jueves, 29 de julio de 2010

Vedabase - Glossary - (H - K)

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Glossary of Vedabase

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z |


Hâdîka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Kètavarmân.

Haihayas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a dynasty of demoniac kings destroyed by Lord Paraäurâma.

Hamlyn, David W.: (sáns. vaiëòava). Professor of Philosophy at Birbeck College, University of London. He is the author of a number of books on philosophy and the editor of Mind magazine.

Hanumân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great famous monkey devotee of Lord Râmacandra. The eleventh portion of Rudra. He is the brother of Bhîma and the son of the wind-god, Vâyu, and Aëjana, the daughter of Gautama Èëi. The story of how Bhîma and Hanumân met is told in the Vana Parva of the Mahâbhârata. Hanumân gave a benediction to Bhîma that he would ride on the flagstaff of Arjuna's chariot and strike terror into the Kaurava troops with earth trembling battle cries. He served the Supreme Lord in His incarnation as Lord Râmacandra and assisted Him in defeating the demon Râvaòa.

Hara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Lord Äiva-the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Harâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Râdhârâòî-Lord Kèëòa's most intimate consort, who the personification of the internal, pleasure potency of Lord Kèëòa. She appeared in this world as the daughter of King Vèsabhânu and Kirti-devî and is the Queen of Vèndâvana. The most favorite consort of Kèëòa in Vrindavana, situated on Lord Kèëòa's left on altars and pictures.

Hare Kèëòa mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sixteen-word prayer composed of the names Hare, Kèëòa, and Râma: Hare Kèëòa, Hare Kèëòa, Kèëòa Kèëòa, Hare Hare, Hare Râma, Hare Râma, Râma Râma, Hare Hare is the personal form of God's own happiness, His eternal consort, Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî. Kèëòa, "the all-attractive one," and Râma, "the all-pleasing one," are names of God. This prayer means "My dear Râdhârâòî and Kèëòa, please engage me in Your devotional service." The Vedas recommend the chanting of the Hare Kèëòa mantra as the easiest and most sublime method of awakening one's dormant love of God; the great chant for deliverance. These names have been particularly recommended for chanting in this age; The chanting of this mantra is the most recommended means for spiritual progress in this age of Kali, as it cleanses the mind and enables one to transcend the temporary designations of race, religion, and nationality and to understand one's true identity as an eternal spiritual being. In other words, simply by chanting Hare Kèëòa one can directly experience self-realization and lead a blissful life. See Kali-yuga, Mantra.

Hari-bhakti-vilâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ritual and devotional practices of the Gauàîya-vaiëòava-sampradâya, codified into twenty chapters by Ärîla Sanâtana Gosvâmî and Ärîla Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî. The work represents extensive scriptural research and includes a Sanskrit commentary written by Ärîla Sanâtana Gosvâmî called Dig-daräiòî Tika.

Hari-cakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's Sudaräana weapon, the wheel.

Hari-kathâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). topics of Lord Hari, Kèëòa.

Hari-kîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the chanting of the names of Lord Hari (Kèëòa); Saôkîrtana-yajña-the sacrifice prescribed for the Age of Kali, namely, congregational chanting of the name, fame and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Hari-nâma-saôkîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Lord.

Hari-vaêäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appendix to the Mahâbhârata. It is a summary of Kèëòa's pastimes by Ärîla Vyâsadeva.

Haribol: (sáns. vaiëòava). "Chant the holy name."

Hariäcandra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the twenty-eighth king in the Tretâ-yuga. He appeared in the dynasty of the sun as the son of Triäaôku, and he is celebrated in the Mârkaòàeya Purâòa as the pious king who satisfied Viävâmitra Muni by sacrificing his kingdom, wife, and son.

Haridâsa Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). although born in a Muslim family, he was a confidential associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He was so absorbed in the nectar of the Holy Name that he chanted day and night, and it was his regular practice to chant 300,000 names of the Lord daily. Lord Caitanya made him the nâmâcârya (teacher of chanting of the holy name).The Muslim government and caste-conscious Hindus attempted to persecute him, but all of their efforts failed, as he was under the direct protection of the Lord.

Haridvâra (Hardwar): (sáns. vaiëòava). a famous place of pilgrimage in the northern foothills of the Himâlaya Mountains. This is where . Ajâmila went for purlfication, where Prajâpati Dakëa performed his sacrifice and lost his daughter Satî, and where some drops of nectar falling from the hand of Mohinî-mûrti, the Lord's incarnation as a woman, landed. Because these drops of nectar fell, there is a Kumbha-melâ every twelve years here. Nowadays the town is known as Haradwara, meaning "the gateway to Lord Äiva."

Harinâma-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Lord, the recommended sacrifice for this age.

Hari: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, who removes all obstacles to spiritual progress; Lord Viëòu, the seeing the Deity of the Lord.

Harëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). jubilation, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Haryakëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Hiraòyâkëa

Hastinâpura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ancient capital city of Bhârata-varëa, or India. The Sanskrit word hasti means elephants and in this city there were many elephants kept. It occupies a portion of what is today called New Delhi; The capital city of the Pâòàavas. When Dhètarâëùra wanted to give the Pâòàavas half of the kingdom, this part was given.

Hâsya-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the indirect relationship of laughing.

Haùha-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the practice of postures and breathing exercises for achieving purification and sense control.

Hathi: (sáns. vaiëòava). elephant.

Hawking, Stephen: (sáns. vaiëòava). Famous British physicist (*1942) who believes the riddle of the origin of the universe can be solved by mathematics. Hawking is a positivist. See Logical Positivism, Positivism.

Hayaäîrëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the horse-headed incarnation of Lord Kèëòa. He spoke the Vedas to Lord Brahmâ.

Hayagriva: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa's horse-headed incarnation, who returned the stolen Vedas to Brahmâ.

Heavenly planets: (sáns. vaiëòava). the higher planets of the universe, residences of the demigods.

Hell: (sáns. vaiëòava). hellish planets within this universe meant for the punishment and rectification of the sinful.

Henotheism: (sáns. vaiëòava). This term comes from the Greek hens, one, plus thes, God. Henotheism is a form of polytheism. It postulates that there are many gods, one of which rules the others, as Indra rules the demigods. The ruling god, however, is neither absolute nor eternal. He is just for the time being more powerful than the other gods. Max Mûller mistakenly thought the Vedic religion was henotheistic: the Vedas present many gods, and when any one of them is worshiped, that god or goddess becomes the highest deity of the Vedas. See Atheism, Demigods, Polytheism, Theism.

Herâ-pañcamî festival: (sáns. vaiëòava). celebration of the coming of the goddess of fortune to the Guòàicâ temple.

Hiàimba: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Râkëasa who fought with Bhîma and was killed. This incident is mentioned in the Âdi Parva of the Mahâbhârata.

Hiàimbî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sister of Hiàimba. She later married Bhîma and begot a son named Ghaùotkaca.

