martes, 6 de julio de 2010

Kurira - Nagaharadhrik - The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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7.Kurira - Nagaharadhrik

Kurira: (sáns. hindú). A kind of meter.

Kurma: (sáns. hindú). 1. The tortoise incarnation of Vishnu. See Avatara. 2. One of the vital airs of the body that causes the closing of the eyelids.

Kurmapurana: (sáns. hindú). A purana in which Janardana (Vishnu), in the form of a tortoise, in the regions under the earth, explained the objects of life-duty, wealth, pleasure, and liberation-in communication with Indra-dyumna and the Rishis in the area of Shakra. It refers to the Lakshmi Kalpa, and contains 17,000 stanzas. The account which the Purana gives of itself and its actual contents do not agree with this description. Wilson claimed, "The name being that of an Avatara of Vishnu, might lead us to expect a Vaishnava work; but it is always and correctly classed with the Shaivapuranas, the greater portion of it inculcating the worship of Shiva and Durga. The date of this Purana cannot be very remote."

Kuru: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the Lunar race, son of Samvarana by Tapati, a daughter of the sun. He ruled in the northwest of India over the country about Delhi. A people called Kurus, and dwelling about Kurukshetra in that part of India, are connected with him. He was ancestor both of Dhritarashtra and Pandu, but the patronymic Kaurava is generally applied to the sons of Dhritarashtra.

Kurujangala: (sáns. hindú). A forest country in the upper part of the Doab.

Kuru Krivas: (sáns. hindú). The name of a tribe.

Kurukshetra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The field of the Kurus. A plain near Delhi where the great battle between the Kauravas and Pandavas was fought. It lies southeast of Thanesar not far from Panipat, the scene of many battles in later days. This field has been referred to by many commentators as "the field of righteousness." 2. In the Vedas, a district in Haryana.

Kurum: (sáns. hindú). An unidentified stream or creek mentioned in the Veda; believed by some to be a tributary of the Indus.

Kurundi: (sáns. hindú). The name of an ancient Rishi.

Kurunga: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic prince.

Kurushravana: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic prince.

Kuruyana: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic proper name.

Kusha: (sáns. hindú). One of the twin sons of Rama and Sita. After the death of Rama, his two sons Kusha and Lava became kings of the Southern and Northern Kosalas, and Kusha built Kushasthali or Kushavati in the Vindhyas, and made it his capital. See Rama.

Kusha grass: (sáns. hindú). Sacred grass.

Kushadhvaja: (sáns. hindú). A brother of Janaka, king of Mithila, and consequently uncle of Sita. His two daughters, Mandavi and Shrutakirtti, were married to Bharata and Shatrughna, the sons of Janaka. Some make him king of Sankashyu and others king of Kashi, and there are differences also as to his genealogy.

Kushasthali: (sáns. hindú). 1. A city identical with or standing on the same spot as Dvaraka. It was built by Raivata, and was the capital of his kingdom called Anarta. When Raivata went on a visit to the region of Brahma, his city was destroyed by Punyajanas, i.e., Yakshas or Rakshasas. 2, A city built by Kusha, son of Rama, on the brow of the Vindhyas. It was the capital of Southern Kosala. Also called Kushavati.

Kushavati: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Southern Kosala, built upon the Vindhyas by Kusha, son of Rama.

Kushala: (sáns. hindú). 1. The skillful or clever (i.e. even-minded). This name is derived from the Bhagavad Gita II:50 where it is written, "Yogah karmasu kaushalam," "Skillfulness, or perfection, in action is Yoga." In this case the word kaushalam refers to the state of being skillful. This state of skillfulness is called Karma Yoga, or detachment from the fruits of all actions, past and present. Thus to be skillful in action does not mean being a good or perfect worker but rather, being detached. 2. Happy, healthy, prosperous.

Kushalin: (sáns. hindú). Having skillfulness or happiness. (See Kushala)

Kushamba: (sáns. hindú). Son of Kusha and a descendant of Pururavas. He engaged in devout penance to obtain a son equal to Indra, and Indra was so alarmed at his austerities, that he himself became incarnate as Gadhi, son of Kushamba.

Kushava: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Vedic female fiend.

Kushika: (sáns. hindú). 1. A king who, according to some, was the father of Vishvamitra, or, according to others, the first of the race of Kushikas from whom Gadhi, the father of Vishvamitra descended. 2. A famous Vedic Rishi.

Kushivasha: (sáns. hindú). (kushi "son of Rama" + vasha "control") Having Kusha, the son of Rama, under control; a name of Valmiki.

Kushmandas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Gourds. 2. A class of demigods or demons in the service of Shiva.

Kushmanda: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Benincasa cerifera, commonly known as the gourd.

Kushtha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Saussurea lappa. In the Atharvaveda it is the plant Costus speciosus Kushumapura-"The city of flowers." Pataliputra or Patna.

Kusumayudha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Kama, or Cupid as the bearer of the bow (ayudha) of flowers (kusuma).

Kusuma: (sáns. hindú). Flower-like, or blossom-like.

Kutajaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kutaja.

Kutaja: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Holarrhena antidysenterica, commonly known as the wild quince.

Kuta: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See kushtha.

Kutsa: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi and author of hymns. He is represented as being persecuted by Indra, but on one occasion he was defended by that god against the demon Shushna. It is said that Indra took him to his palace, and that they were so much alike that Shachi or Pushpotkata, Indra's wife, did not know which was her husband.

Kuvalashva or Kuvalayshva: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the Solar race, who, according to the Vishnupurana, had 21,000 sons, but the Harivansha numbers them only as 100. Attended by his sons he attacked the great Asura, Dhundhu, who lived in a sea of sand, and harassed the devotions of the pious sage Uttanka. They unearthed the demon and slew him, from which exploit Kuvalashva got the title of Dhundhumara, slayer of Dhundhu; but all his sons except three perished by the fiery breath of the monster.

Kuvalayapida: (sáns. hindú). A n immense elephant, or a demon in elephantine form, belonging to Kansha, and employed by him to trample the boys Krishna and Balarama to death. The attempt failed and the elephant was killed.

Kuvera: (sáns. hindú). In the Veda, a chief of the evil beings or spirits living in the shades a sort of Pluto, and called by his patronymic Vaishravana. Later he is Pluto in another sense, as god of wealth and chief of the Yakshas and Guhyakas. He was son of Vishravas by Idavida, but he is sometimes called son of Pulastya, who was father of Vishravas. This is explained by the Mahabharata, according to which Kuvera was son of Pulastya, but that sage being offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, "reproduced the half of himself in the form of Vishravas," and had Ravana and other children. (See Vishravas.) Kuvera's city is Alaka (also called Prabha, Vasudhara, and Vasusthali) in the Himalayas, and his garden Chaitraratha on Mandara, one of the spurs of Mount Meru, where he is waited upon by the Kinnaras. Some authorities place his abode on Mount Kailasa in a palace built by Vishvakarma. He was half-brother of Ravana, and, according to the Ramayana and Mahabharata, he once had possession of the city of Lanka in Ceylon, which was also built by Vishvakarma, and from which he was expelled by Ravana.

The same authority states that he performed austerities for thousands of years, and obtained the boon from Brahma that he should be immortal, one of the guardian deities of the world, and the god of wealth. So he is regent of the north, and the keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the treasures of the earth, besides nine particular Nidhis, or treasures the nature of which is not well understood. Brahma also gave him the great self-moving aerial car Pushpaka. His wife is Yakshi, Charvi, or Kauveri, daughter of the Danava Mura. His sons are Manigriva or Varnakavi and Nalakubara or Mayuraja, and his daughter Minakshi (fish-eyed). He is represented as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs and only eight teeth. His body is covered with ornaments. He receives no worship. The name Kuvera, as also the variant Kutanu, signifies "vile body," referring to his ugliness. He is also called Dhanapati, "lord of wealth"; Ichchhavasu, "who has wealth at will"; Yaksharaja, "chief of the Yakshas"; Mayuraja, "king of the Kinnaras"; Rakshasendra, "chief of the Rakshasas"; Ratnagarbha, "belly of jewels"; Rajaraja, "king of kings"; and Nararaja, "king of men" (in allusion to the power of riches). From his parentage he is called Vaishravana, Paulastya, and Aidavida or Ailavila. As a special friend of Shiva he is called Ishasakhi, etc.

Kuvitsa: (sáns. hindú). A certain malicious man mentioned in the Veda.

Kuyavac: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic demon or savage.

Kuyava: (sáns. hindú). 1. Harvest-Spoiler. 2. A Vedic demon of drought.


Lakshmana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The son of King Dasharatha by his wife Sumitra. He was the twin brother of Shatrughna, and the half brother and special friend of Rama-chandra. Under the peculiar circumstances of his birth, one eighth part of the divinity of Vishnu became manifest in him. But according to the Adhyatma Ramayana, he was an incarnation of Shesha. When Rama left his father's court to go to the hermitage of Vishvamitra, Lakshmana accompanied him, and afterwards attended him in his exile and in all his wanderings. He was also very attached to Rama's wife Sita, which gave rise to the reproach that the two brothers were husbands of one wife. On one occasion, indeed, Sita reproached Lakshmana that he did not hasten to rescue Rama from danger, because he wished to obtain her. His own wife was Urmila, the sister of Sita, and he had two sons, Angada and Chandra-ketu. While Rama and Lakshmana were living in the wilderness, a Rakshasi named Shurpa-nakha, sister of Ravana, fell in love with Rama and made advances to him. He jestingly referred her to Lakshmana, who in like manner sent her back to Rama.

When she was again repulsed she attacked Sita, whom Rama was obliged to defend. Rama then called upon Lakshmana to disfigure the Rakshasi, and accordingly he cut off her nose and ears. The mutilated female called upon her brother to avenge her, and a fierce war ensued. Sita was carried off by Ravana, and Lakshmana accompanied Rama in his search, and he ably and bravely supported him in his war against Ravana. Rama's earthly career was drawing to a close, and Time was sent to inform him that he must elect whether to stay longer on earth, or to return to the place from whence he had come. While they were in conference, a petulant sage named Durvashas came and demanded to see Rama instantly, threatening him with the most dreadful curses if there was any delay. To save his brother Rama from the threatened curse, but aware of the consequences that would ensue to himself from breaking in upon Rama's interview with Time, he went in and brought Rama out. Lakshmana knowing his fate, retired to the river Sharayu and resigned himself. The gods then showered down flowers upon him and conveyed him bodily to heaven. 2. A son of Dur-yodhana, killed by Abhimanyu.

Lakshmi: (sáns. hindú). This word occurs in the Rigveda with the sense of good fortune, and in the Atharvaveda the idea has become personified in females both of a luck and unlucky character. The Taittiriya Sanhita, as explained by various commentators, makes Lakshmi and Sri to be two wives of Aditya, and the Shatapatha Brahmana describes Sri as issuing forth from PrajapatiLakshmi or Sri in later times is the goddess of fortune, wife of Vishnu, and mother of Kama. The origin ascribed to her by the Ramayana is the one commonly received. According to this legend she sprang, like Aphrodite, from the froth of the ocean, in full beauty with a lotus in her hand, when the ocean was churned by the gods and the Asuras. Another legend represents her as floating on the flower of a lotus at the creation. With reference to this origin, one of her names is Kshirabdhi-tanaya, "daughter of the sea of milk." From her connection with the lotus she is called Padma. According to the Puranas, She was the daughter of Bhrigu and Khyati.

The Vishnupurana says, "Her first birth was the daughter of Bhrigu by Khyati. It was at a subsequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churning of the ocean. . . . When Hari was born as a dwarf, Lakshmi appeared from a lotus (as Padma or Kamala). When he was born as Rama of the race of Bhrigu (or Parashu-rama), she was Dharani. When he was Raghava (Rama-chandra), she was Sita. And when he was Krishna she became Rukmini. In the other descents of Vishnu she is his associate." One version of the Ramayana also affirms that "Lakshmi, the mistress of the worlds, was born by her own will, in a beautiful field opened up by the plough," and received from Janaka the name of Sita. Lakshmi is said to have four arms, but she is the form of beauty, and is generally depicted as having only two. In one hand she holds a lotus. "She has no temples, but being goddess of abundance and fortune, she continues to be assiduously courted, and is not likely to fall into neglect." Other names of Lakshmi are Hira; Indira; Jaladhi-ja, "ocean born"; Chanchala or Lola; "the fickle," as goddess of fortune; Loka-mata, "mother of the world."

