jueves, 29 de julio de 2010

Vedabase - Glossary - (L - R)

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Glossary of Vedabase

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Laghima-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). mystic ability to make one's body very light.

Laghu-bhâgavatâmèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a book by Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî describing Kèëòa, His incarnations and His devotees.

Lakh: (sáns. vaiëòava). one hundred thousand, written as 1,00,000.

Lakëmaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a very brave son of Duryodhana. He was killed by Abhimanyu during the battle of Kurukëetra.

Lakëmaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a younger brother of Lord Râmacandra's. An incarnation of Saôkarëaòa, He accompanied Râma and Sîtâ in Their exile.

Lakëmî-Nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the transcendental couple of Lord Kèëòa in His four-armed form and the goddess of fortune, Lakëmî.

Lakëmî-vijayotsava festival: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pastime of Lakëmî's victory during the Ratha-yâtrâ festival.

Lakëmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the goddess of fortune and the eternal consort of the Supreme Lord as Lord Nârayaòa, who resides in the unlimited spiritual realm of Vaikuòtha.

Laksman Sen: (sáns. vaiëòava). King of Bengal in the 12th century. His grandfather, Vijaya Sen, founded the city of Navadvîpa in 1063 on the eastern bank of the Ganges. Laksman Sen was crowned king in 1178, and he made Navadvîpa his capital. The ruins of his kingdom can still be found in the villages of Bamanpukur and Mâyâpura. He was a great patron of learning and sponsored the famous Jayadeva Gosvâmî, author of Gîtâ-govinda.

Laôkâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the golden city of Râvaòa, situated some eight hundred miles south of India, in Ceylon.

Laos: (sáns. vaiëòava). Galangal-there are two varieties of galangal-greater and lesser. Both are closely related, although the lesser is more important. Greater galangal (Alpinia galanga), native to Indonesia, is related to ginger. Its large, knobby, spicy roots taste rather like ginger and are used in Indonesian cooking. Lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum) is the rhizome of a plant native to China. Its roots have a pepper-ginger flavour and are used in many Indonesian and Malaysian dishes. In Indonesia it is also known as laos.

Laos or galangal can occasionally be obtained fresh from Chinese or Indonesian shops. Peel and slice it before use. If unavailable, substitute fresh ginger. Laos powder is also used, especially in Indonesian cooking. It is less hot and more bitter than fresh laos. Use very sparingly or substitute slices of fresh ginger.

Galangal: (sáns. vaiëòava).

Lâphrâ-vyaëjana: (sáns. vaiëòava). combination of green vegetables, often mixed with rice.

Lassi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sweet or salty yogurt drink.

Laukika: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ordinary, mundane or commonplace; nonscriptural, as opposed to äâstramûlaka. See Äâstramûlaka.

Lgos (Gr.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Reason, argument, word, speech, or knowledge of something. In Greek philosophy, lgos has three aspects of meaning: structured thought, structured speech and the structured appearance of the world. See Logic.

Liberation: (sáns. vaiëòava). freedom from the material concept of life; being situated in one's constitutional position as an eternal servant of God; In Sanskrit, mokëa or mukti. Vedic culture guides mankind through four stages of value development: dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kâma (sense gratification) and mokëa (liberation of the soul from birth and death). Beyond even mokëa, taught Caitanya Mahâprabhu, is the fifth and unsurpassed stage, love of God (prema). See Ecstasy, Life after death, Karma, Nirvâna, Prema.

Life after death: (sáns. vaiëòava). All the great religions of mankind teach that this present life is meant to cultivate a life in the hereafter. Among the various sects of Judaeo-Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism, two paths of cultivation can be discerned: 1) the path of elevation, and 2) the path of salvation. The elevationists aim for an elevated state of material happiness in the afterlife. Their hope is to join their family and friends in the celestial realm known as heaven in the Bible and svarga in the Vedas.

The Bhagavad-gîtâ warns that although life in heaven is much longer than on earth, it is not eternal: When they have thus enjoyed vast heavenly sense pleasure and the results of their pious activities are exhausted, they return to this mortal planet again. Thus those who seek sense enjoyment by adhering to the principles of elevation achieve only repeated birth and death. (Bg. 9.21) Salvationists, on the other hand, aim to be saved from their mortality. They often speak of salvation as the surrender of the mortal self to the eternal light that is Nirvâna, Brahman or God. Some speak of salvation as a state of unbroken prayerful contemplation upon a personal deity. These are descriptions of impersonal Brahman and Paramâtmâ realization. Impersonal Brahman, as explained in the brahmajyoti entry, is the formless effulgence of Kèëòa's personal form. Mystics and yogîs who are able to negate their minds' attachments to the world of material form may lose themselves within this formless light. Paramâtmâ is Kèëòa's form as the Supersoul, who dwells within the hearts of all living beings as the overseer and permitter (see Bg. 13.23). Paramâtmâ realization is semi-personal, because the salvationist's relationship to the Supersoul in the heart remains passive. More than wanting to serve God, the salvationist wants to be saved from death and rebirth. Thus impersonal Brahman and semi-personal Paramâtmâ realization are incomplete. The complete realization is the realization of the Personality of Godhead through bhakti-yoga. The most fortunate salvationists can attain only the äânta-rasa (passive relationship in awe and reverence). The four higher rasas are reserved for Kèëòa's pure devotees. By flooding the senses with eternal nectar from the original, pure source of pleasure God Himself love of Kèëòa completely liberates the devotee from attraction to temporary material sense pleasures. Thus the consciousness of the soul completely takes shelter of its original position as an eternal associate of the Lord in the spiritual world. As long as he or she still possesses a physical body, the fully Kèëòa conscious devotee is called jîvan-mukta, liberated while still within the material world. When he or she gives up the physical body, the fully Kèëòa conscious devotee remains forever with Kèëòa in the spiritual world. This is videha-mukti, liberation that transcends the material world altogether. See Bhakti-yoga, Brahmajyoti, Brahman, Karma, Liberation, Nirvâna, Prema, Rasa, Reincarnation, Saêsâra, Supersoul.

Lîlâ-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). innumerable incarnations, like Matsya, Kurma, Râma and Nèsiêha, who descend to display the spiritual pastimes of the Personality of Godhead in the material world.

Lîlâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's internal potency, the energy that helps to enact His pastimes.

Lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a transcendental ''pastime" or activity performed by God or His devotee; The endlessly expanding spiritual activities and pastimes of Kèëòa. See Kèëòa.

Liôgam: (sáns. vaiëòava). phallic symbol which is used in the worship of Lord Äiva.

Liôga-äarîra: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Subtle body.

Liôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the subtle body: mind, intelligence and false ego.

Lobha: (sáns. vaiëòava). greed.

Locana dâsa Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great Kèëòa conscious spiritual master.

Logic: (sáns. vaiëòava). This is one of the four main branches of philosophy (besides epistemology, ethics and metaphysics). Logic is the study of reasoning systematic thought expressed in language (speech) that accounts for what we know in this world. Through logic the experience of the world is made intelligible. See Epistemology, Ethics, Fallacy, Lgos, Metaphysics, Nyâya, Philosophy.

Logical positivism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A twentieth century development of positivism and empiricism. Its basis is the theory of verification, which claims the only valid truth is that which is proven by the modern scientific method. Language should emulate mathematical logic in order to express this truth. Metaphysical statements and values are meaningless. One of its founders is the British philosopher A.J. Ayer. See Empiricism, Positivism.

Loka-pâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). a generic term for the deity presiding over one of the directions: Indra for the east, Agni for the southeast. Yama for the south, Sûrya for the southwest, Varuòa for the west, Vâyu for the northwest, Kuvera for the north, and Candra for the northeast.

Loka-pratâraka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pretender.

Lokâyatikas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a class of philosophers, akin to the Buddhists, who existed when Lord Kèëòa spoke Bhagavad-gîtâ and who accept that life is a product of a mature combination of material elements.

Loka: (sáns. vaiëòava). planet.

Lomaäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sage who guided the Pâòàavas during their exile in the forest. He took them to many places of pilgrimage. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Lorry: (sáns. vaiëòava). truck


Mad elephant offense: (sáns. vaiëòava). offense against the lotus feet of a Vaiëòava.

Madana-mohana-mohinî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Râdhârâòî, the enchanter of the enchanter of Cupid.

Madana-mohana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of Kèëòa which means "He who charms Cupid."

Mâdana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a category of highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers meet together and there is kissing and many other symptoms.

Madana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Cupid, the demigod who incites lusty desires in the living beings.

Mada: (sáns. vaiëòava). madness, a vyabhicâri-bhâva; also, intoxication.

Mâdhâi: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Jagâi and Mâdhâi.

Mâdhava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who appeared in the Madhu dynasty." It is also a name for the Yadu dynasty; also a name of Kèëòa comparing Him to the sweetness of springtime or the sweetness of honey.

Mâdhukarî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a saintly mendicant who takes a little food from each householder's place like a bee gathering honey; a system of begging adopted by a mendicant.

Madhupati: (sáns. vaiëòava). name of Kèëòa in Dvârakâ.

Madhura-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Mâdhurya-rasa. below.

Mâdhurya-bhaktas: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotees engaged only in conjugal love.

Mâdhurya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa's pastimes of conjugal love with His eternal associates.

Mâdhurya-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual relationship in conjugal love which the Supreme Lord and His devotee reciprocate as lovers.

Mâdhurya-rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Mâdhurya-rasa. above.

Madhusûdana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Kèëòa, "killer of the Madhu demon."

Madhvâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great thirteenth-century Vaiëòava spiritual master, who preached the theistic philosophy of pure dualism. The founder of the dvaita school of Vedânta philosophy. He wrote a number of works which refuted the impersonal philosophy of Äaôkarâcârya. He appeared in the 13th century in Udipî, in South India. He took sannyâsa at the age of twelve, traveled all over India and had the personal daräana of Ärîla Vyâsadeva in the Himalayan abode of Badarikâärama and presented his commentary on Bhagavad-gîtâ before that venerable sage. He also received a äâlagrama-äîla called Aëùamûrti from Vyâsa. He was very powerful both physically and intellectualy, and was considered to be an incarnation of Vâyu, the wind god.

Madhva: (sáns. vaiëòava). Also known as Ânandatîrtha and Pûròaprajña, âcârya Ma-dhva re-established the Brahmâ Sampradâya in the thirteenth century AD. He is considered to be the avatâra of Vâyu and Hanumân. A prolific writer and undefeatable in debate, he established Dvaita Vedânta in direct opposition to Äaôkarâcârya's Advaita Vedânta. Ärîla Jîva Go-svâmî acknowledged Madhva's works as an inspiration for his own writings on acintya-bheda-abheda philosophy. See Advaita, Dvaita, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Äaôkarâcârya, Vedânta.

Madhya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pastimes Lord Caitanya performed during the middle part of His manifest presence, while He was traveling throughout India; the portion of the Caitanya-caritâmèta recounting those pastimes.

Madhyama-adhikârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotee who worships the Lord with firm faith, makes friends with His devotees, preaches to the innocent, and avoids atheists;

Madhyama-bhâgavata Madirâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a wife of Vasudeva.

Madirekëaòâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). refers to one whose eyes are so attractive that one who observes them becomes maddened by her. In other words, madirekëaòâ means a very beautiful young girl. According to Jîva Gosvâmî, madirekëaòâ means the personified deity of bhakti. If one is attracted by the bhakti cult, he becomes engaged in the service of the Lord and the spiritual master, and thus his life becomes successful. Vaidarbhî, the woman, became a follower of her husband. As she left her comfortable home for the service of her husband, a serious student of spiritual understanding must give up everything for the service of the spiritual master. As stated by Viävanâtha Cakravartî Ùhâkura, yasya prasâdâd bhagavat-prasâdaì: if one wants actual success in life, he must strictly follow the instructions of the spiritual master. By following such instructions, one is sure to make rapid progress in spiritual life. This statement by Viävanâtha Cakravartî is in pursuance of the following injunction from the Ävetâävatara Upaniëad yasya deve parâ bhaktir yathâ deve tathâ gurau tasyaite kathitâ hy arthâì prakâäante mahâtmanaì "Unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master, all the imports of Vedic knowledge are automatically revealed." (Ävetâävatara Upaniëad 6.23) ataì ärî-kèòàa-nâmâdi na bhaved grâhyam indriyaiì sevonmukhe hi jihvâdau svayam eva sphuraty adaì "No one can understand Kèëòa as He is by the blunt material senses. But He reveals Himself to the devotees, being pleased with them for their transcendental loving service unto Him." (Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu 1.2.234) bhaktyâ mâm abhijânâti yâvân yaä câsmi tattvataì tato mâê tattvato jñâtvâ viäate tad-anantaram "One can understand the Supreme Personality as He is only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of the Supreme Lord by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God."

These are Vedic instructions. One must have full faith in the words of the spiritual master and similar faith in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Then the real knowledge of âtmâ and Paramâtmâ and the distinction between matter and spirit will be automatically revealed. This âtma-tattva, or spiritual knowledge, will be revealed within the core of a devotee's heart because of his having taken shelter of the lotus feet of a mahâjana such as Prahlâda Mahârâja.6.23): yasya deve parâ bhaktir yathâ deve tathâ gurau tasyaite kathitâ hy arthâì prakâäante mahâtmanaì "Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed." In the Chândogya Upaniëad it is said, âcâryavân puruëo veda: "One who approaches a bona fide spiritual master can understand everything about spiritual realization."

Mâdrî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the co-wife (with Kuntî) of King Pâòàu. She conceived Nakula and Sahadeva from the Aävinî Kumâra demigods. She entered the fire with her husband.

Magadha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a province of ancient India; also the capital city of King Jarâsandha.

Mâgha-melâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yearly fair held during the month of Mâgha at Prayâga for spiritual upliftment.

Mahâ-bhâgavata: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pure devotee of the Supreme Lord in the highest stage of devotional life; Uttama-adhikârî-a first-class devotee who is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme Lord; he can deliver the whole world; The Sanskrit term bhagavata refers to a devotee of Bhagavân Ärî Kèëòa. A mahâ-bhagavata is a great or first-class Vaiëòava devotee.

