jueves, 8 de julio de 2010

Raja - Sampati - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy (A - Asvamedha)

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | E | F | G | H1 | H2 | I | J1 | J2 | K1 | K2 | L | M1 | M2 | O | P1 | P2 | R1 | R2 | S1

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H1 - H - Harischandra
  • H2 - Harisrava - Hz
  • I
  • J1 - J - Jrimbhika
  • J2 - Jyestha
  • K1 - K - Kratusthaba
  • K2 - Krauncha - Kz
  • L
  • M1 - M - Margashirsha
  • M2 - Maricha - Mz
  • O
  • P1 - P - Pandu
  • P2 - Pandu o Prana - Py
  • R1 - R - Raivata
  • R2 - Raja - Ry
  • S1 - S - Sampati

  • R2

    Raja: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Viraja a descendant of Bharata. Raja is derived from Raj, to shine or be splendid.

    Rajadhidevi: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Sura, who was married to Jayaseua, king of Avanti.

    Rajagaha: (sáns. hindú). A city near Benares, celebrated as the residence of Gautama Buddha, and the place where he died.

    Rajagriha: (sáns. hindú). The ancient capital of Magadha or Behar, containing many remarkable ruins.

    Rajarshis: (sáns. hindú). Royal Rishis, or princes who have adopted a life of devotion, as Viswamitra, Ikshvaku, and others; they dwell in the heaven of Indra.

    Rajas: (sáns. hindú). The quality of foulness, passion, activity.

    Rajas: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven sages, according to the enumeration in the Vishnu Purana; they were all the sous of Vasishta.

    Rajyavarddhana: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Dama, a descendant of Marutta.

    Rajavat: (sáns. hindú). The son of Dyutimat, of the race of Bhrigu.

    Raji: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sons of Ayus. He is celebrated for having assisted the gods in their contest with the demons, and " by his numerous and formidable weapons" securing to them the victory. In consequence of this Indra resigned his throne to Raji.

    Rajni: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Raivata and wife of Vivaswat.

    Raka: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the phases of the moon, represented as one of the four daughters of Angiras; 2, The day when the moon is quite round.

    Rakhi: (sáns. hindú). A bracelet used as an armlet, or preservative against evil (Raksha) consisting of a piece of thread or silk or some more costly material, bound round the wrist or arm, with an appropriate prayer. Besides its application to children to avert the effects of evil eyes, or to protect them against Dains or witches, there is one day in the year, the Rakhi Purnima, or full moon in the month of Sravan (July - August) when it is bound upon the wrists of adults, by friendly or kindred brahmans, with a short prayer or benediction. The Rakhi is also sent sometimes by persons of distinction, and especially by females, to members of a different family or race to intimate a sort of brotherly or sisterly adoption.

    Colonel Tod received the bracelet from three queens in Rajasthan, and after he returned to his own country set a high value on these testimonies of friendly regard. - ( Wilson.)

    In his Annals he says, " The festival of the Rakhi is in spring, and whatever its origin it is one of the few when an intercourse of gallantry of the most delicate nature is established between the fair sex and the cavaliers of Rajasthan. Though the bracelet may be sent by maidens, it is only on occasion of urgent necessity or danger.

    The Rajput dame bestows with the Rakhi the title of adopted brother; and while its acceptance secures to her all the protection of a * cavaliere scrvente scandal itself never suggests any other tie to his devotion. He may hazard his life in her cause, and yet never receive a smile in reward, for he cannot even see the fair object who, as the brother of her adoption, has constituted him her defender. But there is a charm in the mystery of such connexions, never endangered by close observation, and the loyal to the fair may well attach a value to the public recognition of being the Rakhi-bund Bhae, the ' bracelet-bound-brother' of a princess. The intrinsic value of such pledge is never looked to, nor is it requisite it should be costly, though it varies viith the means and rank of the donor, and may be of flock silk and spangles, or gilt chains and gems. The acceptance of the pledge and its return is by the kalchli or corset of simple silk, or satin, or gold brocade and pearls. In shape or application there is nothing similar in Europe, and as defending the most delicate part of the structure of the fair, it is peculiarly appropriate as an emblem of devotion.

    The emperor Humayun was so pleased with this courteous delicacy in the customs of Rajasthan, on receiving the bracelet of the princess Kurnavati, which invested him with the title of her brother, and uncle and protector to her infant, that he pledged himself to her service. He proved himself a true knight, and abandoned his conquests in Bengal when called on to redeem his pledge. Many romantic tales are founded on the gift of the Rakhi. See Tod's Rajasthan, I, 312.

