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Vedabase - Glossary - (C - G)

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Glossary of Vedabase

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Caitanya Mahâprabhu, (1486-1534): (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa in the aspect of His own devotee. He appeared in Navadvîpa, West Bengal, and inaugurated the congregational chanting of the holy names of the Lord to teach pure love of God by means of saôkîrtana. Lord Caitanya is understood by Gauàîya Vaiëòavas to be Lord Kèëòa Himself; The Golden Avatâra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead who descended into the material world 500 years ago at Ärîdhâma Mâyâpur. Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu inaugurated the yuga-dharma of saôkîrtana. Together with His associates Nityânanda, Advaita, Gadâdhara and Ärîvâsa, Lord Caitanya is worshiped by the Gauàîya Vaiëòavas as the Pañca-tattva (five-fold Absolute Truth). Within the Pañca-tattva, Mahâprabhu is the îäa-tattva, the Supreme Lord. Nityânanda is the prakâäa-tattva, the feature of îävara who controls the kriyâ-äakti, out of which the kâla and karma potencies expand. Advaita is the avatâra-tattva, the incarnation. Gadadhara is äakti-tattva, a feature of the original, spiritual prakèti. Ärîvasa is jîva-tattva. See Avatâra, Gauàîya Vaiëòava, Îävara, Saôkîrtana.

Caitanya-caritâmèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). translated as "the character of the living force in immortality," it is the title of the authorized biography of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu written in the late sixteenth century and compiled by Ärîla Kèëòadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmî, presenting the Lord's pastimes and teachings. Written in Bengali, with many Sanskrit verses as well, it is regarded as the most authoritative book on Lord Caitanya's life and teachings; Written by Ärîla Kèëòadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmî, this biography of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu is the single most important text of Gauàîya Vaiëòava philosophy. Caitanya-caritâmèta means the immortal character of the living force. It is the postgraduate study of spiritual knowledge, and so is not intended for the novice.

Ideally, one begins with Bhagavad-gîtâ and advances through Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam to the Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta. Although alI these great scriptures are on the same absolute level, for the sake of comparative study Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta is considered to be on the highest platform. See Bhagavad-gîtâ, Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Gauàîya Vaiëòava, Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Caitanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). living force.

Caitya-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supersoul, the expansion of Kèëòa who is seated as the spiritual master within the heart of the living being.

Cakita: (sáns. vaiëòava). a position in which the heroine appears very afraid although she is not at all afraid.

Cakora: (sáns. vaiëòava). a bird that drinks only water from the Ävâti Nakëatra.

Cakra (Sudaräana): (sáns. vaiëòava). the disc weapon of the Supreme Lord, Viëòu. On the top of Viëòu temples there is usually a cakra.

Cakravâkî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the female counterpart of the cakra bird. When the male cakra bird and the female cakravâkî bird are separated, they make mournful sounds during the night.

Cakravyûha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a formation of soldiers in the form of a cakra. This formation was considered impenetrable, and only the most capable warriors could penetrate it. Abhimanyu was killed while fighting in this formation. His father, Arjuna, taught him how to enter, but he did not know how to exit the gigantic formation.

Cakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of six centers of vital energy located in the body; the wheel of Viëòu on top of temples.

Câmara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yak-tail fan used in Deity worship.

Camasa Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the nine Yogendras.

Campaka-puëpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yellowish and very fragrant flower from the campaka tree. This flower is very dear to Lord Kèëòa.

Camphor: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pure white crystalline powder derived from steam of the camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphera, which is found in China and India.

Câòakya Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). the brâhmaòa advisor to King Candragupta responsible for checking Alexander the Great's invasion of India. He is a famous author of books containing aphorisms on politics and morality.

Caòàakauäika: (sáns. vaiëòava). a muni who blessed King Bâhadratha, the King of Magadha, with a child. The child was born in two halves from each of the King's queens. The two halves were thrown in the forest where they were joined by a witch named Jara. The child was later named Jarâsandha.

Caòàâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). an outcaste or untouchable; dog-eaters, the lowest class of human beings.

Candana-yâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a twenty-one day festival held throughout India in the summer season. During Candana-yâtrâ devotees anoint the Deities of the Lord with sooting sandalwood paste.

Candana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a cosmetic paste made from sandalwood; used in Deity worship.

Candraäekhara Âcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great householder devotee of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Candragupta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of the Maurya dynasty in India. His armies repelled Alexander the Great's advance into India.

Candraloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the moon planet.

Candra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod who rules the moon.

Câpalya: (sáns. vaiëòava). impudence, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Capâtî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a flat bread made from whole-wheat flour.

Câraòaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the heavenly planet of the Câraòa demigods.

Caraòâmèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). remnants of water and other liquids used for bathing the Deity and then been mixed with yogurt and sugar.

Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881): (sáns. vaiëòava). a Scottish historian and social critic who was an important philosophical moralist of the early Victorian age. He was opposed to empiricism, mechanism and materialism.

Cârvâka Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the originator of hedonistic philosophy.

Cârvâka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Râkëasa, who was a close friend of Duryodhana. He took the form of a brâhmaòa and tried to condemn Yudhiëùhira as an enemy of the people. He was recognized by the brâhmaòas who then chanted mantras turning him into ashes.

Catur-hotra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the four kinds of fire sacrifices prescribed in the Vedas for purification of fruitive activities.

Câtur-varòyam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the four occupational divisions of society (brâhmaòas, këatriyas, vaiäyas, and äûdras).

Catur-vyûha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the quadruple expansions of Kèëòa who predominate over the Vaikuòùha planets.

Caturdaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fourteenth day of the waxing and waning moon.

Câturmâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the four months of the rainy season in India, when sannyâsîs do not travel. Devotees observe special vows of austerity during this time.

Catuì-älokî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the four verses of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam (SB 2.9.33/34/35/36), spoken by Lord Kèëòa to Brahmâ, that summarize the entire philosophy of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Catuìsana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the four Kumâras.

Causa (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Reason or motive for something happening (in Gr. aitai). Aristotle proposed four causes to explain how creation occurs: causa materialis (the material cause), causa formalis (the formal cause), causa efficiens (the efficient cause), and causa finalis (the final cause).

Causal Ocean: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ocean in which all the universes are floating. See: Kâraòa Ocean.

Cedirâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king of Cedi; also known as Äiäupâla. Lord Kèëòa killed him because of his blasphemy.

Cekitâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). a warrior of the Yadu dynasty. He was killed by Duryodhana during the Kurukëetra war. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Cetana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a conscious living entity.

Chadar: (sáns. vaiëòava). cotton or wool cloth worn on the upper half of the body, also worn by temple priests during worship.

Chaitya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Buddhist temple. Buddhist hall of worship.

Chakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). disc weapon of Lord Viëòu.

Chalo, Chalo: (sáns. vaiëòava). let's go, let's go.

Chamara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yak-tail wisk or fan.

Chandas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the different meters of Vedic hymns.

Chândogya Upaniëad: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the principal Upaniëads, philosophical portions of the Vedas.

Chandra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the moon-god of the moon.

Channâvatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a concealed incarnation in disguise.

Channa: (sáns. vaiëòava). chick peas (garbanzo beans)

Channing, William Ellery (1780-1842): (sáns. vaiëòava). an American theologian, founder of the Unitarian movement in New England. He believed in both rationality and mysticism. He concluded that in order for man to have a relationship with God He must be a person.

Chappals: (sáns. vaiëòava). sandals.

Chaukidar (chowkidar): (sáns. vaiëòava). night watchman; guard.

Chauvinism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A term derived from the name of a legendary French soldier, Nicolas Chauvin, chavinism originally meant fanatical patriotism, but lately means a prejudiced belief in the superiority of one's own group; for example, male chauvinism.

Choti (coti): (sáns. vaiëòava). Shikha; a tuft of hair worn at the back of the head of the braj area and by male Vaisnavisas.

Choko: (sáns. vaiëòava). Used in Mexican, Chinese, and Indonesian cooking, this delicate, pale-green, pear-shaped vegetable, which is related to the gourd family, originally came from Mexico, where it is known as chayote. When buying chokos, look for young tender ones with pale, green, almost translucent skin. The spikes on the skin should be short and soft. Chokos add a subtle flavour and an apple-like texture to any dish.