Lalita-vistara: (sáns. hindú). A work in Sanskrit verse on the life and doctrines of Buddha.

Langalika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See indrayana.

Langali: (sáns. hindú). A name of Bala-rama meaning, "Armed with a plowshare."

Lanka: (sáns. hindú). 1. The island of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) or its capital city. The city is described in the Ramayana as of vast extent and of great magnificence, with seven broad moats and seven stupendous walls of stone and metal. It is said to have been built of gold by Vishva-karma for the residence of Kuvera from whom it was taken by Ravana. The Bhagavatapurana represents that the island was originally the summit of Mount Meru, which was broken off by the god of the wind and hurled into the sea. 2. Name of one of the Shakinis or evil spirits attendant on Shiva and Devi.

Lashuna: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See grinjana.

Lataveshtitaka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra that means to entwine like a liana, a posture.

Lata: (sáns. hindú). A country comprising Kandesh and part of Guzerat about the Mhye river. It is also called Lar, and is mentioned by Ptolemy.

Latyayana: (sáns. hindú). A uthor of a Sutra work.

Laukayitaka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for materialists, a system of philosophy.

Lauki: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See alabu.

Launda: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for a transvestite prostitute.

Lavana: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa, son of Madhu by Kumbhinasi, the sister of Ravana and daughter of Vishravas. He inherited from his father an invincible trident which had been presented to him by Shiva. He was surprised without his weapon and killed by Shatru-ghna. Lavana was king of Mathura and Shatru-ghna succeeded him.

Lavanga: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Caryophillus aromaticus, commonly known as the clove.

Lava: (sáns. hindú). One of the twin sons of Rama and Sita. He reigned at Shravasti. See Rama.

Likhita: (sáns. hindú). A uthor of a Dharma-sastra or code of law.

Lilavati: (sáns. hindú). 1. Charming. 2. The fanciful title of a chapter on arithmetic and geometry in Bhaskara's Siddhanta-shiromani.

Linga: (sáns. hindú). 1. The male genital organ (the penis). A phallic symbol under which Shiva is universally worshipped. It is unknown to the Vedas, but it received distinct notice in the Mahabharata. "The emblem-a plain column of stone, or sometimes a cone of plastic mud-suggests no offensive ideas. The people call it Shiva or Maha-deva." In the Shivapurana, and in the Nandi Upa-purana, Shiva is made to say, "I am omnipresent, but I am especially in twelve forms and places." These are the twelve great Lingas, which are as follows: 1) Soma-natha, "Lord of the moon." At Somnath Pattan, a city in Guzerat. This was the celebrated "idol" destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. 2) Mallikarjuna or Sri-saila. "The mountain of Sri," on a mountain near the river Krishna. 3) Maha-kala, Maha-kalesvara. At Ujjain.

Upon the capture of Ujjain in the reign of Altsmah, 1231 CE this deity of stone was carried to Delhi and there broken up. 4) Omkara. This is also said to have been at Ujjain, but it is probably the Shrine of Maha-deva at Omkara Mandhatta, on the Narmada. 5) Amaresvara "God of Gods." This is also placed at Ujjain. 6) Vaidya-natha "Lord of physicians." At Deogarh in Bengal. The temple remains a place of pilgrimage. 7) Ramesa or Ramesvara "Lord of Rama." On the island of Ramisseram, between the continent and Sri Lanka. This Lingam, whose name signifies "Rama's lord," is believed by many to have been set up by Rama. The temple is still one of the most magnificent in India. 8) Bhima Sankara. In Dakini. This is in all probability the same with Bhimeshvara, a Lingam worshipped at Dracharam, in the Rajamahendri (Rajamundry) district, and there venerated as one of the twelve. 9) Visvesvara "Lord of all." At Benares. It has been for many centuries the chief object of worship at Benares. Also called Jyotir-lingam. 10) Tryambaka, Tryaksha, "Tri-ocular."

On the banks of the Gomati. 11) Gautamesa. "Lord of Gautama." 12) Kedaresa, Kedara-natha. In the Himalaya. The deity is represented as a shapeless mass of rock. Naga-natha or Naga-nathesha and Vameshvara are other names, probably of No. 6 and No. 11.

Lingapurana: (sáns. hindú). "Where Maheshvara (Shiva), present in the Agni Linga, explained [the objects of life], virtue, wealth, pleasure, and final liberation, at the end of the Agni Kalpa, that Purana, consisting of 11,000 stanzas, was called the Linga by Brahma himself." The work conforms accurately enough to this description. Wilson claims that, "Although the Linga holds a prominent place in this Purana, the spirit of the worship is as little influenced by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity: it is all mystical and spiritual. The work has preserved, apparently, some Shaiva legends of an early date, but the greater part is ritual and mysticism of comparatively recent introduction." It is not likely that this Purana is earlier than the eighth or ninth century CE.

Lodha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra. See Lodhra.

Lodhra: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for Symplocus racemosa.

Loha-mukhas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Iron-faced men. 2. Beings described in the Mahabharata as swift, one-footed, undecaying, strong men-eaters.

Loha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for iron.

Loka-palas: (sáns. hindú). Supporters or guardians of the world. The guardian deities who preside over the eight points of the compass, ie., the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass: 1) Indra, east; 2) Agni,south-east; 3) Yama, south; 4) Surya, south-west; 5) Varuna, west; 6) Vayu, north-west; 7) Kuvera, north; 8) Soma, north-east. Nirriti is by some substituted for No. 4, and Prithivi or Shiva, especially in his form Ishana, for No. 8. Each of these guardian deities has an elephant who takes part in the defence and protection of the quarter, and these eight elephants are themselves called Loka-palas: 1) Indra's elephant at the east is Airavata.

He is also called Abhra-matanga, "elephant of the clouds"; Arkasodara, "brother of the sun"; Naga-malla, "the fighting elephant"; Sada-dana, "always in rut"; Madambara, "covered with ichor". His wife's name is Abhramu. 2) Agni's elephant at the south-east is Pundarika and his female Kapila. 3) Yama's at the south is Vamana and his female Pingala. 4) Surya's at the south-west is Kumuda and his female is Anupama. 5) Varuna's at the west is Anjana, whose female is Anjanavati. 6) Vayu's at the north-west is Pushpa-danta, whose female is Shubha-danti. 7) Kuvera's at the north is Sarva-bhauma; and 8) Soma's elephant at the north-east is Su-pratika. The two other females are Anjana and Tamra-karni, whose spouses are doubtful. Anjanavati is sometimes assigned to Su-pratika. In the Ramayana 1) Indra's eastern elephant is called Virupaksha; 2) Varuna's elephant at the west, Saumanasa; 3) Yama's at the south is Maha-padma, and 4) Kuvera's at the north is Hima-pandara.

Lokaloka: (sáns. hindú). 1. A world and no world. 2. A fabulous belt of mountains bounding the outermost of the seven seas and dividing the visible world from the regions of darkness. It is "ten thousand yojanas in breadth, and as many in height, and beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountains all around, which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of an egg." It is called also Chakra-vada or Chakra-vala.

Loka: (sáns. hindú). A world, a division of the universe. In general the tri-loka or three worlds are heaven, earth, and hell. Another classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions, also seven in number which are classed under Patala. The upper worlds are: 1) Bhur-loka, the earth. 2) Bhuvar-loka, the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the Munis, Siddhas, et al. 3) Svar-loka, the heaven of Indra, between the sun and the polar star. 4) Mahar-loka, the usual abode of Bhrigu and other saints, who are supposed to be co-existent with Brahma. During the conflagration of these lower worlds the saints ascend to the next, or 5) Jana-loka, which is described as the abode of Brahma's sons, Sanaka, Sananda, and Sanat-kumara Above this is the 6) Tapar-loka, where the deities called Vairagis reside. 7) Satya-loka or Brahma-loka, is the abode of Brahma, and translation to this world exempts beings from further birth. The first three worlds are destroyed at the end of each kalpa or day of Brahma; the last three at the end of his life, or of a hundred of his years; the fourth loka is equally permanent, but is uninhabitable from heat at the time the first three are burning.

Another enumeration calls the seven worlds earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place of birth, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth; placing the sons of Brahma in the sixth division, and stating the fifth, or Jana-loka, to be that where animals destroyed in the general conflagration are born again. The Sankhya and Vedanta schools of philosophy recognize eight lokas or regions of material existence: 1) Brahma-loka, the world of the superior deities; 2) Pitri-loka, that of the Pitris, Rishis, and Prajapatis; 3) Soma-loka, of the moon and planets; 4) Indra-loka, of the subordinate deities; 5) Gandharva-loka, of heavenly spirits; 6) Rakshasa-loka, of the Rakshasas; 7) Yaksha-loka, of the Yakshas; 8) Pishacha-loka, of the Pishachas or imps and fiends.

Loma-harshana or Roma-harshana: (sáns. hindú). A bard who first gave forth the Puranas.

Loma-pada or Roma-pada: (sáns. hindú). A king of Anga, chiefly remarkable for his connection with Rishya-Sringa.

Lopamudra: (sáns. hindú). A girl whom the sage Agastya formed from the most graceful parts of different animals and secretly introduced into the palace of the king of Vidarbha, where the child was believed to be the daughter of the king.

Agastya had made this girl with the object of having a wife after his own heart, and when she was marriageable he demanded her hand The king was loath to consent, but was obliged to yield, and she became the wife of Agastya. Her name is explained as signifying that the animals suffered loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive beauties (mudra), as the eyes of the deer, etc. She is also called Kaushitaki and Vara-prada. A hymn in the Rigveda is attributed to her.

Lusha: (sáns. hindú). A favorite of Indra.


Mada: (sáns. hindú). "Intoxication." 1. Described in the Mahabharata as "a fearful open-mouthed monster, created by the sage Chyavana, having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth and the other the sky," who got Indra and the other gods into his jaws "like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster." 2. The Vedas, at times, use mada to indicate delight, rapturous joy.

Madanashini: (sáns. hindú). (mada "pride" + nashini "destroyer") 1. The destroyer of pride. 2. A name of the Divine Mother.

Madara: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See arka.

Madasinghi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for ginger.

Madayanti: (sáns. hindú). Wife of King Saudasa or Kalmashapada. She was allowed to consort with the sage Vasishtha. According to some this was a meritorious act on the kings part and a favor to Vasishtha; according to others it was for the sake of obtaining progeny. See Kalmashapada.

Madayantika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for henna.

Madha Sringi: (sáns. hindú). See Madasinghi.

Madhava: (sáns. hindú). 1. A celebrated scholar and religious teacher. He was a native of Tuluva, and became prime minister of Vira Bukka Raya, king of the great Hindu state of Vijaya-nagara, who lived in the fourteenth century. He was brother of Sayana, the author of a great commentary on the Veda, in which work Madhava himself is believed to have shared. Wilson observed, "Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important works are attributed to them; not only scholia on the Sanhitas and Brahmanas of the Vedas, but original works on grammar and law; the fact no doubt being that they availed themselves of those means which their situation and influence secured them, and employed the most learned Brahmans they could attract to Vijayanagara upon the works which bear their names and to which they contributed their own labor and learning; their works were therefore compiled under peculiar advantages, and are deservedly held in the highest estimation." Among the works of Madhava are the Sarva-darshana-sangraha and the Sankshepa Sankara-vijaya. Madhava was a worshipper of Vishnu, and as a religious philosopher he held the doctrine of dvaita (dualism), according to which the supreme soul of the universe and the human soul are distinct.

Thus he was opposed to the teaching of Shankaracarya, who was a follower of Shiva, and upheld the Vedanta doctrine of advaita (no duality), according to which God and soul, spirit and matter, are all one. 2. A name of Krishna or Vishnu.

Madhavacharya: (sáns. hindú). See Madhava.

Madhavan: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Lord of Lakshmi. 2. The Lord of knowledge. 3. Vishnu's 72 nd , 167 th and 735 th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Madhavi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Honeyed. 2. Spring flower. 3. Mother Earth. 4. A name of Durga. 5. A name of Lakshmi. 6. A term used in the Kama Sutra for fig liquor.

