu, and Surya." The great commentator Sayana, a comparatively modern writer, understood these steps as being the three steps of Vishnu in the Vamana or dwarf incarnation.



Tryambaka: (sáns. hindú). (tri "three" + ambaka "eye") 1. The three-eyed, a name of Shiva, which occurs in the celebrated Maha-Mrityunjaya Mantra, the great death-conquering mantra of the Shukla-Yajurveda. In the Lingapurana the word Tryambaka is explained thus, "He is the Lord of the three worlds, three Gunas, three Vedas, three Devas and three castes-Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas. He is expressed by the three syllables 'A,' 'U,' and 'M' (constituting 'OM'). He is the Lord of the three fires, viz. the moon sun and fire. Uma, Amba and Mahadeva constitute the trio. So He is Tryambaka, the Lord of the three." 2. Having three wives or sisters. 3. One of the Rudras. 4. Name of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 5. Shiva's 831st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tryariuna: (sáns. hindú). A king, son of Trivrishan, of the race of Ikshvaku. He was riding in a chariot which Vrisha, his purohita or family priest, was driving. The vehicle ran over and killed a Brahman boy, and a question arose as to who was responsible for the death. The question was referred to an assembly of the Ikshvakus, and they decided against Vrisha. The purohita, by his prayers, then restored the boy to life, and being very angry with them for what he deemed partiality, "fire henceforth ceased to perform its functions in their dwellings, and the cooking of their food and other offices ceased." The Ikshvakus appeased him, and upon his prayers the use of fire was restored to them. This story is told by Sayana in elucidation of a Vedic allusion, and he quotes the Shatyayana Brahmana as the authority.



Tukarama: (sáns. hindú). The name of a celebrated and saintly devotee of God who lived in the 17th century CE.



Tukharas: (sáns. hindú). A northern tribe from whom Tukharistan obtained its name. They are probably the tribe of Shakas, by whom Bactria was taken from the Greeks. They are also called Tusharas.



Tuladhara: (sáns. hindú). A trading Vaishya mentioned in the Mahabharata as very virtuous and learned, to whom Jajali, an arrogant Brahman, was sent by a voice from the sky to learn wisdom.



Tulasi: (sáns. hindú). The holy basil plant, which is used for malas (rosaries) and associated with the japa of Vishnu's names.



Tulasidasa: (sáns. hindú). (tulasi "the holy basil plant" + dasa "servant") 1. The servant of Tulasi. 2. A sixteenth-century North India writer. In one of these works, the very popular Ramcaritmanas, the story of the Ramayana is altered to enable devotees to offer devotion to Rama as the Lord. In his Kavitavali, Tulsi Das refers to Sita as the world's mother and to Rama as the world's father.



Tulsi: (sáns. hindú). See Tulasi.



Tulsidas: (sáns. hindú). See Tulasidasa.



Tulunga: (sáns. hindú). Tuluva, or the country where the Tulu language is spoken, on the eastern coast below Goa.



Tulya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The equal-minded, equanimity of mind in pleasure and pain, gain and loss, etc. 2. God's quality of being the same in all beings.



Tumbavini: (sáns. hindú). Having the lute called Tumbavina. Shiva's 903rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tumburu: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Gandharva. See Viradha.



Tunda: (sáns. hindú). A demon slain by Nahusha, the son of Ayus. He had a son named Vitunda, who was killed by Bhagavati (Durga).



Tura: (sáns. hindú). 1. The powerful; the fruitful. 2. The name of a Vedic preceptor and priest.



Turangavaktra: (sáns. hindú). Horse-faced people. See Kinnaras.



Turanya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The swift. 2. One of the horses of the Moon-God.