Mahâ-bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest stage of love of God.

Mahâbhârata: (sáns. vaiëòava). An important and famous itihâsa (historical) scripture belonging to the smèti section of the Vedic scriptures. The Mahâbhârata narrates the history of the great Kuru dynasty of këatriyas (warriors) that was annihilated by the Kurukëetra war. Contained within the Mahâ-bhârata is the Bhagavad-gîtâ. See Bhagavad-gîtâ.

Mahâ-bhûtas: (sáns. vaiëòava). The five material elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether. See Elements.

Mahâ-dvâdaäî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the day after Ekâdaäî, celebrated instead of Ekâdaäi because of astronomical overlapping. Lord Kèëòa calls it Ekâdaäî if a fast is observed on that day.

Mahâ-lakëmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lakëmî-the goddess of fortune and the eternal consort of the Supreme Lord as Lord Nârayaòa, who resides in the unlimited spiritual realm of Vaikuòtha.

Mahâ-mahâ-prasâdam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the remnants of food left by a pure Vaiëòava.

Mahâ-mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great chanting for deliverance: Hare Kèëòa, Hare Kèëòa, Kèëòa Kèëòa, Hare Hare Hare Râma, Hare Râma, Râma Râma, Hare Hare; is the great mantra composed of the principal names of Godhead in their vocative forms. This maha-mantra is found in the Purâòas and Upaniëads and is specifically recommended for chanting in this age of Kali as the only means of God realization. Lord Caitanya personally designated it as the mahâ-mantra and practically demonstrated the effects of the chanting.

Mahâ-mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material nature; the external potency of the Supreme Lord, which bewilders the conditioned living entities. She is personified as Durgâ-devî; the illusory, material energy of the Supreme Lord.

Mahâ-paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). a very learned person.

Mahâ-prasâdam: (sáns. vaiëòava). sanctified food that consists of remnants from the plate offered directly to Kèëòa in His Deity form.

Mahapuri: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the pilgrimage cities in India where residence brings salvation. The seven maha-puris are Mathura, Ayodhya, Hardwar, Varanasi, Kanchi, Ujjain, and Dwarka.

Mahâ-pûròa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the highest level of perfection.

Mahâ-puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme enjoyer.

Mahâ-ratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a powerful warrior who can single-handedly fight against ten thousand others.

Mahâ-snâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). a vast bath with ghee and water used to bathe the Deity.

Mahat: (sáns. vaiëòava). Literally, very great, this word is often used in the Vedic scriptures to signify the immeasurability of material nature.

Mahat-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). The first stage of creation, in which the ingredients of subsequent creations are displayed within material nature. The ingredients appear when the three modes of material nature are activated by the glance of Mahâ-Viëòu. See Modes of nature, Prakèti, Viëòu.

Mahâ-vadânyâvatâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Caitanya, the most magnanimous incarnation.

Mahâ-vâkya: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental sound vibration.

Maha-Viëòu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the expansion of the Supreme Lord Viëòu reclining on Âdi-Sesa, from whom all material universes emanate; See Supersoul, Viëòu.

Mahâbhârata-tatparya-nîròaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Madhvâcârya's commentary on the Mahâbhârata.

Mahâbhârata: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient, Sanskrit, epic history of Bhârata, or India composed by Kèëòa Dvaipâyana Vyâsadeva, the literary incarnation of Godhead, in 100,000 verses. The essence of all Vedic philosophy, the Bhagavad-gîtâ, is a part of this great work. Maha-bhârata is a history of the earth from its creation to the great Kurukëetra war fought between the Kuru and Pâòdava factions of the Kaurava dynasty, which took place about five thousand years ago. The battle was waged to determine who would be the emperor of the world: the saintly Yudhiëthira, a Vaiëòava king, or the evil-minded Duryodhana, the son of Dhrtarastra. Mahâbhuta: (sáns. vaiëòava). (mahâ-great + bhuta-element) the five great material elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether.

Mahâdeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Äiva-the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Mahâjana: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the twelve great self-realized souls, authorized agents of the Lord whose duty is to preach the cult of devotional service to the people in general; one who understands the Absolute Truth and throughout his life behaves likes a pure devotee.

Mahâkâäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). (lit., the greatest sky of all) the space occupied by Goloka Vèndâvana.

Mahal: (sáns. vaiëòava). palace or house.

Mahâprabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). supreme master of all masters; Lord Caitanya.

Mahârâòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). wife of the king or the ruler in her own right.

Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). king, ruler, sannyasi (renounced order of life)

Mahâraurava: (sáns. vaiëòava). a hell wherein animal killers are sent.

Maharloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a heavenly planet.

Mahat-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the original, undifferentiated form of the total material energy, from which the material world is manifested.

Mahâtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a "great soul" an exalted devotee of Lord Kèëòa, free from material contamination. one who factually understands that Kèëòa is everything and who therefore surrenders unto Him.

Maheävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the supreme proprietor. Äiva-the guòa-avatâra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamoguòa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He disguised himself as a Kirâta and fought with Arjuna over a boar. Lord Äiva was pleased with Arjuna and gave him a benediction of the Paäupati astra by which he could kill Jayadratha. He also gave a benediction to Aävatthâmâ that he could kill the remaining soldiers on the side of the Pâòàavas while they were sleeping in their tents. He is also considered the greatest Vaiëòava, or devotee, of Lord Kèëòa. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.

Mahendra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Indra, the King of heaven.

Mahiëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). buffalo demon who was killed by Durgâ.

Mahodara: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Droòa Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Maidan: (sáns. vaiëòava). open square or park.

Mainâka: (sáns. vaiëòava). this mountain was the son of Himavan during the Satya-yuga, when mountains had wings. Its wings were clipped, and it was placed in the ocean by Indra.

Maitreya Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great sage who spoke Ärîmâd-Bhagâvâtâm to Vidura, who gave advice to the Pâòàavas during their exile in the forest. He cursed Duryodhana that Bhîma would fulfill his vow.

Makara-dhvaja: (sáns. vaiëòava). "The sex-god is called Makara-dhvaja." SB 3.28.32. See also: Cupid.

Mala: (sáns. vaiëòava). string of 108 beads made from Tulsasi wood used for chanting or Japa-the soft recitation of the Kèëòa's holy names as a private meditation, with the aid of 108 prayer beads.

Mâlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). chanting with beads.

Malayadhvaja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a nice devotee who is like sandalwood.

Malina-aôgatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstatic symptom of uncleanliness.

Mallikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sweet-scented flower of Vèndâvana.

Mâlyavân: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great demon.

Mamatâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). an intimate attachment between the servitor and the served in devotional service.

Mânasa-gaôgâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred river that flows in Vèndâvana along part of the base of Govardhana Hill.

Mânasarovara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a lake north of India, near Mount Kailâsa.

Mânâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). standard of measurement for rice and grain.

Mâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). when the lover feels novel sweetness by exchanging hearty loving words but wishes to hide his feelings by crooked means.

Mandapam (mandapa): (sáns. vaiëòava). halls of the temple, often with many pillars. They are one or more entrance porches or halls that lead to the vimana or inner sanctum.

Mandarâcala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mountain used by the demigods and demons to churn the ocean of milk and thus extract nectar.

Mandir: (sáns. vaiëòava). temple Maôgala-arati: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daily predawn worship ceremony honoring the Deity of the Supreme Lord.

Maòimân: (sáns. vaiëòava). a Yakëa who was killed by Bhîmasena. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Maòimâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). an address used for respectable persons in Orissa.

Manîëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). intelligence.

Mañjarî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the small, purplish flowers of the tulasî plant. Maëjarîs, along with tulasî leaves, are offered only to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They must be fresh.

Manjughoëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a society lady of the heavenly planets.

Manomaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). (consciousness) absorbed in mental activity.

Mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). (man-mind + tra-deliverance) a pure sound vibration when repeated over and over delivers the mind from its material inclinations and illusion. A transcendental sound or Vedic hymn, a prayer or chant; Combining the Sanskrit terms manas (mind) and trayate (to deliver), a mantra is a spiritual sound that frees consciousness from illusion. The Vedic scriptures are composed of many thousands of mantras.

Mahâ-mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). means great mantra; it is a synonym for the Hare Kèëòa mantra: Hare Kèëòa Hare Kèëòa Kèëòa Kèëòa Hare Hare Hare Râma Hare Râma Râma Râma Hare Hare.

Manu-saêhitâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the scriptural lawbook for mankind, written by Manu, the administrative demigod, and father of mankind.

Manuëya-gaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). mankind.

Manu: (sáns. vaiëòava). Svayambhuva Manu, a demigod son of Brahmâ who is the original father and lawgiver of the human race; also, a generic name for any of the fourteen universal rulers also known as Manvantara-avataras, who appear in each day of Lord Brahmâ. Their names are 1) Svayambhuva; 2) Svârociëa; 3) Uttama; 4) Tâmasa; 5) Raivata; 6) Câkëusa; 7) Vaivasvata; 8) Savaròi; 9) Dakëa-sâvaròi; 10) Brahma-sâvaròi; 11) Dharma-sâvaròi; 12) Rudra-sâvaròi; 13) Deva-sâvarni; 14) Indra-sâvaròi.

Manvantara-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear during the reign of each Manu (306,720,000 years); used as a standard division of history.

Manvantara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the duration of each Manu' s reign.

Marakata-maòi: (sáns. vaiëòava). an emerald.

Maratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). ruling group from Maharashtra in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). road.

Marîci: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the great sages born directly from Lord Brahmâ.

Mâriëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the society girl of the heavenly planets sent by Indra to seduce the sage Kaòàu.

Mârkaòàeya Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). an ancient sage who narrated the Mârkaòàeya Purâòa, which, describes the nature of Kèëòa. He beheld the Lord lying down on a Banyan leaf during the period of universal devastation.

Mârkaòàeya Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Purâòa of Mârkaòàeya Èëi.

Markaùa-vairâgya: (sáns. vaiëòava). false renunciation; literally, the renunciation of a monkey.

Martya-loka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the "world of death," the earth.

Martya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a description of Kèëòa indicating that because of His affection for His devotees He appears like an ordinary human being.

Marudloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the planet of the Maruts, associates of King Indra.

Maruts: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod associates of King Indra, the gods of the air. They number forty-nine and are sons of Diti.

Marxism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The rationalist political and economic doctrine of the nineteenth century German social revolutionary Karl Marx (1818-1883). Marx is considered to be a materialist, but his materialism is special. He believed the material (especially economic) facts of a society determine its mental aspects: social laws, religion, culture and other patterns of thought. In short, Marx believed the material determines the mental. But materialism is actually the belief that the material is the mental. Marx was much influenced by the idealist Hegel, whose philosophy of history predicted the progressive development of human consciousness towards knowledge of the absolute. Marx translated that notion of progress into economic terms. But the historical end he foresaw for humanity perpetual communisms idealistic, not materialistic. According to materialism, nothing is perpetual except primordial matter. Phenomena are ever-changing. Hence, no social system can be permanent. Theorist of economy that he was, Marx was not able to provide for his wife and children. He and his family were supported by his fellow revolutionary Friedrich Engels, a rich man's son. See Humanism, Idealism, Materialism, Rationalism.

Maryâdâ-laôghana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a violation of the regulative principles.

Masjîd: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mosque.

Mâtâ Äacî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mother of Lord Äri Caitanya Mahâprabhu, the daughter of Nilâmbara Cakravartî and the wife of Ärî Jagannâtha Miära.

Mâtali: (sáns. vaiëòava). the charioteer of Indra. He took Arjuna to the heavenly planets. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Mata: (sáns. vaiëòava). mother.

Materialism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A very broad category of philosophy containing many shades of theory. The main points are that everything in existence is only matter in motion. According to some materialists, mind exists, but only as an effect of matter in motion. Other materialists say mind has no existence at all. All agree there is no God, there is no first cause or prime mover and that life is not eternal. All phenomena change, eventually pass out of existence, returning back again to a primordial eternal material ground in an eternal retransformation of matter. Marxists claim to be materialists, but the doctrine taught by Karl Marx has idealistic tendencies. See Idealism, Marxism, Mind/body problem, Scepticism.

Maùha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a temple of the Lord with an attached residence or âärama for brahmacârîs (celibate students) and sannyâsîs (renunciants) to live; monastery.

Mathurâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa's abode, and birth place, surrounding Vèndâvana. At the end of Lord Kèëòa's manifest lîlâ, Vajra, His grandson, was put in charge of this sacred city. Lord Krsòa displayed His pastimes after leaving Vèndâvana. It is also the name of the district where Vraja (Vèndâvana) is located.

Matiar: (sáns. vaiëòava). peas.

Mati: (sáns. vaiëòava). attention, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Mâtsarya: (sáns. vaiëòava). envy.

Matsya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fish incarnation of the Supreme Lord.

Maugdhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). assuming the position of not knowing things although everything is known.

Mauëala-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pastimes of the annihilation of the Yadu dynasty and Lord Kèëòa's disappearance.

Maya Dânava: (sáns. vaiëòava). the architect of the demons.

Mâyâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mâyâ-illusion; an energy of Krëna's which deludes the living entity into forgetfulness of the Supreme Lord. That which is not, unreality, deception, forgetfulness, material illusion. Under illusion a man thinks he can be happy in this temporary material world. The nature of the material world is that the more a man tries to exploit the material situation, the more he is bound by mâyâ's complexities.

Mâyâ-sukha: (sáns. vaiëòava). material happiness, which is illusory and temporary.

Moha-illusion.: (sáns. vaiëòava).

Mâyâ-vaäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). subjected to the influence of the illusory energy.

Mâyâdhîäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord of all energy.

Mâyâvâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the impersonal philosophy first propounded by Äaôkarâcârya, which proposes the unqualified oneness of God and the living entities (who are both conceived of as being ultimately formless) and the nonreality of manifest nature; the philosophy that everything is one and that the Absolute Truth is not a person.