Madhu: (sáns. hindú). 1. A demon slain by Krishna (See Kaitabha). 2. Another, or the same demon, said to have been killed by Shatrughna. 3. A term used in the Kama Sutra for honey.

Madhu Candas: (sáns. hindú). A son of Visvamitra, who had fifty sons older and fifty younger than this one; but they are spoken of as "a hundred sons." He is the reputed author of some hymns of the Rigveda.

Madhuka: (sáns. hindú). 1. A term used in the Kama Sutra for Madhuca latifolia or Cassia latifolia. Commonly known as the wild fig. 2. See Madhulika.

Madhukakalka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for licorice paste.

Madhukasha: (sáns. hindú). Described in the Atharvaveda as "the brilliant granddaughter of the Maruts, the mother of the Adityas, the daughter of the Vasus, the life of creatures, and the center of immortality." She "sprang from the sky, the earth, the air, the sea, fire, and wind"; and it is added, "all creatures, worshipping her who dwells in immortality, rejoice in their hearts."

Madhulika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for fruit.

Madhuprita: (sáns. hindú). She who is fond of wine. An epithet of Devi. The 510th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Madhura: (sáns. hindú). Honeyed or sweet.

Madhuraniruddha: (sáns. hindú). A drama in eight acts by Shayani Chandra Shekhara. It is a relatively modern work.

Madhuri: (sáns. hindú). Honeyed, or sweet.

Madhusudana: (sáns. hindú). (madhu "name of a demon" + sudana "slayer") 1. The slayer of the demon Madhu. 2. Vishnu's 73rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Madhu (tamas) and Kaitabha (rajas) were two demons who stole the Vedas from Brahma and were killed by Vishnu. 3. A name of Krishna.

Madhuvidya: (sáns. hindú). Knowledge of Soma.

Madhya: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi.

Madhyadesha: (sáns. hindú). The middle country, described by Manu as "the tract situated between the Himavat and the Vindhya ranges to the east of Vinashana and to the west of Prayaga (Allahabad)." Another authority makes it the Doab.

Madhyandina: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic school, a subdivision of the Vajasaneyi school, and connected with the Shatapatha Brahmana It had its own system of astronomy, and obtained its name from making noon (madhyadina) the starting point of the planetary movements.

Madhyusudana: (sáns. hindú). Slayer of Madhu. A name of Krishna.

Madintamayajna: (sáns. hindú). A sacrifice that gives intense joy.

Madira: (sáns. hindú). A name of Varuni, wife of Varuna, and goddess of wine.

Madra: (sáns. hindú). Name of a country and people to the northwest of Hindustan. Its capital was Shakala, and the territory extended from the Biyas to the Cinab. According to some, Madra extended far as the Jhilam.

Madri: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sister of the king of the Madras, and second wife of Pandu, to whom she bore twin-sons, Nakula and Sahadeva; but the Ashvins are alleged to have been their real father. She became a sati on the funeral pile of her hushand. 2. The name of one of Krishna's wives.

Magadha: (sáns. hindú). The country of South Bihar.

Magha: (sáns. hindú). 1.The month from mid-January to mid-February. 2. Name of a Nakshatra (star). 3. Sometimes the name given to the wife of the moon. 4. A lunar mansion. 5. A poet, son of Dattaka, and author of one of the great artificial poems called, from is subject, Shishupalabadha or, at times, from its author, Maghakavya.

Maghavan: (sáns. hindú). Lord of Bounty. This name is sometimes used forIndra.

Maghavans: (sáns. hindú). Worthy men, nobles, institutors of sacrifice.

Maghavat: (sáns. hindú). A name of Indra.

Magundi: (sáns. hindú). The name of a mystical being. Magundi's daughters are female demons.

Mahabala: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + bala "powerful") 1. The highly powerful. 2. The Almighty. 3. Vishnu's 172 nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Mahabali: (sáns. hindú). A title of the dwarf Bali, whose city is called Mahabalipura, which name is applied to the Tamil "Mamallaipura," or Seven Pagodas near Madra. See Bali.

Mahabharata: (sáns. hindú). The great (war of the) Bharatas. The great epic poem of the Hindus, probably the longest in the world. It is divided into eighteen parvas or books, and contains about 220,000 lines. The poem has been subjected to much modification and has received numerous comparatively modern additions, but many of its legends and stories are of Vedic character and of great antiquity. They seem to have long existed in a scattered state, and to have been brought together at different times. Upon them have been founded many of the poems and dramas of later days, and among them is the story of Rama, upon which the Ramayana itself may have been based. According to Hindu authorities, they were finally arranged and reduced to writing by a Brahman or Brahmans. There is a good deal of mystery about this, for the poem is attributed to a divine source. The reputed author was Krishna Dvaipayana, the Vyasa, or arranger, of the Vedas. He is said to have taught the poem to his pupil Vaishampayana, who afterwards recited it at a festival to King Janamejaya. The leading subject of the poem is the great war between the Kauravas and Pandavas, who were descendants, through Bharata, from Puru, the great ancestor of one branch of the Lunar race. The object of the great struggle was the kingdom whose capital was Hastinapura (elephant city), the ruins of which are traceable fifty-seven miles northeast of Delhi, on an old bed of the Ganges. The following is a short description of the eighteen books of the Mahabharata. 1. Adiparva, "Introductory book."

Describes the genealogy of the two families, the birth and nurture of Dhritarashtra and Pandu, their marriages, the births of the hundred sons of the former and the five of the latter, the enmity and rivalry between the young princes of the two branches, and the winning of Draupadi at the svayamvara. 2. Sabhaparva, "Assembly book." The assembly of the princes at Hastinapura when Yudhishthira lost his kingdom and the Pandavas had to retire into exile. 3. Vanaparva, "Forest chapter." The life of the Pandavas in the Kamyaka forest. This book is one of the longest and contains many episodes. Among them is the story of Nala, and an outline of the story of the Ramayana. 4. Virataparva, "Virata chapter." Adventures of the Pandavas in the thirteenth year of their exile, while they were in the service of King Virata. 5. Udyogaparva, "Effort book." The preparations of both sides for war. 6. Bhishmaparva, "Book of Bhishma." The battles fought while Bhishma commanded the Kaurava army. 7. Dronaparva, "The Book of Drona." Drona's command of the Kaurava army. 8. Karnaparva, "Book of Karna." Karna's command and his death at the hands of Arjuna. 9. Salyaparva, "Book of Salya." Salya's command, in which Duryodhana is mortally wounded and only three Kauravas are left alive.

10. Sauptikaparva, "Nocturnal book." The night attack of the three surviving Kauravas on the Pandava camp. 11. Striparva, "Book of the women." The lamentations of Queen Gandhari and the women over the slain. 12. Santiparva, "Book of consolation." A long and diffuse didactic discourse by Bhishma on the morals and duties of kings, intended to assuage the grief of Yudhishthira. 13. Anushasanaparva, "Book of precepts." A continuation of Bhishma's discourses and his death. 14 Ashvamedhikaparva, "Book of the Ashvamedha." Yudhishthira's performance of the horse sacrifice. 15. Ashramaparva, "Book of the hermitage." The retirement of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari, and Kunti to a hermitage in the woods, and their death in a forest fire. 16. Mausalaparva, "Book of the clubs." The death of Krishna and Balarama, the submersion of Dvaraka by the sea, and the mutual destruction of the Yadavas in a fight with clubs (musala) of miraculous origin. 17. Mahaprasthanikaparva, "Book of the great journey."

Yudhishthira's abdication of the throne, and his departure with his brothers towards the Himalayas on their way to Indra's heaven on Mount Meru. 18. Svargarohanaparva, "Book of the ascent to heaven." Entrance into heaven of Yudhishthira, his brothers, and of his wife Draupadi. The Harivansha, detailing the genealogy, birth, and life of Krishna at great length, is a supplement of much later date.

Mahabhashya: (sáns. hindú). A commentary by Patanjali on the Grammar of Panini, in answer to the criticisms of Katyayana.

Mahabhoja: (sáns. hindú). See Bhoja

Mahabuddhi: (sáns. hindú). She who is great intelligence. An epithet of Devi. The 223rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Mahacinatara: (sáns. hindú). A fierce form of Tara which is also known as Ugratara. Mahacinatara is described in both Buddhist and Hindu writings. She is described as standing in the Pratyalidha attitude with a mala (garland) of heads hanging from her neck. She is short and terrible looking with terrible looks and has a protruding belly. She has three eyes and her complexion is similar to that of a blue lotus. She laughs horribly.

Mahadeva: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + deva "god") 1. The great God. 2. Shiva. 3. Vishnu's 491st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Mahadeva: (sáns. hindú). The great god. A name of Shiva. One of the Rudras.

Mahadevi: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + devi "goddess") 1. A name of Devi, the wife of Shiva. See Devi. 2. A name of Parvati. 3. A name of Lakshmi.

Mahagrasa: (sáns. hindú). She who is a great devourer. An epithet of Devi. The 752nd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Mahajit: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + jit "conquering") 1. The great conqueror. 2. A name of Garuda.

Mahakala: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + kala "time") 1. A name of Shiva in his destructive character. (See Shiva.) 2. One of the twelve great Lingas. (See Linga.) 3. In the caves of Elephanta this form of Shiva is represented with eight arms. In one hand he holds a human figure; in another, a sword or sacrificial axe; in a third, a basin of blood; in a fourth, the sacrificial bell; with two he is drawing behind him the veil which extinguishes the sun; and two are broken off. 4) Chief of the Ganas or attendants on Shiva.

Mahakali: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + kali "dark, black") 1. The great Black Goddess; a name of Kali. 2. Lakshmi.

Mahakalpa: (sáns. hindú). Great cycle of time. See kalpa.

Mahakanta: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + kanta "pleasing") 1. The greatly pleasing. 2. A name of Shiva.

Mahakavyas: (sáns. hindú). Great poems. Six are classified under this title: 1. Raghuvansa; 2. Kumarasambhava; 3. Meghaduta; 4. Kiratarjuniya; 5. Shishupalabadha; 6. Naishadhacharitra.

Mahalakshmi: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + lakshmi "goddess of wealth and beauty") The great Goddess of wealth and beauty.

Mahamatrikas: (sáns. hindú). Great mothers. A story is told of the wives of six sages who were accused of being the mothers of Karttikeya. The sages divorced their wives on the grounds of adultery and they in turn went to Karttikeya and asked him to adopt them as his mothers. Karttikeya accepted their proposal and asked if they had other requests. In reply to his question they asked two more favors; first, they asked that they be recognized throughout the world as goddesses; and second, they asked that they be able to live off the children of men because they had been cheated out of the opportunity to have children of their own. Karttikeya was greatly troubled by their request to harm and devour children and asked them to protect children instead of harming them.

The Mahamatrikas agreed to protect children; however, in the closing lines of Karttikeya's remarks he stated that they could torment children until they became sixteen years old. He also told the mothers that they would have a violent nature that would never end.

Mahamaya: (sáns. hindú). See Maya.

Mahamoha: (sáns. hindú). The great delusion. An epithet of Durga.

Mahan: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Great One. 2. Vishnu's 842nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Mahanamni: (sáns. hindú). Nine verses of the Samaveda beginning with the words vida maghavan.

Mahanata: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + nata "dancer") The great actor or dancer, a name of Shiva.

Mahanataka: (sáns. hindú). The great drama. The Hanumannataka.

Mahanavami: (sáns. hindú). The ninth tithi (lunar day) of the bright half of Ashvin which is the last day of the Durga Puja.

Mahaniya: (sáns. hindú). The glorious or praiseworthy.

Mahapadma: (sáns. hindú). A great number.

Mahapadma Nanda: (sáns. hindú). The last of the Nanda dynasty. See Chandragupta.

Mahapralaya: (sáns. hindú). A total dissolution of the universe at the end of a kalpa, when the seven lokas and their inhabitants, men, saints, gods, and Brahma himself, are annihilated. Called also Jahanaka, Kshiti, and Sanhara.

Mahapujya: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + pujya "worshipful") The great or most worshipful.

Mahapuranas: (sáns. hindú). The great Puranas. The Vishnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana, the two great Puranas of the Vaishnavas.

Mahapurusha: (sáns. hindú). The great or supreme male; the supreme spirit. A name of Vishnu.

Mahar: (sáns. hindú). See Vyahriti.

Maharaj(a): (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + raja "king") The great king.