Turiya: (sáns. hindú). The Fourth. A name of the Self or Atman as the unchanging Witness of waking, dream, and deep sleep states, and distinct from the wakeful, the dreamer, and the fast asleep. Turiya is synonymous with Caturtha occurring in the Mandukya Upanishad, which reveals "OM" as the Fourth. In the seven states of Knowledge (Jnana-Bhumikas) pertaining to Jivanmukti or liberation while alive, Turiya is the last one wherein there is no extenal or body consciousness. Beyond that is Turiyatita pertaining to Videhamukti or disembodied liberation.



Turushkas: (sáns. hindú). Turks; the people of Turkey. The Indo-Scythians, who, under Kanishka and other kings of the race, held Northern India.



Turvasha: (sáns. hindú). Son of Yayati by Devayani. He refused to bear the curse of premature decrepitude passed upon his father, and so his father cursed him that his posterity should "not possess dominion." His father gave him a part of his kingdom, but after some generations, his line merged into that of his brother Puru, who bore for a time the curse passed upon his father.



Tushara: (sáns. hindú). See Tukhara.



Tushitas: (sáns. hindú). A gana or class of subordinate deities, thirty-six in number, but sometimes reduced to twelve, and identified with the Adityas.



Tushti: (sáns. hindú). Contentment. The 71st of Lakshmi's 108 names.



Tvashta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The builder. 2. A name of Vishvakarma. See Vishvakarma. 3. Vishnu's 53rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Tvashtri: (sáns. hindú). 1. In the Rigveda this deity is the ideal artist, the divine artisan, the most skilful of workmen, who is versed in all wonderful and admirable contrivances, and corresponds in many respects with Hephaistos and Vulcan. He sharpens and carries the great iron axe, and he forges the thunderbolts of Indra. He is the beautiful, skilful worker, the omniform, the archetype of all form, the vivifier and the bestower of long life. He imparts generative power and bestows offspring. He forms husband and wife for each other, even from the womb. He develops the seminal germ in the womb, and is the shaper of all forms, human and animal. He has generated a strong man, a lover of the gods, a swift horse, and has created the whole world. As the Shatapatha Brahmana expresses it, "He has produced and nourishes a great variety of creatures; all worlds (or beings) are his, and are known to him; he has given to heaven and earth and to all things their forms." He created Brahmanaspati above all creatures, and generated Agni along with heaven and earth, the waters and the Bhrigus. He is master of the universe, the first-born protector and leader, and knows the region of the gods. He is supplicated to nourish the worshipper and protect his sacrifice. He is the bestower of blessings, and is possessed of abundant wealth, and grants prosperity. He is asked, like other gods, to take pleasure in the hymns of his worshippers and to grant them riches. He is associated with the Ribhus, and is represented as sometimes envying and as sometimes admiring their skill. He is represented as being occasionally in a state of hostility with Indra, and he had a son named Vishvarupa (omniform) or Trishiras, who had three heads, six eyes, and three mouths, who was especially obnoxious to Indra, and was slain by him. He had a daughter, Saranyu, whom he married to Vivasvat, and she was the mother of the Ashvins. In the Puranas, Tvashtri is identified with Vishvakarman, the artisan of the gods, and sometimes also with Prajapati. One of the Adityas and one of the Rudras bear this name, as also did a prince descended from Bharata. 2. The architect of the gods. Shiva's 299th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Tyaga: (sáns. hindú). Renunciation or dedication. In Karma-Yoga this refers to the renunciation of the fruits of actions; in Jnana-Yoga it refers to the renunciation of both the fruits of actions and the actions themselves.



Tyagaraja: (sáns. hindú). (tyaga "renunciation" + raja "king") 1. The king of renunciation. 2. The name of a saintly musician who lived in the 18th century CE. He was devoted to Rama and composed thousands of songs in praise of the Lord. He is one of the trinity in South Indian music, along with Shyama Shastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar.



Tyagi: (sáns. hindú). Endowed with renunciation; the renunciate. Ramakrishna claimed that to get the quintessence of the Bhagavad Gita we should reverse the two syllables in Gita thus obtaining "Tagi" or "Tyagi" as renunciation is the chief message of this scripture.