Mayâvâdî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who propounds the philosophy of Äaôkarâcârya, which basically holds that God is featureless and impersonal, that devotion to a personal Godhead is false, the material creation of the Lord is also false, and the ultimate goal of life is to become existentially one with the all-pervading, impersonal Absolute.

Mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Mâyâvâda philosophy. Mâyâvâda in Sanskrit means doctrine of illusion. In India, the philosophies of the Buddha and of Äaôkarâcârya are called Mâyâvâda. The second grew out of the first. The fundamental principles accepted by both are the following: 1) name, form, individuality, thoughts, desires and words arise from mâyâ or illusion, not God; 2) mâyâ cannot be rationally explained, since the very idea that anything needs explaining is itself mâyâ; 3) the individual self or soul is not eternal, because upon liberation it ceases to exist; 4) like mâyâ, the state of liberation is beyond all explanation. The main difference between the two is that Äaôkarâcârya's Mâyâvâda asserts that beyond mâyâ is an eternal impersonal monistic reality, Brahman, the nature of which is the self. Buddhism, however, aims at extinction (nirodha) as the final goal. Of the two, Äaôkarâcârya's Mâyâvâda is more dangerous, as it apparently derives its authority from the Vedas. Much word-jugglery is employed to defend the Vedic origins of Äaôkarâcârya's Mâyâvâda. But ultimately Mâyâvâdîs dispense with Vedic authority by concluding that the Supreme cannot be known through äabda, that the name of Kèëòa is a material vibration, that the form of Kèëòa is illusion, and so on. The Äaôkarites agree with the Buddhists that nâma-rûpa (name and form) must always be mâyâ. Therefore Vaiëòavas reject both kinds of Mâyâvâda as atheism.

Buddhists generally do not deny that they are atheists, whereas the Äaôkarite Mâyâvâdîs claim to be theists. But actually they are monists and pantheists. Their claim to theism is refuted by their belief that the Supreme Self is overcome by mâyâ and becomes the bound soul. Äaôkarâcârya's Mâyâvâda is similar in significant ways to the Western doctrine of solipsism. Like solipsism, it arrives at a philosophical dead end. The questions that remain unanswered are: If my consciousness is the only reality, why can't I change the universe at will, simply by thought? And if my own self is the only reality, why am I dependent for my life, learning and happiness upon a world full of living entities that refuse to acknowledge this reality? See Brahmajyoti, Brahman, Buddhism, Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas, Monism, Pantheism, Äaôkarâcârya, Scepticism, Solipsism, Six systems.

Mâyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). illusion; an energy of Krëna's which deludes the living entity into forgetfulness of the Supreme Lord. That which is not, unreality, deception, forgetfulness, material illusion. Under illusion a man thinks he can be happy in this temporary material world. The nature of the material world is that the more a man tries to exploit the material situation, the more he is bound by mâyâ's complexities; This is a Sanskrit term of many meanings. It may mean energy; yoga-mâyâ is the spiritual energy sustaining the transcendental manifestation of the spiritual Vaikuòùha world, while the reflection, mahâ-mâyâ, is the energy of the material world. The Lord's twofold mâyâ bewilders the jîva, hence mâyâ also means bewilderment or illusion.

Transcendental bewilderment is in love, by which the devotee sees God as his master, friend, dependent or amorous beloved. The material bewilderment of the living entity
begins with his attraction to the glare of the brahmajyoti. That attraction leads to his entanglement in the modes of material nature. According to Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Ùhâkura, mâyâ also means that which can be measured. This is the feature of Lord Kèëòa's prakèti that captures the minds of scientific materialists. The Vaiëòava and Mâyâvâda explanations of mâyâ are not the same. See Mâyâvâda philosophy, Modes of nature, Spiritual world.

Mechanomorphism: (sáns. vaiëòava). In Contemporary Scientific Mythology (1957), Stephen Toulmin wrote: We are inclined to suppose that myths must necessarily be anthropomorphic, and that personification is the unique road to myth. But this assumption is baseless; the myths of the twentieth century, as we shall see, are not so much anthropomorphic as mechanomorphic. In mechanomorphism, God or the total universe is conceived in terms of mythical machines. See Anthropomorphism.

Mela: (sáns. vaiëòava). fair, festival.

Menakâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the famous society girl of the heavenly planets who seduced the sage Viävâmitra.

Meru: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mountain, the golden peak of Himavan, seat of Lord Äiva, abode of the demigods. Also called Maha-meru.

Metaphysics: (sáns. vaiëòava). This is one of the four main branches of philosophy (besides epistemology, ethics and logic). Metaphysics inquires into reality beyond sense perception. It typically holds sense perception to be illusory. The term metaphysics comes from the Greek phrase, t met t physik, the things past the physics. See Epistemology, Ethics, Logic, Philosophy.

Method: (sáns. vaiëòava). In philosophy, method is what must be done to attain knowledge. In Vedic language, method corresponds to vidhi (injunction), which together with artha-vâda (explanation) and mantra (transcendental chants) forms the very substance of knowledge itself.

Mezze: (sáns. vaiëòava). Middle Eastern hors d'oeuvres or appetizers. Mezze is essentially a Lebanese creation but has spread throughout the Middle East. Delicious vegetarian mezze included in this book are fresh, round Middle Eastern Breads (Pita) and dips such as Chickpea and Sesame Dip (Hummus), Lebanese Eggplant Dip (Babagannonj, and Syrian Yogurt Cheese Labreh). Lebanese Bulgur Wheat Salad (Tabbouleh) invariably appears on the mezze banquet table, as do varieties of Stuffed Vine Leaves (Dolmades), along with simple items such as slices of cucumber, olives, fresh raw or blanched vegetables, nuts, whole cooked chickpeas, and lemon wedges.

Mîmâêsakas: (sáns. vaiëòava). atheistic philosophers who say that even if God exists He is obliged to reward us the fruits of our work. From karma-mimâêsâ philosophy of Jaiminî-the atheistic propounder and philosopher of Karma-mimâêsâ philosophy, and author of the Karma-mîmâêsâ-sûtras, which explain the Vedas in ritualistic terms, and advocate material work as the purpose of life. He theorized that if fruitive activity is performed nicely, then God is obliged to give the results.

Mîmâêsâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). see:above.

Mind: (sáns. vaiëòava). Some prominent theories of the mind are the following: 1) it is an eternal transmigrating soul; 2) it is a product of the action of the soul upon the body; 3) it is a non-material substance totally unlike the body; 4) it is a succession of mental events; 5) it is a by-product of the body; 6) it is a function of the form of the body, as vision is to the form of the eye; 7) it is function of the organism as a whole; 8) it is the behavior patterns of the body; 9) it is identical to the brain; 10) it is matter in motion. None of these theories exactly correspond to the Vedic version, and some are completely materialistic. The Vedas state that the seed of the mind is the desire of the soul. If desire is pure, the mind that develops out of it is spiritual. If desire is impure, then what develops is subtle matter in the mode of goodness. The development of the mind of the living entity is governed by the Supersoul (Aniruddha). According to Lord Kèëòa, the functions of the mind are saôkalpa-vikalpa (acceptance and rejection; see SB 11.2.38). See Consciousness, False ego, Intellect, Mind/body problem, Modes of nature, Soul, Subtle body, Supersoul. Mind/body problem Throughout history, philosophers of the East and West have offered speculations about the exact nature of the relationship between the mind and the body. They can be grouped under the following headings: 1) Dualism: mind/body as two substances, mental and material. 2) Logical Behaviorism: mind as the logic of the body's behavior. 3) Idealism: mind/body as one substance, mind. 4) Materialism: mind/body as one substance, matter. 5) Functionalism: mind as the functions of input, processing, output, analogous to the functions of a computer. 6) Double aspect theory: mind/body as aspects of a substance that is neither mental nor physical. That substance is supposed by different philosophers to be the totality of everything, or a neutral monistic stuff, or the fundamental concept person, of which mind and matter are aspects. 7) Phenomenology: mind/body as a problem of experience, rather than a problem of theory. The mind/body duality is really a problem of the materialistic soul's intention toward matter, from which all dualities arise. The mind and body of the bound soul are material. The mind and body of the liberated soul are spiritual. See Consciousness, Dualism, False ego, Gross body, Idealism, Intellect, Logic, Materialism, Mind, Modes of nature, Phenomenology, Soul, Subtle body, Supersoul.

Mirabai: (sáns. vaiëòava). poetess, author of popular devotional songs.

Miära-sattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). mundane goodness.

Mithila: (sáns. vaiëòava). capital of the kingdom of Videha, ruled by King Janaka, fathet of Sita. Modern Janatput, Nepal.

Mitra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigod who controls death.

Mleccha: (sáns. vaiëòava). someone lower than a äûdra.

Mlecchas: (sáns. vaiëòava). uncivilized humans, outside the Vedic system of society, who are generally meat-eaters.

Modes of nature: (sáns. vaiëòava). There are three guòas, or modes of material nature: goodness (sattva-guòa), passion (rajo-guòa) and ignorance (tamo-guòa). They make possible our mental, emotional and physical experiences of the universe. Without the influence of the modes, thought, value judgement and action are impossible for the conditioned soul. The English word mode, as used by Ärîla Prabhupâda in his translations of Vedic literature, best conveys the sense of the Sanskrit term guòa (material quality). Mode comes from the Latin modus, and it has a special application in European philosophy. Modus means measure. It is used to distinguish between two aspects of material nature: that which is immeasurable (called natura naturans, the creative nature) and that which seems measurable (called natura naturata, the created nature). Creative nature is a single divine substance that manifests, through modes, the created nature, the material world of physical and mental variety. Being immeasurable (in other words, without modes), creative nature cannot be humanly perceived. Created nature (with modes) seems measurable, hence we do perceive it.

Modus also means a manner of activity. When creative nature acts, it assumes characteristic modes of behavior: creation, maintainance and destruction. Bhagavad-gîtâ (14.3-5) presents a similar twofold description of material nature as mahat yoni, the source of birth, and as guòa prakèti, that which acts wonderfully through modes. Material nature as the source of birth is also termed mahad-brahman, the great or immeasurable Brahman. Mahad-brahman is nature as the divine creative substance, which is the material cause of everything. Material cause is a term common to both European philosophy (as causa materialis) and Vedânta philosophy (as upadâna kâraòa). It means the source of ingredients that make up creation. We get an example of a material cause from the Sanskrit word yoni, which literally means womb. The mother's womb provides the ingredients for the formation of the embryo. Similarly, the immeasurable creative nature provides the ingredients for the formation of the material world in which we live, the seemingly measurable created nature. The clarity of this example forces a question: what about the father, who must impregnate the womb first before it can act as the material cause? This question is answered by Kèëòa, the speaker of the Bhagavad-gîtâ, in verse 14.4: ahaê bîja-pradaì pitâ, I am the seed-giving father. In Vedânta philosophy, this factor of causation is termed nimitta-mâtram (the remote cause). It is important to note that by presenting creation as the result of the union of two causes (the material and the remote), the Bhagavad-gîtâ rejects the philosophy of Deus sive natura, the identity of God and nature. In short, though creative nature may be accepted as the direct cause of creation, it is not the self-sufficient cause of creation.

The seed with which Kèëòa impregnates the womb of creative nature is comprised of sarva-bhûtânâm, all living entities (Bg. 14.3). And Bg. 14.5 explains that when Kèëòa puts the souls into the womb of material nature, their consciousness is conditioned by three modes, or tri-guòa. The modes are three measures of interaction between conscious spirit and unconscious matter. The modes may be compared to the three primary colors, yellow, red and blue, and consciousness may be compared to clear light. The conditioning (nibhadnanti: they do condition) of consciousness upon its entry into the womb of material nature is comparable to the coloration of light upon its passing through a prism. The color yellow symbolizes sattva-guòa, the mode of goodness. This mode is pure, illuminating, and sinless. Goodness conditions the soul with the sense of happiness and knowledge. The color red symbolizes the rajo-guòa, the mode of passion, full of longings and desires. By the influence of passion the soul engages in works of material accomplishment. The color blue symbolizes tamo-guòa, the mode of ignorance, which binds the soul to madness, indolence and sleep. As the three primary colors combine to produce a vast spectrum of hues, so the three modes combine to produce the vast spectrum of states of conditioned consciousness that encompasses all living entities within the universe. See Kèëòa, Threefold miseries.

Moghul: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Muslim dynasty of Indian Emperors starting from Babur.

Mohana: (sáns. vaiëòava). highly advanced ecstasy in which the lovers are separated; divided into udghûròâ and citra-jalpa.

Moha: (sáns. vaiëòava). bewilderment, a vyabhicâri-bhâva; illusion.

Mohinî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a most beautiful woman. She distributed the nectar produced from the churning of the ocean of milk. She was also pursued by Lord Äiva.

Monism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek mnos, single. It is generally taken to mean the doctrine of oneness argued by Mâyâvâdî philosophers, that reality is without variety and matter is an illusion. Vaiëòavas explain monism differently: all things in the universe occur out of the activity of one fundamental essence or substance, the Supreme Lord. See Atheism, Mâyâvâda philosophy, Theism.

Mokëa-kâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who desires liberation.

Mokëâkâôkëî: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Mokëa-kâmî above.

Mokëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberation from material bondage; See Liberation.

Mokëonmukhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). pious activities that enable the living entity to merge into the existence of the Supreme.

Monolith: (sáns. vaiëòava). a monument, statue or temple carved out of a single stone.

Monotheism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The doctrine that there is only one God (from Gr. mnos, only, alone, plus thes, God). See Atheism, Theism.

Monsoon: (sáns. vaiëòava). rainy season from June to October.

Moùùâyita: (sáns. vaiëòava). awakening of lusty desires by the remembrance and words of the hero.

Mèdaôga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a two-headed clay drum used for kîrtana performances and congregational chanting.

Mèttikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). clay derived from wet earth.

Mètyu: (sáns. vaiëòava). death personified, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Mûàha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a fool or rascal; asslike person.

Muhammed: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Avatâra (Äaktyâveäa).

Muhûrta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a period of forty-eight minutes.

