jueves, 29 de julio de 2010

Vedabase - Glossary - B

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Glossary of Vedabase

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Bâbâjî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person who dwells alone in one place and leads a life of meditation, penance and austerity; renounced order beyond sannyâsa, in which one chants and reads.

Baba: (sáns. vaiëòava). religious master, a term of respect.

Bâòâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a thousand-armed demon slain by Lord Kèëòa.

Babhruvâhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Arjuna by Citrâôgadâ, the daughter of the King of Maòipur.

Babhruvâhana engaged in battle with his father over the sacrificial horse. At that time.

Babhruvâhana killed Arjuna. Arjuna was later brought back to life by Ulûpî, another wife of Arjuna.

Babhru: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Yadu warriors and servant of Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Badarikâärama: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred holy place of pilgrimage in the Himâlayas. The Pâòàavas visited here during their exile in the forest. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata) It is the abode of Lord Nara-Nârâyaòa, who sat under a badarî (plum) tree to perform austerities.

Baddha-jña: (sáns. vaiëòava). a conditioned soul who distinguishes between the Lord's body and soul.

Bagh: (sáns. vaiëòava). garden.

Bâhadbala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Kosala. He joined the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Abhimanyu. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Bâhadratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king of Magadha, and the father of Jarâsandha.

Bahirmukha-jana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a person influenced by the external energy.

Bahûdaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second stage of the sannyâsa order, in which one begs from door to door.

Bâhuka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the personified sins of King Vena.

Bakâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a demon who was shaped like a huge duck and who tried to kill Kèëòa.)

Baksheesh: (sáns. vaiëòava). tip, donation, or bribe.

Bakula: (sáns. vaiëòava). a fragrant flower very pleasing to Lord Kèëna.

Bâla-gopâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). Deity of Kèëòa as a cowherd boy.

Baladeva Vidyâbhûëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Born in the 18th century in the Baleswar district of Orissa, he was initially a learned scholar of the Madhva-sampradâya. He was converted to Gauàîya Vaiëòavism and became the ardent follower of Viävanâtha Cakravartî Thâkura. He is especially renowned for his commentary on Vedânta-sûtra called Govinda-bhâëya; Ärîla Baladeva Vidyâbhûëaòa was a highly renounced pure devotee. For the spiritual benefit of mankind, he presented many transcendental literatures to the world. The details of his early life are not known for sure, as he never mentioned his birth place or his family background. Historians have estimated that he was born sometime in the eighteenth century, most probably in Orissa (possibly near Remuna).

At a very early age, Baladeva finished his studies of grammar, poetry, rhetoric and logic and then went on pilgrimage. During his travels he spent some time with the Tattvavâdîs in South India and thus became conversant with the teachings of Ärî Madhvâcârya. He became a powerful exponent of this philosophy throughout India.

Later he was initiated into the Gauàîya Vaiëòava sampradâya by Râdhâ-Dâmodara Deva, and went to Vèndâvana to study under the great âcârya Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura. Baladeva's defeat of an assembly of Râmânandî scholars is celebrated in Indian philosophical history. It was on this occasion that he composed the Govinda-bhâëya commentary on the Vedânta-sûtra. Actually, it was dictated to him by the Ärî Govinda Deva Deity; hence, it is named after the Lord. The commentary so astonished the scholars that they bestowed upon Baladeva the title Vidyâbhûëaòa (ornament of learning).

Balagaòài festival: (sáns. vaiëòava). the festival during the Ratha-yâtrâ procession when everyone offers various opulent foods to Lord Jagannâtha at Balagaòài.

Balarâma (Baladeva): (sáns. vaiëòava). the first plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kèëòa. He appeared as the son of Rohiòî and elder brother of Lord Kèëòa. Also known as Balabhadra or Baladeva, present as one of the three Jagannâtha deities.

Bâlhîka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Pratîpa. He had two brothers Devâpi and Äantanu. He was killed by Bhîmasena during the Kurukëetra war. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Bali Mâhâraja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king of the demons who gave three paces of land to Vamanadeva, the dwarf incarnation of Lord Viëòu, and thereby became a great devotee by surrendering everything to Him.

Bâliäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). innocent and foolish like a child.

Ballal Sen: (sáns. vaiëòava). King of Bengal in the 12th century. He was the son of King Vijaya Sen, the founder of Navadvîpa. Ballal Sen's son was Laksman Sen, the sponsor of Jayadeva Gosvâmi, the author of Gîtâ-govinda.