U





Ucathya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The praiseworthy. 2. The name of a descendant or son of Rishi Angiras and the seer of some Rigvedic hymns.



Uccaihshravas: (sáns. hindú). The model horse. The white horse of Indra, produced at the churning of the ocean. It is fed ambrosia, and is held to be the king of horses.



Uccatana: (sáns. hindú). A Tantric ritual from the Brihaddharmapurana and Mahabhagavatapurana that causes a person to stop what he or she doing.



Ucchishta: (sáns. hindú). The remains of a sacrifice, to which divine powers are ascribed by the Rigveda.



Udapi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vasudeva, the father of Kishna.



Udara: (sáns. hindú). The great or exalted.



Udaraja: (sáns. hindú). (uda "water" + raja "king") The king of waters, a name of the personification of the ocean.



Udarakirti: (sáns. hindú). One of elegant fame. Shiva's 586th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Udarata: (sáns. hindú). (udara "great" + ta "nominalizing suffix") Greatness, nobleness, or generosity.



Udasuta: (sáns. hindú). (uda "water" + suta "daughter") The daughter of the ocean, a name of the Lakshmi, who was born from the churning of the milk ocean.



Udasutanayaka: (sáns. hindú). (uda "water" + suta "daughter" + nayaka "lord") The Lord of the ocean's daughter, a name of Vishnu, consort of the Lakshmi.



Udavasu: (sáns. hindú). The name of a son of King Janaka.



Udayagiri Parvata: (sáns. hindú). The eastern mountain from behind which the sun rises.



Udayana: (sáns. hindú). 1. A prince of the Lunar race, and son of Sahasranika, who is the hero of a popular story. He was king of Vatsa, and is commonly called Vatsaraja. His capital was Kaushambi. Vasavadatta, princess of Ujjayini, saw him in a dream and fell in love with him. He was decoyed to that city, and there kept in captivity by the king, Chandasena; but when he was set at liberty by the minister, he carried off Vasavadatta from her father and a rival suitor. 2. A name of Agastya.



Udayi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vasudeva, the father of Kishna.



Udbhasi: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly, forth" + bhasi "shining") Shining forth.



Udbhasura: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly, forth" + bhasura "shining, radiant") Shining forth, radiant.



Udbhata: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly, up" + bhata "raised") Exalted, eminent.



Uddanta: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly" + danta "controlled") The humble, subdued; he who practises Dama, (sense-control), the second virtue of the sixfold wealth, or Shatsampatti. taught in the Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad.



Uddhava: (sáns. hindú). The friend and counsellor of Krishna. According to some he was Krishna's cousin, being son of Devabhaga, the brother of Vasudeva. He was also called Pavanavyadhi. Krishna's teachings to Uddhava, called the Uddhava Gita, can be found in the eleventh book of the Bhagavatapurana.



Uddisha: (sáns. hindú). (ut "high" + di "flying" + sha "reclining" or isha "lord")


Reclining high or the high Lord. A name of Shiva.



Udgata: (sáns. hindú). (ut "Udgitha, OM, Samaveda" + gata "singer") The singer of Ut, which refers to the Udgitha or OM and to the Samaveda; one of four priests in a Vedic sacrifice, who sings the hymns of the Samaveda.



Udgatri: (sáns. hindú). A priest whose duty it is to chant the prayers or hymns from the Samaveda.



Udraka: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Rishi.



Udranka: (sáns. hindú). Harishchandra's aerial city. See Saubha.



Udvamsha: (sáns. hindú). (ut "high" + vamsha "lineage") 1. Of high lineage. 2. The name of a Rishi.



Udyanta: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly" + yanta "elevating, bestowing, ruling") 1. He who exalts or elevates. 2. The bestower. 3. The ruler.