    Rakshas: (sáns. hindú). The son of Khasa, and father of the Rakshasas.

    Rakshasa-ritual: (sáns. hindú). By violence. Manu says, the seizure of a maiden by force, whilst she weeps and calls for assistance, after her kinsmen and friends have been slain in battle or wounded, and their houses broken open, is the marriage called Rakshasa.

    Rakshasas: (sáns. hindú). Giants. They are said in the Vishnu Purana to be the descendants of Pulastya, through Rakshas. They are also represented in the same work as having proceeded from Brahma; beings of hideous aspect, and with long beards. They hastened to the deity; such of them as exclaimed " Oh ! preserve us," were thence called Rakshasas (from Raksha to preserve); others who cried out, " let us eat," were denominated Yakshas from (yaksha to eat.)

    " In their earliest conception," says Mr. J. C. Thomson, " they seem to be those unknown creatures of darkness, to which the superstition of all ages and races has attributed the evils that attend this life, and a maliguaut desire to injure mankind. In the Epic period they seem to be personifications of the aborigines of India, presented under the terrible aspect of vampires flying through the air, sucking blood, &c., in order to heighten the triumphs of the Aryan heroes who subdued them. In this character they play a very prominent part on the Ramayana, the beautiful epic of Valmiki. Here they are led by Ravana, the king of Lanka, which is supposed to be the island of Ceylon and its capital, and they are subdued by Dasaratha Rama the hero of the poem. In the Puranic period they are infernal giants, the children of the Rishi Pulastya, and enemies of the gods. They are then divided into three classes: -

    1. The slaves of Kuvera the god of wealth, and guardians of of his treasures.
    2. Malevolent imps whose chief delight is to disturb the pious in their devotions.
    3. Giants of enormous proportions, inhabiting Naraka, or hell, and hostile to the gods. In the second Manwantara they are the sons of Kasyapa and Khasi."

    The most celebrated Rakshakas are Ravana, and his brothers Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana, an account of whom will be found under their respective names.

    Rama: (sáns. hindú). This name belongs altogether to the epic period, and is given to three persons of considerable historical importance, whose mighty deeds won for them the privilege of being considered incarnations of Vishnu. The first is Parasurama, or Rama of the Axe. He is considered as the sixth Avatara of Vishnu, and belongs to the period of the first struggle between the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas, the hierarchy and the government.

    He is said to have been the son of a certain Muni called Jamadagni; (q. v.) but as his mother Kenuka was a lady of the Kshatriya caste, and as the children follow the caste of their mother, he is not, like his father, a Brahman by birth, although he espoused the Brahman cause, and afterward himself became a Muui. The legend relates that the princess, his mother, having committed a siu, his father commanded his sons to put her to death.

    All refused except Rama, the youngest, who seized his axe and felled her to the ground. In reward for this triumph of duty over feeling he received the gift of invincibility. Afterwards when Kurtavirya, king of the Haiheyas, coveted the divine cow Kamadhenu which belonged to the Muni, and took it from him by force, when he was on a visit to Jamadagni, Rama went forth to recover the cow, and soon killed the robber king. The sons of Kartavirya, to revenge his death, attacked the hermitage of Jamadagni, when Rama was away, and slew the pious and unresisting sage, who called repeatedly but fruitlessly, upon his valiant son. Rama returned to bewail his father's unmerited fate, and having lighted his funeral pile, vowed that he would extirpate the whole Kshatriya race. " Thrice seven times did he clear the earth of the Kshatriya caste," says the Mahabharata; Parasurama was born at the beginning of the Treta Yuga (Second age.)

    2. The second Rama is the most celebrated of all. He is sometimes designated Dasaratha Bama or Ramachandra, the son of Dasaratha, king of Ayodhya (Oude), born at the close of the Treta Yuga. He belongs historically to the age when the Aryan race, already settled in the north, pushed their conquests towards the southern part of the peninsula, and introduced into those wild districts civilization and agriculture, which are typified as Sita, to whom Rama was married, and who is represented in the Vishnu Purana as having been found in the earth. She was the daughter of Janaka, king of Mithila (q. v.) and Rama received her for his strength in breaking the bow of Maheshwara, in that king's palace. She was carried off by Ravana, and the war which ensued for her recovery is the subject of Valmiki's epic, the Ramayana. Having built a bridge across the ocean, and destroyed the whole Rakshasa nation, he recovered his bride Sita, whom their ten-headed king Ravana had carried off, and returned to Ayodhya with her, after she had been purified by the fiery ordeal from the soil contracted by her captivity, and had been honoured by the assembled gods who bore witness to her virtue. Ramachandra (the moon-like-Rama) is the seventh incarnation of Vishnu, born into the world at the end of the second or Treta age, for the purpose of destroying the demons who infested the earth.