Cholas: (sáns. vaiëòava). South Indian rulers from the Tamil Nadu area.

Choli: (sáns. vaiëòava). sari blouse.

Chonki: (sáns. vaiëòava). a low wooden table.

Chos: (sáns. vaiëòava). Greek term for gap or chasm, derived from chainein, gape. In Greek philosophy, chos is the confused, formless and undifferentiated state of primal matter; the condition of the universe before reason appeared and brought the world into order. The Sanskrit equivalent is pradhâna, the unmanifest material nature. See Modes of nature.

Choultry: (sáns. vaiëòava). dharmashala in the south; pilgrim accommodation.

Christ: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Avatâra (Äaktyâveäa).

Cid-vilâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual pleasure.

Cintâmaòi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a spiritual mystically potent gemstone ("touchstone"), found in the transcendental realm. It fulfills all the desires of one who possesses it. When applied to a metal transforms it into gold.

Cintâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). anxiety, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Cira-loka-pâlas: (sáns. vaiëòava). permanent governors of the universe.

Circulus vitiosus (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). A vicious circle, i.e. the fallacy of proving a proposition from another which depends on the first for its own proof. See Fallacy, Logic.

Cit: (sáns. vaiëòava). alive and conscious; the indiviual living beings; unlimited knowledge.

Cit-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). (cit-knowledge + sakti-potency) internal or enlightening knowledge potency of the Supreme Lord.

Cit-kaòâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). particles of spirit; the living entities.

Citrabâhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Citrabâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Citracâpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Citragupta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the personal secretary of Yamarâja, who is the lord of death. He records the living entities' pious and evil deeds.

Citrâôgada: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Mahârâja Äantanu by Satyavatî. He was killed by a Gandharva of the same name.

Citrâôgadâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the wives of Arjuna. She was the daughter of the King of Maòipura. Their son's name was Babhruvâhana.

Citrâôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma.(Äalya Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Citraka: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Citraketu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a member of the royal order who became fully enlightened in spiritual knowledge.

Citrasena: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Gandharva leader who was a friend of Arjuna and a son of Viävâ-vasu. He received a weapon of fire from Arjuna, and helped the Pâòàavas when Duryodhana tried to embarrass them at Dvaitavana.

Citrasena: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Citravarma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Cogito ergo sum (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). I think, therefore I am. The famous maxim of Descartes that conveys his certitude about his own existence.See Descartes.

Consciousness: (sáns. vaiëòava). This term is derived from the Latin conscire, to know or be aware of. The equivalent Sanskrit term is cetana. Consciousness is the irreducible symptom of the self. It knows, it feels, and it wills. There are many theories about the relation of consciousness to matter (see Mind/body problem), but all of them are conceived in the conscious mind. Take away consciousness and theories are impossible. Then what is the use of speculation about dead matter as the source of consciousness? Subtle mind, intelligence and false ego are imposed upon consciousness by the three modes of nature. Similarly, due to these modes, wakefulness, dreaming and swoon occur against the background of consciousness. But though the modes cover it, consciousness remains essentially pure, eternally. In the liberated state, consciousness displays a non-material mind, intelligence, pure ego and perfect form. There are two orders of consciousness: vibhu and aòu. The first is the level of God's consciousness, which is all-pervading. God knows everything in totality and everything in particular. His consciousness is never influenced by matter, although matter cannot exist apart from His consciousness. The aòu (limited) order of consciousness belongs to the jîva.

Because it is limited, matter can cover it, unless the jîva remains under the shelter of the Supreme Consciousness. See Ecstasy, False ego, Gross body, Intellect, Jîva, Mind, Mind/body problem, Modes of nature, Soul, Subtle body, Supersoul.

Contradiction: (sáns. vaiëòava). This term is formed from the Latin contra (against) and dicere (speak); hence, a statement that speaks against itself is contradictory. In Aristotilian logic, contradictions are violations of the second of the Three Laws of Thought: 1) The Law of Identity if a thing exists, it exists. If it does not exist, it does not exist. Whatever is, is. 2) The Law of Noncontradiction something cannot be itself and not be itself at the same time. Nothing can both be and not be. 3) The Law of the Excluded Middlesomething that exists is real and true, and something that does not exist is unreal and not true. There is no middle ground between these two positions. Things must either be or not be.

Cratylus: (sáns. vaiëòava). Athenean philosopher, a contemporary of Socrates and Plato. Cratylus taught a radical form of scepticism. He was a disciple of Heraclitus, whose most famous aphorism is You cannot step in the same river twice. Cratylus amended that aphorism, making it You cannot step into the same river once. He believed there is no point even to speak, because as we speak we and the world change, rendering all that we say into useless babble about nothing real. See Scepticism.

Crore: (sáns. vaiëòava). ten million; one hundred lakhs.

Cyavana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Bhègu Muni and the author of a text on astronomy. He is one of the seven great sages of the second Manvantara.


Dacoit: (sáns. vaiëòava). a thief, particularly an armed robber.

Daihika: (sáns. vaiëòava). the bodily necessities of life.

Dainya: (sáns. vaiëòava). meekness, vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Daityas: (sáns. vaiëòava). demons; a race of demons descending from Diti.

Daiva-varòâärama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the social system given by God for the upliftment of mankind; Varòâärama-dharma-the system of four social and four spiritual orders established in the Vedic scriptures and discussed by Ärî Kèëòa in the Bhagavad-gîtâ.

Daivî mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord's divine deluding potency, the material energy.

Daivî prakèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Yogamâyâ; Daivi in Sanskrit means divine, and prakèti means nature. This term refers to the original spiritual nature, out of which matter (guòa-mâyâ), personified as goddess Durgâ, manifests (see Bg. 7.14). The word daivi is closely related to deva, God. Daivi-prakèti is therefore nature that is abhinna, not separate from God. A synonym for daivi-prakèti is para-prakèti (superior nature, see Bg. 7.5). Ärîla Prabhupâda explained the daivi-prakèti to be the person of Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî: ...

Just like we are trying to be under the guidance of Râdhârâòî, daivi-prakèti. Prakèti means woman, and daivi means transcendental woman. (SB lecture in Los Angeles, August 19, 1972) See Prakèti, Râdhârâòî.

Dâkëâyaòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Sati

Dâkëâyaòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Satî, daughter of Dakëa and wife of Lord Äiva.

Dakëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the sons of Brahmâ and a chief progenitor of universal population; The Sanskrit word dakëa literally means expert. A son of Brahmâ, Dakëa was expert in kâmya-karma, activities full of lusty desire. As a prajâpati or progenitor of living beings, he had the facility for unlimited sexual intercourse. Blinded by pride in the course of performing Vedic sacrifices, he offended Äiva. After a great fight with Äiva's ghostly associates, Dakëa's head was replaced with that of a goat. Then Dakëa gave up his life because of his degraded condition. Attaining a new demigod form, Dakëa followed the same path as before and offended Nârada Muni.

Dakëiòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a disciple's gift to his spiritual master upon initiation, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.

Dakëiòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). right-wing group of gopîs, who cannot tolerate womanly anger.

Dâlbhya Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient sage and grammarian.

Damayantî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the queen of King Nala who burnt a hunter to ashes by her curse when he attempted to molest her.

Dama: (sáns. vaiëòava). controlling the senses and not deviating from the Lord's service.

Dâmodara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Ärî Kèëòa meaning "one who is tied around the waist with rope." This name refers to the Lord's pastime of allowing mother Yaäodâ to bind Him.

Dânavas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sons born to Kasyapa Prajapati by his wife danu; a race of demons.

Dâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). charity, one of the six duties of a brâhmaòa.

Daòàa-bhaôga-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pastime of Lord Nityânanda breaking the staff of Lord Caitanya.

Daòàavats: (sáns. vaiëòava). respectful prostrated obeisances offered to an elevated personality, such as one's spiritual master or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The word literally means "like a pole."; falling flat like a rod.

Daòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a staff carried by those in the renounced order of life, sannyâsîs.

Dârî sannyâsî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a bogus tantric sannyâsî who keeps women.

Daridra-nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). "poor Nârâyaòa," an offensive term used by Mâyâvâdîs to equate poor men with the Supreme Lord.

Daräana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the act of seeing and being seen by the Deity in the temple or by a spiritually advanced person. A verbal noun meaning the act of beholding or seeing. It also translates as 'audience'. When one goes to the temple of the Lord to have His audience and to behold Him, one is said to have the Lord's daräana; This Sanskrit term literally means a vision. It may mean a vision of something difficult to see (e.g. Brahmâ's vision of Vaikuòùha), or knowledge of something difficult to know (e.g. Vedânta-daräana). See äaò-daräana, Six systems.

Darwin, Charles: (sáns. vaiëòava). British naturalist of the nineteenth century (1809-1882) who presented the world his version of the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859). In fact, the theory that living forms in earlier times were not what they are now, but were simpler organisms that evolved in complexity, was proposed by Anaximander (610-546 BC), who studied fossils in a cliffside. His theory was rejected in ancient Greece, but was revived in the nineteenth century, principally by Darwin. All areas of modern Western thought continue to be influenced by Darwinism. Philosophers and scientists have grown increasingly divided over his theory. One section of scientists argues there is no certain law of evolution it happened completely by chance. Another section holds that the evolutionary process is encoded in some sort of cosmic algorithm. A recent trend in philosophy, called postmodernism, views Darwinism as simply a matter of historical interpretation: it is a metaphor for capitalism and a white male-centered power structure. There is a growing feeling that the ideas of Darwin, like those of Marx and Freud, are obsolete. See Saêsâra.

Dâruka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the charioteer of Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Darwaza: (sáns. vaiëòava). door, gateway.

Dâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). servant; term used as addition to the name of a newly initiated disciple, meaning servant of Kèëòa.

Daäa-vidhâ-saêskâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). ten Vedic rituals performed one by one, from the time of conception until death, for the purification of human beings.

Daäamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the day before Ekâdaäi, when one prepares to observe the sacred fast.

Daäaratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Lord Râmacandra.

Daäârha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the founder of one branch of the Yadu clan.

Daäâvatâra-stotra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the introduction to Jayadeva Gosvâmî's Gîtâ-govinda.

Dasendriya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ten sense organs: ear, eye, tongue, nose, skin, hands, legs, speech, anus and genitals.

Dâsya-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the servitor relationship with the Lord.

Dâsya-rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Dâsya-rasa.

Dâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of rendering service to the Lord.

Dasyu-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the occupational duty of rogues and thieves.

Dattâtreya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an combined incarnation of Brahmâ, Viëòu, and Äiva of the Supreme Lord who appeared as the son of Anusuyâ by Atri Muni to teach the path of mystic yoga.

Dâvânala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a forest fire; often refers to the self-kindled fire of material existence.

Davies, Paul: (sáns. vaiëòava). British-born professor of mathematical physics at the University of Adelaide in Australia. He is the author of some twenty books on science.

Dayitâ-patis: (sáns. vaiëòava). leaders of the dayitâs; they come from the brâhmaòa caste.

Dayitâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). servants who carry the Deity of Lord Jagannâtha to His chariot.

Deduction: (sáns. vaiëòava). A form of reason that comprehends the cause of an effect from authoritative testimony or a priori knowledge. See Abduction, àroha/Avaroha, Hypothetico-deduction, Induction, Logic.

Deism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A term first used by the Calvinists in the seventeenth century, deism is the belief in God as the first cause of the universe, who created the laws by which the universe is governed, but who is in no way immanent in His creation. God's maintenance of the world means nothing more than the permanence of natural laws. Nature follows a regular course. The sole purpose of the world is to be the habitat of mankind. The deists opposed mystical and supernatural interpretations of scripture; human reason is the true measure of scriptural understanding. Many of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America (e.g. Adams, Jefferson and Paine) were of deistic inclination. See Atheism, Semi-deism, Theism.

Deity of the Lord: (sáns. vaiëòava). the authorized form of Kèëòa worshiped in temples.

Deity: (sáns. vaiëòava). As Lord Kèëòa appears in the sound of His holy name, so also He appears within the arcâ-avatâra, His incarnation as the Deity worshiped in the temple. The central focus of every ISKCON temple around the world is the worship of Kèëòa's Deity form as represented in stone, metal, wood or as painted pictures. Through ceremonial services (pûjâ) conducted according to Vedic tradition, the devotees fulfill the Lord's injunction in Bg. 9.27: Whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer or give away, and whatever austerities you perform do that, O son of Kuntî, as an offering to Me. This pûjâ purifies the minds and senses of the devotees and connects them to Kèëòa in an attitude of love. Mâyâvâdîs decry service to the Deity as idol worship. They argue that God is not present within the Deity, because He is everywhere. But if He is everywhere, then why is He not within the Deity as well?

Moisture is also everywhere, even within the air. But when one needs a drink of water, he cannot get it from the air. He must drink the water from where water tangibly avails itself to be drunk: from a faucet, a well, or a clear stream. Similarly, although God is everywhere, it is in His Deity form that He makes Himself tangibly available for worship. See Avatâra, Kèëòa.

Demigods: (sáns. vaiëòava). universal controllers and residents of the higher planets; The Sanskrit equivalent is deva or devata. Demigods are jîvas whom the îävara empowers to represent Him in the management of the universe. The first of the demigods is Brahmâ. Indra is the demigod of rain, Sûrya of the sunshine, Candra of the moonshine, Varuòa of water. There are thirty-three million demigods in all. They live in the upper regions of the universe called svarga, or heaven. Less intelligent people worship the demigods through karma-kâòàa rituals to get material blessings in this life, and to be granted entrance into svarga in the next life. In the Bhagavad-gîtâ, Lord Kèëòa condemns demigod worship as being avidhi-pûrvaka, against the true purpose of the Vedas. See Tri-loka.

Demons: (sáns. vaiëòava). impious beings who do not follow the instructions of the Lord.

De omnibus est dubitandum (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Doubt is everything. See Scepticism.

Descartes, Ren: (sáns. vaiëòava). French rationalist philosopher of the seventeenth century (1596-1650), called the father of modern philosophy. He broke free of Scholasticism, the Christian re-interpretation of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy that had long held sway in European schools. Descartes is an important founder of the modern scientific attitude. He viewed the material world as a mechanism wholly describable by numerical values. Modern science, more Cartesii (after the manner of Descartes), tries to describe everything in terms of mathematics. Descartes strongly believed that science can help mankind become masters and possessors of nature. Through scientific advancement we might rid ourselves of an infinity of maladies, both of body and mind, and even perhaps the enfeeblement brought on by old age, if we had sufficiently ample knowledge of their causes, and of all the remedies provided for us by nature. Convinced that his revolutionary approach to knowledge would at least free himself from an infinity of maladies, Descartes wrote at age forty-two that he would be surprised if he lived less than over a hundred years. Unfortunately, he died at age fifty-four. See Cogito ergo sum, Rationalism.

Deul: (sáns. vaiëòava). In Orissan temples it corresponds to the vimana or towered sanctum. It is a cubical inner apartment where the main Deity is located. with tower over it.

Deva: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Demigod.

Devakî-nandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the joy and darling son of Devakî.

Deva-dâsîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). professional dancing and singing girls trained to dramatize Vaiëòava ideology; they are called mâhârîs in Orissa.

Deva-gaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a type of demigod.

Devaäayanî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Ekâdaäî that occurs when the demigods go to sleep.

Devadatta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conch of Arjuna which was obtained by Maya Dânava from Varuòa.

Devahûti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daughter of Svâyambhuva Manu who was the wife of Kardama Muni and the mother of the Lord's incarnation Lord Kapila.

Devaki: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mother of Lord Kèëòa. She was the daughter of King Devaka and a wife of Vasudeva's. When Kèëòa appears in the material world, He first sends some of His devotees to act as His father, mother, etc.

Devala: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient authority on the Vedas.