Maharajikas: (sáns. hindú). A Gana or class of subordinate deities, 236 or 220 in number.

Maharajni: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + rajni "queen") The great queen.

Maharani: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + rani "queen") The great queen.

Maharashtra: (sáns. hindú). The land of the Mahrattas.

Maharloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.

Maharshi: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + rishi "seer") 1. Great Rishis. The great Rishis or Prajapatis. See Rishi. 2. A name of God, meaning Ishvara who sees the whole Vedic lore. 3. One who has realized the supreme Self.

Maharupa: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + rupa "form") Having a mighty form; a name of Shiva.

Mahasana: (sáns. hindú). She who is a great dater. An epithet of Devi. The 753rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Mahasattva: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + sattva "having a tranquil mind") The great minded.

Mahasena: (sáns. hindú). The great captain. A name of Kartikeya, god of war.

Mahashakti: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + shakti "energy, power") 1. Having great power. 2. A name of the Divine Mother. 3. Vishnu's 175th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Mahasuri: (sáns. hindú). The great demoness. An epithet of Durga.

Mahat: (sáns. hindú). Intellectual or intellectual principle.

Mahatattva: (sáns. hindú). The great principle.

Mahati: (sáns. hindú). She who is great.

Mahatman: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + Atman "Self, mind") 1. The great Self; a name of God. 2. The great-minded; a name for sages.

Mahatmya: (sáns. hindú). Magnanimity. A legend of a Shrine or other holy place.

Mahatnu: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic river.

Mahavani: (sáns. hindú). Possessing great speech. An epithet of Sarasvati.

Mahavidya: (sáns. hindú). She who is great and auspicious knowledge. An epithet of Devi. The 584th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Mahavidyas: (sáns. hindú). Great revelations or manifestations but may be considered as objects of transcendental knowledge. A group of ten goddesses of late Hindu tradition. Even though the Mahavidyas are a group, some of the goddesses, such as Kali, occupy an important individual status in much earlier tradition than does the group as a whole. All ten of the Mahavidyas are depicted in temples of goddesses throughout India. When they are installed as a group, the individual goddesses within the group are not revered but are installed as such to indicate that the goddess to whom the temple is dedicated takes on many forms. It has been surmised that the Mahavidyas are a Shakta version of Vishnu's ten avataras; however, this theory is much too simplistic because the Mahavidyas differ greatly from the avataras in their function and definitely in their appearance. The names of the ten are; Kali, Tara, Chinnamasta, Bhuvaneshvari, Bagala, Dhumavati, Kamala, Matangi, Shodashi, and Bhairavi. See the individual entries for further information.

Mahavira: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + vira "virility, strength") 1. The great hero. 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. A name of Garuda. 4. A name of Hanuman for having jumped over the ocean and put fire to Ravana's city in Sri Lanka. 5. A sacrificial caldron.

Mahavira Carita: (sáns. hindú). The exploits of the great hero (Rama). A drama by Bhavabhuti.

Mahavirendravarada: (sáns. hindú). She who grants boons to great warriors. An epithet of Devi. The 493rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Mahavishnormatri: (sáns. hindú). Mother of Vishnu. A name of Radha.

Mahayogi: (sáns. hindú). The great ascetic. A name of Shiva.

Mahayuga: (sáns. hindú). A great Yuga or age, consisting of 4,320,000 years. See Yuga.

Mahendra: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + indra "chief") 1. The great Indra; a name of Indra. 2. The chief. 3. Vishnu's 268th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. One of the seven mountain ranges of India; the hills which run from Gondvana to Orissa and the Northern Circars. See Kulaparvatas.

Mahendrani: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + indrani "consort of the chief") The great consort of Indra; a name of Shaci.

Mahesha: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + isha "lord") The great Lord; a name of Shiva.

Maheshvara: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + ishvara "lord, ruler") 1. The great Lord. 2. Shiva. 3. Vishnu.

Maheshvarapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.

Maheshvari: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") 1. The great sovereign Goddess. 2. A name of Durga, the shakti of Shiva who was made manifest to aid Devi in a battle against the demons Shumbha and Nishumbha. For further details see Brahmani. In the Varahapurana, Maheshvari is attributed with the emotion of anger. 3. A Matrika.

Mahi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Greatly, exceedingly. 2. A Vedic goddess that is identified with the sacrificial cult of the Rigveda and usually grouped with Sarasvati. She is usually invoked to take a seat on the sacred grass prior to the ritual. 3. Earth. An epithet of Devi. The 718th name in the Lalita Sahasranama. 4. A name of the Earth-Goddess.

Mahidhara: (sáns. hindú). (mahi "earth-goddess" + dhara "bearer") 1. The earth-bearer. 2. Vishnu's 317 th and 369th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A celebrated commentator on the Vajasaneyi Samhita.

Mahinasa: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva.

Mahinatha: (sáns. hindú). (mahi "earth-goddess" + natha "lord, master") 1. The Lord of the earth. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Mahipala: (sáns. hindú). (mahi "earth-goddess" + pala "protector") 1. The earth-protector. 2. A name of a king.

Mahisha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The great Asura or demon killed by Skanda in the Mahabharata. (See Krauncha.) 2. A demon killed by Canda or Durga.

Mahishamardini: (sáns. hindú). (mahisha "name of a demon + mardini "destroyer, crusher") The destroyer or crusher of the demon Mahisha; a name of Durga.

Mahishasura: (sáns. hindú). See Mahisha.

Mahishmati: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Kartavirya, king of the Talajanghas, who had a thousand arms. It has been identified by some with the village of Chuli Maheshvar, which is still called "the village of the thousand-armed."

Mahisura: (sáns. hindú). (mahi "earth-goddess" + sura "god") 1. The earthly god. 2. A general name for Brahmanas, or wise men.

Mahita: (sáns. hindú). The honored or celebrated.

Mahiya: (sáns. hindú). Joyousness or happiness.

Mahoa: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See madhuka.

Mahodara: (sáns. hindú). (maha "great" + udara "high") The great and high.

Mahodaya: (sáns. hindú). A name of the city of Kanauj.

Mahoraga: (sáns. hindú). (Maha "great" + uraga "serpent") The serpent Shesha or any other great serpent.

Maidhava: (sáns. hindú). The son of the wise (i.e. of a Medhavin).

Mainaka: (sáns. hindú). A mountain, according to the Mahabharata, is north of Kailasa; so called as being the son of Himavat and Menaka. When, as the poets sing, Indra clipped the wings of the mountains, this is said to have been the only one which escaped. This mountain, according to some, stands in Central India, and, according to others, near the extremity of the Peninsula.

Maireya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for liquor.

Maithili: (sáns. hindú). The Princess of Mithila; a name of Sita who was the daughter of King Janaka of Mithila.

Maithuna: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for copulation. Maithuna is an important Tantric ritual used for the energizing of the Shakta and for transferring knowledge.

Maitra: (sáns. hindú). Friendly, amiable.

Maitravaruna: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda, one of sixteen priests engaged in solemn sacrifices.

Maitrayani: (sáns. hindú). See Maitri.

Maitreya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The friendly. 2. Name of a sage who, though instructed by Parashara, went to Shiva for receiving direct knowledge of Truth. This teaching is revealed in the Maitreya Upanishad of the Samaveda, which is one among the seventeen Sannyasa Upanishads.

Maitreya: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi, son of Kusharava, and disciple of Parashara. He is one of the interlocutors in the Vishnupurana and Bhagavatapurana.

Maitreyi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The friendly. 2. The name of the more spiritual of the sage Yajnavalkya's two wives. He taught her Self-knowledge before he entered into Sannyasa. In the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad he says to her, "It is not for the sake of all, my dear Maitreyi, that all is loved, but for the sake of the Self (Atman). The Self should be heard, reflected and deeply meditated upon. then one becomes all."

Maitri: (sáns. hindú). A Upanishad of the Black Yajurveda.

Maitri: (sáns. hindú). Friendliness or benevolence. See the Yogasatras I:33.

Maji: (sáns. hindú). (short for Mataji "respected Mother") The Mother.

Makandi: (sáns. hindú). Aity on the Ganges, the capital of Southern Panchala .

Makara: (sáns. hindú). A huge sea animal, which has been thought to be the crocodile, the shark, the dolphin, etc., but is probably a fabulous animal. It represents the sign Capricornus in the Hindu zodiac, and is depicted with the head and forelegs of an antelope and the body and tail of a fish. It is the vehicle of Varuna the god of the ocean, and its figure is displayed on the banner of Kamadeva, god of love. It is also called Kantaka, Asitadanshtra. "black teeth," and Jalarupa, "water form."

Makaras: (sáns. hindú). The five M's. See Tantra.

Makha: (sáns. hindú). Griffith translates this word, as it is used in the Rigveda, as a demon.

Makhavat: (sáns. hindú). A name of Indra.

Mala: (sáns. hindú). 1. Garland of flowers. 2. A rosary.

Malaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Raphorus sativus.

Malakanguni: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See shravana priyangu.

Malati: (sáns. hindú). 1. A term used in the Kama Sutra for jasmine or a jasmine blossoming in the evening.. 2. The heroine of Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava, an early eighth-century drama. See Malatimadhava.

Malati Madhava: (sáns. hindú). A drama about Malati and Madhava by Bhavabhuti.

Malatimadhava: (sáns. hindú). An early eighth-century drama by Bhavabhuti. See Camunda.

Malava: (sáns. hindú). The country of Malva.

Malavikagnimitra: (sáns. hindú). A drama about Malavika and Agnimitra ascribed to Kalidasa.

Malaya: (sáns. hindú). The country of Malabar proper; the mountains bordering Malabar. See Kulaparvatas.

Malika: (sáns. hindú). Jasmine.

Malinamukha: (sáns. hindú). Black faced. Rakshasas and other demons, represented as having black faces.

Malini: (sáns. hindú). 1. A goddess from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, who was born from the child Karttikeya (with a host of others), when Indra struck him with his thunderbolt. The group of goddesses were adopted by Karttikeya as his mothers. 2. Having a garland. 3. Surrounded with a garland (mala) of Campa trees. A name of the city of Campa.

Mallika: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Jasminum sambac. Commonly known as jasmine.

Mallikarjuna: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva. One of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga.

Mallinatha: (sáns. hindú). A poet, and author of commentaries of great repute on several of the great poems, as the Raghuvansa, Meghaduta, Shishupalabadha, etc.

Malya: (sáns. hindú). Worthy to be garlanded.

Mamata: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Ucathya.

Mamateya: (sáns. hindú). Dirghatamas, son of Mamata.

Mana: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Agastya in the Rigveda. 2. Griffith translates this word, as it is used in the Rigveda, as two chains or rings.

Manakosha: (sáns. hindú). One of the five bodily sheaths that envelope the soul.

Manan: (sáns. hindú). Reflection, cognation, understanding elemental knowledge as a faculty connected with the senses.

Manas: (sáns. hindú). Spirit, mind.

Manasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sister of the serpent king Shesha, and wife of the sage Jaratkaru. She is also called Jagadgauri, Nitya (eternal), and Padmavati. She had special power in counteracting the venom of serpents, and was hence called Vishahara. 2. The lake Manasa in the Himalayas. In the Vayupurana it is stated that when the ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times around the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Arunoda on the east, Sitoda on the west, Mahabhadra on the north, and Manasa on the south. According to the mythological account; the river Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this lake, though the river Satlej flows from another and larger lake called Ravanabrada, which lies close to the west of Manasa.

3. The intellectual. 4. A name of the supreme being. Thus defined in the Mahabharata: "The primeval god, without beginning or dissolution, indivisible, undecaying, and immortal, who is known and called by great Rishis Manasa." 5. A Vedic Rishi. 6. The mental or spiritual; a name of Parvati.

Manasaprema: (sáns. hindú). (manasa "mental" + prema "divine love") A mind filled with divine love.

Manasaputras: (sáns. hindú). Mind (born) sons. The seven or ten mind-born sons of Brahma. See Prajapati.

Manashila: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for red arsenic.

Manastala: (sáns. hindú). The lion on which Devi rides.

Manava Dharma Shastra: (sáns. hindú). The code of Manu. See Manu Samhita.

Manava Kalpa Sutra: (sáns. hindú). Manu's work on Vaidic rites.

Manavapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.

Manavi: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Manu. Also called Manayi.

