jueves, 29 de julio de 2010

Vedabase - Glossary - A

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Glossary of Vedabase

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Abduction: (sáns. vaiëòava). Also called retroduction. It is the acceptance of a philosophical premise on the basis of its power to account for causation with logic and evidence. Abduction is the rational justification of a deduction. Deduction per se is the acceptance of a premise on authority. The term abduction was put forward by C.S. Peirce (1839-1914). Ärîla Prabhupâda termed a similar method of Vedic thought philosophical speculation. See Deduction, Induction, Logic.

Absolute: (sáns. vaiëòava). The root comes from the Latin absolutus, the perfect or the completed (derived from the verbum absolvere, to detach, to free, to acquit). The term was introduced into Western philosophy in the fifteenth century by Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464).

The absolute is the ultimate, underlying and all-inclusive reality that depends upon nothing else for its existence. All other things depend upon it. The absolute is substance as it is, rather than as we perceive it. See Brahman, Reality, Relativism, Substance.

A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîla Prabhupâda (1896-1977) His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda. He is the tenth generation from Caitanya Mahâprabhu. The founder-âcârya, spiritual master of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). Ärîla Prabhupâda was the widely-acclaimed author of more than seventy books on the science of pure bhakti-yoga, unalloyed Kèëòa consciousness. His major works are annotated English translations of the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, the Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta, and the Bhagavad-gîtâ As It Is. He was the world's most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought. Ärîla Prabhupâda was a fully God conscious saint who had perfect realization of the Vedic scriptures. He worked incessantly to spread Kèëòa consciousness all over the world. He guided his society and saw it grow to a worldwide confederation of hundreds of ashrams, schools, temples, institutes, and farm communities.

Âbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a shadow.

Abhaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Abhidheya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the regulated activities of the soul for reviving his relationship with the Lord; devotional service.

Abhimanyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heroic son Arjuna and Subhadrâ. He was killed by the Son of Duìäâsana. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Abhiëeka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a bathing ceremony, particularly for the coronation of a king or the installation of the Lord's Deity form.

Absolute Truth: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ultimate source of all energies.

Acala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brother of Äakuni. He was killed by Arjuna. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Âcamana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a ritual of purification in which one sips water and simultaneously chants names of the Supreme Lord.

Âcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a spiritual master who teaches by his own example, and who sets the proper religious example for all human beings.

Acchha: (sáns. vaiëòava). good, 0K, all right.

Acintya-bhedâbheda-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Caitanya's "simultaneously one and different" doctrine, which establishes the inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference of the Lord and His expansions.

Acintya-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the inconceivable energy of the Supreme Lord.

Acintya: (sáns. vaiëòava). inconceivable.

Acit: (sáns. vaiëòava). the inert material nature; without life or consciousness

Acyutâyus: (sáns. vaiëòava). he fought on the side of Duryodhana. He and his brother Ärutâyus were killed by Arjuna. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Acyuta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can never fall down from His position.

Adbhuta-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the indirect relationship of wonder or amazement.

Âdeäa-kârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the actions resulting from sinful activities.

Adhama paëuyâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). degraded scholars who consider devotional activities material.

Adhama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lowest among men.

Adharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). irreligion.

Adhîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). restless ecstasy of love for Kèëòa.

Âdhibhautika-kleäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). miseries inflicted by other living entities.

Adhibhautika: (sáns. vaiëòava). (misery) caused by other living beings.

Adhibhûtam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the physical nature.

Adhidaivatam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the universal form of the Supreme Lord.

Adhidaivic powers: (sáns. vaiëòava). the administrative functions delegated by the Lord to demigods, such as control over rain, wind and sun.

Âdhidaivika-kleäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). natural disturbances caused by the demigods.

Adhidaivika: (sáns. vaiëòava). (misery) caused by nature.

Adhikârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who knows the science of Kèëòa and is engaged in His service.

Adhiratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). foster father of Karòa. He was a charioteer by profession. He one day found the child Karòa floating in Ganges in a basket. His wife was barren and happily he took the child home and gave it to his wife. He was also the father of Sangramajit.