Bandhu-ha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the killer of mâyâ.

Bandi: (sáns. vaiëòava). son of Varuòa who was defeated in debate by Aëùavakra.

Banyan tree: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred tree of the fig family with self-rooting branches.

Barbaras: (sáns. vaiëòava). low caste people born from Sabala, the Surabhi cow.

Barhiëat: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Prâcînabarhi.

Barhiëmân: (sáns. vaiëòava). See: Prâcînabarhi.

Battle of Kurukëetra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a battle between the Kurus and the Pâòàavas, which took place five thousand years ago and before which Lord Kèëòa spoke Bhagavad-gîtâ to Arjuna.

Bâula community: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the apa-sampradâyas, or unauthorized devotional groups.

Bel-phala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fruit of the bel tree. It is especially dear to Lord Äiva and has great medicinal value. Its pulp is very soothing.

Benares: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vârâòasî, holy city on the Ganges in northern India.

Bhadrakali: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name of Durgâ.

Bhadra: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the wives of Vâsudeva.

Bhagadatta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Prâgjyotiëapura, and the son of Narakâsura or Bhaumâsura. He
was killed by Arjuna during the Kurukëetra war. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Bhagavad-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). bhakti-yoga, devotional service to the Supreme Lord.

Bhagavad-gîtâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a seven-hundred verse record of a conversation between Lord Kèëòa and His disciple, Arjuna, from the Bhîëma Parva of the Mahâbhârata of Vedavyâsa. The conversation took place between two armies minutes before the start of an immense fratricidal battle. Kèëòa teaches the science of the Absolute Truth and the importance of devotional service to the despondent Arjuna, and it contains the essence of all Vedic wisdom. Ärîla Prabhupâda's annotated English translation is called.

Bhagavad-gîtâ As It Is: (sáns. vaiëòava). a This most essential text of spiritual knowledge, The Song of the Lord, contains Kèëòa's instructions to Arjuna at Kurukëetra. It is found in the Mahâbhârata. The Mahâbhârata is classified as smèti-äâstra, a supplement of the äruti-äâstra. Äruti, the core Vedic literature, includes the four Vedas (Èg, Sâma, Yajur and Atharva) and the Upaniëads. Äruti advances the understanding of the absolute. Bhagavad-gîtâ is also known as Gîtopaniëad, or a äruti text spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. Therefore, Ärîla Prabhupâda wrote in a letter, the Gîtâ should be taken as äruti. But they take it as smèti because it is part of the smèti (Mahâbhârata). In one sense it is both äruti and smèti. In only 700 verses, the Bhagavad-gîtâ summarizes all Vedic knowledge about the soul, God, sanâtana-dharma, sacrifice, yoga, karma, reincarnation, the modes of material nature, Vedânta and pure devotion. See Arjuna, Caitanya-caritâmèta, Kèëòa, Mahâbhârata, Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Bhagavân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who possesses in full the opulences of wealth, beauty, strength, knowledge, fame, and renunciation; an epithet of the Supreme Person; The Personality of Godhead, the possessor (vân) of six opulences (bhaga) in unlimited fullness: wealth (aiävarya), strength (vîrya), fame (yaäaù), beauty (äriyaù), knowledge (jñâna), and renunciation (vairâgya). See Kèëòa.

Bhâgavata jîvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the life of a devotee.

Bhâgavata Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Bhâgavata-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the science of devotional service to the Supreme Lord; the religious principles enunciated by the Lord; the eternal function of the living being.

Bhâgavata-saptâha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a seven-day series of lectures on Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam given by professional reciters to a paying audience.

Bhâgavata-vidhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of serving the pure devotee and preaching Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Bhâgavata-vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental knowledge of the Supreme Lord.

Bhâgavatam system: (sáns. vaiëòava). spreading of Kèëòa consciousness philosophy by recitation and discussion of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Bhâgavatas: (sáns. vaiëòava). persons or things in relationship with the Lord.

Bhâgavata: (sáns. vaiëòava). anything related to Bhagavân, the Supreme Lord, especially the devotee of the Lord and the scripture Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam

Bhagîratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king who performed austerities to bring the Ganges to earth to save his ancestors.

Bhâgyavân: (sáns. vaiëòava). most fortunate.

Bhâgya: (sáns. vaiëòava). good fortune.

Bhairava: (sáns. vaiëòava). the terrifying aspect of Lord Äiva, who chopped off the fifth head of Brahmâ.