Manayu: (sáns. hindú). The devoted.

Mandakarni: (sáns. hindú). A sage who dwelled in the Dandaka forest, and is said in the Ramayana to have formed a lake which was known by his name. His austerities alarmed the gods, and Indra sent five Apsarasas to beguile him from his penance of "standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000 years." They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was called Panchapsaras.

Mandakini: (sáns. hindú). 1. Flowing slowly. 2. The heavenly Ganges; The Milky Way. 3. The Ganges. An arm of the Ganges which flows through Kedaranatha. A river near the mountain Citrakuta in Bundelkhand. It was near the abode of Rama and Sita, and is mentioned both in the Ramayana and Mahabharata. Some believe it to be the modern Pisuni.

Mandala: (sáns. hindú). A circle. A circuit or territorial division, as Cholamandala, i.e. Coromandel. According to one arrangement, the Sanhita of the Rigveda is divided into ten Mandalas.

Mandalanritya: (sáns. hindú). A ircular dance. The dance of the Gopis around Krishna and Radha.

Mandapala: (sáns. hindú). A hildless saint who, according to the Mahabharata, after long perseverance in devotion and asceticism, died and went to the abode of Yama. His desires being still unsatisfied he inquired the cause, and was told that all his devotions had failed because he had no son, no putra (put, "hell," tra, "drawer"), to save him from hell. He then assumed the form of a species of bird called Sharngika, and by a female of that species, who was called Jarita, he had four sons.

Mandara: (sáns. hindú). 1. The coral tree. 2. One of the five celestial wish-fulfilling trees. 3. The great mountain which the gods used for the churning of the ocean. It is supposed to be the mountain so named in Bhagalpur, which is held sacred. See Kurmaavatara, under Avatara. 4. A term used in the Kama Sutra. See arka.

Mandarya: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic bard.

Mandavi: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Kushadhvaja, cousin of Sita, and wife of Rama's brother Bharata.

Mandayanti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Delighting or rejoicing. 2. A name of Durga.

Mandehas: (sáns. hindú). A lass of terrific Rakshasas, who were hostile to the sun and endeavored to devour him.

Mandhatar: (sáns. hindú). A name of a royal Vedic Rishi.

Mandhatri: (sáns. hindú). A king, son of Yuvanashva, of the race of Ikshvaku, and author of a hymn in the Rigveda. The Harivansha and some of the Puranas make Mandhatri to have been born in a natural way from his mother Gauri, but the Vishnupurana and Bhagavatapurana tell an extraordinary story about his birth, which is probably based upon a forced derivation of his name.

Yuvanashva had no son, which grieved him much. Some holy sages near whom he lived instituted a religious rite to procure progeny for him. One night they placed a consecrated vessel of water upon an altar as part of their ceremony and the water became endowed with prolific energy. Yuvanashva woke up in the night thirsty, and finding the water, he drank it. So he conceived, and in due time a child came forth from his right side. The sages then asked who would suckle the child, whereupon Indra appeared, gave his finger for the child to suck, and said, "He shall suck me," mam ayam dhasyati. These words were contracted, and the boy was named Mandhatri.

When he grew up he had three sons and fifty daughters. An old sage named Saubhari came to Mandhatri and asked that one might be given him to wife.

Unwilling to give one to such an old and emaciated a man, but yet afraid to refuse, the king hesitated, but at length yielded to the sage's request that the matter might be left to the choice of the girls. Saubhari then assumed a handsome form, and there was such a contention for him that he had to marry the whole fifty, and he provided for them a row of crystal palaces in a most beautiful garden.

Mandodari: (sáns. hindú). (manda "slight" + udari "bellied") The name of Ravana's favorite wife and the mother of Indrajit who was a chaste woman. She advised Ravana to return Sita to Rama but he refused.

Mandu: (sáns. hindú). The joyous.

Mandukeya: (sáns. hindú). 1. A teacher of the Rigveda, who derived his knowledge from his father, Indrapramati. 2. name of a Upanishad.

Mangala: (sáns. hindú). 1. The auspicious. 2. A name of Parvati. 3. A name of Lakshmi. 4. The planet Mars, identified with Kartikeya, the god of war. He was son of Shiva and the Earth, and as son of the Earth is called, Angaraka, Bhauma, Bhumiputra, Mahisuta. He is also called Shivagharmaja, "born of the sweat of Shiva"; Gaganolmuka, "the torch of the sky"; Lohita, "the red"; Navarchi, "the nine-rayed"; Chara, "the spy"; Rinantaka, "ender of debts, patron of debtors." See Kartikeya.

Mani: (sáns. hindú). Jewel or pearl.

Manibhadra: (sáns. hindú). The chief of the Yakshas and guardian of travellers.

Manikkavacakar: (sáns. hindú). A Shaivite saint from Tamilnad who wrote devotional hymns, especially to Parvati.

Manikya: (sáns. hindú). Like a jewel.

Manimat: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa slain by Bhima.

Manipura: (sáns. hindú). 1. The navel. 2. The mystical circle (cakra) of the navel. 3. A city on the sea-coast of Kalinga, where Babhruvahana, the son of Arjuna, dwelt. It has been identified with the modern Munnipur or Muneepore, east of Bengal; but there is no certainty.

Manisha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Desire, wish. 2. Intelligence, understanding. 3. A thought, idea.

Manishin: (sáns. hindú). Learned, intelligent, clever, thoughtful, prudent.

Manjari: (sáns. hindú). Cluster of blossoms.

Manju, Manjula: (sáns. hindú). 1. Beautiful. 2. Sweet.

Manjuman: (sáns. hindú). (manju "beautiful, sweet" + man "having") Having beauty.

Manmatha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Kama, god of love.

Manohara: (sáns. hindú). (manah "mind" + hara "ravisher) 1. The mind-ravisher, or mind captivator. 2. Vishnu's 461st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Manoharini: (sáns. hindú). (manah "mind" + hari "ravisher") 1. The mind-ravisher, or mind-captivator. 2. A name for the Divine Mother.

Manojava: (sáns. hindú). 1. The swiftness (speed) of thought. 2. One of the seven tongues of Agni.

Manojivi: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven tongues of Agni.

Manorama: (sáns. hindú). (manah "mind" + rama "delight") Pleasing or delightful to the mind.

Manthana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The shaker of the universe. 2. A name of Shiva as dissolving the universe at the end of a cosmic cycle.

Manthara: (sáns. hindú). Anugly deformed slave, nurse of Queen Kaikeyi, who stirred up her mistress's jealousy against Ramacandra, and led her to persuade King Dasharatha to banish Rama from court. Shatrughna beat her and threatened to kill her, but she was saved by his brother Bharata.

Mantra: (sáns. hindú). (man "thought" + tra "save") 1. The saving thought. When split into man and tra, this name is explained in the following manner: "Mananat-trayate iti Mantrah," "By whose thinking one is saved, that is mantra, the saving thought." 2. Vishnu's 280th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. That portion of the Veda which consists of hymns, as distinct from the Brahmanas. See Veda.

Mantrini: (sáns. hindú). 1. The knower of mantras. 2. The wise, eloquent, or counselling.

Manu: (sáns. hindú). (From the root man, to think.) This name belongs to fourteen mythological progenitors of mankind and rulers of the earth, each of whom holds sway for the period called a Manvantara (manuantara), the age of a Manu, i.e., a period of no less than 4,320,000 years. The first of these Manus was Svayambhuva, who sprang from Svayambhu, the self-existent. The self-existent, as identified with Brahma the creator, divided himself into two persons, male and female. From this pair was produced the male Viraj, and from him sprang the Manu Svayambhuva. As the acting creator, this Manu produced the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of mankind, called also Maharshis (maharishis). According to another account, this Manu sprang from the incestuous intercourse of Brahma with his daughter and wife, Shatarupa.

Brahma created himself Manu, "born of and identical with his original self, and the female portion of himself he constituted Shatarupa," whom Manu took to wife. The law-book commonly known as Manu is ascribed to this Manu, and so also is a Sutra work on ritual bearing the same name. The Manu of the present age is the seventh, named Vaivasvata, "sun-born," who was the son of Vivasvat (the sun), and he is a Kshatriya by race. He is also called Satyavrata. There are various legends about his having been saved from a great flood by Vishnu or Brahma. The names of the fourteen Manus are: 1) Svayambhuva, 2) Svarochisha, 3) Auttami, 4) Tamasa, 5) Raivata, 6) Chakshusha, 7) Vaivasvata or Satyavrata 8) Savarna, 9) Dakshasavarna, 10) Brahmasavarna, 11) Dharmasavarna, 12) Savarna or Rudrasavarna, 13) Rauchya, 14) Bhautya. The sons of Manu Vaivasvata were: Ikshvaku, Nabhaga or Nriga, Dhrishta, Sharyati, Narishyanta, Pranshu, Nabhaganedishta or Nabhanedishta, Karusha, and Prishadhra. But there is some variety in the names.

Manu Sanhita: (sáns. hindú). The well-known law-book, the Code of Manu, or Institutes of Manu. It is attributed to the first Manu, Svayambhuva, who existed nearly thirty millions of years ago, but it bears the marks of being the production of more than one mind. This is the first and chief of the works classified as Smriti, and is a collection or digest of current laws and creeds rather than a planned systematic code. It is the foundation of Hindu law, and is held in the highest reverence. The work belongs to a period later than that of the Vedas, when the Brahmans had obtained the ascendancy, but its deities are those of the Vedic rather than the Epic or Puranic. It is apparently anterior to the philosophical schools. The fifth century BCE is supposed to be about the time when it was composed, but the rules and precepts it contains had probably existed as traditions long before. It is commonly called the Code of Manu, and was current among the Manavas, a class or school of Brahmans who were followers of the Black Yajurveda; but it deals with many subjects besides law, and is a most important record of the old Hindu society. It is said to have consisted originally of 100,000 verses, arranged in twenty-four chapters; that Narada shortened the work to 12,000 verses; and that Sumati made a second abridgment, reducing it to 4,000, but only 2,685 are extant. It is evident that there was more than one redaction of the laws of the Manavas, for a Brihan or Vrihan Manu, "great Manu," and Vriddha Manu, "old Manu," are often referred to. See Smriti.

Manutara: (sáns. hindú). See Manvantara.

Manvantara: (sáns. hindú). The life or period of a Manu, 4,320,000 years.

Manya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Mana.

Manyamana: (sáns. hindú). A proper name used in the Rigveda.

Manyavati: (sáns. hindú). Honorable; the name of a princess.

Manyu: (sáns. hindú). Passion personified.

Maraka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for black pepper.

Marana: (sáns. hindú). A Tantric ritual from the Brihaddharmapurana and Mahabhagavatapurana that causes the destruction of one's enemies.

Maratta: (sáns. hindú). An unknown term used in the Kama Sutra.

Mardini: (sáns. hindú). 1. The destroying. 2. A name of Durga.

Mares: (sáns. hindú). Swift rivers; waters of the firmament.

Margabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (marga "path" + bandhu "friend") Friend of the path.

Margapali: (sáns. hindú). (marga "path" + pali "protector") Protector of the path.

Margashirsha: (sáns. hindú). The month from mid-November to mid-December.

Margavati: (sáns. hindú). (marga "path" + vati "protecting") Protector of the path; the name of a Goddess protecting travelers.

Marica: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Rakshasa, son of Taraka. According to the Ramayana he interfered with a sacrifice which was being performed by Vishvamitra, but was encountered by Rama, who discharged a weapon at him, which drove him one hundred yojanas out to sea. He was afterwards the minister of Ravana, and accompanied him to the hermitage where Rama and Sita were dwelling.

There, to manipulate Rama, he assumed the shape of a golden deer, which Rama pursued and killed. On receiving his death-wound he resumed a Rakshasa form and spoke, and Rama discovered whom he had killed. In the meanwhile Ravana had carried off Sita. 2. A term used in the Kama Sutra for Piper negrum. Commonly known as black pepper.