Adhirûëha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an advanced symptom of mahâ-bhâva found only in the gopîs.

Adhiyajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supersoul, the plenary expansion of the Lord in the heart of every living being.

Adhokëaja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond material sense perception, who is not perceivable by impure material senses; Revealed knowledge. The fourth of the five stages of Vedic knowledge.

Âdhyâtmika: (sáns. vaiëòava). miseries arising from one's own body and mind.

Adhyâtma-cetasâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who depends solely on Kèëòa.

Adhyâtmika: (sáns. vaiëòava). (misery) caused by one's own body and mind.

Âdi-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first twenty-four years of Lord Caitanya's pastimes.

Âdi-puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, the original person.

Aditi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mother of the demigods.

Âdityas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigods who are descendants of Kaäyapa Muni's wife, Aditi.

Advaita Prabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). Advaitâcârya-an incarnation of Lord Mahâ-Viëòu, who appeared as one of the four principal associates of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu.Advaitâcârya.

Advaita-siddhânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conclusion of the monists, namely, that the Absolute Truth and the individual living entity are separate in the material state, but that when they are spiritually situated there is no difference between them.

Advaita-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the philosophy of absolute oneness taught by Äaôkarâcârya, and whose conclusion is advaita-siddhânta.

Advaita-vâdîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). atheistic philosophers who say all distinctions are but material illusions.

Mayâvâdî-one who propounds the philosophy of Äaôkarâcârya, which basically holds that God is featureless and impersonal, that devotion to a personal Godhead is false, the material creation of the Lord is also false, and the ultimate goal of life is to become existentially one with the all-pervading, impersonal Absolute.

Advaitâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of Lord Mahâ-Viëòu, who appeared as one of the four principal associates of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Advaitin: (sáns. vaiëòava). A follower of the teaching.

Advaita: (sáns. vaiëòava). Oneness (from a, not and dvaita, duality). The system of Vedânta philosophy put forward by Äaôkarâcârya is known as Advaita Vedânta. It argues for a monistic, impersonal absolute truth. See Dvaita, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Äaôkarâcârya, Vedânta; nondual; without differentiation.

Âgamas: (sáns. vaiëòava). authorized Vedic literatures; also, specifically the Pañcarâtras.

Agastya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mind.

Agastya Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage who authored many Vedic hymns and writings on Âyurvedic medicine. The son of Mitra and Varuòa, he was born from a water jar. Once he swallowed the ocean and forced the Vindhya mountain range to prostrate itself before him. Who helped the demigods defeat the Danavas by drinking up the ocean they were hiding in. He also gave the brahmashira weapon to Drona.

Aghana: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental bliss that is incomplete (lit. "not concentrated").

Âgneyâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a powerful weapon belonging to the demigod Agni. Arjuna received this weapon from his preceptor, Droòa.

Agnihotra-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremonial fire sacrifice offered to the demigod Agni performed in Vedic rituals.

Agnistoma: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacrifice performed by a person who wants go to heaven. A minimum of sixteen priests are required for this sacrifice, which lasts five days.

Agni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod who controls fire. He took the form of a brâhmaòa and begged charity from Lord Kèëòa and Arjuna. He then consumed the Khâòàava forest.

Agrahâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the month of Mârgaäirëa (November/December). In contemporary Vaiëòavism it is known as the month of Keäava.

Ahaitukî: (sáns. vaiëòava). without cheating motivation.

Ahaitukî-kèpâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord or His bonafide representative.

Ahaê brahmâsmi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vedic aphorism "I am spirit."

Ahaê mâmeti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the false conception of "I" and "mine (SB 5.5.8)."

Ahaôgraha-upâsanâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Mâyâvâdî's worship of his own body as the Supreme; self-worship in general.

Ahaôkâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). false ego, by which the soul misidentifies with the material body.

Âhlâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental bliss.

Ahiêsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). nonviolence.

Aiävarya-jñâna-yukta: (sáns. vaiëòava). emotion with an understanding of the Lord's full opulences.