Mukta-puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a liberated soul.

Mukti-devî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the demigoddess who is the personification of liberation.

Mukti-pâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord under whose feet exist all kinds of liberation.

Mukti: (sáns. vaiëòava). liberation of a conditioned soul from material consciousness and bondage.

Mukunda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of Kèëòa meaning "the giver of liberation."

Mûla-mantra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a short Sanskrit incantation uttered before one offers an item of worship to the Deity of Kèëòa or His expansions.

Mukunda-datta: (sáns. vaiëòava). Madhukantha, famous singer of Vrajabhumi.

Mukut: (sáns. vaiëòava). a crown or tiara worn by the Deity.

Mumukëu: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who desires liberation from the material world.

Muni-putra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of a sage.

Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sage or self-realized soul.

Muraripu (Muradviëa): (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, the killer of the demon Mura.

Murâri: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the enemy of the demon Mura.

Mûrti: (sáns. vaiëòava). form of the Lord or His devotee.

Mysticism: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek mystes, one initiated into the mysteries or secrets of higher knowledge. Andrew Weeks, a scholar of this subject, points out the difficulty of coming to clear terms with what mysticism actually is: The concept of mysticism is controversial and ambiguous in its core. There is no agreement among scholars on the question of who ought to be classified as a mystic. (from German Mysticism, 1993, p. 3) St. John of the Cross, a Christian mystic, wrote: In order to arrive at that which thou knowest not, Thou must go by a way that thou knowest not. In order to arrive at that which thou possesseth not, Thou must go by a way that thou possesseth not. As Ärîla Prabhupâda once said, Mystical means misty. See Brahmajyoti, Ecstasy, Sphoùavâda.

Mystic yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). yoga performed for the purpose of developing subtle material powers.


Nâbhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the saintly king who was the father of Lord Èëabhadeva.

Nadîyâ-nâgarî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a so-called party of devotees who worship Viëòupriyâ.

Nadi: (sáns. vaiëòava). river.

Nâgapatnî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a wife of a serpent.

Nagara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town or city.

Nâgas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a race of serpents.

Nâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a snake. Äeëa-nâga is the incarnation of Lord Sankarëaòa, or Baladeva.

Naimiëâraòya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred forest in central India where the eighteen Purâòas were spoken and which is said to be the hub of the universe.

Naishada: (sáns. vaiëòava). a forest dweller, desdants of Naishada, an ugly dwarf born of the thigh of King Vena.

Naiëkarma: (sáns. vaiëòava). another term for akarma; action for which one suffers no reaction because it is performed in Kèëòa consciousness.

Naiëùhika-brahmacârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has been celibate since birth.

Nakëatra: (sáns. vaiëòava). star; also refers to an asterism. In Vedic astrology there are twenty-seven asterisms.

Nakula: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mongoose, the enemy of snakes.

Nakula: (sáns. vaiëòava). the fourth of the Pâòàavas. He was the son of Mâdrî by the twin Aävinî Kumâra demigods. Nakula and his brother Sahadeva were taken care of by Kuntî after Madrî entered the funeral fire of Pâòàu. Nakula was reputed for being handsome.

Nâma-aparâdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). an offense against the holy name of the Lord.

Nâma-saôkîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, usually accompanied by hand cymbals (karatâlas) and clay mèdaôga drums. Lord Caitanya and the Vedic literatures recommend this saôkîrtana as the most effective means of God-realization in the present age of Kali.

Nâmâbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage just above the offensive stage of chanting the name of God, in which one realizes a dim reflection of the holy name.

Nâmâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). âcârya of the chanting of the holy names (Haridâsa Ùhâkura).

Namaste: (sáns. vaiëòava). Hindu greetings, meaning "obeisances."

Nâmmâlvâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a famous South Indian devotee who lived before Râmânuja and composed many beautiful prayers.

Namo nârâyaòâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). greeting of Mâyâvâdî sannyâsîs meaning "I offer my obeisances to Nârâyaòa."

Nan: (sáns. vaiëòava). baked leavened bread.

Nanda Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king of the cowherd men of Vèndâvana, Vraja, foster father of Lord Kèëòa.

Nanda-mahotsava: (sáns. vaiëòava). the festival of Nanda Mahârâja; Kèëòa's birthday.

Nanda-nandana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Lord, Kèëòa, who is the darling son of Nanda Mahârâja.

Nandana-kânana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the beautiful forest in the celestial world where Lord Indra sports with his wife and where there is heavenly music and dancing.

Nandavana: (sáns. vaiëòava). lower garden.

Nanda: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the chief personal servants of Lord Nârâyaòa in His spiritual abode, Vaikuòùha.

Nândî-äloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the introductory portion of a drama, which is written to invoke good fortune.

Nandi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the bull carrier of Äiva found in many Äiva temples.

Nara-deva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king, who is an earthly god.

Nara-Nârâyaòa Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as two sages to teach by example the practice of austerities.

Nârada Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a pure devotee of the Lord, one of the sons of Lord Brahmâ, who travels throughout the universes in his eternal body, glorifying devotional service while delivering the science of bhakti. He is the spiritual master of Vyâsadeva and of many other great devotees; A great sage among the demigods, the favorite son of Brahmâ, and one of the foremost authorities on viëòu-bhakti. In Kali-santaraòa Upaniëad, Brahmâ taught Nârada the Hare Kèëòa mahâ-mantra. Nârada is famous throughout the universe for his ecstatic chanting of the holy name of Kèëòa. He taught the Nârada-pañcaratra and the Nârada-bhakti-sûtra and gives a number of illuminating discourses in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam and other Purâòas. Among Nârada's prominent disciples are Prahlâda, Dhruva, Citraketu (Vètrâsura), the Haryaävas, and Vyâsadeva, who compiled all the Vedic scriptures. See Bhakti-yoga, Brahmâ, Demigods, Prahlâda, Vyâsa.

Nârada-pañcarâtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Nârada Muni's book on the processes of Deity worship and mantra meditation.

Narâdhama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lowest of mankind, those who are socially and politically developed but have no religious principles.

Narakâsura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of King Bhagadatta. He was killed by Lord Kèëòa.

Narakeävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Lord as well as for Yamarâja, meaning "he who is in charge of the hellish regions".

Nârakî: (sáns. vaiëòava). candidate for hellish life.

Narakuòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). lake of hell.

Narasiêha, Lord: (sáns. vaiëòava). Nèsiêhadeva-the half-man, half-lion incarnation of Lord Kèëòa, who killed the demon Hiranyakasipu and saved His devotee, Prahlada Mahârâja.

Nârâyaòa-parâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee of Lord Nârâyaòa.

Nârâyaòa-para: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has dedicated his life to the Supreme Lord Nârâyana, or Kèëòa.

Nârâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the majestic four-armed form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who is the source and goal of all living entities." The resting place of all living entities, who presides over the Vaikuòùha planets; Lord Viëòu, He is an expansion of Kèëòa.

Nara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the human race or a human being.

Narottama dâsa Ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). a renowned Vaiëòava spiritual master in the disciplic succession from Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, who is famous for his many compositions of devotional songs. He appeared in the 16th century in Khetari. in the West Bengal district of Rajasahi, just north of Nadia. He was devoted to Lord Caitanya from birth. His father was a king and dedicated to Lord Nityânanda. Narottama went to Vèndâvana and became the initiated disciple of Lokanâtha Gosvâmî. He studied under Ärîla Jîva Gosvâmî and preached widely throughout India, making many thousands of disciples.

Naëùa-buddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). bereft of all good sense.

Naëùa-prajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). bereft of all intelligence.

Natarâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). Äiva as the cosmic dancer.

Natural theology: (sáns. vaiëòava). A theological movement of the late seventeenth to early nineteenth century that minimized traditional revealed theology. Natural theology was the attempt of rationalist philosophers to acquire and demonstrate God consciousness by innate or natural reason. See Rationalism.

Nava-yauvana day: (sáns. vaiëòava). the day on which Lord Jagannâtha, Ärîmatî Subhadrâ and Lord Balarâma enter seclusion for fifteen days before Ratha-yâtrâ.

Nava-yauvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal transcendental form of Kèëòa as pre-youth.

Navadvîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the topmost holy place, ninety miles north of Calcutta. In the 15th and 16th centuries the city became the greatest center of Sanskrit learning in all of India. Lord Caitanya, the yuga-avatâra, appeared there in the late 15th century and propagated the chanting of the Holy Names all over India. His appearance made Navadvîpa the crest jewel of all holy places in the present age.

Navagraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). nine planets.

Navamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ninth day of the waxing and waning moon.

Nawab: (sáns. vaiëòava). Muslim ruler or a big landowner.

Nawab Hussein Shah: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Muhammdan governor of Bengal during the time of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's appearance.

Nesis (Gr.): (sáns. vaiëòava). Factual, intellectual knowledge, as opposed to mere opinion (dxa). See Epistemology.

Neti neti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the negative process of the jñânîs: "This is not spirit, this is not Brahman."

Netrotsava festival: (sáns. vaiëòava). the festival of painting the eyes of Lord Jagannâtha during the Nava-yauvana ceremony.

Newman, John Henry (1801-1890): (sáns. vaiëòava). an English cardinal who became one of the most outstanding European religious thinkers and essayists of the 19th century. He spent his life defending Christian truth against various forms of so-called rationalism.

New Philosophy: (sáns. vaiëòava). A European intellectual movement of the seventeenth century that directly led to the rise of modern science, New Philosophy owed much to Descartes' analytical, mechanistic view of the material world. The essential premise of New Philosophy is that knowledge is how something is made. The arcana naturae (secrets of nature) are to be exposed by experimenta lucifera (experiments of light), and the results of such experiments are to be validated by the reproduction of nature's effects with the help of mechanical apparatus.

Newton, Sir Isaac: (sáns. vaiëòava). English scientist who lived from 1643 to 1727. He was a follower of the Unitarian wing of Christianity, and tried to keep his science firmly grounded upon his faith. Newton opposed Descartes, whose philosophy he perceived as leading science away from the Bible.

Nidrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). sleep, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Nigarbha-yogî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yogî who worships the Supersoul without form.

Nija-dharma: (sáns. vaiëòava). one's constitutional position.

Nîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord's energy that destroys the creation.

Nilambar Cakravartî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the grand father of Sri Caitanya Maha-prabhu.

Nilambara Cakravartî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the great astrologer and scholar Vaisnava, Garga Muni, of Krsna-lila.

Nimi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a devotee king, ruler of Videha.

Nimai: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Caitanya in His childhood.

Nindakas: (sáns. vaiëòava). blasphemers.

Nirantara: (sáns. vaiëòava). without cessation, continuously, constantly.

Nirgrantha-muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a completely liberated saint.

Nirguòa-brahma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the impersonal conception of the Supreme Truth as being without any qualities.

Nirguòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). without material qualities; uncontaminated by the three modes of material nature.

Nirjala: (sáns. vaiëòava). fasting completely, even from water.

Nirmama: (sáns. vaiëòava). consciousness that nothing belongs to oneself.

Nirodha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the winding up of all energies employed in creation.

Nirvâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the cessation of material activities and existence, which according to Vaiëòava philosophy, does not deny spiritual activities and existence; freedom from and the end of the process of materialistic life; Literally, of, or like, a candle extinguised. A Sanskrit term for deliverance from material identity or extinction of the false ego, nirvâna is often identified with Buddhism. However, it is to be found throughout the Vedic literatures, e.g. in Bhagavad-gîtâ 2.72, 5.24-26, and 6.15. See Buddhism, False ego, Liberation, Modes of nature.

Nirveda: (sáns. vaiëòava). indifference, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Nirviäeëa-vâdîs: (sáns. vaiëòava). impersonalists who accept an Absolute but deny that He has any qualities of His own.

Niäcaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). Correct apprehension. One of the five functions of buddhi. See Buddhi.

Niëiddhâcâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). acting in a way forbidden in the äâstra.

Niëkâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). free from material desires.

Niëkiñcana: (sáns. vaiëòava). free from all material possessions; having nothing; a renunciant.

Nistraiguòya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the transcendental position above the three modes of nature.

Nitya-baddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternally conditioned soul, bound in the material world.

Nitya-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa's eternally present pastimes.

Nitya-muktas: (sáns. vaiëòava). souls who never come in contact with the external energy.

Nitya-mukta: (sáns. vaiëòava). an eternally liberated soul.

Nitya-siddha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has attained eternal perfection attained by never forgetting Kèëòa at any time; an ever-purified associate of the Lord.

Nityânanda Prabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). the incarnation of Lord Balarâma who appeared as the principal associate of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Nivâtakavacas: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sect of demons who were killed by Arjuna at the request of Indra.

Nivètti-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of renunciation, which leads to liberation; directions for giving up the material world for higher spiritual understanding.

Niyamâgraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). either following rules and regulations insufficiently (niyama-agraha) or fanatically without understanding the goal (niyama-âgraha).

Niyama: (sáns. vaiëòava). restraint of the senses.

Nè-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). the proper reception of guests; lit. "a sacrifice to satisfy people."

Nèga: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king who was cursed to become a snake because of a slight discrepancy in his service to brâhmaòas. He was delivered by Lord Kèëòa.

Nrita-mandapa: (sáns. vaiëòava). dance hall.

Nèsiêha Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas. It describes the pastimes of the Supreme Lord in His half-lion, half-man incarnation.

Nèsiêha-caturdaäî festival: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance day of Lord Nèsiêha.

Nèsiêhadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the half-man, half-lion incarnation of Lord Kèëòa, who killed the demon Hiranyakasipu and saved His devotee, Prahlada Mahârâja.

Numinous: (sáns. vaiëòava). Opposite of phenomenal. The root of the word numinous is the Latin numen, nod: a nod as a sign of command. From this comes the sense of a divine will or divine command. Thus the term numinous indicates the felt presence of the divine spirit, the transcendental, the everlasting. See Phenomenalism.