Marichi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Chief of the Maruts. 2. Name of one of the Prajapatis. (See Prajapati.) He is sometimes represented as springing directly from Brahma. He was father of Kashyapa, and one of the seven great Rishis. See Rishi. 3. A ray of light. 4. Vishnu's 189th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Marisha: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of the sage Kandu, and wife of the Prachetasas, but from the mode of her birth she is called "the nursling of the trees, and daughter of the wind and the moon." She was mother of Daksha. Her mother was a celestial nymph named Pramlocha, who beguiled the sage Kandu from his devotions and lived with him for a long time. When the sage awoke from his voluptuous delusion, he drove her from his presence. The Vushnupurana tells us that, "She, passing through the air, wiped the perspiration from her with the leaves of the trees," and "the child she had conceived by the Rishi came forth from the pores of her skin in drops of perspiration.

The trees received the living dews, and the winds collected them into one mass. Soma matured this by his rays, and gradually it increased in size until the exhalations that had rested on the tree-tops became the lovely girl named Marisha." According to the same authority Marisha had been in a former birth the childless widow of a king. Her devotion to Vishnu gained his favor and he desired her to ask a boon. She bewailed her childless state, and prayed that in succeeding births she might have "honorable husbands and a son equal to a patriarch." She received the promise that she should be of marvellous birth, should be very beautiful, and should have ten husbands of mighty prowess, and a son whose posterity should fill the universe. This legend is no doubt an addition of later date, invented to account for the marvellous origin of Marisha.

Mariyamman: (sáns. hindú). A popular South India gramadevata or village goddess. Two popular myths surround this goddess. One of the myths tells about a Brahman girl who was courted by an untouchable who had disguised himself as a Brahman. The girl married the man, discovered the treachery, and killed herself. Upon her death the girl was transformed into a goddess and took revenge by burning him to ashes. Another myth is that Mariyamman was the pious, pure wife of a devout holy man. Her purity gave her extraordinary powers such as boiling water merely by placing a container of water in her hand. One day she saw two gandharvas in coitus and became envious and thereby lost her miraculous powers. Her husband discovered the change in the girl and suspected unfaithfulness and demanded that his son kill her which he did through decapitation. The girl was eventually brought back to life but in the process her head and that of an untouchable woman was exchanged so Mariyamman became a woman with a Brahman head and an untouchable body. Mariyamman receives blood offerings at her festivals.

Markandeya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The son of the sage Mrikandu. 2. The name of an ancient sage, reputed author of the Markandeyapurana. He was saved from Yama, the God of Death, through his devotion to Shiva who kicked Yama's chest with His foot. He is called Dirghayus, "the long-lived."

Markandeyapurana: (sáns. hindú). In reference to this Purana, Dowson in his Classical Dictionary quotes an authority as describing it as "That Purana in which, commencing with the story of the birds that were acquainted with right and wrong, everything is narrated fully by Markandeya as it was explained by holy sages in reply to the question of the Muni, is called the Markandeya, containing 9,000 verses." This Purana is narrated in the first place by Markandeya and in the second by certain fabulous birds profoundly versed in the Vedas, who relate their knowledge in answer to the questions of the sage Jaimini. "It has a character different from all the other Puranas. It has nothing of a sectarial spirit, little of a religious tone; rarely inserting prayers and invocations to any deity, and such as are inserted are brief and moderate. It deals little in precepts, ceremonial or moral. Its leading feature is narrative, and it presents an uninterrupted succession of legends, most of which, when ancient, are embellished with new circumstances, and, when new, partake so far of the spirit of the old, that they are disinterested creations of the imagination, having no particular motive, being designed to recommend no special doctrine or observance. Whether they are derived from any other source, or whether they are original inventions, it is not possible to ascertain. They are most probably, for the greater part at least, original; and the whole has been narrated in the compiler's own manner, a manner superior to that of the Puranas in general, with exception of the Bhagavata." The popular Durga Mahatmya or Chandipatha is an episode of this Purana. In the absence of any guide to a positive conclusion as to the date, it may conjecturally be placed in the ninth or tenth century. Some authorities have placed it as early as the eighth century.

Marora: (sáns. hindú). An unknown term used in the Kama Sutra.

Martandan: (sáns. hindú). 1. The son of Mritanda. 1. A name of the Sun-God, Surya, referring to His birth from a seemingly dead egg.

Marttanda: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedas the sun or sun god.

Martyamukha: (sáns. hindú). Human-faced. Any being in which the figures of a man and animal are combined.

Marubaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Organum. Commonly known as marjoram.

Marudvridha: (sáns. hindú). A name or epithet of a river.

Marula: (sáns. hindú). The name of a poetess.

Maruta: (sáns. hindú). Flashing or shining; a name of Vayu, the Wind-God.

Marutas: (sáns. hindú). The name of various learned persons in the Atharvaveda.

Marutashva: (sáns. hindú). The name of a prince.

Maruts: (sáns. hindú). 1. The storm gods, who hold a very prominent place in the Vedas, and are represented as friends and allies of Indra. Various origins are assigned to them. They are sons of Rudra, sons and brothers of Indra, sons of the ocean, sons of heaven, sons of earth. They are armed with lightnings and thunderbolts, and "ride on the whirlwind and direct the storm." The number of them is said in one place to be thrice sixty, and in another only twenty-seven. In the Ramayana they are represented to have their origin in an unborn son of Diti, whom Indra dashed into forty-nine pieces with his thunderbolt, and in compassion converted the pieces into Maruts. This is also the story told in the Puranas, and they are said to have obtained their name from the words ma rodih, "weep not," which Indra gave to them. A scholar on the Veda claimed that after their birth from Diti, as above told, Shiva and Parvati beheld them in great affliction, and Parvati asked Shiva to transform the lumps of flesh into boys; he accordingly made them boys of like form, like age, and similarly outfitted, and gave them to Parvati as her sons whence they are called the sons of Rudra. Other legends are, that Parvati, hearing the lamentations of Diti, entreated Shiva to give forms to the shapeless births, telling them not to weep (ma rodih); and another, that he actually begot them in the form of a bull on Prithivi, the earth, as a cow. (See Diti.) All these legends have manifestly been invented to explain those passages of the Vedas which make the Maruts the sons of Rudra. The world of the Maruts, called Maruta, is the appointed heaven of Vaishyas. 2. The god of the wind, and regent of the northwest quarter.

Marutta: (sáns. hindú). 1. A descendant of Manu Vaivasvata. He was Cakravarti, or universal monarch, and performed a celebrated a sacrifice. "Never," says the Vishnupurana, "was beheld on earth a sacrifice equal to the sacrifice of Marutta. All the implements and utensils were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated with the libations of Soma juice, and the Brahmans were enraptured with the magnificent donations they received. The winds of heaven encompassed the rite as guards, and the assembled gods attended to behold it." According to the Vayupurana, Marutta was taken to heaven with his kindred and friends by Samvarta, the officiating priest at this sacrifice. But the Markandeyapurana says he was killed after he had laid down his crown and retired to the woods. 2. A king of the Solar race, who was killed by Vapushmat, and fearfully avenged by his son Dama.

Masarsara: (sáns. hindú). A man's name in the Rigveda.

Mashaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Phaseolus radiatus. Commonly known as green gram.

Masraparni: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Teramus labialis.

Mata: (sáns. hindú). The Mother.

Mataji: (sáns. hindú). (mata "mother" + ji "respected") Respected Mother.

Matali: (sáns. hindú). 1. The charioteer if Indra. 2. As this name is used in the Rigveda, it may be a name of Indra.

Matanga: (sáns. hindú). An elephant. A man who was brought up as a Brahman but was the son of a Candala. His story, as told in the Mahabharata, relates that he was mercilessly goading an ass's foal which he was driving. The mother ass, seeing this, told her foal that she could expect no better, for her driver was no Brahman but a Candala. Matanga, addressing the ass as "most intelligent," begged to know how this was, and was informed that his mother when intoxicated had received the embraces of a low-born barber, and that he, the offspring, was a Candala and no Brahman.

In order to obtain elevation to the position of a Brahman, he went through such a course of austerities as alarmed the gods. Indra refused to admit him. He persevered again for a hundred years, but still Indra persistently refused such an impossible request, and advised him to seek some other boon. Nothing daunted, he went on a thousand years longer, with the same result. Though dejected he did not despair, but proceeded to balance himself on his great toe. He continued to do this for a hundred years, when he was reduced to mere skin and bone, and was on the point of falling. Indra went to support him, but inexorably refused his request, and, when further importuned, "gave him the power of moving about like a bird, and changing his shape at will, and of being honored and renowned." In the Ramayana, Rama and Sita visited the hermitage of Matanga near Rishyamuka mountain.

Matangi: (sáns. hindú). 1. A low-caste woman who plays a role in many festivals held in the South. During festivals for a village goddess, the Matangi is considered the embodiment of the goddess and being possessed by the goddess is given license to conduct herself in an antisocial manner. The Matangi will dance wildly, drink intoxicants, use vulgar language, and even spit on the spectators. One of her gestures is to push people around with her buttocks. Special delight seems to be gained from abusing members of the high castes. 2. A Mahavidya. Matangi is black and reels with intoxication.

Matarisvan: (sáns. hindú). 1. An aerial being who is represented in the Rigveda as bringing down or producing Agni (fire) for the Bhrigus. Some suppose Matarisvan to be the wind. 2. A name of a Vedic Rishi.

Matarisvan: (sáns. hindú). See Matrishva.

Mathura: (sáns. hindú). An ancient and celebrated city on the right bank of the Yamuna, surviving in the modern Muttra. It was the birthplace of Krishna and one of the seven sacred cities. The Vishnupurana states that it was originally called Madhu or Madhuvana, from the demon Madhu, who reigned there, but that when Lavana, his son and successor, was killed by Shatrughna, the conqueror set up his own rule there and built a city which he called Madhura or Mathura.

Mati: (sáns. hindú). 1. Spiritual thought. 2. The wife of Viveka or Discrimination. 3. Intelligence. 4. An epithet of Devi. 5. The 445th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Matkarya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for female masturbation.

Matrikas: (sáns. hindú). Mothers. A certain group of gods who are generally mentioned only in groups. There are early references (first-century CE) to them but their number is rarely specified. The Matrikas have inauspicious qualities and are usually described as being dangerous. There was a group of goddesses called "mothers" who were sent by Indra to kill the young Karttikeya and ended up being adopted by him as his mothers. A description is given for two of the mothers. One of them is described as being born from anger and carries a spike in her hand; the other one is the daughter of the sea, has a bad temper, a red complexion, and lives on blood. The Matrikas are specially attracted to children and children have to be guarded against their fierce nature. In the Mahabharata the Matrikas were associated with nonAryan and nonBrahmanic traditions.

Matris: (sáns. hindú). Mothers. The divine mothers. These appear to have been originally the female energies of the great gods, as Brahmani of Brahma, Maheshvari of Shiva, Vaishnavi of Vishnu, Indrani or Aindri of Indra, etc. The number of them was ten or eight or sixteen, but in the later mythology they have increased out of number. They are connected with the Tantra worship, and are represented as worshipping Shiva and attending upon his son Kartikeya.

Matrishva: (sáns. hindú). Developing within his mother. He is closely associated with Agni or some other devine being.

Matsya: (sáns. hindú). 1. A fish. 2. The Fish Incarnation. (See Avatara.) 2. Name of a country. Wilson claimed, "Dinajpoor, Rungpoor and Cooch Behar;" but there was more than one country of this name, and one would appear to have been situated in northern India. Manu placed Matsya in Brahmarshi. According to the Mahabharata, King Virata's capital was called Matsya, his people also were called Matsyas, and he himself was styled Matsya. Some authorities claim Matsya to be in the neighborhood of Jaypur and that the town of Virat or Bairat, 105 miles south of Delhi, was its capital.

Matsyapurana: (sáns. hindú). This Purana is so called from its contents having been narrated to Manu by Vishnu in the form of a fish (matsya). It consists of between 14,000 and 15,000 stanzas. This work "is a miscellaneous compilation, but includes in its contents the elements of a genuine Purana.

At the same time, it is of too mixed a character to be considered as a genuine work of the Pauranik class. Many of its chapters are the same as parts of the Vishnupurana and Padmapurana. It has also drawn largely from the Mahabharata. Dowson quoted someone as stating "Although a Shaiva work, it is not exclusively so, and it has no such sectarial absurdities as the Kurma and Linga."

Matsyas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Fishes. 2. Griffith claims this word may be the name of a tribe.

Matta: (sáns. hindú). She who is mad, or drunk. An epithet of Devi. The 576th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Mauneyas: (sáns. hindú). A lass of Gandharvas, sons of Kashyapa, who dwelled beneath the earth, and were sixty millions in number. They overpowered the Nagas, and compelled them to flee to Vishnu for assistance, and he sent Purukutsa against them, who destroyed them.