    3. Balardma,the strong Rama, born at the end of the Dwapara, or third age, as the seventh son of Vasudeva and Devaki, but mystically transferred from the womb of the latter to that of Vasudeva's other wife Rohini, and thus saved from the hands of Kansa. He was the brother and playfellow of Krishna; the sharer in his toils and his glory. He is sometimes regarded as an incarnation of the serpent Anauta or Sesha; sometimes called the eighth incarnation of Vishnu. He is also termed the Hercules of Indian Mythology.

    Ramagiri: (sáns. hindú). A mountain near Nagpur, now called Ram-tek.

    Ramanaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight islands enumerated in the Bhagavata, as peopled by Mlechchhas, who worship Hindu divinities.

    Ramanuja: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated Vaishnava teacher, who lived some time in the twelfth century.

    Ramayana: (sáns. hindú). One of the great Epic poems of the Hindus, the other being the Mahabharata. It is perhaps impossible to fix the exact period at which either of them was composed; though it is evident from internal evidence that both are productions of a postvedic age. The Ramayana was the more ancient of the two Indian Epics. Probably neither it nor the Mahabharata, nor any of the productions of antecedent ages, were committed to writing till long after their original composition. In the fourth chapter of the first book of the Ramayana, we meet with special reference to the ministrels and reciters, by whom, like the Greek paiptftdoi) the ancient Hindu poems, previous to the invention of writing in India, were preserved and transmitted from age to age.

    Notas Greek

    The word Ramayana means the adventures of Rama, who was one of the incarnations of Vishnu, the Preserver, and is still a favourite deity in most parts of India, more especially in the districts of Oude and Bahar, where Krishna has not supplanted him. There were three Ramas in Hindu mythology, viz., ParasuRama, Rama-Chandra, and Bala-Rama, all avatars (or incarnations) of Vishnu. The last is the Indian Hercules, and as the elder brother of Krishna, appears frequently in the Mahabharata.

    Parasu-Rama, as the son of the sage Jamadagni, is the type of Brahmanism, arrayed in opposition to the Kshatriyas, or military caste. He is introduced once into the Raraayana, but only to exhibit his inferiority to the real hero of the work, viz., RamaChandra, who, as the son of Dasaratha, a prince of the solar dynasty, typifies the conquering Kshatriyas, advancing towards the south, and subjugating the barbarous aborigines, who are represented by Ravana and his followers.

    There are many poems bearing the name of Ramayana - all relating to the same hero - but by far the most complete and famous is the lengthy epic, the authorship of which is attributed to Valmtki, It narrates the banishment of R4ma, under the surname of Chandra (the moon,) a prince belonging to the dynasty of the kings of Ayodhya; his wanderings through the southern peninsula; the seizure of his wife, Sita, by the giant ruler of Ceylon (Ravana); the miraculous conquest of this island by Rama, aided by Sugriva, king of the monkeys (or foresters - the word bandar meaning both,) or Rakshasas as they are also called, and by Vibhishana, the brother of Ravana; the slaying of the ravishing demon by Rama, and recovering of Sita; and the restoration of Rama-Chandra to the empire of his ancestors at Ayodhya.

    No mention is made of Rama in the Vedas, but he may be regarded as the first real Kshatriya hero of the post-vedic age; and looking to the great simplicity of the style of the Ramayana, the absence of any reliable allusion to Buddhism as an established fact, and to the practices known to have prevailed in India as early as the fourth century before Christ, as well as from other considerations, " we cannot," says Monier Williams (Essay on Indian Epic Poetry,) " be far wrong is asserting that a great portion, if not the whole, of the Ramiyana, as we have now it, must have been current in India as early as the fifth century before Christ."

    Valmiki's work consists of 24,000 slokas (or distichs,) divided into seven books, which are again sub-divided into chapters. It may be divided into three principal parts, or periods, corresponding to the three chief epochs in the life of Rima. (I.) Tho account of his youthful days; his education and residence at the court of his father Dasaratha, king of Ayodhya; his happy marriage to Sita; and his inauguratiou as heir-apparent or Crown Prince. (II.) The circumstances that led to his banishment; the description of his exile and residence in the forests of Central India. (III.) His war with the giants or demons of the south for the recovery of his wife Sita, who had been carried off by their chief Ravana; his conquest and destruction of Ravana, and his restoration to the throne of his father.