Nyâya: (sáns. vaiëòava). logic; Gautama Muni-one of the seven sons born from Lord Brahma's mind. He belongs to the family of Aôgirâ Èëi and is the author of Nyâya-äâstra, the science of logic, which explains that the combination of atoms is the cause of everything; One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy; taught by sage Gautama. See Logic, Six systems.

Nyâyu-äâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Sanskrit literary works, written by the ancient Èëi Gautama Muni and his followers, that teach the philosophical science of logic. Nyayu (or dialectics) was founded by Gautama and is one of the six major schools of Indian philosophy.


Objective reality: (sáns. vaiëòava). The external reality to which our language and perceptions refer.

Occult, Occult quality: (sáns. vaiëòava). References to the occult were made by Aristotle in his Ethics. He considered occult any effect of nature for which a cause could not be demonstrated. Hence, the occult qualities of nature (for instance, magnetism) could not be subject to scientific inquiry. The New Philosophy viewed all natural phenomena to be occult, since it considered science before the seventeenth century hopelessly inadequate for discovering causation. Though nature's qualities were occult, it was believed that scientific inquiry of a more aggressive kind than Aristotle had conceived of could unlock her secrets. See New Philosophy.

Oòana-ëaëùhî: (sáns. vaiëòava). ceremony at the beginning of winter when Lord Jagannâtha gets a winter shawl.

Om tat sat: (sáns. vaiëòava). the three transcendental syllables used by brâhmaòas for satisfaction of the Supreme when chanting Vedic hymns or offering sacrifice. They indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead.

Ontology: (sáns. vaiëòava). The study of being. It asks, what does to be, or to exist, really mean? Utilized in this study are terms and categories such as being/becoming, actuality/potentiality, real/apparent, change, time, existence/nonexistence, essence, necessity, being-as-being, self-dependency, self-sufficiency, ultimate and ground. See Epistemology, Philosophy.

Oêkâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). oê, the root of Vedic knowledge; known as the mahâ-vâkya, the supreme sound;
the transcendental syllable which represents Kèëòa, and which is vibrated by transcendentalists for attainment of the Supreme when undertaking sacrifices, charities and penances; The transcendental sound oê, which symbolically denotes the Personality of Godhead as the root of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the cosmic manifestation.


Paani: (sáns. vaiëòava). water.

Pâda-sevana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of serving at the Lord's feet.

Padayâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). foot journey; to go on pilgrimage by foot.

Paòichâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a superintendent of an Orissan temple.

Padma Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the eighteen Purâòas, or Vedic historical scriptures. It consists of conversation between Lord Äiva and his wife, Pârvati.

Padmanâbha: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He who has a lotus flower sprouting from His navel" or "He whose navel resembles a lotus."

Padma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lotus flower held by Lord Viëòu.

Pâdya: (sáns. vaiëòava). water ceremoniously offered for washing feet.

Paise: (sáns. vaiëòava). 100 paise equals one rupee.

Pakka: (sáns. vaiëòava). ripe, mature, reliable.

Pâlana-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the power to rule and maintain the living entities.

Palanquin: (sáns. vaiëòava). a seat that can be carried by four men, usually used to transport great personages or ladies.

Pâlas: (sáns. vaiëòava). attendants who look after a temple's external affairs.

Pallavas: (sáns. vaiëòava). South Indian dynasty of rulers.

Pañca-gavya: (sáns. vaiëòava). five kinds of products of the cow used to bathe the Deity.

Pañca-mahâbhûta: (sáns. vaiëòava). the five gross elements: earth, water, fire, air and ether.

Pañca-mahâyajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). the five daily sacrifices performed by householders to become free from unintentional sins.

Pañca-tattva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord-Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, His plenary portion-Nityânanda Prabhu, His incarnation-Advaita Prabhu, His energy-Gadâdhara Prabhu, and His devotee-Ärîvâsa Ùhâkura.

Pâñcajanya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conchshell of Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Pâñcâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). the kingdom of King Drupada.

Pañcâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). the five sense objects.

Pañcâmèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). five kinds of nectar used to bathe the Deity.

Pañcarâtra-vidhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the standard Vaiëòava method of temple worship taught in the

Pañcarâtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vedic literatures describing the process of Deity worship. See also: Nârada-pañcarâtra.

Pañcarâtrika-vidhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the devotional process of Deity worship and mantra meditation as found in the Pañcarâtra literature.

Pañcarâtrika: (sáns. vaiëòava). the process of worshiping the Deity, as explained by Nârada Muni. Also, a five-day fast, as explained by Kauòàilya Èëi.

Pañcopâsanâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). worship by impersonalist Mâyâvâdîs of five deities (Viëòu, Durgâ, Brahmâ, Gaòeäa and Vivasvân) that is motivated by the desire to ultimately abandon all conceptions of a personal Absolute.

Panch masala: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mixture of five whole spices used in preparing vegetable dishes.

Panch puran: (sáns. vaiëòava). Five-spice-two varieties of five-spice are prominent in the world of vegetarian cuisine-Chinese five-spice powder and Indian panch puran, a blend of five whole spices. Chinese five-spice powder is a combination of five dried, ground spices, generally cinnamon, cloves, fennel, star anise, and Sichuan peppercorns, the pungent brown peppercorns native to the Sichuan province. When used as a condiment for fried food, it is used in sparing quantities because it is very potent. Try making your own by grinding together 2 or 3 small sections of cinnamon stick, a dozen cloves, 2 teaspoons of fennel seeds, 2 teaspoons of Sichuan peppercorns, and 3 or 4 star anise. Keep the powder in a well-sealed jar in a cool, dry place. Obtain your ingredients at any Asian grocery store. You can also purchase Chinese five-spice ready-made. Panch puran is most often associated with Bengali cuisine. It is a combination of equal quantities of fenugreek seeds, cumin seeds, fennel seeds, black mustard seeds, and nigella (kalonji) seeds. Panch puran is always fried in ghee or oil before use to release the dormant flavour in the seeds. Mix your own, or purchase it ready-mixed at Indian grocery stores.

Pâòàavas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the five pious ksatriya brothers Yudhiëùhira, Bhîma, Arjuna, Nakula, and
Sahadeva. They were intimate friends of Lord Kèëòa's and inherited the leadership of the world upon their victory over the Kurus in the Battle of Kurukëetra.

Pâòàâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brahmâòa guide at temples and holy places; see also: Paòàita.

Paòàita-maòi: (sáns. vaiëòava). word indicating that Kèëòa is honored even by learned scholars.

Pâòàitaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the one hundred sons of Dhètarâëùra. He was killed by Bhîma. (Bhîëma Parva in Mahâbhârata)

Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). a learned scholar.

Paòàita: (sáns. vaiëòava). a scholar learned in Vedic literature, not only academically but also by dint of spiritual realization. Though this is the proper definition of the word, the term is also loosely applied to any scholar.

Pâòàu-vijaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the function of carrying Lord Jagannâtha to His car prior to the Ratha-yâtrâ procession.

Pâòàu: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great king of the Kuru dynasty, and the father of the Pâòàavas, Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva; the heroes of the Mahâbhârata. He had two wives, Kuntî and Mâdrî. He was a younger brother of Dhètarâëùra's who died early, leaving his five young sons under the care of Dhètarâëùra.

Pâòàyas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the South Indian dynasty that ruled over Madurai and Râmeävaram in South

Panentheism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The belief that all things are imbued with God's presence, because all things are in God (Gr. pan, all; en, in, and thes, God). See Atheism, Theism; The belief that God is identical to the universe.

Pâôji-ùikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). further explanations of a subject.

Panpsychism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The belief that God pervades all things as a psychic force. Hence, God's consciousness is behind the movement of matter; our individual consciousness is an aspect of God's. This falls short of true theism. See Atheism, Theism.

Pâpahâriòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Ekâdaäî that occurs during the dark part of the month of Caitra. It means "that which takes away sin." Another name for this day, having the same meaning, is Pâpamocani.

Pâpânkuëâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name for the Ekâdaäî that occurs during the light part of the month of Aävina. It means "that which has the power to pierce sin personified."

Paradox: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek par, contrary to, and dxa, opinion, paradox originally meant anything that goes against common sense but yet still may be true. Nowadays it more commonly means an insoluble dilemma, or a contradiction.

Parâ-prakèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the superior, spiritual energy or nature of the Lord.

Para-upakâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). helping others.

Para-vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental knowledge.

Parabrahman: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead, Ärî Kèëòa.

Paraäurâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the sixth incarnation of Lord Kèëòa, who appeared in ancient times to overthrow the warrior class when they had become degraded, who destroyed twenty-one consecutive generations of lawless members of the ruling class. He taught the science of weapons to Droòa and Karòa.

Parakîya-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). relationship with Kèëòa as His paramour.

Parakîya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the relationship between a married woman and her paramour; particularly the
relationship between the damsels of Vèndâvana and Kèëòa.

Param Brahman: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead, Lord Ärî Kèëòa.

Param dhâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eternal planets of the spiritual world.

Parama-puruëârtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the supreme goal of life.

Parama-vidvân: (sáns. vaiëòava). the most learned scholar.

Paramaê padam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord's transcendental abode.

Paraê satyam: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supreme Truth.

Paramahaêsa Bâbâjî: (sáns. vaiëòava). he who is on the highest platform of spiritual asceticism and who has given up all social and caste designations. The only designation maintained by himis that of being a tiny servant of the unlimited Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Paramahaêsa-ùhâkura: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who acts as an âcârya, directly presenting Lord Kèëòa by spreading His name and fame.

Paramahaêsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a topmost, God-realized, swanlike devotee of the Supreme Lord; highest stage of sannyâsa.

Paramâtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Supersoul, the localized aspect Viëòu expansion of the Supreme Lord residing in the heart of each embodied living entity and pervading all of material nature. See Supersoul.

Parameävara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the supreme controller, Lord Kèëòa.

Paramparâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the disciplic succession through which spiritual knowledge is transmitted by bona-fide spiritual masters; Literally, one after the other. It refers to the disciplic succession of spiritual masters and their disciples who became spiritual masters, beginning with Kèëòa and Brah-mâ, His disciple at the dawn of creation. See Four Vaiëòava Sampradâyas and Siddhântas.

Parantapa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name of Arjuna, "chastiser of the enemies."

Parârdha: (sáns. vaiëòava). one half of Brahmâ's lifetime of 311 trillion 40 billion years.

Parasara Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage, the speaker of the Viëòu Purâòa, and the father of Ärîla Vyâsadeva.

Paravyoma: (sáns. vaiëòava). the spiritual sky.

Para: (sáns. vaiëòava). transcendental.

Para-vidyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Vedic knowledge of transcendence concerning the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His service, as distinct from apara-vidyâ. The upâsanâ-kâòàa scriptures make up the para-vidyâ of the Vedas. See Apara-vidyâ, Avidyâ, Upâsanâ-kâòàa.

Paricchada: (sáns. vaiëòava). the total aggregate of the senses.

Parikrama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path that circles a sacred tract such as Vrndavan or Braj

Parîkëit: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Abhimanyu and grandson of Arjuna. When the Pâòàavas retired from
kingly life, he was crowned king of the entire world. He was later cursed to die by an immature brâhmaòa boy and became the hearer of Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam from
Äukadeva Gosvâmî, and thus attained perfection.

Pariòâma-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the theory of transformation in the creation of the universe.

Pârijâta: (sáns. vaiëòava). an extraordinarily fragrant white flower that Lord Kèëòa brought from the
heavenly planets for His wife Rukmiòi.

Pâriëats: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotees who are personal associates of the Lord.

Parivrâjakâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the third stage of sannyâsa, wherein the devotee constantly travels and preaches.

Parokëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Knowledge though another's senses. The second of the five stages of Vedic knowledge.

Pârtha-sârathi: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kèëòa, the chariot driver of Arjuna (Pârtha).

Pârvata Muni: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great sage who is a constant companion of Nârada.

Pârvatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sati, Lord Äiva's consort, meaning daughter of the mountain. She was reborn as the daughter of Himâlaya after consuming herself in mystic fire at Dakëa's sacrificial arena.

Pâëaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). atheism.

Pâëaòàî: (sáns. vaiëòava). an "offender," or atheist; a nonbeliever; one who thinks God and the demigods are on the same level, or who considers devotional activities to be material.

Pâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mystic noose used to capture Bali Mahârâja.

Pâñcâlî: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name of Draupadî, the wife of the Pâòàavas.

Passion: (sáns. vaiëòava). See Modes of nature (Rajo-guòa).

Pâäupatâstra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ultimate weapon of Lord Äiva. This weapon was used by Arjuna to kill Jayadratha.

Patañjali: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great authority and propounder on the aëùâôga mystic yoga system and author of the Yoga-sûtra. He imagined the form of the Absolute Truth in everything.

Pâtâlaloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lowest of the universe's fourteen planetary systems; also, the lower planets in general; also the seventh tier of the lower planetary systems, where Bali Mahârâja reigns.

Paùhana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a brâhmaòa's duty to be conversant with the Vedic scriptures; study of the

Patita-pâvana: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Caitanya, the deliverer of the fallen souls.

Pati: (sáns. vaiëòava). a husband.

Pâtra: (sáns. vaiëòava). players in a drama.

Paugaòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the age from five to ten years.

Pauòàraka: (sáns. vaiëòava). an enemy of Lord Kèëòa who attempted to imitate Him.

Paura-jana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the seven elements that constitute the body.

Pautra: (sáns. vaiëòava). patience and gravity.

Pauòàram: (sáns. vaiëòava). the conchshell of Bhîmasena.

Pavitram: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure.

Personalism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The philosophical position that accepts personality as ultimate. Early Buddhist philosophers, themselves impersonalists, used the term puruëa-vâdî (Skr.personalist) in reference to the Vedic worshipers of the Mahâpuruëa (the Supreme Person). In Western philosophy, personalism is often used as a synonym for relativism. Ärîla Prabhupâda used the term in the absolute sense, referring it only to the worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, not to the worship of demigods, humans or human ideals. He equated impersonalism with atheism. See Atheism, Impersonalism, Relativism, Theism.

Phala-ärutis: (sáns. vaiëòava). Sanskrit verses granting various benedictions.