Mauni: (sáns. hindú). The silent or thoughtful.

Maurya: (sáns. hindú). The dynasty founded by Candragupta at Pataliputra (Patna) in Magadha. According to the Vishnupurana, the Maurya kings were ten in number and reigned 137 years. Their names were: 1) Candragupta, 2) Bindusara, 3) Ashokavardhana, 4) Suyashas, 5) Dasharatha, 6) Sangata, 7) Shali Shuka, 8) Somasharman, 9) Shashadharman, 10) Brihadratha. The names vary in other Puranas. See Candragupta.

Maya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Illusion, deception. 2. The cause of material creation. 3. Illusion personified as a female form of celestial origin, created for the purpose of beguiling some individual. Sometimes identified with Durga as the source of spells, or as a personification of the unreality of worldly things. In this character she is called Mayadevi or Mahanaya. 4. A name of Gaya, one of the seven sacred cities. 5. A Daitya who was the architect and artificer of the Asuras, as Vishvakarma was the artificer of the Suras or gods. He was son of Viprachitti and father of Vajrakama and Mandodari, wife of Ravana. He dwelt in the Devagiri mountains not very far from Delhi, and his chief works were in the neighborhood of that city, where he worked for men as well as Daityas. The Mahabharata speaks of a palace he built for the Pandavas. In the Harivansha he appears frequently both as victor and and vanquished in contests with the gods. 6. The illusory power of God.

Mayabheda: (sáns. hindú). Discernment of Maya or illusion.

Mayadevi: (sáns. hindú). Wife of the demon Shambara. She brought up Pradyumna, the son of Krishna and subsequently married him. Pradyumna is represented as being a revived embodiment of Kama, the god of love; and in accordance with this legend Mayavati is identified with his wife Rati, the Hindu Venus. See Maya.

Mayapati: (sáns. hindú). (maya "illusion" + pati "lord") I . The Lord of illusion. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Mayava: (sáns. hindú). The name of a liberal noble.

Mayavati: (sáns. hindú). See Mayadevi.

Mayavin: (sáns. hindú). (maya "illusion" + vin "possessing") 1. The possessor or master of illusion. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Mayu: (sáns. hindú). Bleater, bellower. The Kinnaras are called Mayus.

Meda Sringi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See alguru.

Medha: (sáns. hindú). Mental power, memory, intelligence, wisdom, the power to retain what has been heard or learned, especially in reference to Self-Knowledge.

Medhatithi: (sáns. hindú). A name of a Kanva who was a Vedic Rishi. Dowson, in his Classical Dictionary, claims there is a legend in one of the Upanishads that he was carried up to heaven by Indra in the form of a ram, because the god had been pleased with his austerities.

Medhavin: (sáns. hindú). (medha "mental power" + vin "possessing") 1. Having mental power or wisdom 2. Vishnu's 77th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Medhavini: (sáns. hindú). (medha "mental power" + vini "possessing") 1. Having mental power or wisdom. 2. A name of Sarasvati.

Medhi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See madayantika.

Medhira: (sáns. hindú). The intelligent or wise.

Medhyatithi: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi.

Medini: (sáns. hindú). 1. A well-known Sanskrit vocabulary. 2. The earth. See Kaitabha.

Medinikosha: (sáns. hindú). A well-known Sanskrit vocabulary. (Same as the Medini.)

Meghaduta: (sáns. hindú). Cloud messenger. A celebrated poem by Kalidasa in which a banished Yaksha implores a cloud to convey tidings of him to his wife.

Meghanada: (sáns. hindú). A son of Ravana. See Indrajit.

Meha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for sex organ.

Mehandi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See madayantika.

Mekala: (sáns. hindú). Name of a mountain from which the Narmada river is said to rise, and from which it is called Mekala and Mekalakanya, "daughter of Mekala." There was a people of this name, who probably lived in the vicinity of this mountain. Their kings were also called Mekalas, and there appears to have been a city Mekala.

Mena: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Himavan's wife, the mother of Parvati. 2. In the Rigveda, a daughter of Vrishanashva. A Brahmana tells a strange story of Indra having assumed the form of Mena and then having fallen in love with her. In the Puranas, wife of Himavat and mother of Uma and Ganga, and of a son named Mainaka. 3. An Apsaras sent to seduce the sage Vishvamitra from his devotions, and succeeding in this object, she became the mother of the nymph Shakuntala.

Menadhava: (sáns. hindú). (mena "mother of Parvati" + dhava husband, lord") Mena's husband or Lord (i.e. Himavan).

Menaja: (sáns. hindú). (mena "mother of Parvati" + ja "born") She who is born of Mena; a name of Parvati.

Menaka: (sáns. hindú). A name of Himavan's wife, the mother of Parvati.

Meru: (sáns. hindú). A fabulous mountain in the navel or center of the earth, on which is situated Svarga the heaven of Indra, containing the cities of the gods and the habitations of celestial spirits. The Olympus of the Hindus. Regarded as a terrestrial object, it would seem to be some mountain north of the Himalayas. It is also Sumeru, Hemadri, "golden mountain"; Ratnasanu, "jewel peak"; Karnikachala, "lotus mountain"; and Amaradri and Devaparvata, "mountain of the gods."

Merusavarnas: (sáns. hindú). The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth Manus, said to be the "mind-engendered sons of a daughter of Daksha by himself and the three gods Brahma, Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount Meru." The significance of the appellation Meru is obvious; that of Savarna or Savarni signifies that they were all of one caste (varna).

Mesha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the small cardamom.

Milimilin: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva taken from a mantra that repeats the word mili.

Mimansa: (sáns. hindú). 1. A school of philosophy. See Darshana. 2. The correct interpretation or examination of the Vedic text.

Mimansa Darshana: (sáns. hindú). A work on the Mimansa philosophy.

Mimansa Varttika: (sáns. hindú). A work on the Mimansa philosophy by Kumarila Bhatta.

Minakshi: (sáns. hindú). (mina "fish" + akshi "eye") 1. Fish-eyed. 2. A name of Parvati as worshipped at Madurai. 3. Minakshi was born with three breasts. She was raised as a male and when her father died she ascended his throne.

Minakshi, as king, undertook a military campaign to bring the entire world under her subjugation. She was able to conquer everyone who would challenge her and finally reached Shiva's Mount Kailasa where she challenged Shiva himself. Upon seeing Shiva himself her character was dramatically transformed. She became shy and her third breast disappeared. Eventually, Shiva took Minakshi for a wife.

Minjika: (sáns. hindú). Two beings who, according to the Mahabharata, sprang from the seed of Rudra, which was spilt upon a mountain. They are to be worshipped by those who desire the welfare of children.

Mira: (sáns. hindú). The name of a princess who lived in the 16th century. She was a great devotee of Kishna and singer of devotional songs.

Mirabai: (sáns. hindú). The name of a princess who lived in the 16th century. She was a great devotee of Krishna and singer of devotional songs.

Mitakshara: (sáns. hindú). A commentary by Vijnaneshvara on the Smriti or textbook of Yajnavalkya. The authority of this book is widely accepted in India.

Mithila: (sáns. hindú). A city, the capital of Videha or North Bihar, which corresponds to the modern Tirhut and Puraniya, between the Gandaki and Koshi rivers. It has given its name to one of the five northern nations of Brahmans (see Brahman), and to a school of law. It was the country of King Janaka, and the name of his capital, Janakapuru, still survives in "Janakpoor," on the northern frontier.

Mitra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The friend. 2. One of the twelve Adityas or solar deities, presiding over exhalation and the day, who is invoked in the famous Shanti Mantra: "OM Sham no Mitrah, Sham Varunah . . ." "May Mitra be Missful to us! May Varuna be blissful to us . . ." 3. Probably connected with the Persian Mithra. 4. A form of the sun. 5. In the Vedas he is generally associated with Varuna, he being the ruler of the day and Varuna the ruler of the night. They together uphold and rule the earth and sky, guard the world, encourage religion, and chastise sin.

Mitrasaha: (sáns. hindú). A king also known as Kalmashapada.

Mitratithi: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Vedic prince.

Mlechas: (sáns. hindú). Foreigners, barbarians, people who are not of the Aryan race.

Mohamudgara: (sáns. hindú). Hammers for ignorance. A poem in explanation of the Vedanta philosophy.

Mohana: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Tantric ritual from the Brihaddharmapurana and Mahabhagavatapurana that causes infatuation, loss of consciousness, or delusion. 2. A term used in the Kama Sutra meaning to be bewitched or seduced.

Mohan: (sáns. hindú). 1. The deluder, bewilderer, infatuater. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His power of illusion.

Mohanashin: (sáns. hindú). (moha "delusion" + nashin "destroyer") The destroyer of illusion.

Mohini: (sáns. hindú). 1. The enchantress. 2. A feminine form assumed by Vishnu. 3. An epithet of Devi. The 562 nd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Moksha: (sáns. hindú). Liberation, salvation (from rebirth), which is only obtained by knowledge of the true Self.

Mokshapriya: (sáns. hindú). (moksha "liberation" + priya "dear, beloved") He or she for whom liberation is dear.

Morata: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See ikshamula.

Motha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Cyperus rotundus. Commonly known as turmeric.

Motiya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for jasmine.

Mrichchhakati: (sáns. hindú). lit. "The toy-cart." A drama in ten acts by King Shudraka, supposed to be the oldest Sanskrit drama extant, and to have been written in the first or second century CE. The country over which Shudraka reigned is not known. The play, says Wilson, its translator, "is a curious and interesting picture of national manners . . . free from all exterior influence or adulteration. It is a portrait purely Indian. It represents a state of society sufficiently advanced in civilisation to be luxurious and corrupt, and is certainly very far from offering a flattering similitude, although not without some attractive features." Dowson continued the critique by stating that observed, "The dexterity with which the plot is arranged, the ingenuity with which the incidents are connected, the skill with which the characters are delineated and contrasted, the boldness and felicity of the diction, are scarcely unworthy of our own great dramatists."

Mrida: (sáns. hindú). 1. Compassionate, merciful. 2. A name of Parvati.

Mridani: (sáns. hindú). 1. The consort of the compassionate. 2. A name of Parvati.

Mridapriya: (sáns. hindú). (mrida "compassionate" + priya "beloved") The beloved of the compassionate; a name of Parvati.

Mridi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Compassionate, merciful. 2. A name of Parvati.

Mriga: (sáns. hindú). A beast or demon.

Mrigankalekha: (sáns. hindú). A play in four acts, written by Vishvanatha at Benares. The piece takes its name from the heroine, a princess of Kamarupa. It is a comparatively modern work.

Mrigaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. A fiend or hostile savage. 2. A demon of air.

Mrigi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Like a doe, or female antelope. 2. A name of Radha.

Mrigipati: (sáns. hindú). (mrigi "like a doe" + pati "lord") 1. Lord of the one like a doe. 2. A name of Krishna.

Mrigshirah: (sáns. hindú). A name of a star in the Atharvaveda.

Mrilika: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Vedic Rishi.

Mritsna: (sáns. hindú). Fragrant like the earth.

Mrityu: (sáns. hindú). 1. Death. 2. A name of Yama, the god of the dead.

Muchukunda: (sáns. hindú). In the Puranas, son of Mandhatri, and called "king of men." He rendered assistance to the gods in their wars with the Asuras or demons, and he asked for, and obtained as a reward, the boon of a long uninterrupted sleep. Whosoever disturbed him was to be burned to ashes by fire issuing from his body. Kalayavana was lured into his cave by Krishna and woke the sleeper, who cast a fiery glance upon the intruder which destroyed him. Muchukunda then paid laud and honor to Krishna, who gave him power to go to whatever celestial region he wished, and to enjoy all heavenly pleasures. Muchukunda left his cave and went to Gandhamadana to perform penance. The Mahabharata says he was reproved by Kuvera for trusting to his priest more than to his own prowess for success in war, but he replied that the religious aid of Brahmans was as necessary as the warlike powers of Kshatriyas.

Mudga: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Phaseolu mungo. Commonly known as the mungo bean.

Mudgala: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi from whom the Maudgalya Brahmans sprang. There were several other Brahmans named Mudgala. A sage of this name is recorded in the Mahabharata to have "lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, offering hospitality to thousands of Brahmans, according.