Bhajana-kutira: (sáns. vaiëòava). a small hut or cottage where a Vaiëòava or saintly person performs his bhajana or personal mediation.

Bhajanânandî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee who performs his devotional activities in seclusion, not attempting to preach; a devotee who is satisfied to cultivate devotional service for himself.

Bhajana: (sáns. vaiëòava). this term generally to indicates the service and worship of the Supreme Lord executed by Vaiëòavas from the neophytes up to those who are fully God-realized. The main form that this service takes is the hearing and chanting of the holy name.

Otherwise, the term refers to the singing of devotional songs about Kèëòa, usually accompanied by musical instruments.

Bhakta-avatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of God as a devotee.

Bhakta-prâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an "almost" devotee.

Bhakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee of the Lord; one who performs devotional service (bhakti).

Bhakti-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual potency which is the essence of the pleasure potency and the eternity potency.

Bhakti-äâstras: (sáns. vaiëòava). Scriptures dealing with the science of devotion.

Bhakti-kalpataru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the desire tree of devotional service.

Bhakti-latâ-bîja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seed of the creeper of devotional service.

Bhakti-latâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional creeper.

Bhakti-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of developing devotion to Kèëòa.

Bhakti-rasâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who knows and teaches the essence of devotional service.

Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the principal works on the science of bhakti-yoga, written by Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî in the sixteenth century, a confidential associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. All of its conclusions are elaborately supported by reference to the Vedic literatures.

Bhakti-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mellow derived from devotional service.

Bhakti-sandarbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the six treatises on the science of devotional service written by Ärila Jiva Gosvâmî.

Bhakti-siddhânta-viruddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). that which is against the philosophy of acintya-bhedâbheda.

Bhakti-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the system of cultivation of bhakti, or pure devotional service, which is untinged by sense gratification or philosophical speculation; The process of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kèëòa. According to a famous verse in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, it consists of nine aôgas or parts: äravaòaê kîrtanaê viëòoì smaraòaê pâda-sevanam-arcanaê vandanaê dâsyaê sakhyam âtma-nivedanam 1) Hearing and 2) chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Kèëòa, 3) remembering them, 4) serving the lotus feet of the Lord, 5) offering the Deity of the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, 6) offering prayers to the Lord, 7) serving His mission, 8) making friends with the Lord, and 9) surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words)these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service. (SB 7.5.23)

Bhaktidevi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the personification of devotional service.

Bhaktisiddhânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sarasvatî Ùhâkura Gosvâmî Mahârâja Prabhupâda (1874-1937) the spiritual master of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda, and thus the spiritual grandfather of the present day Kèëòa consciousness movement. A powerful preacher, he founded sixty four missions in India; The transcendentally empowered son of Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura appeared in this world on February 6, 1874. His father was deputy magistrate of Jagannâtha Purî in Orissa at this time. Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura had been very concerned about unauthorized pseudo-Vaiëòavas who were usurping the pure teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu, and therefore had begun a revival of the saôkîrtana mission. Though very busy with his profession, he wrote profusely about all aspects of Kèëòa consciousness. He prayed constantly for someone to boldly preach his writings. Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura's prayers were answered in Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura. When he was six months old, the Ratha-yâtrâ festival of chariots was held in Purî. Lord Jagannâtha's chariot stopped in front of Ärîla Bhaktivinoda's house, which was on the main road between the temple and the Guòàicâ mandira. The chariot stayed there for three days.

On the third day, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta's mother brought the child out to see the Lord. The pûjârîs picked him up and put him on the cart. He crawled to the base of Lord Jagannâtha, touching His lotus feet. Simultaneously a garland fell from the neck of the Lord and landed around the child. The pûjârîs exclaimed that this child was especially blessed by the Lord. The boy grew up to be a great scholar in many fields of learning. But when he reached twenty-two, he left his studies at college, vowing to never take to householder life. For three years, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura held the post of râja-pâòàita (royal scholar) of the Vaiëòava king of Tripura. Thereafter he took initiation from Ärîla Gaurakiäora dâsa Bâbâjî. Ärîla Gaurakiäora was a Vaiëòava renunciate who had fully absorbed himself in the worship of Kèëòa at Vèndâvana for a long time. Then he settled at the holy city of Navadvîpa on the bank of the Ganges.