Aiävarya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord's pastimes of opulence.

Aja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is unborn.

Âjagara-vètti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the occupation of a python

Ajâmila: (sáns. vaiëòava). a fallen brâhmaòa who was saved from hell by unintentionally chanting the Lord's name at the time of death.

Ajam: (sáns. vaiëòava). unborn.

Ajita: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord who is unconquerable.

Ajñâta-sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious or devotional activity performed accidentally, without knowledge of its effect.

Ajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a description of Kèëòa indicating that nothing is unknown to Him.

Akâma-bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who serves the Lord without material motive.

Akarma (naiskarma): (sáns. vaiëòava). action for which one suffers no reaction because it is performed in Kèëòa consciousness; free from material desire; one who is desireless.

Âkâäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). sky.

Akhila-rasâmèta-mûrti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the transcendental form of attraction for all kinds of devotees.

Akiñcana-gocara: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa, who is easily approached by those who are materially exhausted.

Akiñcana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who possesses nothing in the material world.

Akrûra: (sáns. vaiëòava). an uncle of Lord Kèëòa. A hero of the Yadu dynasty.

Akëauhiòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a military division consisting of 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 109,350 infantrymen and 65,610 horsemen.

Âkûti: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of Svâyambhuva Manu's three daughters and the wife of Ruci.

Alakâpurî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the residence ot Kuvera, the treasurer of the demigods. It sits on a peak in the Himâlayas.

Alambuëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Râkëasa who was killed by Ghaùotkaca. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Âlasya: (sáns. vaiëòava). laziness, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Alâyudha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Râkëasa who fought on the side of Duryodhana. He was killed by Ghaùotkaca. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Alolupa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Alu:(sáns. vaiëòava). potato

Alwars: (sáns. vaiëòava). Tamil Nadu saints who were devotees of Lord Viëòu.

Âmalakî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a tree that Nârada Muni brought from the spiritual world to the material realm to please the Supreme Lord. Its fruits are very rich in vitamin C.

Âmânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). food that is not offered to Lord Jagannâtha.

Amarakoäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Sanskrit dictionary and thesaurus widely used in the teaching of Sanskrit.

Amarâvatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the capital city of Lord Indra's heavenly abode. It has the power of greatly extending the life span of its residents.

Amarëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). anger, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Amâtya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the governor of the senses, the mind.

Amâvasyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the dark-moon night, or the night of the new moon, when various sacrifices are offered to both demigods and demons.

Ambâlikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Youngest of the daughters of the King of Kâäi. She was married to Vicitravîrya. When Vicitravîrya died early, she begot Pâòàu by the great sage Vyâsa. (Âdi Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Ambarîëa Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great devotee-king who perfectly executed all nine devotional practices (hearing, chanting, etc.). A great king glorified by Narada Muni.

Ambâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Older sister of Ambikâ and Ambâlikâ and daughter of the King of Kâäi. She was abducted by Bhîëma during her svayaêvara, but she wanted to marry Äâlva. She did penance to please Lord Äiva and she received a benediction she could take birth in her next life as a son of King Drupada. (Âdi Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Ambikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Second daughter of the King of Kâäi. She married Vicitravîrya. Later when Vicitravîrya died, she begot Dhètarâëùra by the great sage Vyâsa. (Âdi Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Amètatva: (sáns. vaiëòava). eternal life.

Amèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). nectar, the food of the gods, which makes the drinker immortal.

Aêäâveäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). partial incarnations of God.

Aêäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). an expansion of the Supreme Lord.

Âmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). technical term for a drama's introduction, further classified into five kinds.

Angrezi: (sáns. vaiëòava). English. The term is extended in Vrndavan to mean 'foreigner'. Atma-hanah: (sáns. vaiëòava). killer of the soul; one who neglects spiritual life.

Anâdi: (sáns. vaiëòava). since time immemorial.