Himavân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great mountain on the northern side of India. The Pâòàavas stayed for some time in this region.

Hindu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a newly-concocted name for members of various social and religious groups of India.

Hinduism: (sáns. vaiëòava). This term is derived from the name of a river in present-day Pakistan, the Sindhu, Sind or Indus. Beginning around 1000 AD, invading armies from the Middle East called the place beyond the Sindhu river Hindustan and the people who lived there the Hindus. (Due to the invaders' language, the s was changed to h.) In the centuries that followed, the term Hindu became acceptable even to the Indians themselves as a general designation for their different religious traditions. But since the word Hindu is not found in the Vedic scriptures upon which these traditions are based, it is quite inappropriate. The proper term is Vedic Dharma. See Dharma.

Hing: (sáns. vaiëòava). asafoetida.

Hiraòmaya-mahat-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the total material energy.

Hiraòyadhanus: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Ekalavya, and the King of the Niäadhas, forest dwellers.

Hiraòyakaäipu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a powerful demon and great atheist who tormented his son Prahlâda Mahârâja, a great devotee, and was killed by Kèëòa in His incarnation as Nèsiêhadeva (the half man-half lion form of Lord Viëòu).

Hiraòyâkëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demoniac son of Kaäyapa who was killed by Lord Varâha.

Hiraòyavarman: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of Daäâròa. His daughter was married to Äikhaòàî.

Hlâdinî äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's pleasure potency.

Holî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a major Hindu holiday celebrated on the last day of the bright fortnight of the month of Phalgun (February-March). This festival is said to be one of Kèëòa's favorates. The most popular activity is ther throwing of colored water and powder by participants on each other.

Hotravâhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the maternal grandfather of Ambâ. He recommended to Ambâ that she approach Paraäurâma to influence Bhîëma to marry her.

Hoysala: (sáns. vaiëòava). South Indian dynasty that ruled part of South India.

Hèëîkeäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Kèëòa meaning "the master of all senses."

Hèta-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). bereft of intelligence.

Humanism: (sáns. vaiëòava). Humanism grew into a distinct ideological movement during the Renaissance as a reaction against feudalism and medieval theology. It proclaims freedom of the rational individual, opposes religious asceticism, and promotes man's rights to pleasure and the satisfaction of earthly desires and requirements. It is dedicated to fostering the ethical and creative development of the individual without reference to God or other concepts of the supernatural. In the nineteenth century, humanism took the shape of a secular religion; a prominent humanist of that time was Karl Marx. Today, the term is commonly used to mean a set of entirely non-religious beliefs and values. See Marxism, Relativism.

Hume, David: (sáns. vaiëòava). Along with Locke and Berkeley, Hume (1711-1776) is classified as one of the three principle British empiricist philosophers. He taught that knowledge is comprised of sense data; there is no a priori knowledge; existence is identical to our own ideas; there is no objective connection between cause and effect, and there is no mind, self, or spiritual substance apart from a bundle of sense impressions and ideas in our heads. See Empiricism.

Hypothetico-deduction: (sáns. vaiëòava). A method of reasoning widely used in the Western world for a very long time. An example from history is found in De Stella Martis by Kepler, who was puzzled by the problem of the shape of the orbit of Mars. Unable to figure it out by empirical observation, Kepler decided to simply suppose that the orbit was elliptical. Following this hypothesis, he worked out positions for the planet that corresponded well with its observed positions. Thus his hypothesis was not formed on the basis of previous observations, as it would have been had Kepler followed the empirical method. Rather, it was devised by speculation. The observations were then deductively brought into line with that speculation. See Abduction, Deduction, Induction.


Idea: (sáns. vaiëòava). The Greek term ida means form or pattern. An idea is anything that is contained in consciousness as an item of thought or awareness. It is usually taken to mean a mental image of something. It may also mean the essence of a thing; a general notion; an imagination; a belief, opinion or doctrine, or an ideal.

Idealism: (sáns. vaiëòava). Theoretically, the opposite of materialism. But like materialism, idealism is a very broad category of philosophy containing many shades of theory. It is sometimes called mentalism or immaterialism. Idealists believe the universe is the embodiment of a mind. All reality is mental, and matter does not exist. The external world is not physical. Famous idealist philosophers are Berkeley, Hegel, Kant, and Plato. See Materialism, Mind/body problem.

Ideology: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek ida and lgos, ideology in classical times meant the science of ideas. Nowadays it means the system of ideas that constitutes a dogma: the ideology of fascism, for instance. See Idea.

Idhmavâhat: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotee who approaches the spiritual master. Idhma refers to wood that is taken to burn as fuel for a fire. A brahmacârî is supposed to take this idhma to ignite the fire used in performing sacrifices. By spiritual instruction a brahmacâri is trained to ignite a fire and offer oblations in the morning. He is supposed to go to the spiritual master to take lessons on transcendental subject matter, and the Vedic injunction is that when approaching the spiritual master one must carry with him fuel to perform yajñas, or sacrifices. The exact Vedic injunction is as follows: tad-vijñânârthaê sa gurum evâbhigacchet-samit-pâòiì ärotriyaê brahma-niëùham " To understand these things properly, one must humbly approach, with firewood in hand, a spiritual master who is learned in the Vedas and firmly devoted to the Absolute Truth." "To learn transcendental subject matter, one must approach the spiritual master. In doing so, he should carry fuel to burn in sacrifice. The symptom of such a spiritual master is that he is expert in understanding the Vedic conclusion, and therefore he constantly engages in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." (Muòàaka Upaniëad 1.2.12) By serving such a bona fide spiritual master, gradually a conditioned soul becomes detached from material enjoyment and invariably makes progress in spiritual realization under the direction of the spiritual master. Those who are misled by the illusory energy are never interested in approaching a spiritual master to make life successful.

Ignorance: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Modes of nature (Tamo-guòa).

Ikëvâku: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Manu who was king of the earth in ancient times and to whom Manuspoke Bhagavad-gîtâ.

Ikëvâku: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of the sun-god, Vivasvân, and the first king of the earth planet.

Ilâvèta-varëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the original name of this earth planet, before it became known as Bharata-varëa.

Impersonal monism: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mâyâvâda-the impersonal philosophy first propounded by Äaôkarâcârya, which proposes the unqualified oneness of God and the living entities (who are both conceived of as being ultimately formless) and the nonreality of manifest nature; the philosophy that everything is one and that the Absolute Truth is not a person; See Brahmajyoti, Buddhism, Mâyâvâdî philosophy, Personalism, Voidism.

Indra-nîla: (sáns. vaiëòava). gems decorating Kèëòa's flute.

Indraloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the planet where Lord Indra resides.

Indraprastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). Hastinâpura-the ancient capital city of Bhârata-varëa, or India. The Sanskrit word hasti means elephants and in this city there were many elephants kept. It occupies a portion of what is today called New Delhi; The capital city of the Pâòàavas. When Dhètarâëùra wanted to give the Pâòàavas half of the kingdom, this part was given.

Indra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the chief demigod of heaven and presiding deity of rain, and the father of Arjuna. He is the son of Aditi.

Indriya-saêyama: (sáns. vaiëòava). curbing one's senses.

Induction: (sáns. vaiëòava). A form of reason that guesses the nature of a cause from the perception of an effect. See Abduction, àroha/ Avaroha, Deduction, Empiricism, Logic, Phenomenalism.

Infinite: (sáns. vaiëòava). regress From the Latin regressus ad infinitum (similar in meaning to the Sanskrit anavasthâ), infinite regress is the fallacy that occurs when someone argues that a material thing is the ultimate cause. Any material cause must depend upon a remoter material cause. That cause must depend upon an even more remote material cause, and so on ad infinitum (into infinity). Thus arguments for material causation never reach a logical end. See Fallacy, Logic.

Intellect, intelligence: (sáns. vaiëòava). The power of discrimination, in Sanskrit called buddhi, in Greek dinoia. Intelligence is as natural to the jîva as taste is to water or smell is to earth: As there is no separate existence of the earth and its aroma or of water and its taste, there cannot be any separate existence of intelligence and consciousness. (Kapiladeva, SB 3.27.18) Buddhi manifests within each living entity as the ability to distinguish between forms in the field of perception, and as the sense of direction. The mind (manaì) imputes emotional values to form and direction (painful, pleasurable, etc.). The false ego (ahaôkâra) lays claim to the field of perception (this is mine etc.). Intelligence, being originally spiritual, can rise above the influence of mind and false ego by buddhi-yoga, as explained in Bhagavad-gîtâ. Nârada Muni tells Mahârâja Yudhiëùhira in SB 7.14.38: O King Yudhiëùhira, the Supersoul in every body gives intelligence to the individual soul according to his capacity for understanding. Therefore the Supersoul is the chief within the body. The Supersoul is manifested to the individual soul according to the individual's comparative development of knowledge, austerity, penance and so on. Since buddhi is awarded to all living entities by the Supersoul according to their knowledge and austerity, when a living entity surrenders completely to Kèëòa, he is awarded pure intelligence. Surrendering completely to Kèëòa entails surrendering to the spiritual master by renouncing the emotional values of the mind and the claims of the false ego. When original intelligence is covered by ignorance, it is called tâmasa-buddhi. This is the beginning of the material existence of the soul. In Bg. 10.10 Lord Kèëòa says that buddhi-yoga,
the respiritualization of the intelligence, is accomplished by prîti-pûrvakam, the method of loving devotion. See Consciousness, False ego, Mind, Modes of nature, Soul, Subtle body, Supersoul. Ipse dixit (Lat.) He himself has said it. A kind of proof, after the answer that disciples of Pythagoras, an ancient Greek sage, used to give whenever an opponent called the certitude of the sage's doctrine into question. This proof is rejected by modern philosophers. See Äabda.

Irâvân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Arjuna by Ulûpî. He was killed by the Râkëasa, Alambuëa, during the Kurukëetra battle.

Îäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Îäa-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord.

Îäânukathâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). scriptural information about the Lord and His devotees..

Îäâvasya: (sáns. vaiëòava). (îäa-the Lord + vasya-control) the concept that everything is owned and controlled by the Lord and should be used in His service.

ISKCON: (sáns. vaiëòava). the abbreviation for the International Society for Krishna Consciousness; the Hare Krishna Movement. The society was founded in New York, 1966, by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda, who came by boat, the Jaladuta from Calcutta in 1965, with just forty rupees and a trunk full of books. Sumati Morarji kindly donated his passage; Ärîla Prabhupâda-(1896-1977) His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda. He is the tenth generation from Caitanya Mahâprabhu. The founder-âcârya, spiritual master of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). Ärîla Prabhupâda was the widely-acclaimed author of more than seventy books on the science of pure bhakti-yoga, unalloyed Kèëòa consciousness. His major works are annotated English translations of the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, the Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta, and the Bhagavad-gîtâ As It Is. He was the world's most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought. Ärîla Prabhupâda was a fully God conscious saint who had perfect realization of the Vedic scriptures. He worked incessantly to spread Kèëòa consciousness all over the world.

He guided his society and saw it grow to a worldwide confederation of hundreds of ashrams, schools, temples, institutes, and farm communities; Acronym for the International Society for Kèëòa Consciousness, the branch of Caitanya Mahâprabhu's saôkîrtana mission established by Ärîla Prabhupâda in New York in 1966. ISKCON is a worldwide nonsectarian movement dedicated to propagating the message of the Vedas for the benefit of mankind. Over the years ISKCON has steadily grown in popularity and influence, and today it is widely recognized by theologians, scholars and laymen as a genuine and important spiritual movement. The hundreds of ISKCON centers throughout the world enable full-time members to live in close association, following the principles of Vedic life, and also provide a place where interested visitors can learn about the philosophy and culture of Kèëòa consciousness and participate in its various functions. The basis of the movement is the Hare Kèëòa mahâ-mantraHare Kèëòa, Hare Kèëòa, Kèëòa Kèëòa, Hare Hare/ Hare Râma, Hare Râma, Râma Râma, Hare Hare. The devotees experience divine ecstasy in singing these holy names of God to the accompaniment of musical instruments. The ISKCON devotees, as a prerequisite for the serious pursuit of spiritual life, abstain from meat-eating, illicit sex, intoxication, and gambling. The Kèëòa conscious life style is based on the principles of simple living and high thinking. The devotees rise very early, about 3:30 a.m., and spend the morning hours in meditation and study.

During the day, some devotees go out to public places to distribute the Society's books and its official journal, Back to Godhead magazine. In addition to book distribution, devotees engage in a variety of activities, including teaching, artistic pursuits, farming and business. See Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda, Hare Kèëòa Mahâ-mantra, Kèëòa.

Îäopaniëad: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the 108 principal Vedic scriptures known as the Upaniëads.

Iëùâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the performance of public welfare activities such as digging wells or planting trees.

Îävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a controller. Kèëòa is parameävara, the supreme controller; One of the five tattvas, or Vedic ontological truths: the supreme controller of all living and nonliving energy. In Bg. 18.61-62, Lord Kèëòa tells Arjuna: îävaraì sarva-bhûtânâê hèd-deäe 'rjuna tiëùhati bhrâmayan sarva-bhûtâni yantrârûòhâni mâyayâ tam eva äaraòaê gaccha sarva-bhâvena bhârata tat-prasâdât parâê äântiê sthânaê prâpsyasi äâävatam. The Supreme Lord (îävara) is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy. O scion of Bharata, surrender unto Him utterly. By His grace you will attain transcendental peace and the supreme and eternal abode. And Cc., Âdi-lîlâ 5.142 states: ekale îävara kèòàa, âra saba bhètya yâre yaiche nâcâya, se taiche kare nètya. Lord Kèëòa alone is the supreme controller, and all others are His servants. They dance as He makes them do so. The îävara has full control over the jîva, prakèti, kâla and karma. The jîva has the power to choose whether to surrender to the îävara or not. If he does surrender, he is freed from bondage within prakèti, kâla and karma. If he does not, he is bound by them in the cycle of birth and death (saêsâra). See Avatâra, Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Kèëòa, Modes of nature, Supersoul, Tattva.

Itihâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a historical account..


Jaàa Bharata: (sáns. vaiëòava). Bharata Mahârâja in his final birth as a renounced brâhmaòa. He gave wonderful spiritual instruction to Mahârâja Rahûgaòa.

Jâàya: (sáns. vaiëòava). invalidity, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Jagad-îäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, who is the proprietor of all the universes.

Jagad-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual master of the whole world.

Jagad-rûpa (Virâù-rûpa, Viäva-rûpa): (sáns. vaiëòava). The universal form of îävara, in which jîva, prakèti, kâla and karma are revealed as energies of the Supreme. This form was shown by Lord Kèëòa to Arjuna in the Eleventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gîtâ. See Îävara, Kèëòa.

Jagâi and Mâdhâi: (sáns. vaiëòava). two great debauchees whom Lord Nityânanda converted into Vaiëòavas.

Jagamohana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the area directly in front of the central altar of an Orissan temple.

Jagannâtha Purî: (sáns. vaiëòava). place of pilgrimage on the east coast of India where the deity of Jagannâtha is worshiped Jagannâtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, who is Lord of the universe. A particular Deity form of Lord Kèëòa, seemingly fashioned from wood and brightly painted, which has been worshiped for many centuries in Jagannâtha Purî. Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu used to daily visit Lord Jagannâtha and see Him in a mood of intense separation, in the mood of Râdhârâòî, who was parted from her beloved Kèëòa most of her days.

Jagannatha Misra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's eternal father, Nada Maharaj of Kèëòa-lila.

Jâgara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstatic symptom of wakefulness.

Jagat: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material universe.

Jajmani: (sáns. vaiëòava). system of patron-client relationships.

Jana-nivâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). name for Kèëòa indicating that He is the ultimate resort of all living entities.

Jaiminî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the atheistic propounder and philosopher of Karma-mimâêsâ philosophy, and author of the Karma-mîmâêsâ-sûtras, which explain the Vedas in ritualistic terms, and advocate material work as the purpose of life. He theorized that if fruitive activity is performed nicely, then God is obliged to give the results.

Jains: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious sect based on impersonalist ideas.

Jâmbavatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daughter of Jâmbavân. She is one of the eight principal queens of Lord Kèëòa.

Janaka Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). considered one of the mahâjanas, the great self-realized king of Mithilâ, and the father of Sîtâ-devî, consort of Lord Râmacandra.

Janaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a heavenly planet.

Janamejaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of King Parîkëit.

Janârdana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who is the original abode and protector of all living beings".

Janas: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Janaloka above Jaôgama-nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). moving Nârâyaòa.

Janmâëùamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the celebration of Lord Kèëòa's appearance in the material world; the eighth lunar day of the dark fortnight in the month of Bhadra (August-September). The festival of Kèëòa's birthday.

Japa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the soft recitation of the Kèëòa's holy names as a private meditation, with the aid of 108 prayer beads.

Jarâsandha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Magadha. He was killed by Bhîma. (Sabhâ Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Jarâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). old age.

Jaùâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Râkëasa who disguised himself as a brâhmaòa and tried to kidnap Draupadî and four of the Pâòàavas except for Bhîma. Bhîma challenged him and killed him in single combat.

Jaùâyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee of Lord Râmacandra who was the king of the vultures, and the brother of Sampâti. He fought with the demon Râvaòa when the latter kidnapped Sîtâ, the consort of Lord Râmacandra.

Jâta-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). a purificatory ceremony performed at the birth of a child.

Jaya and Vijaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). two doorkeepers of Vaikuòùha who were cursed on account of offending the four Kumâra Èëis, and who thus both had to take birth three times in the material world as great demons, Hiraòyakaäipu and Hiraòyâkëa in Satya-yuga, Râvaòa and Kumbhakaròa in the next yuga, Tretâ-yuga, and Äiäupâla and Dantavakra at the end of Dvâpara-yuga.

Jayadeva Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great Vaisnava poet and author of Gita-govinda.

Jayadratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Sindhu. He was killed by Arjuna in the battle of Kurukëetra. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Jâyanteyas: (sáns. vaiëòava). nine great sages, sons of King Bharata, who were also known as the nine Yogendras.

Jayatsena: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Jarâsandha. He took the side of Duryodhana in the Kurukëetra war and was killed by Abhimanyu. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Jaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Dhètarâëùra who was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Jâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). intelligence.

Jaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an exclamation meaning "All victory to you!" or "All glories to you!".

Jhulana yatra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the swing festival beginning on the third day of the month of Shravan (July-August) and lasting for a fortnight. The swings, usually made from gold or silver, are hung in temples on which the Deities are swung during kirtan by the guests and Vaisnavas.

Ji: (sáns. vaiëòava). honorific suffix added to almost any name as a term of endearment

Jîmûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a wrestler who was killed by Bhîma during a wrestling match in the kingdom of Virâùa.

Jîròa-sarpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fatigued air of life.

Jitendriya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has conquered the senses.

Jîva (jîvâtmâ): (sáns. vaiëòava). the living entity, who is an eternal soul, individual but part and parcel of the Supreme Lord; One of the five tattvas, or Vedic ontological truths: the living entity, or individual soul. See Soul, Tattva.

Jîva Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Six Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana and the nephew of Rupa and Sanâtana Gosvâmîs. His father, Anupama, died when the boy was very young. He grew up absorbed in the worship of Kèëòa and Balarâma. Lord Caitanya instructed him in a dream to proceed to Navadvîpa, and there he toured that sacred place in the association of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu. He then went to Benares to study Sanskrit, and from there to Vèndâvana to be under the shelter of his uncles. He became a disciple of Rûpa Gosvâmî and wrote eighteen major works on Vaiëòava philosophy, comprising more than 400,000 verses. He is considered by many philosophers and Sanskritists to be the greatest scholar who ever lived.

Jîva Jago: (sáns. vaiëòava). wake up sleeping souls.

Jîva-bhûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the living force within matter. Jîva (jîvâtmâ)-the living entity, who is an eternal soul, individual but part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.

Jîva-hiêsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). envy of other living entities.

Jîva-mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the living entities.

Jîva-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the living entities, atomic parts of the Supreme Lord.

Jîvan-mukta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person who is already liberated even while living in his present body.

Jñâna-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the power to distribute transcendental knowledge.