By this time Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura had retired from his government work and was worshiping Lord Kèëòa in a small house near Navadvîpa, at Godruma. Every day he gave Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam class there. Ärîla Gaurakiäora used to attend these classes. Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura told his son, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura, to accept Ärîla Gaurakiäora as his initiating spiritual master. He received the name Vârëabhânavî-devî-dayitâya dâsa. Thereafter Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura gave up all other activities to chant 194 rounds daily for seven years. He stayed in a kuùira (hut) but did not take time to repair the roof; if it rained, he just used an umbrella. In 1918 he opened the first center of the Gauàîya Mission in Ultadanga Road in Calcutta. He was then forty-four. All across India he established Lord Caitanya's teachings as the most excellent spiritual philosophy. He started his mission in the midst of war and political agitation for national liberation.

He was uncompromising in his disregard of such mundane concerns. The most important thing is to invoke the spirit of devotion to the Supreme Lord; this concern lies far above any material consideration. Many leaders objected that he was diverting too many young men from India's national interests, but he paid them no heed. In this period, Ärîla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda visited Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura on the rooftop at Ultadanga Road. Ärîla Prabhupâda, at that time known as Abhay Caran De, was an adherent of Gandhi's svarâja movement. Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura convinced him in just one sitting of the vital necessity of Lord Caitanya's mission over everything else. Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura departed this world in 1936. Two weeks before leaving his body, he instructed Ärîla Prabhupâda to introduce the saôkîrtana mission to the Western world. See Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda, Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura, Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Kèëòa.

Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda is the foremost Vaiëòava âcârya in the modern age. In 1896, he appeared in this world as Abhay Caran De in Calcutta, where he received an English-language education. He first met his spiritual master, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura, in 1922. At their first meeting, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura requested Ärîla Prabhupâda to broadcast Vedic knowledge through the English language. In 1933, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura initiated Ärîla Prabhupâda as Abhaya Caraòâravinda dâsa. In the years that followed, he wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad-gîtâ, assisted the Gauàîya Mission in its work, and in 1944 started Back to Godhead, an English fortnightly magazine, still continued by his disciples today. He received the title Bhaktivedanta in 1947 from the Gauàîya Vaiëòava Society. In the 1950's, Ärîla Prabhupâda retired from family life, accepting the vânaprastha order. Thus he was able to devote more time to his studies and writing. He came to Vèndâvana to live humbly at the historic medieval temple of Râdhâ-Dâmodara. After several years of deep absorption in Kèëòa consciousness, Ärîla Prabhupâda accepted the order of sannyâsa from his Godbrother Keäava Prajña Mahârâja, in 1959. It was then that he began to work on his life's masterpiece: a multivolume translation of and commentary on the eighteen-thousand verse Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. After publishing three volumes of the Bhâgavatam in India, Ärîla Prabhupâda came to the United States in 1965. After great difficulty, with no initial financial resources, he established the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in New York in July, 1966. The residents of that great metropolis of materialism were astounded as the youthful American followers of Ärîla Prabhu-pâda danced and chanted the Hare Kèëòa mahâ-mantra in their midst, that eternal Vedic sound echoing between the glass and steel skyscraper canyon walls.

The Kèëòa consciousness movement soon spread to San Francisco, where the Ratha-yâtrâ festival of the chariots was held for the first time outside of India. A group of American disciples started a branch in London, where George Harrison of the Beatles became a life-long follower of Ärîla Prabhupâda. From England the movement went to Germany, Holland, France, and other European countries. It likewise flourished in Canada, Latin America, Australia and Africa. Simultaneously, Ärîla Prabhupâda personally established several multi-million-dollar ISKCON temple and guesthouse projects in India at Bombay, Vèndâvana, Mayapur and Hyderabad.

But Ärîla Prabhupâda considered his most significant contribution to be his books, which form a veritable library of Vedic philosophy, religion, culture and literature. Highly respected by the academic community for their authority, depth and clarity, they serve as standard textbooks in numerous college courses. His writings have been translated into more than eighty languages. The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, established in 1972 to publish his works, is the world's largest publisher in the field of Vedic studies. In the twelve years after his first arrival in America up to his departure from this world in 1977, Ärîla Prabhupâda circled the globe fourteen times on lecture tours that took him to six continents. Even in his physical absence, his great mission continues to move forward. With the collapse of the Soviet Empire that Ärîla Prabhupâda predicted during his 1972 visit to Moscow, Kèëòa consciousness is vigorously blossoming throughout Eastern Europe, Russia, and the Far East.