Analysis: (sáns. vaiëòava). A term similar in meaning to the Sanskrit sâôkhya. It comes from the Greek an (up) plus lyein (to loosen, to untie), meaning to resolve into its elements. Analysis is the procedure of separating a problem into its component parts in order to 1) study the parts separately, 2) study their interrelationships, or 3) study how they relate to the whole. See Elements, Sâôkhya.

Anamra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who offers obeisances to no one.

Ânandamaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). full of bliss in spiritual realization; Kèëòa consciousness.

Ânanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual, transcendental bliss.

Ananta-caturdaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). date of the yearly festival commemorating the passing away of Haridâsa Ùhâkura.

Ananta-Äeëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of the Supreme Lord in the form of His thousand-headed serpent, on which Viëòu rests, and who sustains the planets on His hoods.

Anantavijaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). name of King Yudhiëùhira's conchshell.

Ananta: (sáns. vaiëòava). unlimited.

Anapekëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). indifference to mundane people.

Anaranya: (sáns. vaiëòava). King of Iksvaku dynasty, killed by Râvaòa. When dying he cursed Râvaòa to be killed by Râma.

Anartha-nivètti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a stage in the progressive development of devotion to Lord Kèëòa in which one is freed from unwanted desires and karmic reactions; cleansing the heart of all unwanted things.

Anavasara: (sáns. vaiëòava). period of a fortnight between bathing ceremony and Ratha-yâtrâ when the body of the Jagannâtha Deity is repainted.

Âòdal: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the famous devotees, or Âlvârs, who lived in South India before Râmânuja.

Aôga Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of King Vena.

Aôga-râga: (sáns. vaiëòava). repainting of the body of Lord Jagannâtha.

Aôgirâ Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the seven sages of the first Manvantara, all of whom were born directly from Lord Brahmâ. One of the Prajâpatis, he is the author of the Vedic writings on astronomy.

Anilâyâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). Prâòâyâma-breath control used in yoga practice, especially aëùâôga-yoga (one of the eight parts of the aëùanga-yoga system).

Aòimâ-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). mystic power by which one can become as small as an atom so that he can enter into stone.

Aniruddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a grandson of Lord Kèëòa; also one of the four original expansions of Lord Kèëòa in the spiritual world.

Anna-prâäana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremony of offering a child his first food grains; one of the ten purificatory saêskâras.

Annamaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). (consciousness) absorbed only in food.

Annapurna: (sáns. vaiëòava). Durgâ manifested in her form of supplier of food.

Anna: (sáns. vaiëòava). food grains.

Antaraôga-sevâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). service performed in one's spiritual body.

Antardhâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vijitâäva, the eldest son of King Pèthu.

Antarikëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). outer space.

Antaryâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the expansion of the Supreme Lord situated in everyone's heart as Supersoul, the indwelling controller.

Anthropomorphism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek nthropos (man) and morph (form, shape, figure), it is an induction of the Supreme Being's form, emotions, interests, etc. drawn from human experience: God in the image of man, instead of man in the image of God. See Induction, Mechanomorphism.

Antya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the last eighteen years of Lord Caitanya's pastimes.

Antyajas: (sáns. vaiëòava). an outcaste.

Aòu-atma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the minute spirit soul, who is part and parcel of Kèëòa.

Anubhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). bodily symptoms manifested by a devotee in ecstatic love for Kèëòa.

Anukara: (sáns. vaiëòava). imitating.

Anumâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). Reason, thought, philosophical speculation. The second of the three Vaiëòava pramâòas. See Pramâòa, Pratyakëa, Rationalism, Reflective thinking, Äabda.

Anurâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). subattachment in ecstatic love of God.

Anurasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). second-class type of rasâbhâsa, occurring when something is derived from the original mellow.

Anusara: (sáns. vaiëòava). trying to follow in the footsteps.

Anusûyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wig of Atri Muni, the sage among the demigods. She is the mother of three-headed Lord Dattâtreya.

Anuvinda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a King of Avanti. He and his brother, Vinda, were the brothers of Mitravindâ, who was married to Lord Ärî Kèëòa. Both brothers were inimical to Lord Kèëòa and were killed by Arjuna. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Apâna-vâyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the internal bodily airs which is controlled by the aëùâôga-yoga system. The apâna-vâyu travels downwards.