Jñâna-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the division of the Vedas dealing with empirical speculation in pursuit of truth; also, such speculation itself; the portions of the Vedas containing knowledge of Brahman, or spirit.

Jñâna-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cultivation of knowledge.

Jñâna-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the process of approaching the Supreme by the cultivation of knowledge; the predominantly empirical process of linking with the Supreme, which is executed when one is still attached to mental speculation.

Jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge. Material jñâna does not go beyond the material body. Transcendental jñâna discriminates between matter and spirit. Perfect jñâna is knowledge of the body, the soul and the Supreme Lord.

Jñânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is engaged in the cultivation of knowledge (especially by philosophical speculation). Upon attaining perfection, a jñânî surrenders to Kèëòa; This Sanskrit term is related in both form and meaning to the English word know via the Greek word gnsis. In Vedic terminology, there is jñâna and vijñâna. Jëâna refers to the knowledge of the self as not the body, whereas vijñâna refers to knowledge of the self's relationship to the Supreme Self.

Jnânagamya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who is understood through knowledge of the Vedas."

Jñâna-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). The path of philosophical speculation. One of the three departments of Vedic knowledge, jñâna-kâòàa is taught by the Kumâras. See Apara-vidyâ, Karma-kâòàa, Upâsanâ-kâòàa.

Jñânendriya: (sáns. vaiëòava). The five knowledge-acquiring senses: the ears, the skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nostrils.

Jvalitâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage exhibited by a devotee when more than two or three transcendental transformations are manifest and it is possible to conceal them with difficulty.

Jyotir-linga: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the 12 selfmanifested Äiva-lingas.

Jyotiì-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vedic science of astronomy.


Kabandha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Ärî. Indra once stuffed his legs and head into his belly as a punishment. Indra foretold that until his long arms were cut off by Lord Râma (which later occurred), Kabandha would not achieve peace.

Kacchapî-vîòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stringed instrument of Râdhârâòî.

Kaàâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ointment of Lord Jagannâtha, the remnants of which were used by Lord Caitanya.

Kadru: (sáns. vaiëòava). wife of Kasyapa and mother of the race of serpents.

Kailasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the home of Lord Äiva in the Himalayas.

Kaiäora: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's age from the eleventh to the fifteenth year.

Kaitava-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). cheating religion.

Kaivalyam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the state of realization of one's constitutional position as part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, which is preliminary to manifestation of activities on the platform of devotional service.

Kaivalya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the impersonal liberation of merging into the spiritual effulgence of Brahman emanating from the Lord.

Kajjala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a preparation of lampblack used to darken the edges of the eyelids; kohl.

Katha: (sáns. vaiëòava). stories and discussion on religious themes, especially from the purunas.

Kâka: (sáns. vaiëòava). crow.

Kâlakanyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the invalidity of old age.

Kala namak: (sáns. vaiëòava). Black salt-a reddish-gray variety of salt with a distinct "hard-boiled egg-yolk" flavour. Black salt or kala namak, as it is known in Indian cuisine, is a major ingredient in the spice blend chat masala. Sprinkle black salt in Scrambled Curd. It is available at Indian grocers.

Kâla-sarpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the snake of time.

Kalâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a form of the Lord that is an expansion of the Lord's original form.

Kala: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal time.

Kâlî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Durgâ-Lord Äiva 's wife in a fierce form, riding a tiger. The goddess is empowered by the Supreme Lord to preside over the material nature and bewilder the souls situated there into misconceiving themselves to be their material bodies and enjoyers and controllers of the mundane creation. She is very powerful, superseded only by Lord Viëòu Himself, and is the external manifestation of the Lord's internal potency, Yoga-mâyâ. Once a fallen soul takes to the path of God consciousness, she continues to offer various material allurements so as to test his sincerity and determination to serve the Lord. Once the Lord accepts the struggling soul she can no longer influence that soul and it is thus liberated.

Kali-yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the "Age of Quarrel and Hypocrisy " The fourth and last age in the cycle of a mahâ-yuga. This is the present age in which we are now living. It began 5,000 years ago and lasts for a total of 432,000 years. It is characterized by irreligious practice and stringent material miseries. In the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam the age is personified as an evil black man who tries to kill a helpless cow and bull. The four legs of the cow represent the four principles of religiosity-namely, truth, cleanliness, mercy and austerity. The bull represents religion itself; The most recommended process of spiritual upliftment in this age is saôkîrtana, the congregational glorification of the Lord through chanting His holy name. See Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Hare Kèëòa Mahâ-mantra, ISKCON, Saôkîrtana, Time.

Kaliôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province in ancient India.

Kâliya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the many-headed serpent chastised by Lord Kèëòa for poisoning a section of the Yamunâ River.

Kali: (sáns. vaiëòava). the black intense form of Lord Äiva's wife. She wears a necklace of skulls. Demigoddess to whom worshipers may offer meat. Durgâ-Lord Äiva 's wife in a fierce form, riding a tiger. The goddess is empowered by the Supreme Lord to preside over the material nature and bewilder the souls situated there into misconceiving themselves to be their material bodies and enjoyers and controllers of the mundane creation. She is very powerful, superseded only by Lord Viëòu Himself, and is the external manifestation of the Lord's internal potency, Yoga-mâyâ. Once a fallen soul takes to the path of God consciousness, she continues to offer various material allurements so as to test his sincerity and determination to serve the Lord. Once the Lord accepts the struggling soul she can no longer influence that soul and it is thus liberated.

Kalki: (sáns. vaiëòava). He is the tenth incarnation of Lord Viëòu. He arrives on a white horse at the end of Kali-yuga to annihilate all the remaining atheists.

Kalmaëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). sin.

Kalpa-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). lîlâ-avatâras appearing in each day of Brahmâ.

Kalpa-vèkëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). wish-fulfilling trees.

Kalpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Brahmâ's daytime, 4,320,000,000 years.

Kâma-dhenus: (sáns. vaiëòava). desire-fulfilling cows in Vèndâvana.

Kâma-gâyatrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vedic hymn which is composed of twenty-four and a half syllables.

Kâma-lekha: (sáns. vaiëòava). exchanges of letters between a young boy and young girl concerning their awakening of attachment for one another.

Kâmadhenu: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual cows, in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk.

Kamaòàalu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the water-pot carried by sannyâsîs.

Kâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). lust; the desire to gratify one's own senses; Desire, especially material desire and sexual desire; lust, as opposed to prema. See Prema.

Kâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). a high fever.

Kâmbhoja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province situated in the north western part of India.

Kâmpilya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the capital of King Drupada.

Kaêsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demoniac king of the Bhoja dynasty and maternal uncle of Kèëòa.

The son of Ugrasena. He imprisoned his father and took charge of the kingdom. He killed the first six children of Devakî. Kaêsa was killed by Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Kaòâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the propounder of Vaiäeëika philosophy, which states that atoms are the original cause of the creation.