Phalguna: (sáns. vaiëòava). another name for Arjuna; one of the months corresponding to January/February or February/March.

Phalgu: (sáns. vaiëòava). weak, temporary.

Phenomenalism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A doctrine of sense perception and reality that is associated with the British philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). For Mill, all knowledge is derived from sense perception. Things are real only when they are perceived. Therefore the material world cannot be said to exist apart from perception. Phenomenalism is closely associated with empiricism and induction. It is not to be confused with phenomenology. See Empiricism, Induction, Numinous.

Phenomenology: (sáns. vaiëòava). A modern development in European rationalism. Its most famous exponents are Franz Brentano (1838-1917), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Martin Heidegger (1899-1976), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961). Phenomenology investigates consciousness through experience. Some of its theories are reminiscent of Vedic knowledge, for example, the theory of the triumvirate of consciousness: the knower, the act of knowing, and the thing known.

In Vedic terminology, these are jñâtâ, jñâna, and jñeya. See Mind/body problem, Rationalism.

Philosophy: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Greek phlos, lover, friend, and sophs, wise, learned. A philosopher is someone who loves wisdom and erudition (sopha). Therefore he devotes himself to knowledge, that it may bloom into wisdom without hindrance. In Bg. 7.17, Lord Kèëòa declares that when a sage devotes himself to knowing Him, he becomes very dear to the Lord.

Phul gobhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). cauliflower.

Pika: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Indian cuckoo bird.

Piòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). an offering made to departed ancestors.

Piäâca: (sáns. vaiëòava). a hobgoblin follower of Lord Äiva.

Pitâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). forefathers; especially those departed ancestors who have been promoted to one of the higher planets.

Pitha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the pedestal or altar of the Deity. The pitha is in the sanctum sanctorum (inner sanctum)

Pitè-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). offering oblations of water before one's forefathers.

Pitèloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the planet of the ancestors, a heavenly planet.

Pitta: (sáns. vaiëòava). bile, one of the three main elements of the body.

Plato: (sáns. vaiëòava). Disciple of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, and a prolific writer (427-347 BC). Almost all that is known about Socrates comes from Plato's works. A Platonic doctrine that resembles the Bhagavad-gîtâ philosophy of the three modes of material nature is the care of the soul. The soul is said to work within the body through three faculties: appetite, spiritedness and reason. The appetitive faculty is lowest of the three. It consists of the drives for physical enjoyment (of food and sex) and for the avoidance of pain. Thums, or spiritedness, is the middle faculty. It is excitable, aggressive and pugnacious, and seeks adventure and honor. Highest is the faculty of reason. It expresses itself as inquiry and as worthy activity. Reason seeks beauty, truth and goodness. The appetites can be compared to a herd of sheep, spiritedness to a sheepdog, and reason to a shepherd. Care of the soul means to keep the three faculties in harmony, so that they don't meddle in one another's purpose. The purpose of appetite is to see that the body is properly cared for. Spiritedness's purpose is to fight fear and complacency. The purpose of reason is impose order upon the other two, to maintain harmony, and to care for the soul. Reason gets its sense of correct order and harmony by contemplation of the Good, described as a realm of eternal, unchanging thought-forms. When reason harmonizes human life with the Good, the soul is freed from human ignorance and suffering. British philosopher A.N. Whitehead (1861-1947) said the whole history of Western philosophy consists of nothing more than footnotes to Plato. See Idealism. Plotinus Plotinus lived in Egypt and Rome some two centuries after Christ (204-270 AD) and is the founder of the Neoplatonist school of Greek philosophy. As a young man in Alexandria, he learned philosophy under Ammonius Saccas. There is speculation that Ammonius Saccus was originally from India. Plotinus tried to visit India but failed. Back in the Mediterranean world, he taught that the soul is eternal and transmigrates from body to body (reincarnation). The gradation of species of living entities emanates from the impersonal spiritual essence, God. The philosophical soul gradually ascends to that essence and merges into it. Neoplatonism had a strong influence on the early Christian church. See Mysticism, Plato.

Polenta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a yellow maize or cornmeal grown in northern Italy, where it is regarded as a staple food. Polenta is graded according to its texture and is available fine-, medium-, or coarse-ground. It is available at most supermarkets and health food stores.

Polytheism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The belief in the existence of many gods. See Atheism, Theism.

Popper, Karl: (sáns. vaiëòava). Austrian-born philosopher of science (1902-1994) who taught at the University of London. His most influential books are Logic of Scientific Discovery, The Open Society and Its Enemies and Conjectures and Refutations. Popper was a staunch opponent of logical positivism, which he challenged with his own theory of falsifiability.

Poëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Lord's special care and protection for His devotees.

Positivism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A rationalist doctrine founded by French philosopher Auguste Compte (1798-1857), who argued that human thought unavoidably evolves from theological thinking at the lowest stage, through metaphysics (depersonalized philosophy) at the middle stage, to positivism at the highest stage. Positivism consists of the elements of modern science: mathematics, logic, observation, experimentation and control. According to Compte, the highest form of religion is worship of reason and universal humanity, devoid of any reference to God. See Empiricism, Logical positivism, Metaphysics, Rationalism.

Prabhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a holy place near Dvârakâ where the fratricide of the Yadu dynasty took place.

Prabhu-datta-deäa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a place for preaching given by the spiritual master or Lord Kèëòa.

Prabhupâda, Ärîla: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîla Prabhupâda-(1896-1977) His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda. He is the tenth generation from Caitanya Mahâprabhu. The founder-âcârya, spiritual master of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). Ärîla Prabhupâda was the widely-acclaimed author of more than seventy books on the science of pure bhakti-yoga, unalloyed Kèëòa consciousness. His major works are annotated English translations of the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam, the Ärî Caitanya-caritâmèta, and the Bhagavad-gîtâ As It Is. He was the world's most distinguished teacher of Vedic religion and thought. Ärîla Prabhupâda was a fully God conscious saint who had perfect realization of the Vedic scriptures. He worked incessantly to spread Kèëòa consciousness all over the world. He guided his society and saw it grow to a worldwide confederation of hundreds of ashrams, schools, temples, institutes, and farm communities. See Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda.

Prabhupâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). master at whose feet all other masters surrender.

Prabhu: (sáns. vaiëòava). master.

Prabodhânanda Sarasvatî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great Vaiëòava poet-philosopher and devotee of Lord Ärî
Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He was the uncle of Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî.

Prabodha: (sáns. vaiëòava). awakening, a vyabhicâri-bhâva.

Prâcînabarhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king who, entangled in fruitive activities, received instructions on devotional service from Nârada Muni.

Pracetâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ten sons of King Prâcînabarhi. They achieved perfection by worshiping Lord Viëòu.

Pradesh: (sáns. vaiëòava). state in India.

Pradhâna: (sáns. vaiëòava). the total material energy in its unmanifest state; The unmanifest (avyakta)
material nature (Gr. chos). See Modes of nature, Tan-mâtras.

Pradyumna: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four original expansions of Lord Kèëòa in the spiritual world; also the first son of Lord Kèëòa by Rukminî. He fought against Äâlva in the fight for Dvârakâ. (Vana Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Prâgjyotiëapura: (sáns. vaiëòava). the capital city of Narakâsura and his son Bhagadatta.

Pragmatism: (sáns. vaiëòava). A rationalist doctrine founded by American philosopher C.S. Peirce (1839-1914) that attempts to halt all metaphysical speculation about the truth by arguing that practical human activity is the only real test of truth. See Rationalism.

Prahararâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a designation given to brâhmaòas who represent the king when the throne is vacant.

Prahara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a three-hour period, eight of which make up each day.

Prahlâda Maharâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great devotee of Lord Kèëòa who was persecuted by his atheistic father, Hiraòyakaäipu, but was always protected by the Lord and ultimately saved by the Lord in the form of Nèsiêhadeva; A great devotee of the Lord in His Narasiêha (man-lion) feature, Prahlâda is one of the foremost authorities on bhakti-yoga. Many important verses in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam are spoken by him.

Prajalpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). idle talk on mundane subjects.

Prajvâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). a kind of fever called viëòu jvâra.

Prajâpatis: (sáns. vaiëòava). the progenitors of living entities, chief of whom is Lord Brahmâ; The demigods in charge of populating the universe.

Prajâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). citizens (including all species of life).

Prakâäa-vigrahas: (sáns. vaiëòava). forms of the Lord manifested for His pastimes.

Prâkâmya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mystic ability to fulfill any of one's desires.

Prakaùa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the manifestation on earth of the Supreme Lord's pastimes.

Prakara: (sáns. vaiëòava). the high walls surrounding the temple grounds.

Prâkèta-bhaktas: (sáns. vaiëòava). materialistic devotees not advanced in spiritual knowledge.

Prâkèta-sahajiyâs: (sáns. vaiëòava). pseudo devotees of Kèëòa who take devotional service cheaply and do not follow the regulations of the scripture; materialistic so-called Vaiëòavas who imagine themselves to be confidential devotees.

Prâkèta: (sáns. vaiëòava). on the material platform.

Prakèti: (sáns. vaiëòava). material nature, the energy of the Supreme (lit., that which is predominated).; the female principle enjoyed by the male puruëa. There are two prakrtis-apara-prakèti, the material nature, and para-prakrti, the spiritual nature (living entities)-which are both predominated over by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; One of the five tattvas, or Vedic ontological truths: (material or spiritual) nature. See Daivi-prakèti, Modes of nature, Tattva.

Prakëepâtmikâ-äakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). mâyâ's power to throw one into the material world.

Pralâpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstatic symptom of talking like a madman.

Pramâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Evidence, proof. The term refers to sources of knowledge that are held to be
valid. In the Brahmâ-Madhva-Gauàîya Sampradâya, the school of Vedic knowledge that ISKCON represents, there are three pramâòas. They are pratyakëa (direct sense
perception), anumâna (reason), and äabda (authoritative testimony). Of these three pramâòas, äabda is imperative, while pratyakëa and anumâna are supportive. See
Anumâna, Pratyakëa, Äabda.

Pramâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). inattention or misunderstanding of reality.

Pramadâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). woman, to whom a man becomes madly attached.

Pramatta: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who is crazy because he cannot control his senses.

Pramlocâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the daughter of the sage Kaòàu by the heavenly society girl Mâriëâ who became the wife of the Pracetâs.

Prâòa-maya: (sáns. vaiëòava). (consciousness) absorbed in maintaining one's bodily existence.

Praòava: (sáns. vaiëòava). Oêkâra-oê, the root of Vedic knowledge; known as the mahâ-vâkya, the
supreme sound; the transcendental syllable which represents Kèëòa, and which is vibrated by transcendentalists for attainment of the Supreme when undertaking
sacrifices, charities and penances.

Prâòâyâma: (sáns. vaiëòava). breath control used in yoga practice, especially aëùâôga-yoga (one of the eight parts of the aëùanga-yoga system).

Praòaya: (sáns. vaiëòava). that mellow of love when there is a possibility to receive direct honor, but it is avoided.

Prâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the life air.

Pranava oêkara: (sáns. vaiëòava). Oêkâra-oê, the root of Vedic knowledge; known as the mahâ-vâkya, the supreme sound; the transcendental syllable which represents Kèëòa, and which is vibrated by transcendentalists for attainment of the Supreme when undertaking sacrifices, charities and penances.

Prâpta-brahma-laya: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has already attained the Brahman position.

Prâpta-svarûpas: (sáns. vaiëòava). those merged in Brahman realization.

Prâpti-siddhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). mystic perfection of acquisition by which the yogî can reach his hand anywhere and obtain whatever he likes.

Prâpti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mystic ability to immediately obtain any material object.

Prarocanâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the method inducing the audience to become more and more eager to hear by praising the time and place, the hero and the audience.

Praäânta: (sáns. vaiëòava). undisturbed by the modes of nature.

Prasâda, or prasâdam: (sáns. vaiëòava). "the mercy of Lord Kèëòa." Food prepared for the pleasure of Kèëòa and offered to Him with love and devotion. Because Kèëòa tastes the offering, the food becomes spiritualized and purifies anyone who eats it. Literally, mercy. When sattvic foods (milk, grains, fruits, vegetables, sugar and legumes) prepared by a devotee are offered to the Deity of Kèëòa as prescribed in the system of bhakti-yoga, the offering is transformed into prasâdam, the mercy of the Lord. Prasâdam is delicious, nourishing but most important, transcendental. Ordinary food, unoffered to Kèëòa, breeds karmic reactions for every mouthful that is eaten, because so many living entities gave up their lives during the preparation. But food offered to Kèëòa is freed of sin and invokes an attraction to Kèëòa in whomever accepts it. See Bhakti-yoga. See also: Mahâ-prasâdam

Prasâdî: (sáns. vaiëòava). food offered to Lord Jagannâtha.

Prasannâtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). joyfulness attained when one is relieved from material conceptions.

Prasûti: (sáns. vaiëòava). a daughter of Svâyambhuva Manu who was the wife of Dakëa.

Pratîpa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Mahârâja Äantanu.

Pratibimba-vâda: (sáns. vaiëòava). the worship of a form that is the reflection of a false material form.

Pratigraha: (sáns. vaiëòava). accepting charity; the duty of a brâhmaòa to accept contributions from his followers.

Pratikriyâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). counteracting agents such as mantras and medicines.

Pratiëùhâäâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). desire for name and fame or high position.

Prativindhya: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Draupadî and Yudhiëùhira. He was killed by Aävatthâmâ while awaking from sleep in his tent.

Pratyag-âtmâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the soul, when purified of material attachment.

Pratyakëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Direct sense perception. 1) The first of the five stages of Vedic knowledge, considered as a subordinate, not self-evident, proof of knowledge. 2) The first of the three Vaiëòava pramâòas. See Anumâna, Empiricism, Experientia, Pramâòa, Äabda.

Pratyâhâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). withdrawal of the senses from all unnecessary activities, as a means of advancement in the aëùâôga-yoga system.

Pravartaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). introduction to a drama, when the players first enter the stage in response to the time.

Pravâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the condition of separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated.

Pravètti-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of sense enjoyment in accordance with Vedic regulations.

Prâyaäcitta: (sáns. vaiëòava). atonement for sinful acts.

Prayâga: (sáns. vaiëòava). (modern Allahabad) a very sacred place, mentioned in the Purâòas, situated at the confluence of the holy Ganges, Yamunâ and Sarasvatî Rivers. A Mâgha-melâ and a Kumbha-melâ are celebrated here. Every year many thousands of pilgrims come to
bathe in the holy waters. It was here that Lord Caitanya instructed Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî for ten days.

Prayojana: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ultimate goal of life, to develop love of God.

Preyas: (sáns. vaiëòava). activity which is immediately beneficial but not ultimately auspicious.

Prema: (sáns. vaiëòava). Love, especially love of Kèëòa. Cc., Adi-lîlâ 4.165 distinguishes prema from kâma (lust). Prema is evinced by service to Kèëòa's senses, whereas kâma is evinced by service to the senses of the material body. See Kèëòa.

Prema-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). pure love of Lord Kèëòa, the highest perfectional stage in the progressive development of pure devotional service.

Prema-saôkîrtana: (sáns. vaiëòava). congregational chanting in love of Godhead.

Prema-vaicittya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an abundance of love that brings about grief from fear of separation although the lover is present.

Prema-vataì: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who has great love for the spiritual master.

Prema: (sáns. vaiëòava). real love of God, the highest perfectional stage of life.

Pretsila Hill: (sáns. vaiëòava). a hill about 540 feet high, located five miles northwest of Gayâ in the state of Bihar. Pilgrims perform the äraddha ceremony there. A long flight of steps which leads to the summit and temple was constructed in 1774 by Ùhâkura Bhaktivinoda's ancestor Madan Mohan Dutt.

Priyatama: (sáns. vaiëòava). dearmost.

Priyavrata: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Svâyambhuva Manu and brother of Uttânapâda. He once ruled the universe.

Problem of evil: (sáns. vaiëòava). Professor A.L. Herman, philosopher at the University of Wisconsin, compiled a list of twenty-one attempts to solve the problem of evil put forward by Western philosophers and theologians during the Christian era. He admits that the list is not exhaustive, only representative. Of those he listed, Herman says none will suffice to dissolve the problem, and of unlisted attempts, he comments, I think this result must be inevitable for all such similar attempts undertaken within the context of the traditional Western approach to the problem of evil. The problem stems from three assumptions, only two of which seem to be compatible: 1) God is omnipotent; 2) God is omnibenevolent; 3) Evil exists.

For evil to exist, so the argument goes, God must either be less than all-powerful or less than all-good. The Vedic answer is given by Ärîla Prabhupâda in On the Way to Kèëòa, Chapter Three. Accordingly, the human perception of good and evil is due to the influence of the three modes of material nature upon consciousness. These three modes originate in Kèëòa, who is omnipotent and omnibenevolent. Though the modes and their effects are within Kèëòa, He is not in them. Hence, the human perception of good in this world does not correspond to the goodness of Kèëòa, the source of the world. For example, electricity is perceived in the home in terms of heat (in an electric stove) and cold (in a refrigerator). But at the power plant, electricity is not known in terms of the duality of heat and cold. In the home, whether electrical heat and cold are good or bad depends upon ever-changing circumstances and individual opinions. At the power plant, such changing circumstances and differing opinions do not occur. The power plant is not responsible for the reasons that cause people to say electrical heat is good, electrical cold is bad, or vice-versa. Similarly, individuals of different natures,
circumstances and opinions define good and evil differently. Death is evil if it happens to me.

Death is good if it happens to my enemy. Or death may be good for me if it delivers me from lingering agony, and not good if it does the same for my enemy. Although life and death, or good and evil, are within Kèëòa, His own divine goodness is not within them. The good and evil we ascribe to life and death or anything else are
creations of the material mind. See Modes of nature.

Proëita-bhaètkâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a woman whose husband has left home and gone to a foreign country.

Pèëata: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of King Drupada.

Pèäni: (sáns. vaiëòava). the name of Devakî in a previous birth.

Pèthâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Kuntî, the wife of King Pâòàu, mother of the Pâòàavas and aunt of Lord Kèëòa. See also: Kunti-devi.

Pèthu Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). an empowered incarnation of Lord Kèëòa who demonstrated how to be an ideal ruler.

Pûjârî: (sáns. vaiëòava). priest, one who offers pûjâ or worships the Deity in a temple.

Pûjâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). offering of worship.

Pulastya (Pulaha): (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord

Puêäcalî: (sáns. vaiëòava). a harlot, or unchaste woman.

Puòàarîkâkëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead meaning "He whose eyes are like the reddish lotus flower."

Puòya-äloka: (sáns. vaiëòava). verses that increase one's piety; one who is glorified by such verses.

Puòya: (sáns. vaiëòava). karma-pious activities, which help to liberate one from the cycle of birth and death in the material world.

Puraäcaraòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a preliminary ritualistic performance for the fulfillment of certain desires.

Puraäcaryâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). five preliminary devotional activities performed to qualify for initiation.

Purâòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). Literally, very old. Within the smèti section of the Vedic scriptures, there are eighteen Mahâ-purâòas (great books of ancient wisdom). Of these, the greatest is the Bhâgavata Purâòa, also called Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam. See Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam.

Purâòas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eighteen major and eighteen minor ancient Vedic literatures compiled about five thousand years ago in India by Srila Vyasadeva that are histories of this and other planets; literatures supplementary to the Vedas, discussing such topics as the creation of the universe, incarnations of the Supreme Lord and demigods, and the history of dynasties of saintly kings. The eighteen principal Purâòas discuss ten primary subject matters: 1) the primary creation, 2) the secondary creation, 3) the planetary systems, 4) protection and maintenance by the avatâras, 5) the Manus. 6) dynasties of great kings, 7) noble character and activities of great kings, 8) dissolution of the universe and liberation of the living entity, 9) the jîva (the spirit soul), 10) the Supreme Lord.

Puraka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the stage of equilibrium attained by offering the inhaled breath into the exhaled breath.

Puram: (sáns. vaiëòava). town.

Pura-pâlaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the life air.

Pûròam: (sáns. vaiëòava). complete.

Pûròa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the complete whole, Lord Kèëòa.

Purnima: (sáns. vaiëòava). the day of the full moon.

Purocana: (sáns. vaiëòava). a minister of King Duryodhana. He died in the fire of the house of lac in

Pûrtam: (sáns. vaiëòava). performance of sacrifice.

Puruëa-adhama: (sáns. vaiëòava). the Personality of Godhead, under whom all other persons remain.

Puruëa-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the primary expansions of Lord Viëòu who effect the creation,
maintenance and destruction of the material universes.

Puruëa-avatâras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the primary expansions of Lord Viëòu who effect the creation,
maintenance and destruction of the material universes.

Puruëa-sûkta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sacred hymn glorifying the Supersoul of the universe.

Puruëârtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the goal of life.

Puruëa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the enjoyer, or male; the living entity or the Supreme Lord; Viëòu, the
incarnation of the Lord for material creation; the male or controlling principle; erson, enjoyer or soul. This term may be applied to both the jîva and the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. See Personalism.

Puruëottama: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa, who is the Supreme Person, meaning "the most exalted person."

Purûravâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a king who was captivated by the celestial woman Urvaäî.

Pûru: (sáns. vaiëòava). the youngest son of King Yayâti, who agreed to exchange his youth for his father's old age.

Pûrva-râga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ecstasy of lovers before their meeting.

Pûrva-vidhi: (sáns. vaiëòava). the injunction in Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam against praising characteristics or activities of others.

Purvâëâdhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the twenty-seven asterisms in Vedic astrology.

Puëkara: (sáns. vaiëòava). a lake in western India dear to Lord Brahmâ. At this place of pilgrimage is the only authorized temple of Lord Brahmâ the world.

Puëpa-aëjali: (sáns. vaiëòava). the ceremony of offering flowers to the Lord.

Puëpadanta: (sáns. vaiëòava). a name for the Supreme Lord meaning "He whose teeth are as white as jasmine flowers." Also, a devotee of Lord Äiva renowned for his poetic skill.

Pûtanâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). a witch who was sent by Kaêsa to appear in the form of a beautiful woman to kill baby Kèëòa but who was killed by Him and granted liberation.

Putra: (sáns. vaiëòava). consciousness.


Puantum mechanical theory: (sáns. vaiëòava). A theory of subatomic physics begun by Max Planck (1858-1947) and developed by Niels Bohr (1885-1962), Ernst Schrùdinger (1887-1961), Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), Paul Dirac (1902-1984) and others.

In order to form an elementary understanding of quantum theory, it is useful to compare it to Newtonian and Einsteinian physics. In Newton's classical view, science defines the structure and movement of matter in a very fixed and real sense. Matter is composed of particles that move according to the same forces that govern the
movement of billiard balls. Einstein argued that while the structure of matter ought to be considered definite, its movement is not. If particles are like billiard balls in motion, then the billiard table is also in motion. The billiard table is comprised of space and time, which are not two separate entitieshence the term spacetime in relativity theory. Even stranger, the movement of the billiard balls creates the spacetime billiard table that is the basis of the balls' movement. Einstein introduced into science the idea that the position of an observer contributes to the reality of the motion observed. When two observers, each in a different position, observe the same event differently, there is no way to determine whether one observation is right and the other wrong. If Newton's theory is compared to a tidy piece of realistic art, then Einstein's theory is more like a puzzle in which the objects look real enough, though their spatial relationships change before our eyes as in the case of a small circle drawn within a cube frame. As we gaze at it, the perspective shifts.

The circle appears to be near the back left lower corner of the cube, then near the front left lower corner. But quantum theory can be compared only to an abstract yet suggestive art forma painting that at first glance appears to depict no subject at all, only chaos. Then, during closer scrutiny, forms are seen to emerge out of and merge back into the chaosa face, a hand, a bird or something else. Quantum theory gives no fixed and real definition of either the structure or the motion of matter. It predicts only where a quantum object may be found, or what state of motion it will be in. The where and what state of motion of that object are logically incompatible. Therefore quantum theory speaks of quantum objects as wave-particles. Ordinarily, the motion of objects through space is described in terms of four dimensions: length, breadth, height and duration of time. In quantum theory, as the number of quantum objects to be measured increases, more dimensions of space are added to account for them. But these dimensions are creations of the mind. This brings us to the problem of the interplay between mind and matter in quantum mechanics. There is no settled opinion as to where subjectivity ends and objectivity begins. Consequently, it has been remarked of quantum physics that there is no 'there' there. See Relativity theory.

Puine, W.V.: (sáns. vaiëòava). American philosopher of great repute in the twentieth century (1908-1995). His argument that in scientific theory, any statement can be held true, come what may, if we make drastic enough adjustments elsewhere in the system, is often quoted.


Râdhâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Adhiratha, and foster mother of Karòa.

Râdhâ-bhâva-mûrti: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mood of Râdhârâòî.

Râdhâ-kuòàa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the bathing place of Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî, a sacred pond near Govardhana Hill in Vraja that was created by Râdhârâòî and her gopî companions. It is supreme among all the holy places in Vraja and the most exalted holy place for all Gauàîya Vaiëòavas. The eight major Gauàîya Vaiëòava temples of Vèndâvana also exist at Râdhâ-kuòàa, as well as the bhajana-kutîras of Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî and Kèëòadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmî. This is the site of the most intimate loving affairs of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa, and the waters of Râdhâ-kuòàa are considered non-different from Râdhârâòî and productive of love of Godhead.

Râdhârâòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa's most intimate consort, who the personification of the internal, pleasure potency of Lord Kèëòa. She appeared in this world as the daughter of King Vèsabhânu and Kirti-devî and is the Queen of Vèndâvana. The most favorite consort of Kèëòa in Vrindavana, situated on Lord Kèëòa's left on altars and pictures; The feminine counterpart of Lord Kèëòa. She directs the ânanda potency (hlâdinî-äakti) for the transcendental pleasure of the Lord. See Daivi-prakèti, Kèëòa, Sac-cid-ânanda.

Râdhâëtamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance anniversary of Ärimatî Râdhârâni.

Râdhikâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Ärîmatî Râdhârâòî.

Râga-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service in transcendental rapture.

Râga-mârga: (sáns. vaiëòava). the path of devotional service in spontaneous love of Godhead.

Râgânuga-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). devotional service following the spontaneous loving service of the inhabitants of Vèndâvana.

Râgâtmika-bhakti: (sáns. vaiëòava). spontaneous devotional service of the inhabitants of Vèndâvana according to their transcendental attachment.

Râga: (sáns. vaiëòava). attachment in ecstatic love of God.

Râghava: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Râmacandra, who appeared in the Raghu dynasty, the dynasty of the sun.

Raghunâtha Bhaùùa Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Six Gosvamis of Vèndâvana. He appeared in 1506 as the son of Tapana Miära. He first met Lord Caitanya in Benares when the Lord stayed at his father's home for two months. He rendered direct service to the Lord and received His mercy. After the demise of his parents, he went to Purî and associated with the Lord, cooking for Him and taking His remnants. He was especially well-known for his sweetly singing the Bhâgavatam to different tunes, his super-excellent cooking and his never hearing, or speaking about, either worldly topics or criticism of Vaiëòavas. On the order of the Lord, he proceeded to Vèndâvana and associated there with the other Gosvâmîs. He did not write books. His disciples assisted with the construction of the Govindaji Temple for Rûpa Gosvâmî's Deity. He disappeared in 1580 at the age of seventy-four.