Devâpi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the brother of Mahârâja Äantanu.

Devarëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a title meaning "sage among the demigods."; usually refers to Nârada Muni.

Deva: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demigod or godly person.

Devî-dhâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material world, under the control of the goddess Devî, or Durgâ.

Devotional service: (sáns. vaiëòava). the process of worshiping Lord Kèëòa by dedicating one's thoughts, words and actions to Him with love.

Devotthânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Ekâdaäî that occurs when the demigods awaken from sleep.

Dhâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). abode, place of residence; usually refers to the Lord's abodes.

Dhanañjaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Arjuna meaning "he who attains great wealth by conquest." This name refers to Arjuna's collecting vast wealth for Yudhiëùhira's Râjasûya sacrifice.

Dhanur Veda: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vedic treatise on the science of warfare.

Dhanvantari: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who is the father of medical science.

Dharâ-maòàala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the earth planet.

Dhâraòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). fixed concentration, prior to full meditation (dhyâna).

Dharma-äâstras: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious scriptures that prescribe regulations of social organization and religion.

Dharma-dhvajî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a hypocrite, especially one who accepts sannyâsa but again becomes agitated by senses.

Dharma-kalaôka: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Dharma-dhvajî.

Dharmaäâlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). buildings usually found in holy places in India which provide free or cheap rooming for pilgrims and mendicants.

Dharmakëetra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a holy place of pilgrimage.

Dharmânvekëamâòah: (sáns. vaiëòava). strictly according to religious principles.

Dharmaputra: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for King Yudhiëùhira.

Dharmarâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for Yudhiëùhira, the first son of Pâòàu, or for Yamarâja, the lord of death. It means "the king of religiosity."

Dharmaì kaitavaì: (sáns. vaiëòava). cheating religions.

Dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious principles; one's natural occupation. The capacity to render service, which is the essential quality of a living being. The occupational eternal duty of the living entity, regarded as inseparable from the soul himself; The Sanskrit term dharma is variously translated as duty, virtue, morality, righteousness, or religion, but no single English word conveys the whole meaning of dharma. The Vedic sage Jaimini defined dharma as a good which is of the nature of a command that leads to the attainment of the highest good. In Bg. 18.66, Lord Kèëòa commands us to give up all other dharmas and surrender to Him. This is the paro-dharma, or supreme command (good, duty, virtue, etc.) of the Vedas.

Dharmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who abides by Vedic law, or religious principles.

Dhèëùaketu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Äiäupâla. He took the side of the Pâòàavas during the Kurukëetra war and was killed by Droòa.

Dhaumya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the younger brother of Devala, and the priest of the Pâòàavas.

Dhenukâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mystic demon who took the form of a donkey and was killed by Kèëòa.

Dhîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is undisturbed by the material energy in all circumstances; ecstasy of sober love for Kèëòa.

Dhobi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a man who washes clothes.

Dhoti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a long cotton cloth, traditionally worn by lndian men, that covers the lower half of the body.

Dhèëùadyumna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fire born son of King Drupada, who arranged the military phalanx of the Pâòàavas on the Battlefield of Kurukëetra, and the brother of Draupadî. He was born to kill Droòa, and did so by severing his head. He was later killed by Aävatthâmâ while awaking from sleep.

Dhètarâëùra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of the Kauravas. He was born of the union of Vyâsa and Ambikâ. He was born blind because Ambikâ closed her eyes during conception, out of fear of the sage. He was reputed to have the strength of ten thousand elephants. The uncle of the Pâòàavas whose attempt to usurp their kingdom for the sake of his own sons resulted in the Kurukëetra war. Bhagavad-gîtâ was related to Dhètarâëùra by his secretary as it was being spoken on the Battlefield of Kurukëetra.

Dhèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). perseverance or endurance; forbearance, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Dhruva Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great devotee who at the age of five performed severe austerities and realized the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He received an entire planet, the Pole Star.

Dhruvaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the polestar, which is a spiritual planet within the material universe and is presided over by Dhruva Mahârâja.

Dhûmâyitâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage exhibited by a devotee when only one or two transformations are slightly present and it is possible to conceal them.

Dhûpa-ârati: (sáns. vaiëòava). ceremony of offering incense and a flower to the Deity.

Dhvajastambha: (sáns. vaiëòava). flagstaff

Dhyâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). meditational yoga.

Dîkëâ-guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual master who initiates according to the regulations of the äâstras.

Dîkëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual initiation.

Dilîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Aêäumân and father of Bhagiratha. He was born in the sun dynasty and was an ancestor of Lord Râmacandra's.

Dinoia: (sáns. vaiëòava). Greek term for discernment or intellect, similar to the Sanskrit buddhi. See Intellect.

Dîpta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage exhibited by a devotee when four of five ecstatic symptoms are manifest.

Discernment: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Buddhi, Dinoia, Intellect.

Diti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a wife of Kaäyapa Muni, and the mother of the demons Hiraòyâkëa and Hiraòyakaäipu.

Divya Desam temples: (sáns. vaiëòava). 108 important Viëòu temples sung about by the 12 Alwar devotees of Tamil Nadu.

Divyonmâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental madness in separation from Kèëòa.

Diwan-i-am: (sáns. vaiëòava). Hall of Public Audience.

Diwan-i-khas: (sáns. vaiëòava). Hall of Private Audience.

Dola-yâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the swing festival of Râdhâ and Kèëòa.

Dosas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a very large, thin pancake. made of fermented rice flour. They are often wrapped round a spiced potato filling and are then called masala dosa.

Dosa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the three constituents of the body, according to Ayurveda. They are kapha (mucus), pitta (bile), and vâyu (air) .

Draupadî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daughter of King Drupada, and wife of the Pâòàavas. She was born from a sacrificial fire to be the wife of Arjuna. She was won by Arjuna at her svayaêvara. She was a great devotee of Lord Kèëòa.

Dravida: (sáns. vaiëòava). South India.

Draviòa-râja: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service or a person eligible to act in devotional service.

Dravya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Matter, material (physical) objects, material possessions.

Dèàha-vrata: (sáns. vaiëòava). firm determination.

Droòâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the martial preceptor of the Pâòàavas and the Kauravas. The military teacher of Arjuna and the other Pâòàavas and the commander-in-chief of the Kurus, who was obliged to fight the Pâòàavas on the Battlefield of Kurukëetra. He was the son of the great sage Bharadvâja. He wife was Kâpî, and his son was Aävatthâmâ. He was killed by Dhèëùadyumna during the great Kurukëetra war.

Drupada: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Pâñcâla, and the father of Draupadî and Dhèëùadyumna. He was involved in a quarrel with Droòa over half his kingdom. He engaged a sage name Yâja in a sacrifice to get a son who could kill Droòa and a daughter who could marry Arjuna. Thus Dhèëùadyumna and Draupadî were born. In the battle of Kurukëetra he was killed by Droòa.

Dhrupad: (sáns. vaiëòava). a musical style that means 'fixed verse'.

Dualism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Latin dualis, containing two. There are two types of dualism in Western thought: metaphysical and religious. Metaphysical dualism is covered under the entry for the Mind/body problem. As a religious term, it was introduced in 1700 by Thomas Hyde in his work The Ancient Persian Religions. He characterized as dualism the conflict between the two principle gods of Zoroastrianism, the good Ormazd and the evil Ahriman. Zoroastrian dualism strongly influenced Judaism, Christianity and Islam. All three adhere to a doctrine of eternal struggle between God and Satan. But dualism, in the words of philosopher G.C. Nayak, is not an attempt to solve the problem of evil within the theistic concept. (From Evil and the Retributive Hypothesis, 1993, p. 44) Hence, none of the above religions, insofar as they are dualistic, can be considered truly theistic. See Atheism, Dvaita, Metaphysics, Mind/body problem, Problem of Evil, Theism.

Duìäala: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Duìäalâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the only daughter of Dhètarâëùra and Gândhârî. She was married to Jayadratha.

Duìäâsana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Duìsaôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). bad association.

Durâdhâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durbar: (sáns. vaiëòava). royal court, meeting place.

Durdharëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durgâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material energy.

Durgâ-maòàapa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place in a house where mother Durgâ is worshiped.

Durgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Äiva 's wife in a fierce form, riding a tiger. The goddess is empowered by the Supreme Lord to preside over the material nature and bewilder the souls situated there into misconceiving themselves to be their material bodies and enjoyers and controllers of the mundane creation. She is very powerful, superseded only by Lord Viëòu Himself, and is the external manifestation of the Lord's internal potency, Yoga-mâyâ. Once a fallen soul takes to the path of God consciousness, she continues to offer various material allurements so as to test his sincerity and determination to serve the Lord. Once the Lord accepts the struggling soul she can no longer influence that soul and it is thus liberated.

Durjaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durmarëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durmukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durvâsâ Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a partial incarnation of Lord Äiva, a powerful mystic yogî, famous for his fearful curses. He is known for being easily angered. He granted a benediction to Kuntî that she could call any demigod and conceive children. Duryodhana once pleased Durvâsâ and asked for a benediction that he and his thousands of disciples would visit Yudhiëùhira at a time when Draupadî had already eaten from her copper pot. The idea was that Durvâsâ would become angry and curse the Pâòàavas. The plan back fired because Lord Kèëòa saved the situation. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durvigâha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durvimocana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Durviëaha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Durvirocana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Duryodhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first born and chief of the evil-minded one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra, and chief rival of the Pâòàavas. He was a wicked asura by birth. He became envious of the Pâòàavas and tried in many ways to kill them. It was for the
sake of establishing Duryodhana as king of the world that the Kurus fought the Battle of Kurukëetra. He was killed by Bhîma when the later broke his thighs on the last day of the battle of Kurukëetra.

Duëkaròa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Duëkètam: (sáns. vaiëòava). miscreants who do not surrender to Kèëòa.

Duëkètî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a miscreant.

Duëparâjaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Äalya Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Duëpradharëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Äalya Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Duëùa-damana-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the power to cut down rogues and demons.

Dvâdaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the twelfth day after the full or new moon, thus the day after Ekâdaäî, when one breaks one's fast by eating grains.

Dvaipâyana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vyâsadeva (Vyâsa)-the literary incarnation of God, and the greatest philosopher of ancient times. The son of Parâäara, and the compiler of the original Vedic scriptures, including the eighteen Purâòas, Vedânta-sûtra, the Mahâbhârata, and the Upaniëads. He played a very important part in guiding the Pâòàavas during crucial times. He gave the vision of the battle of Kurukëetra to Saëjaya so that he could relate it to Dhètarâëùra. He is still living in this world.

Dvaita: (sáns. vaiëòava). Duality. It is also the name of a system of Vedânta established by Madhvâcârya. See Advaita, Dualism, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Madhva, Vedânta.

Dvaitâdvaita-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vedânta philosophy taught by Nimbarkâcârya. This philosophy posits a simultaneous oneness and difference between the tiny spirit souls and the Supreme Lord. Later, Lord Caitanya gave further development to this idea as acintya-bhedâbheda-vâda.

Dvaitavana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a forest where the Pâòàavas lived during their exile in the forest.

Dvâpara-yuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third age of the cycle of a mahâ-yuga. It lasts more than 864,000 years.

Dvâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the doors of the body, such as the eyes and ears.

Dvârakâdhîäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kèëòa, Lord of the city of Dvârakâ.

Dvârakâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the island kingdom of Lord Kèëòa, lying off India's west coast, where He performed pastimes five thousand years ago. The capital city of the Yadus. Lord Kèëòa had this city built to protect the Yadus from the attacks by the demons. It is an island situated off the eastern part of India, which is now known as Gujarat. When Lord Kèëòa left this world, the ocean enveloped the whole city.

Dvi-parârdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the duration of Brahmâ's life, 311 trillion 411 billion years.

Dvija-bandhus: (sáns. vaiëòava). unworthy sons of the twice-born.

Dvija-bandhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Brahma-bandhu.

Dvija: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brâhmaòa, or twice-born person.

Dvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). island; planet.

Dvivida gorilla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a huge, apelike demon killed by Lord Balarâma.

Dwarapala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the doorkeeper sculptures by the doorways of Hindu and Buddhist temples.

Dxa (Gr.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Opinion, as opposed to factual knowledge (nesis).


Ecstasy: (sáns. vaiëòava). For a devotee of Kèëòa, freedom from birth and death is gained by purifying consciousness and desires until the ecstasy of pure Kèëòa consciousness is achieved. As the term ecstasy indicates (Gr. kstasis, standing outside (the body)), God consciousness transports the soul beyond identification with the material body. After the steady practice of the nine methods of bhakti-yoga awakens love of Kèëòa in the devotee's heart, Kèëòa appears before the devotee. At that time all the senses of the devotee (the eyes, nose, ears, tongue, sense of touch) become the receptacles of the auspicious qualities of Kèëòa: His supreme beauty, fragrance, melody, youthfulness, tastefulness, munificence and mercy. The Lord reveals first His beauty to the eyes of the devotee. Due to the sweetness of that beauty, all the senses and the mind take on the quality of eyes. From this the devotee swoons. To console the devotee, the Lord next reveals His fragrance to the nostrils of the devotee, and by this, the devotee's senses take on the quality of the nose in order to smell. Again the devotee swoons in bliss. The Lord then reveals His sonorous voice to the devotee's ears. All the senses become like ears to hear, and for the third time the devotee faints. The Lord then mercifully gives the touch of His lotus feet, His hands and His chest to the devotee, and the devotee experiences the Lord's fresh youthfulness. To those who love the Lord in the mood of servitude, He places His lotus feet on their heads. To those in the mood of friendship, He grasps their hands with His. To those in the mood of parental affection, with His hand He wipes away their tears. Those in the conjugal mood He embraces, touching them with His hands and chest. Then the devotee's senses all take on the sense of touch and the devotee faints again. In this way, the devotee attains his rasa (spiritual relationship) with Kèëòa. See Bhakti-yoga, Live after death, Rasa.

Eddington, Arthur Stanley: (sáns. vaiëòava). British astronomer and mathematician (1882-1944) who proved Einstein's theory of relativity. He was an advocate of phenomenalism. See Phenomenalism.

Egalitarianism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The view that all humans are socially, politically and in some schools, economically equal. According to the Vedic understanding, all humans and in fact all living beings are spiritually equal. But due to the rule of the three modes of nature over the universe, material equality is impossible.

Einstein, Albert: (sáns. vaiëòava). German-born physicist (1879-1955), certainly the most famous scientist of the twentieth century. In a book entitled Sidelights on Relativity, he wrote:

As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality. See Relativity theory. Elements From the Latin elementa, the first principles of things. Some ancient Greek philosophers proposed four elements: water, air, fire and earth. This idea dominated European thought until the seventeenth century. To Arjuna, Lord Kèëòa says there are five gross and three subtle material elements (see Bg. 7.4). The five include the four counted by the Greeks, plus âkâäa or ethereal space. The three subtle elements are mind, intelligence and false ego, which are manifestations of the three guòas (modes), goodness, passion and ignorance respectively. To Uddhava, Lord Kèëòa says, I personally approve of that knowledge by which one sees the combination of nine, eleven, five and three elements in all living entities, and ultimately one element within those twenty-eight. (SB 11.19.14) The nine are material nature, the living entity, the mahat-tattva, false ego, and the five objects of sense perception (sound, touch, form, taste and aroma). The eleven are the five karmendriya or working senses (the voice, hands, legs, genitalia and rectum) plus the five jñânendriya or knowledge-acquiring senses (the ears, touch, eyes, tongue and nostrils), along with the coordinative sense, the mind. The five are the physical elements of earth, water, fire, air and âkâäa or sky, and the three are the modes of material nature (guòas). The one within all twenty-eight elements is the Supersoul. See Analysis, Gross body, Modes of nature, Subtle body, Supersoul.

Ekacakra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a village where the Pâòàavas stayed after the burning of the palace of lac. It was here that Bhîma killed the Râkëasa Baka.

Ekâdaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a special day for increased remembrance of Kèëòa, which comes on the eleventh day after both the full and new moon. Abstinence from grains and beans is prescribed. Directly presided over by Lord Hari, Ekâdaäî is a holy test day for Vaiëòavas. One should utilize this day for fasting and increasing one's devotion to Lord Ärî Kèëòa by intensifying their chanting of the Hare Kèëòa mantra and other devotional activities.

Ekadaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the staff, made of a single rod, carried by a sannyâsî of the Mâyâvâda (impersonalist) school.

Ekalavya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Hiraòyadhanus, the King of the Niëadhas. He approached Droòa to learn the science of archery, but was refused because of his low birth. He later built a deity of Droòa and thus learned the science of archery. However, Droòa did not approve of this process and asked for his thumb as dâkëiòâ. Ekalavya submitted and cut off his thumb. He then found he did not have the same skill as before. Ekalavya was latter killed by Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-1882): (sáns. vaiëòava). an American poet, lecturer and essayist who was the leading member of the Transcendentalists, a group of New England idealists. His view was an eclectic one, and he was much influenced by his studies of Vedic thought.

Epistemology: (sáns. vaiëòava). This term comes from the Greek epistme (knowledge) and lgos (the study of). Epistemology is one of the four main branches of philosophy (besides ethics, logic and metaphysics). It asks questions regarding knowledge: What is knowledge? Where does it come from? How is it formulated, expressed and communicated? Is sense experience necessary for all types of knowledge? What part does reason play in knowledge? Is there knowledge derived only from reason? What is the difference between belief, knowledge, opinion, fact, reality, error, imagining, conceptualization, idea, truth, possibility and certainty? See Ethics, Logic, Metaphysics, Ontology, Philosophy.

Ethics: (sáns. vaiëòava). This is one of the four main branches of philosophy (besides epistemology, logic and metaphysics). Ethics (also called moral philosophy) asks questions like: what sort of life is good? Which goals are worthy? Whose intentions are respectable? How are right and wrong defined? How to choose between right and wrong? See Epistemology, Logic, Metaphysics, Philosophy.

Evâdat: (sáns. vaiëòava). offering prayers to the Supreme Person (Arabic).

Evolution: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Darwin, Saêsâra.

Existentialism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A rationalist trend of many theoretical shades. It was started in the nineteenth by the Danish Christian thinker Sùren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), and the German critic of Christianity, Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). But it is usually identified with the twentieth century French atheist Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980). In Sartre's version, existence is the essence of everything. In other words, the ultimate meaning of a thing is that it simply is. An individual is nothing other than his or her power of choice. The universe has no rational direction or scheme. It is meaningless and absurd. Therefore individuals have complete freedom of choice. See Rationalism.

Experientia (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Trial, knowledge resulting from observation. Root of the English term experience. The Sanskrit equivalent is pratyakëa, sense perception; the Greek equivalent is empeira. See Pratyakëa.

Experimentum (Lat.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Trial, test, action undertaken to discover or test something. Root of the English term experiment. An experimentum fructiferum is a fruitive experiment designed to produce a particular effect or useful purpose. An experimentum luciferum is a experiment of light meant to uncover nature's occult qualities. See New Philosophy, Occult.


Fallacy: (sáns. vaiëòava). An error in reasoning. An argument is called fallacious if it does not follow the formal structures and rules of logic. It is also fallacious if it is not adequately supported and/or does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that the proponent of the argument wants to establish. An example is begging the question (petitio principi).

This is also known as circular reasoning, by which one arrives at a conclusion from statements that are themselves questionable and have to be proved. For instanceMajor
premise: Genuine yogîs live in the forest and only eat fruit. Minor premise: This monkey lives in the forest and only eats fruit. Conclusion: This monkey is a genuine yogî. See Circulus vitiosus, Infinite regress, Logic.

False ego: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conception that "I am this material body, mind or intelligence."; False ego In Sanskrit, it is termed ahaôkâra. False ego is a soul's wrong identification with matter in two ways: I (as, for instance, I am this body) and mine (this land is mine). The primal stage of the false ego is tâmasa-buddhi, intelligence in ignorance. This occurs when the original consciousness of the spirit soul comes into contact with the mahad-brahman, the unmanifest prakèti. From out of tâmasa-buddhi, the three modes make their appearance. These take shape as the mind (mode of goodness), the senses (mode of passion) and the sense objects (mode of ignorance). The ahaôkâra identifies the self with these, according to the predominance of one mode over another (the three modes constantly compete with one another to control the living entity). Thus a person in goodness identifies with the mind. A person in passion identifies with the senses. A person in ignorance identifies with the sense objects. But all these are the result of the intelligence being absorbed in primal ignorance: ignorance of Kèëòa. In the Eleventh Canto of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Kèëòa says to Uddhava that the false ego is cid-acin-mayaì, that which encompasses both spirit and matter, because it binds the cid (conscious soul) to the acid (unconscious matter). The cultivation of the innate goodness of the mind is the essence of the Vedic method of yoga, summarized by Kèëòa as follows. The mind can be controlled when it is fixed on the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Having achieved a stable situation, the mind becomes free from polluted desires to execute material activities; thus as the mode of goodness increases in strength, one can completely give up the modes of passion and ignorance, and gradually one transcends even the material mode of goodness. When the mind is freed from the fuel of the modes of nature, the fire of material existence is extinguished. Then one achieves the transcendental platform of direct relationship with the object of his meditation, the Supreme Lord. (SB 11.9.12) See Buddhi, Consciousness, Intellect, Mind, Modes of nature, Soul, Subtle body, Supersoul.

Feminism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The promotion of the rights of females in human society.

Feyerabend, Paul Karl: (sáns. vaiëòava). Austrian-born American philosopher of science who is a self-professed intellectual anarchist (1924-1994). According to him, the mark of creativity in science is the proliferation of theories.

Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas
(sáns. vaiëòava). There are four Vaiëòava schools (sampradâyas) of Vedânta. These are 1) the Ärî Sampradâya, whose âcârya is Râmânuja; 2) the Brahmâ Sampradâya, whose âcârya is Madhva; 3) the Rudra Sampradâya, whose âcârya is Viëòusvâmî, and 4) the Kumâra Sampradâya, whose âcârya is Nimbârka. Opposed to these is the non-Vaiëòava Vedântist school of Äaôkarâcârya. Every Vedântist school is known for its siddhânta or essential conclusion about the relationships between God and the soul, the soul and matter, matter and matter, matter and God, and the soul and souls. Äaôkarâcârya's siddhânta is Advaita, nondifference (i.e. everything is one, therefore these five relationships are unreal). All the other siddhântas support the reality of these relationships from various points of view. Râmânuja's siddhânta is Viäiëùâdvaita, qualified nondifference.

Madhva's siddhânta is Dvaita, difference. Viëòusvâmî's siddhânta is Äuddhâdvaita, purified nondifference. And Nimbârka's siddhânta is Dvaita-advaita, difference-and-identity. The Bengali branch of Madhva's sampradâya is known as the Brahmâ-Madhva-Gauàîya Sampradâya, or the Caitanya Sampradâya. In the 1700's this school presented Indian philosophers with a commentary on Vedânta-sûtra written by Baladeva Vidyâbhûëaòa that argued yet another siddhânta. It is called acintya-bhedâbheda-tattva, which means simultaneous inconceivable oneness and difference. In recent years this siddhânta has become known to people from all over the world due to the popularity of the books of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda. Acintya-bhedâbheda philosophy maintains the same standpoint of difference as Madhva's siddhânta on the five-fold relationship of God to soul, soul to matter, matter to matter, matter to God and soul to soul. But acintya-bhedâbheda-tattva further teaches the doctrine of äakti-pariòâma-vâda (the transformation of the Lord's äakti), in which the origin of this five-fold differentiation is traced to the Lord's play with His äakti or energy. Because the souls and matter emanate from the Lord, they are one in Him as His energy yet simultaneously distinct from Him and one another. The oneness and difference of this five-fold relationship is termed acintya or inconceivable because, as Ärîla Prabhupâda writes in his purport to Bg. 18.78, Nothing is different from the Supreme, but the Supreme is always different from everything. As the transcendental origin and coordinator of His energies, God is ever the inconceivable factor. See Advaita, Dvaita, Mâyâvâdî philosophy, Six systems, Vedânta, Vedânta-sûtra.