Kâòaphâùâ-yogîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). beggars similar to gypsies who wear ivory earrings.

Kâòàas: (sáns. vaiëòava). three divisions of the Vedas.

Kaòika: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brâhmaòa minister of King Dhètarâëùra. He advised the King to kill his enemies by any means. (Âdi Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Kaniëùha-adhikârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a neophyte devotee in lowest stage of Vaiëòava life.

Kaôka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name Yudhiëùhira used during the last year of exile in the kingdom of Virâùa.

Kant, Immanuel: (sáns. vaiëòava). German rationalist philosopher, born in Kùnigsberg (now Kaliningrad) in 1724. He laid down what are known as the regulative principles of modern science, such as the law of the conservation of matter and the principle of causality. Kant gave the world the theory that the universe was formed out of a cloud of dust. He died in 1804. See Idealism, Rationalism.

Kanyâkumârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the virgin maiden; another name of the wife of Lord Äiva.

Kapha: (sáns. vaiëòava). mucus, one of the three major elements of the gross body.

Kèpî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sister of Kèpâcârya and the wife of Droòa. Her son was Aävatthâmâ.

Kapila: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of Kèëòa who appeared in Satya-yuga as the son of Devahûti and Kardama Muni and expounded the devotional Sâôkhya philosophy, the analysis of matter and spirit, as a means of cultivating devotional service to the Lord. (There is also an atheist named Kapila, but he is not an incarnation of the Lord.)

Kâraòa Ocean: (sáns. vaiëòava). the corner of the spiritual universe in which Lord Mahâ-Viëòu lies down to create the entirety of material universes.

Karaòâpâùava: (sáns. vaiëòava). imperfection of the material senses.

Kâraòodakaäâyî Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mahâ-Viëòu, the expansion of the Supreme Lord from whom all material universes emanate. He lies within the Causal Ocean and breathes out innumerable universes.

Karaôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). waterpot carried by sannyâsîs.

Karatâlas: (sáns. vaiëòava). hand cymbals used in kîrtana.

Kardama Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Lord Kapila and one of the chief forefathers of the population of the universe.

Karhai: (sáns. vaiëòava). a deep, rounded pan with handles on both sides, used for deep-frying or pan-frying.

Karma-bandhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). bondage to the reactions of fruitive activities.

Karma-bandha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the bondage of fruitive activities.

Karma-kâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the division of the Vedas which deals with fruitive activities performed for the purpose of gradual purification of the grossly entangled materialist; The path of fruitive work. One of the three departments of Vedic knowledge, karma-kâòàa is taught by Dakëa. See Apara-vidyâ, Jëâna-kâòàa, Upâsanâ-kâòàa.

Karma-kâòàîya: (sáns. vaiëòava). relating to karma-kâòàa.

Karma-mîmâêsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the six main Vedic philosophies. It states that the subtle laws of nature reward or punish one according to how one acts, without reference to an independent God; A doctrine of fruitive work taught by sage Jaimini. One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy. See Six systems.

Karma-niëùhas: (sáns. vaiëòava). those who consider devotional service to be fruitive activities.

Karma-tyâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the giving of the results of karma to the Supreme Lord.

Karma-vîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a successful fruitive worker.

Karma-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). action in devotional service; the path of God realization through dedicating the fruits of one's work to God.

Karmâtmaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). one whose mind is colored with fruitive activity.

Karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). 1. material action performed according to scriptural regulations; 2. action pertaining to the development of the material body; 3. any material action which will incur a subsequent reaction; 4. the material reaction one incurs due to fruitive activities; This Sanskrit word means 'action' or, more specifically, any material action that brings a reaction binding us to the material world. According to the law of karma, if we cause pain and suffering to other living beings, we must endure pain and suffering in return; One of the five tattvas, or Vedic ontological truths: the activity or work which the embodied living entity performs with the karmendriya, as well as the resultant reaction. The soul receives the due reaction to work by taking his next birth in a subhuman species, or the human species, or a superhuman species. Or the soul may be liberated from birth and death altogether. All this depends upon whether the karma performed within this lifetime is ignorant, passionate, good or transcendental.

Karma dedicated in sacrifice as directed by Vedic injunctions raises the quality of a human being's work. Sacrifice culminates in activity dedicated only to Lord Kèëòa's service. Such transcendental karma is called naiëkarma. See Liberation, Life after death, Reincarnation, Saêsâra, Supersoul, Tattva.

Karmendriya: (sáns. vaiëòava). The five working senses or organs of action: the mouth (with the double function of speaking and eating), the hands, the legs, the genitalia and the rectum.

Karmendriyas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the working senses.

Karmîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). fruitive laborers.

Karmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one engaged in kârma (fruitive activity); a materialist.

Karòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eldest son of Kuntî before her marriage to Pâòàu. She had received a mantra from Durvâsâ Muni that she could call any deva and conceive children. In her innocence she called Sûrya, the sun-god and conceived Karòa. She was forced to abandon the child out of fear of her relatives. Karòa was then raised by Adhiratha and Râdhâ. He fought against the Pâòàavas and was killed by Arjuna in the battle of Kurukëetra.

Kârëòas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the members of Lord Kèëòa's family.

Kathenotheism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek kth'n, one by one, plus thes, a god. A kathenotheist worships one god after another among a pantheon of gods, at intervals throughout the year. These gods are supposed to represent different facets of the absolute. See Atheism, Theism.

Kârttika: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of a Vedic month occurring around October-November of the solar calendar, in which the Dâmodara form of Lord Kèëòa is worshiped.

Kârttikeya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the younger son of Lord Äiva and Pârvatî. He is the presiding deity of warfare. Also known as Subrahmanya or Skanda.

Karuòa-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the indirect relationship of compassion.

Kâäamdi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a kind of pickle.

Kâäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the oldest sacred places of learning in India. The Purâòic name of the modern city of Benares in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the place of Lord Äiva and generally the followers of Lord Äiva live there. Ambâ, Ambikâ and Ambâlikâ were abducted by Bhîëma from this city. This was the site of Lord Caitanya's famous conversion of the leading impersonalist scholar of the day, Prakâäânanda Sarasvatî.

Kaäyapa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great saint who was the father of many demigods and also of the Supreme Lord's incarnation Vâmanadeva; one of the seven mental sons of Lord Brahmâ.

Kaùha Upaniëad: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the 108 Vedic scriptures known as Upaniëads.

Kathakali: (sáns. vaiëòava). Keralan religious dance.

Kâtyâyanî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material energy personified. She is also known as Durgâ and Kâlî and by many other names.

Kauàis: (sáns. vaiëòava). small conchshells.

Kaunteya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Kuntî (usually refers to Arjuna).

Kaupîna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the thick belt and underwear worn by saintly persons.

Kauravas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the descendants of King Kuru who fought against the Pâòàavas in the Battle of Kurukëetra.