Raghunâtha dâsa Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the Six Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana. He appeared in 1495. He was the son of the fabulously wealthy Govardhana Majumdara, the younger brother of the then Zamindar Hiraòya Majumdara in the village of Krishnapura in West Bengal. His forefathers were Vaiëòavas, and when he was a boy he got the association and blessings of Ärîla Haridâsa Ùhâkura. He was mad with the desire to join Lord Caitanya in Jagannâtha Purî, but every time he ran away from home his parents would have him captured and brought back. Finally, he was successful. He received the mercy of Lord Caitanya and served for many years as the assistant of Svarûpa Dâmodara. He was thus known as the Raghu of Svarûpa. Later, he was sent to Vèndâvana and lived in Râdhâ-kuòàa, performing severe austerities. In his later years he subsisted on just a few drops of buttermilk each day. He wrote important texts on devotion, his only concern being the chanting of the Holy Name. He ascended in 1571 at the age of 76.

Rahûgaòa Mahârâja: (sáns. vaiëòava). the king who received spiritual instruction from Jaòa Bharata.

Railhead: (sáns. vaiëòava). town or station at the end of the railway line; ending point.

Raita: (sáns. vaiëòava). fruits or semicooked vegetables in lightly seasoned yogurt.

Raivataka: (sáns. vaiëòava). a mountain near Dvârakâ.

Râja-pâla: (sáns. vaiëòava). the governor of the state.

Râja-yoga: (sáns. vaiëòava). Pataëjali's process of imagining a form of the Absolute Truth within many forms.

Rajaguòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mode of passion of material nature.

Râjarëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great saintly king.

Râjasa-ahaôkâra: (sáns. vaiëòava). egotism in passion.

Râjasûya-yajña: (sáns. vaiëòava). an elaborate sacrifice that establishes who is the emperor of the world. It was performed by Mahârâja Yudhiëùhira before the Battle of Kurukëetra and attended by Lord Kèëòa. (Sabhâ Parva in Mahâbhârata).

Rajas: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material mode of passion.

Raja: (sáns. vaiëòava). rule or sovereignty. Used to describe the British rule; king or prince.

Rajo-guòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the material mode of passion. See Modes of nature.

Râkëasa-gaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). man-eating demons.

Râkëasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a class of asura or ungodly people. The Râkëasa are always opposed to God's will. Generally, they are man-eaters and have grotesque forms.

Rakta: (sáns. vaiëòava). red in the Treta-yuga.

Râma-navamî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the appearance anniversary of Lord Râmacandra.

Râma-râjya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a perfect, Vedic kingdom following the example of Lord Râmacandra-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as the perfect king.

Râmacandra: (sáns. vaiëòava). the eighteenth incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the killer of the tenheaded demon king, Râvaòa. Râma was exiled to the forest on the order of His father, Mahârâja Daäaratha. His wife Sîtâ was kidnapped by Râvaòa, but by employing a huge army of monkeys, who were the powerful and intelligent offspring of demigods, He regained his wife in battle, and eventually His ancestral kingdom too. This great epic is recounted in Vâlmîki's Râmâyaòa.

Râmânanda Râya: (sáns. vaiëòava). an intimate associate of Lord Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu in His later pastimes.

Râmânujâcârya: (sáns. vaiëòava). a great eleventh-century Vaiëòava spiritual master of the Ärî-sampradâya.

Râmâyaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the original epic history about Lord Râmacandra and Sîtâ, written by Vâlmîki Muni.

Râma: (sáns. vaiëòava). name of the Absolute Truth as the source of unlimited pleasure for transcendentalists; incarnation of the Supreme Lord, Lord Râmacandra as a perfect, righteous king, who appeared in Ayodhya in the Tretâ-yuga; Literally, the supreme
pleasure; a prominent Sanskrit name of the Personality of Godhead. See Kèëòa.

Ramâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lakëmî, the goddess of fortune and eternal consort of the Supreme Lord, Nârâyaòa.

Ranaghat: (sáns. vaiëòava). a town in the West Bengal district of Nadia just south of Navadvîpa on the railway to Calcutta. Ranaghat is the government headquarters of the Ranaghat subdivision of the Nadia district. It covers an area of about two-and-a-half square miles. Ùhâkura Bhaktivinoda's family lived here at different times.

Raôganâtha: (sáns. vaiëòava). Deity of Lord Viëòu worshiped in Ärî Raôgam.

Ranga-bhumi: (sáns. vaiëòava). This is where the wrestling match took place between Krsna, Balaram and the professional wrestlers, Canura and Mustika.

Râsa dance: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa's pleasure dance with the cowherd maidens of Vèndâvana, Vrajabhûmi. It is a pure exchange of spiritual love between the Lord and His most advanced, confidential servitors.

Râsa-lîlâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the group dancing of Kèëòa and His cowherd girlfriends in His Vèndâvana pastimes.

Rasa-yâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). festival of the rasa dancing of Kèëòa.

Rasâbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). incompatible overlapping of transcendental mellows.

Râsâdi-vilâsî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the enjoyer of the râsa dance and other pastimes.

Rasam powder: (sáns. vaiëòava). a South Indian spice blend used to flavour the famous rasam, a chili-hot soup dish made from toovar (arhar) dal lentils. Ingredients vary. The home-made rasam powder recipe contains mustard seeds, coriander seeds, dried hot red chilies, black peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, and cumin seeds. Rasam powder can be purchased ready-mixed in packets or tins from Indian grocery shops.

Rasâtala: (sáns. vaiëòava). the lowest planet in the lowest planetary system (Pâtâla) ins

Rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). relationship between the Lord and the living entities; mellow, or the sweet taste of a relationship, especially between the Lord and the living entities. They are of five principal varieties-neutral relationship (santa-rasa), relationship as servant (dâsya-rasa), as friend (sakhya-rasa), parent (vâtsalya-rasa) and conjugal lover (mâdhurya-rasa). Eternal spiritual relationship with Kèëòa. There are five rasas: äânta (passive awe and reverence); dâsya (servitude); sakhya (friendship); vâtsalya (parenthood); and mâdhurya (conjugal love). According to his specific kind of rasa, the soul displays a spiritual form as Kèëòa's eternal servant, friend, parent or conjugal lover. Just as our present material body permits us to engage in karma (physical activities), so the spiritual rasa-body permits us to engage in lîlâ (Kèëòa's endlessly expanding spiritual activities) See Ecstasy, Lîlâ.

Ratha-yâtrâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the festival celebrating Kèëòa's return to Vèndâvana; The journey of the chariots, a traditional Vaiëòava festival held every year at Jagannâtha Purî in Orissa. In Purî the devotees place the immense Deity forms of Jagannâtha, Baladeva and Lady Subhadrâ on three towering, huge gaily decorated canopied chariots, each having sixteen wheels. Thousands of people pull these cars to the Guòàicâ temple, where Lord Jagannâtha abides for seven days, after which there is a return Ratha-yâtrâ to the Jagannâtha Temple. Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and His associates gathered every year to observe this celebration with a massive festival of saôkîrtana. This great celebration of Ratha-yâtrâ is now being held all over the world by the arrangement of Ärîla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.

Ratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). temple cart or chariot, used during religious festival to carry the Deities.

Rati: (sáns. vaiëòava). a strong attraction to God that precedes bhâva (mature ecstasy) and prema (mature love of God).

Rationalism: (sáns. vaiëòava). The approach to philosophy that holds reason (Lat. ratio) to be the primary cause of knowledge. See Anumâna, Descartes, Existentialism, Hawking, Kant, Marxism, Natural theology, Phenomenology, Positivism, Pragmatism.

Raty-âbhâsa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a preliminary glimpse of attachment.

Raudra-rasa: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the indirect relationships, anger.

Râvaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). a powerful ten-headed demon king of Laôkâ who wanted to build a staircase to
heaven but was killed by Kèëòa in His incarnation as Lord Râmacandra. The pastime is described in the epic poem Râmâyaòa, by the sage Vâlmîki.

Reality: (sáns. vaiëòava). That which is. Reality is opposite to appearance. The Sanskrit equivalent is
tattva. See Tattva.

Recaka: (sáns. vaiëòava). the state of equilibrium attained by offering the exhaled breath into the inhaled breath.

Reflective, creative, and critical thinking: (sáns. vaiëòava). Three modes of anumâna. Reflective
thinking begins in wonder about something perceived. Out of wonder, questions arise. Creative thinking begins as a mental effort to answer the questions of reflection.
Sometimes these questions are answered spontaneously, by intuition, insight or inspiraton, rather than by deliberate effort. At its highest stage of development,
creative thinking is äâstramûlaka philosophical speculation. Critical thinking examines to what extent an idea or argument fits the evidence and meets the
requirements of logic. See Logic.

Reflexivity: (sáns. vaiëòava). The condition in which something is directed (reflected) back to itself. Hence, reflexive criticism is self-defeating. It comes from the Latin reflectare, to bend back.

Reincarnation: (sáns. vaiëòava). From the Latin re (again) and incarnare (make into flesh). Reincarnation it is the return of the soul to a physical body after death, also called transmigration. See Karma, Life after death, Saêsâra.

Relativism: (sáns. vaiëòava). Also known as the homo mensura (man is the measure) theory. Relativists reject any truth that is absolute. They argue that because each person sees things differently, truth exists individually for each person. It is therefore false to say one person is right and another is wrong. Relativism in Western philosophy is traced back to Protagoras, a contemporary of Socrates. See Absolute, Humanism. Relativity theory Albert Einstein compared his theory of relativity to a building with two stories. The ground floor is the special theory of relativity. It applies to all physical phenomena except gravitation. The general theory of relativity is the upper floor; it explains the law of gravitation. Einstein's theory combines two principles. One is that motion is relative. For example, when a table-tennis ball rolls across the surface of the playing table, its motion is relative to the table. In the classical physics of Newton, the rolling ball is considered to be the object in motion, and the table is considered to be at rest. However, if at first the ball was at rest on the tabletop, and we were to
move the table, then both the table and the ball would move in relation to one another. Relativity theory argues that since all matter in the universe is in motion,
the ball rolling upon the surface of a moving table is the actual model for motion in the universe. If space and time are taken to be the table, they contribute motion to the movement of all things. The old model of a ball rolling upon a tabletop at rest is therefore an illusion.

The second principle of relativity is that the speed of light is always the same, even when light is emitted from a source that moves at a great speed towards, or away from, the observer. One of the significant differences between relativity theory and classical theory is seen in the calculation of the mass of a physical object. Mass is defined as the amount of matter in a physical object which is measured as that object's resistance to acceleration. Mass is different from, but proportional to, weight. Classical theory attributes a steady mass to any given physical object. Relativity theory predicts that the mass of a thing will vary according to its motion. Relativity is considered an advancement over, but not a replacement of, classical physics, which is still useful. From a logical point of view, the two theories are incompatible. The third important physical theory, quantum mechanics, is likewise incompatible with classical theory, and also differs significantly from relativity theory. See Quantum mechanical theory.

Revelation: (sáns. vaiëòava). Literally, it means an unveiling or a revealing. In Latin, velare means to cover or to veil (from velum, curtain or veil). Thus revelare means to pull back the veil. As light and darkness are separated by a veil, so too are good and evil. To step behind that veil into darkness is evil. By revelation, the veil is pulled back, removing by light the darkness of evil. See Problem of evil.

Èg Veda: (sáns. vaiëòava). one of the four Vedas, the original scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself.

Rickshaw: (sáns. vaiëòava). two or three wheeled passenger vehicle.

Rishi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a sage.

Èk-saêhitâ: (sáns. vaiëòava). the mantra text of the Èg Veda.

Rohiòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the wife of Vasudeva, and the mother of Lord Balarâma.

Romaharëaòa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the father of Sûta Gosvâmî. He was killed by Lord Balarâma for his offenses.

Èëabhadeva: (sáns. vaiëòava). an incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a devotee king who, after instructing his sons in spiritual life, renounced His kingdom for a life of austerity.

Èëi: (sáns. vaiëòava). a synonym for a sage who performs austerities.

Ètvik: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who acts on behalf of his preceptor.

Rûàha-bhâva: (sáns. vaiëòava). the love of the gopîs.

Rûàha: (sáns. vaiëòava). advanced symptom of conjugal mellow found among the queens of Dvârakâ; included in mahâbhâva.

Rudras: (sáns. vaiëòava). the expansions of Lord Äiva who rule over the material mode of ignorance.

Rudra: (sáns. vaiëòava). see: Äiva

Rukmaratha: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of Äalya, the King of Madras. He was killed by Äveta, the son of Drupada, during the Kurukëetra war.

Rukmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). the son of King Bhîëmaka, the King of Vidarbha, and the brother of Rukmiòî, the first wife of Lord Kèëòa. His hatred for Lord Kèëòa eventually got him killed by Lord Baladeva during a chess game.

Rukmiòî: (sáns. vaiëòava). Lord Kèëòa's principal queen in Dvârakâ; the chief of Lord Kèëòa's wives. Rukmini-Dvarakâdhisa: (sáns. vaiëòava). the transcendental couple manifested as Kèëòa, the Lord of Dvârakâ, and His queen Rukminî; name of the Deities of ISKCON Los Angeles.

Rûpa Gosvâmî: (sáns. vaiëòava). chief of the six great spiritual master Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana who were authorized by Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu to establish and distribute the philosophy of Kèëòa consciousness. He extensively researched the scriptures and established the philosophy taught by Lord Caitanya on an unshakable foundation. Thus Gauàîya Vaiëòavas are known as Rûpânugas, followers of Rûpa Gosvâmî. He is also known as the rasâcârya, or the teacher of devotional mellows, as exemplified by his book, Bhakti-rasâmèta-sindhu. It is the duty and the aspiration of every Gauàîya Vaiëòava to become his servant and follow his path.

Rûpânuga: (sáns. vaiëòava). one who follows in the footsteps of Rûpa Gosvâmî.

Rupee: (sáns. vaiëòava). main unit of currency used in India.

Russel, Bertrand: (sáns. vaiëòava). Very influential British philosopher of the twentieth century (1872-1970) who was especially interested in mathematical logic and the basic problems of philosophy (appearance and reality, general principles, the value and limits of philosophy, and so on). In a letter of 20 September 1966, Russel suggested to his editor at Oxford University Press that a book of his then in production ought to have a cover illustration of a monkey tumbling over a precipice and exclaiming, 'Oh dear, I wish I hadn't read Einstein.' On no account should the monkey look like me.

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