Gadâdhara-prâòanâtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Caitanya, the life and soul of Gadâdhara Paòàita.

Gadâdhara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Personality of Godhead meaning "He who wields a club (in one of His four hands);" an intimate associate of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Gadâira Gaurâôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Caitanya, the Lord Gaurâôga of Gadâdhara Paòàita.

Gada: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brother of Lord Ärî Kèëòa and Lord Baladeva. He was born to Vasudeva's wife Rohiòî.

Gadâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the club held by Lord Viëòu.

Gajendra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king of the elephants. He was saved from a crocodile by Lord Viëòu and awarded liberation.

Gamcha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an item of cloth, worn casually, usually around the waist.

Gâòàîva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the famous bow of Arjuna gifted to him by Varuòa before the burning of the Khâòàava forest. (Âdi Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Gandhamâdana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mountain situated east of Mount Meru. Renowned for its fragrant forests, it forms the boundary between Ilâvèta-varëa and Bhârata-varëa.

Gândhâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province in ancient India believed to be the present day Afghanistan.

Gândhârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the saintly and faithful wife of King Dhètarâëùra and mother of one hundred sons. The daughter of King Subala of Gândhâra. She was a great devotee of Lord Äiva from her childhood. Lord Äiva blessed her with a benediction she could have one hundred sons. Ärîla Vyâsadeva also blessed her with the same benediction. She was married to Dhètarâëùra, who was blind. When she found out that her future husband was blind, she voluntarily blindfolded herself for the rest of her life. She is considered one of the most chaste women of all time.

Gandharvas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the celestial demigod dancers, singers, and musicians of the heavenly planets.

Gaòeäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod in charge of material opulence and freedom from misfortune. He is the son of Lord Äiva and Pârvatî, and is the scribe who wrote down the Mahâbhârata. He has an elephant head. He has a rat for a carrier.

Gaôgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the famous and holy Ganges river of India, which runs throughout the entire universe. She originates from the spiritual world, and descended when Lord Vâmanadeva kicked a hole in the top of the universe. One is recommended to bathe in the Ganges for purification. She married Mahârâja Äantanu and begot the famous devotee and warrior, Bhîëmadeva.

Gauda-desa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the holy lands of Lord Caitanya's birthplace.

Gâñjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). marijuana.

Garbha-gèha: (sáns. vaiëòava). inner sanctuary or altar room that contains the main Deity of the temple. The literal meaning is "womb chamber."

Garbhâdhâna-saêskâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vedic ceremony of purification to be performed by parents before conceiving a child.

Garbhodaka Ocean: (sáns. vaiëòava). the body of water that fills the bottom part of each material universe.

Garbhodakaäâyî Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second Viëòu expansion, who enters each universe and from whose navel grows a lotus upon which Lord Brahmâ appears. Brahmâ then creates the diverse material manifestations.

Garga Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the family priest for the Yadu dynasty.

Garh: (sáns. vaiëòava). fort.

Gari: (sáns. vaiëòava). vehicle.

Garuda: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Viëòu's eternal carrier, a great devotee, the son of Aditi and Kaäyapa who takes the form of an eagle and is the bird carrier of Lord Viëòu. He is often found atop a pole facing the entrance of Viëòu temples. The emblem of Garuàa is always on the chariot of Lord Kèëòa.

Garuàa Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Garva: (sáns. vaiëòava). pride, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Gauàa-deäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Bengal.

Gauàa-maòàala-bhûmi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the places in Bengal where Lord Caitanya stayed.

Gauàas: (sáns. vaiëòava). pullers of Lord Jagannâtha's car.

Gauàîya Maùha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vaisnava institution, originally with 64 temples in India and elsewhere, founded by Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Thâkura for propagating the sacred teachings of Lord Caitanya throughout India and the world. It was first established in 1918 as the Ärî Bhaktivinoda Âsana. In 1919 he re-established it as the Viäva-vaiëòava-râja-sabhâ, an institution originally established by Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî and re-instituted by Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura. The organization ultimately came to be known as the Gauàîya Maùha. Its influenced waned after the passing of Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura.

Gauàîya Vaiëòava sampradâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the authorized Vaiëòava disciplic succession of bona fide spiritual masters coming through Ärîla Madhvâcârya and Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu; the followers in that tradition.

Gauàiya Vaiëòava: (sáns. vaiëòava). specifically, a Vaiëòava born in Bengal, or, more generally, any Vaiëòava who follows the pure teachings of Lord Caitanya; The name gauòîya refers to the region of Bengal and Bangladesh. A Vaiëòava is a devotee of Viëòu or Kèëòa. Hence, a Gauàîya Vaiëòava is a practicioner of the form of Vaiëòavism associated with Bengal, as started by Caitanya Mahâprabhu some 500 years ago. See Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Kèëòa, Vaiëòava, Viëòu.

Gaudiya Vaisnava Sampradaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Bengal Vaisanava sect founded by Caitanya Maha-prabhu in the late fifteenth century. Lord Caitanya's immediate disciples, the six Gosvamis, inititated the resurection of Vrndavana.

Gaura-Hari: (sáns. vaiëòava). Radha and Krsna combined into one form as the Golden Avatar.

Gaura mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). mantra composed of the four syllables gau-ra-aô-ga.

Gaura Pûròimâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance day of Lord Caitanya.

Gaura-gopâla mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). mantra composed of the four syllables râ-dhâ-kèë-òa.

Gauracandra: (sáns. vaiëòava). (gaura-golden; candra-moon) a name of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu denoting His appearance to be like that of a golden moon.

Gaurâôga-nâgarîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of a particular sahajiyâ sect.

Gaurakèòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Caitanya Mahâprabhu

Gaurakiäora dâsa Bâbâjî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the disciple of Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura who was the initiating spiritual master of Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura.

Gaurasundara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the beautiful, golden-complexioned Lord, Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Gaurava-dâsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). condition when the devotee takes the form of giving protection to the Lord; category of dâsya-rasa.

Gaurava-sakhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mellow of friendship in awe and veneration.

Gaura: (sáns. vaiëòava). of fair complexion.

Gautama Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the seven sons born from Lord Brahma's mind. He belongs to the family of Aôgirâ Èëi and is the author of Nyâya-äâstra, the science of logic, which explains that the combination of atoms is the cause of everything.

Gâyatrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred mantra that a brâhmaòa chants silently three times a day at sunrise, noon and sunset to attain the transcendental platform; the Vedic mantra that delivers one from material entanglement.

Gayâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a famous holy place on the bank of the Phalgu River in the state of Bihar, where many pilgrims go to offer worship on behalf of their forefathers. The imprint of the lotus feet of the Lord are enshrined there, and it was there that Lord Caitanya met and was initiated by Isvara Purî. Lord Buddha attained here nirvâòa. This is one of the four places in India where many pilgrims come to offer oblations to deparated ancestors.

Ghana: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental bliss that is complete (lit. "concentrated").

Ghara-bhâta: (sáns. vaiëòava). rice prepared at home, not offered to Lord Jagannâtha in His temple.

Ghaùa-paùiyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mâyâvâda philosophy, which sees no distinctions, stating that everything is one.

Ghaùotkaca: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Bhîma by Hidimbî, a Râkëasa woman. He played a very important role in the Kurukëetra war. He was killed by Karòa with the Äakti weapon of Indra.

Ghat: (sáns. vaiëòava). steps that lead down to holy river, lake or kuòàa.

Ghee: (sáns. vaiëòava). clarified butter

Ghèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). ghee.

Giriäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Äiva-the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Giridhârî (Govardhana)-silâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). stones from Govardhana Hill in Vèndâvana. Worship of these stones was inaugurated by Lord Caitanya and Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî. On the basis of statements from Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, Lord Caitanya established the non-difference of Govardhana Hill and Kèëòa. By such worship Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî got the direct daräana of the Lord.

Girivraja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the capital city of Jarâsandha.