Aparâ prakèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the inferior material energy of the Lord.

Apara-vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vedic knowledge of mind and matter that includes logic, grammar, astrology, medicine, social organization, martial arts, music, dance and so on (as distinct from para-vidyâ, the science of God). The karma-kâòàa and jñâna-kâòàa scriptures make up the apara-vidyâ of the Vedas. See Avidyâ, Jëâna-kâòàa, Karma-kâòàa, Para-vidyâ; material knowledge.

Aparâdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an offense.

Aparâjita: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîmasena. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Aparasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). third-class type of rasâbhâsa, occurring when something is appreciated that is far removed from the original mellow.

Aparokëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Direct knowledge. The third of the five stages of Vedic knowledge.

Apasmâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). forgetfulness, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Apauruëeya: (sáns. vaiëòava). not made by man (that is, revealed by God); A term to describe the divine origin of the Vedas.

Apavarga: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberation from pavarga, the miseries of material existence.

Apavitra-anna: (sáns. vaiëòava). food that is unacceptable for a Vaiëòava.

Aprakaùa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the unmanifested pastimes of the Lord.

Aprâkèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual, or antimaterial, transcendental to material nature; The fifth of the five stages of Vedic knowledge.

Aprameya: (sáns. vaiëòava). immeasurable.

Apratihatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). uninterrupted.

Apsarâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a heavenly courtesan. The most beautiful women in the heavenly planets, who are expert at dancing.

Ârati: (sáns. vaiëòava). a ceremony in which one greets and worships the Lord in the Deity form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by offering Him incense, a flame in a lamp with ghee-soaked wicks, a flame in a lamp containing camphor, water in a conchshell, a fine cloth, a fragrant flower, a peacock-feather, and yak-tail wisk, accompanied by bell-ringing and chanting.

Aravindakëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of the Lord meaning one whose eyes are as beautiful as lotus petals.

Arcâ-mûrti: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Arcâ-vigraha below.

Arcâ-vigraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an authorized form of God manifested through material elements, as in a painting or statue of Kèëòa worshiped in a temple or home. Actually present in this form, the Lord accepts worship from His devotees.

Arcana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the procedures followed for worshiping the arcâ-vigraha, the Deity in the temple; engaging all the senses in the service of the Lord.

Arcana naturae (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). The secrets of nature. See New Philosophy.

Arci: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of King Pèthu.

Arbuda-arbuda: (sáns. vaiëòava). various types of äravaòa and kîrtana of the Supreme Lord's name, quality, form and so on.

Ardha-bâhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). half-external consciousness.

Arghya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a ceremonious offering, in a conchshell, of water and other auspicious items.

Ari: (sáns. vaiëòava). impediments like disease.

Ariëùâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demon who took the form of a bull and tried to kill Lord Kèëòa.

Aristotle: (sáns. vaiëòava). Greek philosopher who taught in the fourth century before Christ (384-322 BC). Aristotle studied under Plato for almost twenty years, then went on to start his own school of thought. He was very interested in what the Bhagavad-gîtâ calls the field of knowledge, which he analyzed minutely according to his own system. He was less concerned with the knower of the field, the soul. He defined the soul as What it is to be for a body of the character just assigned (De anima, 412b). In other words, if an axe was a product of nature, then its characteristic body or form would be its soul. (The axe example is Aristotle's own.)

Arjama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod in charge of Pitèloka, the planet were qualified departed ancestors reside.

Ârjava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brother of Äakuni who was killed by Irâvân. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Arjuna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third son of Pâòàu and intimate friend of Lord Kèëòa. After Pâòàu was cursed by a sage, Kuntî used a special mantra to beget children and called for the demigod Indra. By the union of Indra and Kuntî, Arjuna was born. In his previous life he was Nara, the eternal associate of Lord Nârâyaòa. Kèëòa became his chariot driver and spoke the Bhagavad-gîtâ to him on the battlefield of Kurukëetra; An eternal associate of Kèëòa.