ISKCON's Mayapur project is growing into a modern spiritual city on the bank of the holy Ganges. 1996, the year of Ärîla Prabhupâda's centennial, saw the opening of grand temple projects in Delhi, Bangalore and Baroda. See Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura, Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura, Caitanya Mahâprabhu, ISKCON, Kèëòa.

Bhaktivedântas: (sáns. vaiëòava). advanced transcendentalists who have realized the conclusion of the Vedas through devotional service.

Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1838-1915) the great-grandfather of the present-day Kèëòa consciousness movement, the spiritual master of Ärîla Gaura-kiäora dâsa Bâbâjî, the father of Ärila Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî, and the grand-spiritual master of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda. Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura was a responsible officer and a householder, yet his service to the cause of expanding the mission of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu is unique. He has written many books on the philosophy of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu; Appearing in this world in 1838 and departing it in 1914, Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura is one of the great teachers of Kèëòa consciousness in the disciplic succession of spiritual masters. He is famous in Bengal for having located the exact site of the birthplace of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu. This site at Ärîdhâma Mâyâpur, near the city of Navadvîpa about 90 miles north of Calcutta, had been lost for centuries due to the shifting course of the Ganges river. The Ùhâkura's discovery rapidly transformed Mâyâpur into an important place of pilgimage for Kèëòa devotees. The Gaura-Viëòupriya temple he founded in 1891 was the first of many holy places of worship now visible at Mâyâpur. In 1896, Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura announced the saôkîrtana mission to the Western world by sending a copy of one of his small books Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu: His Life and Precepts to McGill University in Canada. Many of his Bengali songs are available in Songs of the Vaiëòava àcâryas, published by the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Ärîla Bhaktivinoda Ùhâkura predicted that the saôkîrtana movement would spread from India to the great cities of the Western world. See Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura, Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda, Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Kèëòa.

Bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service to the Supreme Lord; purified service of the senses of the Lord by one's own senses; Love and devotion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kèëòa. The formal systematization of devotion is called bhakti-yoga. See Bhakti-yoga, Kèëòa.

Bhakty-unmukhî sukèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious activities that awaken one's dormant Kèëòa consciousness.

Bhânumân: (sáns. vaiëòava). a prince of Kaliôga. He fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Bhîmasena.

Bhânusena: (sáns. vaiëòava). a son of Karòa. He was killed by Bhîmasena during the Kurukëetra war. (Karòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Bharadvâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage and the father of Droòa.

Bharata Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient king of India and a great devotee of the Lord from whom the Pâòàavas descended. The son of Mahârâja Duëyanta who renounced his kingdom and family at an early age. He became very advanced in spiritual practice, but later became attached to a pet deer causing him to take birth as a deer. In his next life, as Jaòa Bharata, he attained spiritual perfection.

Bhârata-varëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the earth (now for India), derived from King Bharata, a great king who was the eldest son of Lord Èëabhadeva.

Bharata: (sáns. vaiëòava). half-brother of Lord Râma, he ruled Ayodhya when Lord Râma was in exile.

Bhâratî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sarasvatî-goddess of learning. Wife of Lord Brahmâ. She usually sits on a white swan and holds a veena (stringed instrument) in her hands.

Bhauma-ijya-dhîù: (sáns. vaiëòava). accepting something to be spiritual when it is actually material.

Bhâva-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the platform of purified goodness when one's heart melts in devotional service; the first stage of love of Godhead.

Bhava-roga: (sáns. vaiëòava). material miseries or diseases.

Bhava-sâgara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ocean of repeated birth and death.

Bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage of transcendental love experienced after transcendental affection; manifestation of ecstatic symptoms in the body of a devotee.

Bhaviëya Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas. It was spoken by Lord Brahmâ and concerns future events and religious rites and observances.

Bhaviëya-uttara Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the last section of the Bhaviëya Purâòa.

Bhâvuka: (sáns. vaiëòava). sentimental; can also mean advanced in the knowledge of spiritual rasas.

Bhayânaka-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the indirect relationship of fear.

Bhaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). fear.

Bhîma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the second son of Pâòàu and Kuntî. Actually, his father was Vâyu, because Pâòàu had been cursed not being able to conceive children. By mantra Kuntî called Vâyu and Bhîma was born. He was known for his strength and strong appetite.

Bhinna-rûpa-sandhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the meeting of contradictory ecstasies.

Bhîëmadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the grandfather of the Pâòàavas, and the most powerful and venerable warrior on the Battlefield of Kurukëetra. The noble general respected as the "grandfather" of the Kuru dynasty. He is recognized as one of the twelve mahâjanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord. He was given a boon to leave his body any time he pleased, consequently he decided to leave while laying on a bed of arrows in full view of Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Bhîëmaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the King of Vidarbha and father of Ärîmâtî Rukmiòî.

Bhoga-mandira: (sáns. vaiëòava). the place where the Deity's food is kept.

Bhoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). material sense enjoyment; or, food before it has been offered to the Deity.

Bhogî: (sáns. vaiëòava). sense gratifier.

Bhogonmukhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious activities that bestow material opulence.

Bohr, Niels: (sáns. vaiëòava). Danish physicist of great fame in the twentieth century (1885-1962). He has been called the spiritual father of all quantum physicists. Einstein was not happy with Bohr's idea that the universe is as it is purely by chance. He admonished Bohr, God does not play dice. Einstein's criticisms so bothered Bohr that he sometimes used to pace back and forth while chanting Einstein ... Einstein ... Einstein ... to himself.

Bhrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). false knowledge or mistakes.

Bhègu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the most powerful of the sages born directly from Brahmâ.

Bhètya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the servants of the body, namely the senses.

Bhû: (sáns. vaiëòava). the creative energy of the cosmic creation.

Bhû-dhâraòa-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the power to hold up the planets within the universe.

Bhudevî: (sáns. vaiëòava). consort of Lord Viëòu.

Bhukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). material enjoyment.

Bhûmi: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mother Earth.

Bhûriärava: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the three sons of Somadatta, a King of the Kuru dynasty. He was killed by Sâtyaki during the great Kurukëetra battle. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Bhûr: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lower material planets.

Bhûti: (sáns. vaiëòava). opulence.

Bhuvaneävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a holy place in the district of Puri, Orissa, that is sacred to Lord Äiva and that was visited by Lord Caitanya. It is glorified in detail in the Skanda Purâòa.

Bhuvar: (sáns. vaiëòava). the middle material planets.

Bîbhatsa-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the indirect relationship of abomination.

Bihar: (sáns. vaiëòava). a state in northwestern India.

Bila-svarga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the subterranean heavens.

Bilvamaôgala Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great devotee-author, whose works include the Kèëòa-karòâmèta, the confidential pastimes of Lord Kèëòa.

Birnagar: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town just south of Krishnanagar in the West Bengal district of Nadia. In ancient times the Ganges flowed past this town making it a prosperous river port. Once, the prince Srimanta Sandagar was sailing his fleet of ships up the Ganges to Birnagar and a violent storm arose. To save himself and his fleet, he prayed to Ulâcaòài, a wife of Lord Äiva. The fleet was saved, and the prince instituted her worship at this site. The town of Birnagar was thus also known as Ulâ-grâma, the birthplace of Ùhâkura Bhaktivinoda.

Bloop: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sound of the soul falling into the ocean of material suffering; commonly used in ISKCON to describe someone who leaves the organization.

Bo (Bodhi) tree: (sáns. vaiëòava). the tree under which Lord Buddha attained enlightenment.

Brahma äâpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brâhmaòa's curse.

Brahma-bandhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one born in a brâhmaòa family but lacking brahminical qualification.

Brahma-bhûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the joyful state of being freed from material contamination. One in this state is characterized by transcendental happiness, and he engages in the service of the Supreme Lord; liberation.

Brahma-jñâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). knowledge of the Supreme.

Brahma-jñânî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an impersonalist scholar.

Brahma-jijñâsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). inquiry into the Absolute Truth; spiritual inquiry into one's own identity.

Brâhma-muhûrta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the auspicious period of the day just before dawn, from one and a half hours to fifty minutes before sunrise. It is especially favorable for spiritual practices.

Brahma-râkëasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a man-eating demon who was a fallen brâhmaòa in his last life; the ghost of a sinful brâhmana.

Brahma-randhra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the hole in the skull through which the perfected yogî quits his body.

Brahma-saàhitâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a very ancient Sanskrit scripture recording the prayers of Brahmâ offered to the Supreme Lord, Govinda, recovered from a temple in South India by Lord Caitanya.

Brahma-satra: (sáns. vaiëòava). meditating on the Supreme Lord always.

Brahma-saukhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). spiritual happiness, which is unobstructed and eternal.