To his humble means, with the grain which he gleaned like a pigeon, and which (like the widow of Zarephath's oil) never underwent diminution, or rather increased again, when it was required." The choleric sage Durvasas went to test the patience of Mudgala, and six times devoured all the food which his host possessed without ruffing his temper. Durvasas in his admiration declared that Mudgala would go bodily to heaven, and the messenger of the gods arrived with his heavenly car. The sage, before accepting the invitation, desired to be informed of the joys and ills of heaven. After hearing a full explanation, he found that the enjoyments of heaven must come to a close, so he declared that he "had no desire for heaven, and would seek only that eternal abode where there is no sorrow, nor distress, nor change." He dismissed the messenger of the gods, and began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent to praise and blame, regarding clods, gold, stones, and gold as alike. Pure knowledge led to fixed contemplation; and that again imparted strength and complete comprehension, whereby he obtained supreme eternal perfection in the nature of quietude (nirvana).

Mudgalani: (sáns. hindú). Mudgala's wife.

Mudra Rakshasa: (sáns. hindú). "The signet of the minister." A drama by Vishakhadatta. This play has an historical interest, for Candragupta, the Sandracottus of Greek writers, is a leading character in it. The date of its production is apparently the eleventh or twelfth century CE. It is one of the dramas translated by Wilson, who stated, "The author was not a poet of the sphere of Bhavabhuti or Kalidasa. His imagination rises not to their level, and there is scarcely a brilliant or beautiful thought in the play. As some equivalent for the want of imagination, he has a vigorous perception of character and a manly strain of sentiment, that are inferior only to elevated conception and delicate feeling. He is the Massinger of the Hindus. The language of the original partakes of the general character of the play; it is rarely beautiful or delicate, but always vigorous, and occasionally splendid."

Mugdhabodha: (sáns. hindú). A standard Grammar by Vopadeva, written towards the end of the thirteenth century.

Mujavan: (sáns. hindú). A mountain famed for Soma plants.

Muka: (sáns. hindú). A Danava, son of Upasunda. He assumed the form of a wild boar in order to kill Arjuna, but was himself killed by Shiva in his form of the Kirata or mountaineer.

Mukambika: (sáns. hindú). (muka "speech-impaired" + ambika "mother") 1. Mother of the speech-impaired. Through Her grace a speech-impaired person became a poet 2. A name of Kamakshi or Parvati as worshipped in Kancipuram.

Mukhagni: (sáns. hindú). Fiery-faced. Spirits or goblins with faces of fire, perhaps meteors.

Mukta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The liberated (from rebirth). 2. Pearl.

Muktadevi: (sáns. hindú). (mukta "pearl" + devi "goddess") 1. The pearl-like Goddess. 2. The Goddess of liberation.

Mukti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Liberation (from rebirth). 2. Perfection.

Muktida: (sáns. hindú). (mukti "liberation" + da "give") 1. The giver or bestower of liberation. 2. A name of Kishna. 3. She who gives salvation. An epithet of Devi. The 736th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Muktidayaka: (sáns. hindú). (mukti "liberation" + dayaka "giver") 1. The giver or bestower of liberation. 2. A name of Krishna.

Muktidayini: (sáns. hindú). (mukti "liberation" + dayini "giver") 1. The giver or bestower of liberation. 2. A name of any manifestation of God as the Divine Mother.

Muktidevi: (sáns. hindú). (mukti "liberation" + devi "goddess") Goddess of liberation.

Mukunda: (sáns. hindú). (mukun "liberation" + da "giver") 1. The giver of liberation. 2. Vishnu's 515th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Mukundadasa: (sáns. hindú). (mukunda "giver of liberation" + dasa "servant") The servant of the giver of liberation (i.e. Vishnu).

Mukundapriya: (sáns. hindú). (mukunda "giver of liberation" + priya "beloved") Beloved of the giver of liberation (i.e. Vishnu); a name of Lakshmi.

Mula: (sáns. hindú). A name of a star in the Atharvaveda.

Mulahathi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for radish.

Mulaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Raphanus sativus. Commonly known as horseradish.

Mulavasana: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for basic desire.

Mulayashthi: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See mulahathi.

Muli: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See mulaka.

Mumuksha: (sáns. hindú). The desire of liberation, which is the fourth among the four spiritual means in Vedanta.

Mumukshu: (sáns. hindú). He who yearns for liberation. Shankara considered the yearning for release and dispassion as the main qualifications of the four spiritual means.

Munda: (sáns. hindú). Bald. An appellation of Ketu. Name of a demon slain by Durga.

Mundaka: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Upanishad.

Munhsha: (sáns. hindú). (muni "sage" + isha "lord") l. Lord of the sages. 2. A name of Valmiki.

Muni: (sáns. hindú). A holy sage, a pious and learned person, endowed with more or less of a divine nature, or having attained to it by rigid abstraction and mortification. The title is applied to the Rishis, and to a great number of persons distinguished for their writings considered as inspired, as Panini, Vyasa. Their super-human powers over gods and men have been often displayed in blessings, but more frequently in curses.

Munindra: (sáns. hindú). (muni "sage" + indra "chief") l. Chief of the sages. 2. A name of Shiva.

Munis: (sáns. hindú). Inspired saints.

Munishvara: (sáns. hindú). (muni "sage" + ishvara "lord") l. Lord of the sages. 2. A name of Vishnu.

Munja: (sáns. hindú). A medicine mentioned in the Atharvaveda claimed to be useful in increasing the flow of urine.

Munjakesha: (sáns. hindú). (munja "kind of grass" + kesha "hair") l. The munja-grass-haired. Munja is a special grass worn as a girdle by holy men as a mark of tapas, or austerity. 2. A name of Shiva. 3. A name of Vishnu.

Mura: (sáns. hindú). A great demon who had seven thousand sons. He was an ally of the demon Naraka, who ruled over Pragjyotisha, and assisted him in the defence of that city against Krishna. He placed in the environs of the city "nooses the edges of which were as sharp as razors," but Krishna cut them to pieces with his discus, slew Muru, "and burned his seven thousand sons like moths with the flame of the edge of his discus."

Muradevas: (sáns. hindú). Impious men; demons.

Murahari: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See ikshamula.

Murali: (sáns. hindú). l. The flute. 2. A name of Krishna as the flute player, the flute being a symbol for the ideal devotee who becomes empty or pure, thus being a perfectly tuned instrument in God's hands.

Muralidhara: (sáns. hindú). (murali "flute" + dhara "bearer") 1. The flute-bearer. 2. A name of Krishna. In the Krishna Upanishad it is revealed: Vamshastu Bhagavan Rudrah . . ." "His flute is verily the fortunate Rudra . . ." Krishna plays the flute which is a symbol of "OM," as a call to spiritual souls to reunite with Him or realize their true Self.

Murari: (sáns. hindú). (mura "destroyer, A great demon who had seven thousand sons" + ari "enemy") The enemy of the Demon Mura, who was killed by Krishna; a name of Krishna.

Murari Mishra: (sáns. hindú). author of the drama Murari Nataka or Anargha Raghava.

Murti: (sáns. hindú). 1.Divine form, embodiment 2. Statue.

Muru: (sáns. hindú). See Mura.

Muruga: (sáns. hindú). The son of Shiva who is also known as Karttikeya or Kumara.

Musala: (sáns. hindú). The pestle-shaped club carried by Balarama. It was named Saunanda.

Musaladhara: (sáns. hindú). "Armed with a pestle." An appellation of Balarama.

Musalayudha: (sáns. hindú). See Musaladhara.

Musalin: (sáns. hindú). See Musaladhara.

Mushtika: (sáns. hindú). A elebrated boxer in the service of Kansha, who directed him to kill Krishna or Balarama in a public encounter, but Balarama overthrew him and killed him.

Mustaka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See motha.


Nabha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The (heart) center. 2. A name of Shiva referring to His residing in the lotus heart.

Nabhagadishta: (sáns. hindú). A son of Manu, who, while he was living as a Brahmacari, was deprived of his inheritance, by his father according to the Yajurveda, by his brothers according to the Aitareya Brahmana. He subsequently acquired wealth by imparting spiritual knowledge.

Nabhaganedishtha: (sáns. hindú). See Nabhagadishta.

Nabhaka: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi, also the son of Nabhaka (with a long initial a).

Nabhanedishtha: (sáns. hindú). Son of Manu. See Nabhagadishta.

Nabhasa: (sáns. hindú). The celestial.

Nabhasvan: (sáns. hindú). 1. Vaporous air. 2.Shiva's 633 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Nabhasya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Month of Bhadrapada. 2. Shiva's 692nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Nabhoyoni: (sáns. hindú). 1. Source or origin of the sky. 2. Shiva's 677th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Naciketas: (sáns. hindú). The story of Nachiketas is told in the Taittiriya Brahmana, Katha Upanishad. and according to Wilson is the subject in the Rigveda (10.135). Vajashravasa or Aruni, the father of Nachiketas, desirous of attaining heaven, performed great sacrifices, and was profuse in his gifts to the priests. The son told him that he had not given all, for that he, his son, was left, and said, "To whom shall I be given" on repeating the question, the father angrily replied, "To death." So the son departed to the abodes of death, and, after staying there three nights, Yama was constrained to offer him a boon. He prayed to see his father again and be reconciled. This boon was granted and another offered. All kinds of blessings were proposed, but the youth refused to be contented with anything but a true knowledge of the soul. Yama taught him the full knowledge of the Self. Thus Naciketan stands as the ideal seeker of Truth.

Nadabindu: (sáns. hindú). (nada "sound" + bindu "dot") 1. The sound and the dot. 2. The name of the crescent and the dot written over the Sanskrit monosyllable "OM" which represent its manifested and unmanifested name and form. The crescent or nada also represents the roof of the palate above which the dot or bindu is hummed or nasalized while repreating the Pranava. 3. The name of a minor Upanishad.

Nadha: (sáns. hindú). See Nabhanedishtha.

Nadidhara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Supporter of the river. 2. Shiva's 438th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Nadinatha: (sáns. hindú). (nadi "river" + natha "lord") The lord of rivers; a name of the ocean.

Nadipati: (sáns. hindú). (nadi "river" + pati "lord") The lord of rivers; a name of the ocean.

Nadisha: (sáns. hindú). (nadi "river" + isha "lord") The lord of rivers; a name for the ocean.

Naga: (sáns. hindú). 1. A snake, especially the cobra-capella. A mythical semi-divine being, having a human face with the tail of a serpent, and the expanded neck of the cobra. The race of Nagas is said to be a thousand in number, and to have sprung from Kadru, the wife of Kashyapa, for the purpose of peopling Patala, or the regions below the earth, where they reign in great splendor. From the name of their mother they are called Kadraveyas. Their mother is sometimes called Surasa. This dominion was taken from them by the Gandharvas, but they recovered it through their sister, the Narmada river, who induced Vishnu to send Pratardana to their assistance. Their females were handsome, and some of them intermarried with men, as Ulupi with Arjuna. 2. The Nagas, or a people bearing the same name, are historical, and have left many traces behind them. There were mountains so called, and Nagadvipa was one of the seven divisions of Bharatavarsha. Kings of this race reigned at Mathura, Padmavati, etc., and the name survives in the modern Nagpur. There are various speculations as to who and what they were, but it seems clear they were a race distinct from the Hindus. The mythological accounts are probably based upon the historical, but they have been mixed up together and confused. The favourite theory is that they vere a Scythic race, and probably obtained their name from worshipping serpents or holding them in awe and reverence. 3. Tree. 4. Shiva's 718 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Nag: (sáns. hindú). One of the five airs of the human body. It is expelled through belching.

Nagabhusana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having serpents as ornaments. 2. Shiva's 832nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Nagadhamani: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for Artemisia vulgaris, commonly known as wormwood, citronella.

Nagadhipa: (sáns. hindú). (naga "unmoving, mountain" + adhipa "overlord") The overlord of the mountains; a name of Himavan.

Nagadhiraja: (sáns. hindú). (naga "unmoving, mountain" + adhiraja "paramount king") The paramount king of the mountains; a name of Himavan.

Nagaharadhrik: (sáns. hindú). 1. One wearing serpent-necklaces. 2. Shiva's 634 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  5. Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  6. Jñanam - Kurantika - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation

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