Artha: (sáns. vaiëòava). economic development.

Aruòa gems: (sáns. vaiëòava). rubies decorating Kèëòa's flute.

Aryamâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod in charge of Pitèloka, the planet where qualified departed ancestors reside.

Aryan: (sáns. vaiëòava). a follower of Vedic culture. A person whose goal is spiritual advancement. He truly knows the value of life and has a civilization based on spiritual realization.

Asamanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of the solar dynasty, son of Sagara, known for his cruelty.

Asaêskèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). unreformed.

Asâôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). detachment from material consciousness.

Âsana: (sáns. vaiëòava). seat, or throne; a sitting posture in yoga practice.

Asat-saôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the association of nondevotees.

Asat: (sáns. vaiëòava). not eternal, temporary.

Ashoka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king who spread Buddhism in India in the 3rd century BC.

Asita: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient authority on the Vedas.

Aäoka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a tree with long, pointed leaves. Goddess Sîtâ was placed under an aäoka tree after being kidnapped by Râvaòa.

Âärama: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four spiritual orders of life-brahmacârî-âärama, or student life; Gèhasta-âärama, or married life; vânaprastha, or retired life; and sannyâsa-âärama, or the renounced order of life; the home of the spiritual master, a place where spiritual practices are executed.

Âäraya-vigraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the manifestation of the Lord of whom one must take shelter.

Âäraya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Transcendence, who is the source and support of all; the worshiper.

Aëtavakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a boy sage who won a debate in the court of King Janaka.

Aëùa-siddhis: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eight mystic perfections acquired through yoga practice.

Aëùâôga-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eightfold system of mystic yoga, propounded by Pataëjali, meant for realizing the presence of Paramâtmâ, the Lord in the heart.

Aëùakâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eighth day after the full moon.

Aëùânga-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). (aëùa=eight + aôga=part) a mystic yoga system propounded by Pataëjali in his Yoga-sûtras and consisting of eight parts-yama, niyama, âsana, prâòâyâma, pratyâhâra, dhâraëâ, dhyâna and samâdhi, progressing from moral practices to deep meditation on God.

Aëùâvakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the founder of Mâyâvâda philosophy, which declares that the spiritual effulgence (Brahman) is the cause of all causes.

Asuraê bhavam âärita: (sáns. vaiëòava). persons who are openly atheistic.

Asura: (sáns. vaiëòava). demon, one who does not follow the principles of scripture, atheist, gross materialist. One who is envious of God, and is averse to the supremacy and service of the Supreme Lord, Viëòu.

Âäutoëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Äiva, who is very easily satisfied when one worships him. Äiva-the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Asûyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). jealousy, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Aävamedha-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vedic horse sacrifice. One of eight recommended in the Vedic scriptures, it is performed by kings.

Aëvatthâmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Droòa. He was a friend of Duryodhana and fought on his side during the Kurukëetra battle. He lived through the battle of Kurukëetra, but was cursed by Lord Ärî Kèëòa. He killed the five sons of Draupadî when they were awakening from sleep and attempted to kill Parîkëit when he was in the womb of Uttarâ.

Âävina: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third month of the four-month Câturmâsya fast.

Aävinî deities: (sáns. vaiëòava). demigods in charge of the nostrils and sense of smell.

Aävinîkumâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). Demigods who begot Nakula and Sahadeva in the womb of Mâdrî, the wife of Pâòàu.

Atattva-jña: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has no knowledge of the Absolute Truth.

Atharva Veda: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself, consisting primarily of formulas and chants designed to counteract the effects of disease and calamity.

Atheism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek theos (a, not and thes, God). In it most blatant form, atheism argues that God does not exist. The proof of that claim is that He is not available to our sensory inspection. Also, religious doctrines that oppose theism are not theistic, hence atheistic. As explained in the entry for theism, the Vedic account of Lord Kèëòa's immanence and transcendence is the clearest demonstration of the standard definition of theism. To oppose Vaiëòava philosophy is therefore to court atheism.