Kaustubha gem: (sáns. vaiëòava). a jewel worn by Lord Viëòu, or Kèëòa, on His chest.

Kavacî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Karòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Kavi-karòapûra Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a noted sixteenth-century author of Sanskrit poems and plays. He is one of the leading followers of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Kâyastha caste: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Hindu community who are expert in managing business and government affairs; they are very reliable and faithful servants.

Kekaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province in ancient India. Five princes from this country joined with Yudhiëùhira in the battle of Kurukëetra, and they were killed by Droòa. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Keäa-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the false story of the incarnations of Kèëòa and Balarâma from respective black and white hairs of Këîrodakaäâyî Viëòu.

Kesava Kasmir: (sáns. vaiëòava). learned scholar in Caitanya-lila.

Keäava: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, who has fine, long black hair.

Kesava Gaudiya Matha: (sáns. vaiëòava). This temple was established by Srila Bhaktiprajnana Kesava Gosvami Maharaja, the sannyasa-guru of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The presiding Deities are Sri Sri Radha-vinoda-vihari.

Kevalâdvaita-vâdîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mâyâvâdî philosophers.

Kevala: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional platform of seeing the unlimited potency of Kèëòa but still considering oneself equal with Him; pure, uncontaminated emotion.

Keäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demon who attacked the inhabitants of Vèndâvana in the form of a wild horse but was killed by Lord Kèëòa.

Khâài: (sáns. vaiëòava). cotton cloth.

Khâjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a kind of light sweetmeat.

Khâòàavaprastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for Indraprastha. The forest in the part of the Kuru kingdom was devoured by Agni with the help of Lord Kèëòa and Arjuna.

Khaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a valley between two mountains; a section of a book.

Khasâdayaù: (sáns. vaiëòava). classes of lowborn men.

Khaùvâôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a saintly king who is famous for attaining unalloyed Kèëòa consciousness just moments before his death.

Khetari: (sáns. vaiëòava). birthplace and residence of the great Vaiëòava Ärîla Narottama dâsa Ùhâkura and site of a magnificent festival and Deity installation in which thousands of devotees took part, located in the West Bengal district of Rajasahi.

Kîcaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). brother-in-law of King Virâùa. He was killed during the last year of the Pâòàavas exile in the kingdom of Virâùa. When he lusted after Draupadî, he was killed by Bhîma.

Kikaùa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the present state of Gaya, in north-central India.

Kindama: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sage who was killed by Pâòàu in the forest. Kindama had taken the form of a deer and was enjoying sex with his wife. Pâòàu, thinking the deer fit for sacrifice, killed the deer and its mate. Before leaving his body, Kindama cursed Pâòàu to die while he was enjoying his wife.

Kinnaras: (sáns. vaiëòava). minor demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets. They can change their form at will.

Kirâta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mountainous region near modern Udaipur, Rajasthan, where Arjuna did penance. Lord Äiva took the form of a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna.

Kirîùî: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for Arjuna.

Kirmîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a fierce Râkëasa and the brother of Baka. He was killed by Bhîma during their exile in the forest. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Kîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). glorification of the Supreme Lord. Narrating or singing the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His Holy Names; the devotional process of chanting the names and glories of the Supreme Lord; A related Sanskrit word is kîrti (fame). Hence, kîrtana means to glorify, and saôkîrtana means to glorify congregationally, the fame of the Supreme Lord. Saôkîrtana is the yuga-dharma, or the main occupation and attribute of the present age (Kali-yuga). See Bhakti, Hare Kèëòa Mahâ-mantra, Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Saôkîrtana; Kèëòa Literally, the all-attractive Lord; the main Sanskrit name of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. Ärî Kèëòa is the source of all incarnations, and no one is equal to Him or greater than Him. The Vedas glorify His partial incarnations (which include the demigods), His impersonal Brahman effulgence, His almighty Nârâyaòa feature with four hands, and at last His superexcellent pastimes as the most sublime youth who herds millions of cows in the forest of Vèndâvana and dances with millions of cowherd girls (gopîs). There is nothing to compare with this, the two-armed form of the Lord, blackish like a rain cloud, with reddish lotus eyes and a world-enchanting smile. In the material world the owner of the body is called the soul, and the body is called a material designation. In the spiritual Vaikuòùha world, however, there is no such distinction. The owner of the body is not different from the body, for both are pure spirit. The divine body of Lord Kèëòa in Vaikuòùha is the first and the cynosure of all spiritual forms. He is eternal, and His appearance within the material world as an avatâra is perpetual. Kèëòa is personally Bhagavân, the possessor of six opulences in unlimited fullness: wealth, strength, beauty, knowledge, fame and renunciation.

Semi-personally and impersonally, Kèëòa is represented by the Supersoul and the brahmajyoti Besides all-attractive, the name Kèëòa also means the whole of existence and He who stops birth and death. Kèëòa has unlimited other names like Govinda, Gopâla, Mukunda and Hari. These holy names are nondifferent from Him and indicate the forms He displays in His various pleasure pastimes. See Avatâra, Bhagavân, Bhakti, Brahmajyoti, Brahman, Deity, ISKCON, Îävara, Lîlâ, Râdhârâòî, Supersoul, Spiritual world, Viëòu.

Kiäora-gopâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa as a young boy.

Kitava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great cheater.

Kleäa-ghnî: (sáns. vaiëòava). description of devotional service indicating that it reduces or nullifies all kinds of suffering.

Kosala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prosperous kingdom in ancient India. Bhîmasena conquered this country for Yudhiëùhira before the Râjasûya sacrifice.

Koùî: (sáns. vaiëòava). ten million.

Kovil: (sáns. vaiëòava). temple in Tamil Nadu.

Kratu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahmâ.

Krishnanagar: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town that is the government headquarters of a sub-division of the West Bengal district of Nadia. It is about ten miles east of Ärî Mâyâpura.

Kriyâ-hîna: (sáns. vaiëòava). devoid of spiritual behavior.

Kriyâ-vidhâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). injunctions for Vedic rituals.

Krodha: (sáns. vaiëòava). anger.

Kèpâ-siddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who as attained perfection by the mercy of superior authorities.

Kèpâ-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). perfection attained simply by the blessings of the Lord or a great devotee.

Kèpâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Äaradvân. He was a brâhmaòa by birth, but was inclined to the duties of a këatriya. He learned the Dhanur Veda from his father, and taught the sons of Dhètarâëùra and the sons of Pâòàu what he had learned from his father. Due to politics he took the side of Duryodhana during the battle of Kurukëetra. He later became the teacher of Mahârâja Parîkëit.

Kèpaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a miserly man who wastes his life by not striving for spiritual realization.

Krpâ-siddihi: (sáns. vaiëòava). perfection attained simply by the blessings of a great devotee or transcendentalist.