Udyogi: (sáns. hindú). One who endeavors. Shiva's 587th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Ugra: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Rudra, or of one of his manifestations. See Rudra. 2. Fierce. Shiva's 100 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Ugrakali: (sáns. hindú). (ugra "impetuous" + kali "the dark Goddess") The impetuous Kali, a name of Durga.



Ugrasena: (sáns. hindú). (ugra "impetuous" + sena "army") Having an impetuous army. In the Mahabharata, he was king of Mathura, husband of Karni and father of Kansha and Devaka. He was deposed by Kansha, but Krishna, after killing the latter, restored Ugrasena to the throne. See Kansha.



Ugrasenani: (sáns. hindú). (ugra "impetuous" + sena ""army" + ni "leader") The leader of an impetuous army, a name of Krishna.



Ugrashekhara: (sáns. hindú). (ugra "impetuous, a name of Siva" + shekhara "crest") The crest of the Impetuous, a name of the Goddess Ganga, the holy river Ganges, who, when falling from heaven, was restrained in Shiva's hair, thus adorning Him as a crest.



Ugratara: (sáns. hindú). (ugra "impetuous" + tara "savioress") 1. The impetuous Savior. 2. A fierce form of Tara. See Mahacinatara.



Ugresha: (sáns. hindú). (ugra "impetuous" + isha "lord") The impetuous or mighty Lord, a name of Shiva.



Ujjayani: (sáns. hindú). The Greek Ozhnh and the modern Oujein or Ujjein. It was the capital of Vikramaditya and one of the even sacred cities. Hindu geographers calculate their longitude from it, making it their first meridian.



Ujjesha: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly" + jesha "victorious") The victorious.



Ujjeshi: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly" + jeshi "victorious") 1. The victorious. 2. The name of one of the forty-nine Maruts or Wind-gods.



Ullasa: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly, forth" + lasa "shining, delighting") Shining forth, delighting.



Ullasini: (sáns. hindú). (ut "highly, forth" + lasini "shining, delighting") Shining forth, delighting.



Uluka: (sáns. hindú). An owl. Son of Kitava. He was king of a country and people of the same name. He was an ally of the Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the Pandavas.



Ulupi: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Kauravya, Raja of the Nagas, with whom Arjuna contracted a kind of marriage. She was nurse to her step-son, Babhruvahana, and had great influence over him. According to the Vishnupurana she had a son named Iravat.



Uluti: (sáns. hindú). The name of a wife of Garuda.



Ulutisha: (sáns. hindú). (uluti "wife of Garuda" + isha "lord") The Lord of Uluti, a name of Garuda. See Garuda.



Uma: (sáns. hindú). 1. The luminous or serene. 2. A name of the Parvati derived from, "U, ma!," "O (child), do not (practice austerities)!" This was said to her by her mother Mena while she was practicing tapas to obtain Shiva as her husband. The earliest known mention of the name is in the Kena Upanishad, where she appears as a mediator between Brahma and the other gods, and seems to be identified with Vac. See Devi. See Haimavati.



Umaguru: (sáns. hindú). (uma "Parvati" + guru "mother, father, teacher") The father of Uma; a name of Himavan. The term Guru, meaning "great" or "respectable," is applied to elders in general and to one's mother, father, and spiritual teacher in paricular.



Uma Himavati: (sáns. hindú). A goddess in the Kena Upanishad that is not connected with Shiva (both Uma and Himavati are connected with Shiva in other passages). This goddess is a mediator who reveals the knowledge of brahman to the gods.



Umakanta: (sáns. hindú). (uma "Parvati" + kanta "beloved") The Beloved of Uma, a name of Shiva.



Umanatha: (sáns. hindú). (uma "Parvati" + natha "lord, husband") The Lord of Uma, a name of Shiva.



Umapati: (sáns. hindú). (uma "Parvati" + pati "lord, husband") Husband of Uma, that is to say, Shiva.



Umasuta: (sáns. hindú). (uma "Parvati" + suta "son") The son of Uma, a name of Skanda, also known as Karttikeya, Kumara, Guha, and Shanmukha.