Much of what passes for religion is actually atheism in pious disguise. Atheism disguised as religion is called Deism, Semi-deism, Dualism, Henotheism, Kathenotheism, Panpsychism, Pantheism, and Polytheism. These entries, together with the entry for Theism, may be consulted for a clearer understanding.

Authoritarianism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The view that knowledge cannot be questioned, as opposed to the free spirit of inquiry.

Atibâri-sampradâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). bogus disciplic succession coming from an Orissan named Jagannâtha dâsa, who was a contemporary of Lord Caitanya. Initially, he was a follower of Haridâsa Ùhâkura, but he later rejected him.

Âtma-nivedana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of surrendering everything to the Lord.

Âtma-samarpaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). full surrender to Kèëòa without reservation.

Âtma-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual science.

Âtmârâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is self-satisfied, free from external, material desires.

Âtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the self (refers sometimes to the body, sometimes to the soul, and sometimes to the senses).

Atri Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the seven great sages born directly from Brahmâ;. He is the husband of Anusûyâ and father of the Lord's incarnation Dattâtreya. He contributed to the knowledge of astronomy.

Augrya: (sáns. vaiëòava). violence, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Autsukya: (sáns. vaiëòava). eagerness, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Avadhûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a very saintly and renounced person who may live outside regulative principles, having surpassed any need for them.

Avadhûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is above all rules and regulations.

Avahitthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). concealment, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Avaiëòava: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is not a Vaiëòava.

Âvaraëâtmikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). mâyâ's "covering" power, by which a conditioned soul feels satisfied in any condition of life.

Avara: (sáns. vaiëòava). material.

Avaroha-panthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the descending process of receiving revealed knowledge; inductive and deductive process of knowledge.

Avatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). literally means "one who descends." A partially or fully empowered incarnation of the Lord who descends from the spiritual sky to the material universe with a particular mission described in scriptures; When Kèëòa descends from the world of spirit into the world of matter, His appearance here is called avatâra. The Sanskrit term avatâra (one who descends) is often rendered into English as incarnation. It is wrong, however, to think that Kèëòa incarnates in a body made of physical elements.

The Seventh and Eighth Chapters of Bhagavad-gîtâ distinguish at length between the material nature (apara-prakèti), visible as the temporary substances of earth, water, fire, air and ethereal space, and God's own spiritual nature (para-prakèti), which is invisible (avyakta), eternal (sanâtana) and infallible (akëara). When the Lord descends, by His mercy the invisible becomes visible. As He Himself states in Bg. 4.6, I descend by My own nature, appearing in My form of spiritual energy (prakètiê svâm adhiëùhâya sambhavâmy âtma-mâyayâ). In Bg. 4.9 He declares, janma karma ca me divyam, My appearance and activities are divine. God has many avatâras. But of all of them, that form described in Bg. 11.50 as the most beautiful (saumya-vapu) is His own original form (svakaê rûpam). This is the eternal form of Ärî Kèëòa, the all-charming lotus-eyed youth whose body is the shape of spiritual ecstasy. SB 1.3.28 confirms that Kèëòa is the original form of Viëòu: ete câêäa-kalâù puêsaù kèëòas tu bhagavân svayam indrâri-vyâkulaê lokaê mèàayanti yuge yuge, which means, All of the incarnations of Viëòu listed in the scriptures are expansions of the Lord. Lord Ärî Kèëòa is the original Personality of Godhead. All avatâras appear in the world whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists. The Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam also provides us with the authorized list of scheduled incarnations of Godhead, of whom the Daäâvatâra (ten avatâras) are particularly celebrated. The ten are 1) Matsya (the Lord's form of a gigantic golden fish), 2) Kûrma (the turtle), 3) Varâha (the boar), 4) Ärî Nèsiêha (the half-man, half-lion form), 5) Paraäurâma (the hermit who wields an axe), 6) Vâmana (the small brâhmaòa boy), 7) Ärî Râmacandra (the Lord of Ayodhya), 8) Ärî Baladeva (Lord Kèëòa's brother), 9) Buddha (the sage who cheated the atheists), and 10) Kalki (who will depopulate the world of all degraded, sinful men at the end of the present age of Kali). There are two broad categories of avatâras. Some, like Ärî Kèëòa, Ärî Râma and Ärî Nèsiêha, are Viëòu-tattva, i.e. direct forms of God Himself, the source of all power. Others are individual souls (jîva-tattva) who are empowered by the Lord in one or more of the following seven ways: with knowledge, devotion, creative ability, personal service to God, rulership over the material world, power to support planets, or power to destroy rogues and miscreants. This second category of avatâra is called äaktyâveäa. Included herein are Buddha, Christ and Muhammed. The Mâyâvâdîs think that form necessarily means limitation. God is omnipresent, unlimited and therefore formless, they argue. When He reveals His avatâra form within this world, that form, being limited in presence to a particular place and time, cannot be the real God. It is only an indication of God. But the fact is that it is not God's form that is limited. It is only the Mâyâvâdîs' conception of form that is limited, because that conception is grossly physical. God's form is of the nature of supreme consciousness.