    In the first two sections of the poem, there is little of extravagant fiction; but in the third, the poet mars the beauty of the descriptions by the wildest exaggeration and hyperbole.

    The poem seems to be founded on historical fact; and the traditions of the south of India uniformly ascribe its civilization, the subjugation, or dispersion of its forest tribes of barbarians, and the settlement of civilised Hindus, to the conquest of Lanka (Ceylon) by Rama.

    (A good analysis of the Ramayana will be found in Monier Williams' Indian Epic Poetry, 1863. An abridged English translation has been published by Mr. Talboys Wheeler, forming the second volume of his History of India, 1869. The first English translation was made by Carey and Marshman, at Serampore, when they printed the first volume containing the first book of the poem, in 1806.

    An excellent translation, into English verse, of the First and Second Books has just been published (1870-71) by Mr. R. T. Griffiths, m. a., Principal of the Benares College, already favorably known by his Idylls from the Sanskrit.)

    Rambha: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the five sons of Ayus; 2, One of the Apsarasas, of the Laukika class, of whom thirty-four are specified.

    Ramya: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine sons of king Agnidhra, and who became king of the countries situated between mount Meru and the Nila mountain.

    Ramyaka: (sáns. hindú). A district to the north of Meru, extending from the Nila or blue mountains to the Sweta or white mountains, Rananjaya - A prince, the son of Kritanjaya, of the family of Ikshvaku.

    Ranastambha: (sáns. hindú). A country to the west of the jungle Mehals towards Nagpur; known in the Puranas as Chedi.

    Rantideva: (sáns. hindú). The son of Sankriti, who is described in the Bhagavata as a prince of great liberality. According to a legend preserved in the Megha Duta his sacrifices of kiue were so numerous that their blood formed the river Charmanvati, the modern Chambal.

    Rantinara: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Riteya, descendant of Puru.

    Rasa dance: (sáns. hindú). A fabled dance of Krishna with the Gopis, in which it is said the circle of the dance could not be constructed, as each of the Gopis attempted to keep in one place, close to the side of Krishna; he therefore took each by the hand, and when their eyelids were shut, by the effects of such touch, the circle was formed. Professor Wilson says, Krishna, in order to form the circle takes each damsel by the hand and leads her to her place; there he quits her; but the effect of the contact is such that it deprives her of the power of perception, and she contentedly takes the hand of her female neighbour, thinking it to be Krishna's.

    The Bhagavata is bolder and asserts that Krishna multiplied himself, and actually stood between each pair of damsels.

    Rasaloma: (sáns. hindú). The wife of one of the eleven Rudras, Mahinasa.

    Rasatala.: (sáns. hindú). One of the divisions of Patala, as enumerated in the Bhagavata, Padma Purana and Vayu.

    Rasayana: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight branches of medical science, that which treats of alchemical therapeutics.

    Rasa Yatra: (sáns. hindú). An annual festival celebrated in various parts of India, in the month of Kartika, upon the sun's entrance into Libra, by nocturnal dances, and representations of the sports of Krishna. Some of the earliest labourers in the field of Hindu mythology have thought this circular dance to typify the dance of the planets round the sun, (Maurice) but there seems to be no foundation for such a notion. See Wilson's Notes to Vishnu Purana, 534.

    RasoUasa: (sáns. hindú). The spontaneous or prompt evolution of the juices of the body, iadependeutly of nutriment from without; this is termed one of the eight perfections or Siddhis.

    Rashtrapala: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ugrasena.

    Rashtrapali: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Ugrasena.

    Rathachitra: (sáns. hindú). A river mentioned in the Puranas but not yet identified.

    Rathakrit: (sáns. hindú). One of the Yakshas, or guardians of the sun for the month of Sukra.

    Rathantara: (sáns. hindú). l, A teacher of the Rig Veda and pupil of Satyasri; 2, The portion of the Sama Veda which proceeded from the eastern mouth of Brahma.

    Rathinara: (sáns. hindú). One of the Angirasas, or warrior priests, a Kshatriya by both parents, who became a brahman by profession.

    Rati: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Kama, the Hindu Cupid who was killed by Siva for daring to discharge an arrow at him. Rati's Lament is one of the Idylls from the Sanskrit, translated by Mr. Griffiths from the fourth canto of Kalldasa's Kumara Sambhava, or Birth of the War-god.