Umesha: (sáns. hindú). (uma "Parvati" + isha "lord, husband") 1. The Lord of Uma, a name of Shiva. 2. Uma and the Lord, the name of a particular half-man, half-woman form of Shiva.



Unkara: (sáns. hindú). The name of a companion of Vishnu.



Unmattavesha: (sáns. hindú). One having the guise of a mad man. Shiva's 74th and 264th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Unnatakirti: (sáns. hindú). Of lofty renown. Shiva's 481 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Unnati: (sáns. hindú). (ut "upwards" + nati "bending") 1. The ascending. 2. The name of the wife of Garuda. 3. A daughter of Daksha and the wife of Dharma.



Unnatisha: (sáns. hindú). (unnati "wife of Garuda" + isha "lord, husband") The Lord of Unnati, a name of Garuda. See Garuda.



Upadhi: (sáns. hindú). Just as the sun reflected in the water of a pot is limited by the pot, so also the Absolute when He shines through created forms is limited by them. This form of limitation is called Upadhi. See Kalyani.



Upagahana: (sáns. hindú). (upa "above" + gahana "abyss, darkness") Above darkness. The name of a Rishi.



Upajihvika: (sáns. hindú). See Jihvika.



Upakasha: (sáns. hindú). (upa "near, almost" + kasha "light") Aurora, dawn.



Upanandaka: (sáns. hindú). (upa "near" + nandaka "rejoicing in") The name of an attendant of Skanda.



Upanandana: (sáns. hindú). (upa "near, almost" + nandana "delighting in") Delighting in the very hearts of beings. A name of Shiva.



Upanishad: (sáns. hindú). Esoteric doctrine. The third division of the Vedas attached to the Brahmana portion, and forming part of the Shruti or revealed word. The Upanishads are generally written in prose with interspersed verses, but some are wholly in verse. There are about 150 of these works, probably even more. They are of later date than the Brahmanas, but it is thought that the oldest may date as far back as the sixth century. The object of these treatises is to ascertain the mystic sense of the text of the Veda, and so they enter into such abstruse questions as the origin of the universe, the nature of the deity, the nature of soul, and the connection of mind and matter. Thus they contain the beginnings of that metaphysical inquiry which ended in the full development of Hindu philosophy. Dowson quotes a Professor Cowell as claiming that the Upanishads have "one remarkable peculiarity, the total absence of any Brahmanical exclusiveness in their doctrine. They are evidently later than the older Sanhitas and Brahmanas, but they breathe an entirely different spirit, a freedom of thought unknown in any earlier work except the Rigveda hymns themselves. The great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans are continually represented as going to Kshatriya kings to become their pupils." The Rigveda has the Upanishad called Aitareya attached to the Aitareya Brahmana. The Taittiriya Sanhita of the Yajurveda has an Upanishad of the same name. The Vajasaneyi Sanhita has the Isa, and attached to the Shatapatha Brahmana it has the Brihad Aranyaka, which is the most important of them. The Samaveda has the Kena and Chhandogya. The Atharvaveda has the Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, and others, altogether fifty-two in number. These are the most important of the Upanishads.



Upaplava: (sáns. hindú). 1. Identical with calamity. Shiva's 580th name; as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. Matsya, the capital of the king of Virata.



Upapuranas: (sáns. hindú). Secondary or subordinate Puranas. See Purana.



Uparati: (sáns. hindú). (upa "with, in" + rati "drawing, ceasing") Cessation, withdrawal, the third virtue of the sixfold wealth or Shatsampatti in Vedanta.



Enciclopedia Hindu, Manurishi Fundación


  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  5. Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  6. Jñanam - Kurantika - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  7. Kurira - Nagaharadhrik - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  8. Nagakesara - Prajapala - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  9. Prajapati - Saha - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  10. Sahadeva - Shvashva - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation



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