Being spiritual, it is called sûkëma, most subtle. There is no contradiction between the omnipresence of something subtle and its having form. The most subtle material phenomena we can perceive is sound. Sound may be formless (as noise) or it may have form (as music). Because sound is subtle, its having form does not affect its ability to pervade a huge building. Similarly, God's having form does not affect His ability to pervade the entire universe. Since God's form is finer than the finest material subtlety, it is completely inappropriate for Mâyâvâdîs to compare His form to gross hunks of matter. Because they believe God's form is grossly physical, Mâyâvâdîs often argue that any and all embodied creatures may be termed avatâras. Any number of living gods are being proclaimed within India and other parts of the world today.

Some of these gods are mystics, some are charismatics, some are politicians, and some are sexual athletes. But none of them are authorized by the Vedic scriptures. They represent only the mistaken Mâyâvâdî idea that the one formless unlimited Truth appears in endless gross, physical human incarnations, and that you and me and I and he are therefore all together God. And since each god has a different idea of what dharma is, the final truth, according to Mâyâvâda philosophy, is that the paths of all gods lead to the same goal. This idea is as unenlightened as it is impractical. When ordinary people proclaim themselves to be God, and that whatever they are doing is Vedic dharma, that is called dharmasya glâniù, a disturbance to eternal religious principles. Therefore Kèëòa came again, 500 years ago, as the Golden Avatâra, Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He established the yuga-dharma, the correct form of sanâtana-dharma for our time (saôkîrtana). Lord Caitanya's appearance was predicted in SB 11.5.32: In this Age of Kali, people who are endowed with sufficient intelligence will worship the Lord, who is accompanied by His associates, by congregational chanting of the holy names of God. See Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Kèëòa.

Âvega: (sáns. vaiëòava). intense emotion, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Âveäa-avatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a living being empowered as an incarnation of the Lord's qualities.

Âveäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Äakty-âveäa.

Avidhi-pûrvaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). without properly following rules and regulations.

Avidyâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). material energy, or nescience.

Avidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). nescience, ignorance; the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord; Ignorance or non-Vedic knowledge, as opposed to apara-vidyâ and para-vidyâ. See Apara-vidyâ, Para-vidyâ.

Avyakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). unmanifested; the material creation when it is not yet manifested from the mahat-tattva.

Ayer, A.J.: (sáns. vaiëòava). British philosopher (1910-1989), a twentieth century advocate of Hume's scepticism towards religion, and one of the founders of logical positivism. In his younger years he was a phenomenalist, but later he drew back from that position. See Logical positivism.

Ayodya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a city in North India, capital of the kings of the Ikavaku (solar) dynasty. Today, it is till the chief Holy City of Lord Râma's devotees.

Ayoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Viyoga.

Ayukta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstatic condition of not having yet met one's lover.

Âyurveda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the section of the Vedas which expounds the Vedic science of medicine
delivered by Lord Dhanvantari, the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a physician. He was born out of the ocean of milk when it was churned by the demons and
demigods in the Satya-yuga. He expounded on the three categories of medicine.

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