Kèëòa Dvaipâyana: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name of Ärîla Vyâsadeva.

Kèëòa-âkarëiòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). description of pure devotional service indicating that it gradually attracts Kèëòa toward the devotee.

Kèëòa-bahirmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). bereft of one's relationship with Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee of Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotion to Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-dâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). servant of Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). doing all work for the sake of Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-kathâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). discussions or topics spoken by or about Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-kîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the chanting of Kèëòa's name and pastimes.

Kèëòa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the transcendental pastimes of Lord Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-pâriëada: (sáns. vaiëòava). associates of the Lord.

Kèëòa-prasâdam: (sáns. vaiëòava). Prasâda, or prasâdam-"the mercy of Lord Kèëòa." Food prepared for the pleasure of Kèëòa and offered to Him with love and devotion. Because Kèëòa tastes the offering, the food becomes spiritualized and purifies anyone who eats it. See also: Mahâ-prasâdam

Kèëòa-prema-dhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the treasure of love for Kèëòa.

Kèëòa-viraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the feeling of spiritual separation from Kèëòa.

Kèëòadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmi: (sáns. vaiëòava). author of the immortal Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta, considered the greatest work on the life and philosophy of Lord Caitanya. He composed it in his nineties, despite bodily infirmity. This book is especially revered by Gauàîya Vaiëòavas. He was ordered by Lord Nityânanda in a dream to go to Vèndâvana where he studied the Gosvâmî literature under the direction of Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî.

Kèëòaliôgita-vigraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual master, who is always embraced by Kèëòa.

Kèëòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name of Draupadî.

Kèëòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the original, two-armed form of the Supreme Lord, who is the origin of all expansions.

Kèëòe matir astu: (sáns. vaiëòava). greeting of Vaiëòava sannyâsîs meaning "Let your attention be on Kèëòa."

Krënaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the planet in the spiritual world where Krëna resides. See also: Goloka Vèndâvana

Kèta-yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). Satya-yuga.

Kètavarmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of the Vèòài dynasty, and the son of Hâdîka. He took the side of Duryodhana during the battle of Kurukëetra. He was killed during the fratricidal war of the Yadus.

Këattâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Vidura.

Këara: (sáns. vaiëòava). perishable.

Këatradeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Äikhaòàî. He was killed by Lakëmaòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Këatradharman: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Dhèëùadyumna. He was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Këatrañjaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Dhèëùadyumna. He was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Këatravarman: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Dhèëùadyumna. He was killed by Droòa during the Kurukëetra war.

Këatriya: (sáns. vaiëòava). third of the four orders of the varòâärama system. A warrior who is inclined to fight and lead others. The administrative or protective occupation according to the system of four social and spiritual orders.

Këepaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). subordinate ecstatic symptoms, including dancing and bodily contortions; a division of anubhâva.

Këetra-sannyâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). vow to leave household life and live in a place of pilgrimage devoted to Lord Viëòu.

Këetrajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is conscious of the body. Both the soul and the Supersoul are këetrajña, for the individual soul is conscious of his own particular body and the Supersoul is conscious of the bodies of all living beings.

Këetra: (sáns. vaiëòava). field of activities, the body of the conditioned soul.

Këîrodakaäâyî Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Viëòu expansion of the Supreme Lord who enters within each atom and between each atom of the universe and enters the heart of every living entity. He is also called the Supersoul.

Këîracorâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Gopînâtha Deity who stole condensed milk for Mâdhavendra Purî.

Këudhâ-tèëòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). hunger and thirst.

Ku-viëaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). sense gratificatory activities performed under sinful conditions.

Kuäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). an auspicious grass used in Vedic rituals and sacrifices.

Kulaäekhara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great devotee-king and the author of Mukunda-mâlâ stotra, prayers to Lord Kèëòa.

Kulâcala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place where there is no disturbance.

Kumâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). four learned ascetic sons of Lord Brahmâ appearing eternally as children, who became great devotees of the Lord and great authorities on devotional service; Four sons of Brahmâ, named Sanat, Sanandana, Sanaka and Sanâtana, who are incarnations of the jñâna-äakti (power of knowledge) of Lord Viëòu. They live for the entire duration of universal time, but appear as children of only 5 years. One of the four Vaiëòava sampradâyas is called the Kumâra Sampradâya. They are its original founders.

Kumbha-melâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a fair held every twelve years at Prayâga for spiritual upliftment; attended by people from all over India.

Kumbhaka-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). complete stoppage of the air currents within the body as part of the eightfold mystic process.

Kumbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). pitcher.

Kumera: (sáns. vaiëòava). a variety of sweet potato with a rich, orange colour, popular in New Zealand.

Kuòàadhâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Kuòàaja: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Kuòàalî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Kuòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). small lake or pond.

Kuòàodara: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma during the battle of Kurukëetra. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Kuôkuma: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sweetly-flavored reddish cosmetic powder which is thrown on the bodies of worshipable persons, also used by married women to decorate their foreheads.

Kuntî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mother of the Pâòàavas and Lord Kèëòa's aunt in the Mahâbhârata. She was the daughter of Äûrasena and the sister of Vasudeva. She was adopted by King Kuntîbhoja and later married King Pâòàu. Her other name is Pèthâ.

Kuntibhoja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of the Yadu dynasty, and the foster father of Kuntî. He took the side of the Pâòàavas during the Kurukëetra war.

Kurara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a type of osprey (female kurarî).

Kûrma Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas. It describes the pastimes of Lord Kèëòa's tortoise incarnation.

Kûrma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord's incarnation as a tortoise.

Kurta: (sáns. vaiëòava). Indian shirts pullover.

Kurukëetra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a holy place due to the penances of King Kuru. It was here that the great Mahâbhârata war was fought; situated about ninety miles north of New Delhi where Lord Kèëòa spoke the Bhagavad-gîtâ to Arjuna, five thousand years ago. It is a place of pilgrimage.

Kurus: (sáns. vaiëòava). all of the descendants of King Kuru, but specifically the 100 sons of Dhètarâëùra. The Pâòàavas were also descendants of King Kuru, but Dhètarâëùra wished to exclude them from the family tradition; enemies of the Pâòàavas.

Kuru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the founder of the dynasty in which the Pâòàavas, as well as their archrivals, the sons of Dhètarâëùra, took birth.

Kutârkikas: (sáns. vaiëòava). false logicians.

Kuùîcaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first stage of the sannyâsa order. The kuùîcaka lives in a hut nearby his village, and his family brings him food.

Kuùi-nâùi: (sáns. vaiëòava). duplicity or fault-finding.

Kuùùamita: (sáns. vaiëòava). happy within the heart, but externally angry and offended.

Kuùumbinî: (sáns. vaiëòava). intelligence.

Kuvera: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the important demigods in heaven, and the treasurer of wealth. He benedicted the Pâòàavas during their exile in the forest; father of Nalakûvara and Maòigrîva.

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