Brahma-sûtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Vedânta-sûtra.

Brahma-tejas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the potency of a brâhmaòa.

Brahma-upâsaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a worshiper of the impersonal Brahman.

Brahma-vaivarta Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas. It contains prayers and invocations addressed to Lord Ärî Kèëòa, as well as descriptions of His transcendental pastimes with Srîmatî Râdhârâòî and the other cowherd girls of Vèndâvana.

Brahma-vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental knowledge.

Brahma-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). studying the Vedas.

Brahmacârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a celibate student under the care of a spiritual master. One in the first order of spiritual life; In the Vedic social order, the student class who strictly accept the vow of celibacy, in the case of brâhmaòas, up to the age of 25, at which time they may marry or continue the life of celibacy; a celibate student of a spiritual master; A member of the first spiritual devision of life, according to the Vedic social system of four âäramas. See Gèhasta, Sannyâsî, Vânaprastha.

Brahmacarya: (sáns. vaiëòava). celibate student life; the first order of Vedic spiritual life; the vow of strict abstinence from sex indulgence.

Brâhmaòa thread: (sáns. vaiëòava). a multistranded thread worn by brâhmaòas across the left shoulder and chest.

Brâhmaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a member of the intellectual, priestly class; a person wise in Vedic knowledge, fixed in goodness and knowledgeable of Brahman, the Absolute Truth; One of the four orders of occupational life, brâhmaòa, këatriya, vaiäya and äûdra. The brâhmaòas are the intellectual class and their occupation is hearing Vedic literature, teaching Vedic literature, learning deity worship and teaching deity worship, receiving charity and giving charity.

Brâhmaòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of a brâhmana.

Brahmâòàa Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas. It was revealed by Lord Brahmâ and contains knowledge about this brahmâòàa, or spherical universe and future millennia.

Brahmâòàa-bhramaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). wandering up and down throughout the universe.

Brahmâòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material universe.

Brahmaòya-deva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, who is the protector of brahminical culture.

Brahmajyoti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the impersonal bodily effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Supreme Lord Kèëòa, which constitutes the brilliant illumination of the spiritual sky; From Kèëòa's transcendental personal form of eternity, knowledge and bliss emanates a shining effulgence called the brahmajyoti (light of Brahman). The material prakèti, the jîvas who desire to enjoy matter, and kâla (time), are situated within this brahmajyoti, which is pure existence devoid of difference and activity. It is the impersonal Brahman of the Mayavâdîs, and the Clear Light of some Buddhist sects.

For many mystics and philosophers the world over, the brahmajyoti is the indefinable One from which all things emerge in the beginning and merge into at the end. The brahmajyoti is Kèëòa's feature of sat (eternality) separated from cit (knowledge) and ânanda (bliss). See Brahman, Buddhism, Impersonalism, Life after death, Mâyâvâda philosophy, Modes of nature, Mysticism, Sac-cid-ânanda, Vedânta.

Brahmaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest planet of the universe, that of the demigod Lord Brahmâ.

Brahmânanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual bliss derived from impersonal Brahman realization.

Brahman: (sáns. vaiëòava). (1) the infinitesimal spiritual individual soul; (2) the impersonal, all-pervasive aspect of the Supreme; (3) the Supreme Personality of Godhead; (4) the mahat-tattva, or total material substance; This Sanskrit term comes from the root bèh, which means to grow or to evolve. In the Chândogya Upaniëad 3.14, Brahman is described as tajjalân, as that (tat) from which the world arises (ja), into which it returns (la), and by which is is supported and lives (an). Impersonalists equate Brahman with the brahmajyoti. But in its fullest sense, Brahman is the vastu, the actual substance of the world: 1) Viëòu as the Supreme Soul (paraê brahman), 2) the individual self as the subordinate soul (jîva-brahman), and 3) matter as creative nature (mahad-brahman). Viëòu is accepted by all schools of Vaiëòava Vedânta as the transcendental, unlimited Puruëottama (Supreme Person), while the individual souls and matter are His conscious and unconscious energies (cid-acid-äakti). See Absolute, Brahmajyoti, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Kèëòa, Life after death, Modes of nature, Supersoul, Vedânta, Viëòu.

Brahmarëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a title meaning "sage among the brâhmaòas."

Brahmâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a nuclear weapon produced by chanting a mantra, more powerful than many atomic bombs. It could be used only on a person of equal or superior strength. This weapon was given by Droòa to Arjuna.

Brahmavâdîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). impersonalists among the transcendentalists; those who are absorbed in the thought of impersonal Brahman.

Brahmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe.

Directed by Lord Viëòu, he creates all life forms in the universes. He also rules the mode of passion. Twelve of his hours equals 4,320,000,000 earth-years, and his life span is more than 311 trillion of our years; The first living being in the universe, Brahmâ was born not of a womb but the lotus that grows from Lord Viëòu's navel.

He is the forefather and guru of the demigods, the giver of the Vedas, and the director of the vaikèta or secondary phase of cosmic creation by which all species of plants, animals, human beings and demigods come into existence. Thus he takes charge of the creative rajo-guòa, just as Äiva takes charge of the destructive tamo-guòa. Brahmâ is usually a jîva, though rarely, when there is no qualified jîva to assume this post, the Supreme Lord expands Himself as Brahmâ. See Demigods, Modes of nature.

Brajmandal (Vraja-mandala): (sáns. vaiëòava). The circular area which encompasses Braj and designated by the pilgrimage path through the area's sacred sites, each a scene of one of Krsna's exploits.

Brajbhasah: (sáns. vaiëòava). dialect of local spoken language in the Vèndâvana area.

Bran: (sáns. vaiëòava). the tough outer pericarp layer of the wheat grain. It is removed together with the germ during milling to produce flour. It is a rich source of protein, B vitamins, phosphorus, and, of course, fibre.

Bèghu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the leader of the sages in the universe.

Bèhan-nâradîya Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas, or Vedic historical scriptures.

Bèhaspati: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual master of King Indra and chief priest for the demigods.

Brijbâsi: (sáns. vaiëòava). inhabitant of Vèndâvana.

Bubhukëus: (sáns. vaiëòava). those who desire to enjoy the material world.

Buddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). incarnation of Kèëòa, the founder of Buddhism who lived during the 5th century B.C., and appeared to bewilder atheists and dissuade them from performing unnecessary animal sacrifices; Two thousand five hundred years ago, Lord Viëòu sent forth an empowered jîva known as the Buddha (the Enlightened One). Assuming the guise of Siddhârtha Gautama, he took birth in Kapilavastu (present-day Nepal) as the son of King Äuddhodana. At age twenty-nine he renounced the world and embarked upon a mission to preach ahiêsâ (nonviolence) and äûnyatâ (extinction of the self).

He especially opposed the prevailing karma-mîmâêsâ philosophy of his time, which distorted Vedic knowledge and promoted unnecessary animal sacrifice. The Buddha's teaching rests on four principles: 1) material existence is duùkha, miserable. 2) There is samudâya, a cause of material existence. 3) Because there is a cause, there is also nirodha, a way to remove material existence. 4) That way is mârga, the path of righteousness that the Buddha himself exemplified. But as he circumvented the distortion of Vedic sacrifice in leading people away from the sin of animal slaughter, he denied the , the soul, and God. After the Buddha's disappearance, many schools of Buddhism came into being. See Avatâr(Äaktyâveäa), Buddhism.

Buddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). Discernment, intelligence; in Greek dinoia. According to SB 3.26.30, it has five functions: saêäaya (doubt), viparyâsa (misapprehension), niäcaya (correct apprehension), smèti (memory), and svâpa (sleep, dreaming). See Intellect.

Buddhism: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vaiëòava Vedântist âcâryas such as Râmânuja, Madhva and Baladeva have analyzed four types of Buddhist doctrine. These four are held, respectively, by schools known as the Sautrântikas, Vaibhâëikas, Yogâcâras and Mâdhyamikas. The first doctrine views mind and matter as having real but momentary existencei.e. with each moment, the reality of mind and matter changes. The second views matter as being knowable only through the mind; mind and the matter known through it are momentarily real. The third views matter as unreal, mind as absolute, and the perception of matter as momentary imagination. The fourth, known as Äûnyavâda, views the previous three doctrines as useless attempts at explaining what cannot be put into words. See Buddha, Mâyâvâda philosophy, Nirvâna, Scepticism, Six systems, Voidism.

Buddhi-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). (buddhi-intelligence + yoga-mystic elevation) another term for bhakti-yoga(devotional service to Kèëòa), indicating that it represents the highest use of intelligence by surrendering it to the will of the Supreme Lord. Action in Kèëòa consciousness is buddhi-yoga, for that is the highest intelligence.

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