Giri: (sáns. vaiëòava). hill.

Glâni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a feeling that one is in a faulty position, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Godâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). servant of the senses.

Godhead: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ultimate source of all energies.

Godown: (sáns. vaiëòava). warehouse, storage room.

Goldsmith, Oliver (1730-1774): (sáns. vaiëòava). an Anglo-lrish author who was famed as an essayist, poet, novelist, playwright, biographer and historian. One of his major poems is "The Deserted Village".

Goloka Vèndâvana (Kèëòaloka): (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest spiritual planet in the kingdom of God, Lord Kèëòa's personal abode.

Good and evil: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Problem of evil.

Goodness: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Modes of nature (Sattva-guòa).

Goonda (guòàa): (sáns. vaiëòava). hired thug.

Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Six Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana, who directly followed Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and systematically presented His teachings, born at the beginning of the 16th century near Ärî Raôgam in South India. He met Lord Caitanya as a child when the Lord stayed with his father, Vyenkata Bhaùùa, during the four-month rainy season. On the order of Lord Caitanya he journeyed to Vèndâvana to join the other Gosvâmîs. While on pilgrimage he obtained twelve äâlagrama-äîlâs. Later, a Dâmodara äilâ manifested Himself as the beautiful Râdhâ-ramaòa Deity, Who is worshiped to this day with great eclat. Gopâla Bhaùùa assisted Sanâtana Gosvâmî in his writing.

Gopâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Kèëòa as a young boy; the Supreme Lord Kèëòa, who protects the cows.

Gopî-candana: (sáns. vaiëòava). type of clay used for tilaka.

Gopîävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). Äiva-the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Gopîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cowherd girls of Vraja, who are generally the counterparts of Ärî Kèëòa's hlâdini-sâkti, Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî. They assist Her as maidservants in her conjugal pastimes with the Supreme Personality of Godhead; Gopâla Kèëòa's cowherd girl friends, who are His most surrendered and confidential devotees.

Gopijana-vallabha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord Kèëòa, who is dear to the gopîs.

Gopuram (gopura): (sáns. vaiëòava). highly carved soaring towers over the gates of the temples.

Gosâñi: (sáns. vaiëòava). other name for Gosvâmî.

Goëùhy-ânandî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Vaiëòava who is interested in spreading Kèëòa consciousness.

Gosvâmî-viddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). "the way of the Gosvâmîs," i.e., transcendental devotional service.

Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person who has his senses under full control: the title of a person in the renounced order of life, sannyasa. (go-senses + svamî-master) master of the senses.

Govardhana-äilâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a stone from Govardhana Hill in Vèndâvana; it is as worshipable as Kèëòa Himself.

Govardhana-dhârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the lifter of Govardhana Hill.

Govardhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a large hill dear to Lord Kèëòa and His devotees. Kèëòa held it up for seven days to protect His devotees in Vèndâvana from a devastating storm sent by Indra.

Govinda dâsa Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the author of several important Vaiëòava songs.

Govinda: (sáns. vaiëòava). name the Supreme Lord Kèëòa. "One who gives pleasure to the land, the cows and the senses."

Grâmya-karma: (sáns. vaiëòava). mundane activities.

Grâmya-kathâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). talk concerning family life.

Grâmya-kavi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a poet who writes only about the relationship between man and woman.

Granthika: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name used by Nakula during the last year of the Pâòàavas' exile in the kingdom of Virâùa.

Gèha-vrata: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is attached to living in a comfortable home although it is actually miserable; one attached to the material duties of family life.

Gèham andhakûpam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the "blind well" of family affection.

Gèhamedhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). envious materialistic householder who lives only for sense gratification.

Gèha: (sáns. vaiëòava). home. For spiritual cultivation one requires an undisturbed place or the good association of devotees.

Gèhastha: (sáns. vaiëòava). householder stage of life. One who lives in God conscious married life and raises a family in Kèëòa consciousness; regulated householder living according to the Vedic social system; the second order of Vedic spiritual life.

Gross body: (sáns. vaiëòava). The body that grows on food is known in Sanskrit as the sthûla-äarîra, the gross body. It is a combination of the gross material elements moved about by the soul under the spell of the three modes of material nature. This body is ever-changing, transformed by birth, growth, maturity, reproduction, old age, and death. The living entity who rides within the heart of the body attempts to find satisfaction through sense happiness. But sense happiness is inseparable from sense distress. By Vedic knowledge, the body can be engaged in acts of sacrifice that liberate the soul from the duality of happiness and distress. The body of a pure devotee, who keeps himself always in Kèëòa consciousness, loses its ordinary material qualities, just as a piece of iron loses its usual qualities when it is kept within fire. As the iron becomes fiery, similarly the body of a pure devotee is spiritualized. See Ecstasy, Elements, Modes of nature, Soul, Subtle body.

Gujarat: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province in northwestern India.

Guòa-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). incarnations who control material qualities; the presiding deities of the three modes of nature. Viëòu, Brahmâ and Äiva.

Guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Modes of nature.

Guòa-mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material world.

Guòas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the three modes, or qualities, of material nature: Brahmâ controls passion, Viëòu goodness, and Äiva ignorance.

Guòâtîta: (sáns. vaiëòava). Nirguòa-without material qualities; uncontaminated by the three modes of material nature.

Guòàicâ-mârjana: (sáns. vaiëòava). washing and cleansing the Guòàicâ temple.

Gurdwara: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sikh religious complex, which usually includes a temple and guest house.

Guru-avajñâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). disobeying the instructions of the spiritual master.

Guru-dakëiòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a disciple's gift to his spiritual master, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.

Guru-kèpâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mercy of the spiritual master.

Guru-kula: (sáns. vaiëòava). a school of Vedic learning. Boys begin at five years old and live as celibate students, guided by a spiritual master.

Guru-pûjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). worship of the spiritual master.

Guru: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual master; one of the three authorities for a Vaiëòava. Literally, this term means heavy. The spiritual master is called guru because he is heavy with knowledge. See Sâdhu, Äâstra.

Guru-bhai: (sáns. vaiëòava). god-brother.

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Conceptos Hinduistas (1428)SC

Conceptos Hinduistas (2919)SK · (2592)SK
Aa-Ag · Ah-Am · Ana-Anc · And-Anu · Ap-Ar · As-Ax · Ay-Az · Baa-Baq · Bar-Baz · Be-Bhak · Bhal-Bhy · Bo-Bu · Bra · Brh-Bry · Bu-Bz · Caa-Caq · Car-Cay · Ce-Cha · Che-Chi · Cho-Chu · Ci-Cn · Co-Cy · Daa-Dan · Dar-Day · De · Dha-Dny · Do-Dy · Ea-Eo · Ep-Ez · Faa-Fy · Gaa-Gaq · Gar-Gaz · Ge-Gn · Go · Gra-Gy · Haa-Haq · Har-Haz · He-Hindk · Hindu-Histo · Ho-Hy · Ia-Iq · Ir-Is · It-Iy · Jaa-Jaq · Jar-Jay · Je-Jn · Jo-Jy · Kaa-Kaq · Kar-Kaz · Ke-Kh · Ko · Kr · Ku - Kz · Laa-Laq · Lar-Lay · Le-Ln · Lo-Ly · Maa-Mag · Mah · Mai-Maj · Mak-Maq · Mar-Maz · Mb-Mn · Mo-Mz · Naa-Naq · Nar-Naz · Nb-Nn · No-Nz · Oa-Oz · Paa-Paq · Par-Paz · Pe-Ph · Po-Py · Raa-Raq · Rar-Raz · Re-Rn · Ro-Ry · Saa-Sam · San-Sar · Sas-Sg · Sha-Shy · Sia-Sil · Sim-Sn · So - Sq · Sr - St · Su-Sz · Taa-Taq · Tar-Tay · Te-Tn · To-Ty · Ua-Uq · Ur-Us · Vaa-Vaq · Var-Vaz · Ve · Vi-Vn · Vo-Vy · Waa-Wi · Wo-Wy · Yaa-Yav · Ye-Yiy · Yo-Yu · Zaa-Zy


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