    Ratnagarbha: (sáns. hindú). A commentator on the Visnnu Pui'ana. His book is entitled Vaishnavakuta Chandrika, 'the moon-light of devotion to Vishnu ;' but his date has not been ascertained.

    Ratri: (sáns. hindú). Night. One of the foi'ms of Brahma. Prof. Wilson says " the notions of night, day, twilight, and moon-light, being derived from Brahma, seem to have originated with the Vedas, All the authorities place night before day, and the Asuras or Titans before the gods, in the order of appearance, as did Hesiod, and other ancient theogonists."

    Ratula: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Suddhodana of the family of Ikshvaku.

    Rauchya: (sáns. hindú). The Manu of the thirteenth Manwantara, and son of the Prajdpati Ruchi by the nymph Maninl. According to the Matsya and Padma, the ninth Manu was named Rauchya.

    Raudraswa: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Ahamyati, descendant of Puru.

    Raurava: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas, that in which falsehood and perjury are punished.

    Ravana: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated Rakshaka, the son of Visravas. He was the king of Ceylon, and his great power and influence have been represented in Hindu poetry by the ascription to him of ten heads and twenty arms. His character is described as libidinous and cruel. His great exploit was the abduction of Sita, the wife of Rama, in whose absence she was carried through the air by Ravana to Ceylon. He was ultimately, after a hard struggle, killed by Rama, who invaded the island in order to rescue Sita.

    But as this terrible Rakshasa occupies a large space in the mythology of India it is necessary to relate his story in more detail.

    Ravana was the Raja of the Rakshasas. He devoted many years to the performance of religious austerities; and by the power of those austerities he secured the favour of Brahraa, who at his request rendered him invulnerable to gods and demonSx Ravana then considered himself to be immortal; the gods and demons were unable to harm him; men and beasts were so much beneath his notice that he had not stooped to pray for immunity from their attacks. Accordingly he oppressed the gods; not indeed the Brahmanical gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, but the ancient gods of the Rig Veda, whom he compelled to do as he pleased. Death was not allowed to afflict his subjects the Rikshasas; the burning sun was required to shine mildly over his city; the Moon was obliged to be always at the full throughout his Raj; the seasons came and went at his command; Fire ceased to burn in his presence; and the Wind was forced to blow gently. Accordingly the gods, with Indra at their head, complained to Brahma of Ravana's insolence, Brahma, who acknowledged the superiority of Vishnu, by conducting them to the ocean of milk, where he abode, and the gods propitiated Vishnu whom they could not see, with loud praises. Then Vishnu the Lord of the world, appeared with his shell, chakra, mace, and lotus, in his four hands; and his wife Lakshmi sitting upon his knees. The gods fell prostrate before him and sought relief from Ravana; as Brahma was unable to recall the gift of invulnerability, Vishnu promised to overthrow him by mortals and monkeys, as Ravana in liis pride, had not requested Brahma to secure his life from them. Vishnu further said, " I will take advantage of this omission, and cause the destruction of Ravana without casting aside the blessing which has been bestowed on him by Brahma; I will go to Ayodhya, and divide myself into four parts, and take my birth as the four sons of Maharaja Dasaratha. Thus by becoming man I shall conquer in battle Rivana, the teror of the universe, who is invulnerable to the gods; go you meantime upon the earth, and assume the shape of monkeys and bears, that you may render me service in my battle with Ravana."

    Accordingly Vishnu became incarnate as Rama, and early in life began to destroy the Rakshasas. When Ravana heard that Rama had slain the two celebrated Rakshasa chiefs, Kara and Dushana, he entered the arena of conflict, proceeded to Panchavati, and visited the hermitage of Rama as a mendicant brahman, and made proposals to Sita, declaring that he was Ravana and that she should be his chief Rani. When the proposal was rejected with indignation and disdain, he assumed his proper shape, and carried off Sita by force through the air to Lanka; his chariot was stopped by Jatayus, whom he slew, and conducted Sita to his palace. All his efforts to seduce Sita were ineffectual, and after long fighting, in which the army of monkeys and bears were engaged against the Rakshasas, Ravana was slain by Rama. See Rama, Sita, &c.

    Raya*: (sáns. hindú). The nanle of one of the six sons of Pururavas, according to the list in the Bhagavata

    Rayananiya : (sáns. hindú). The son of Lokakshi, a distinguished teacher of the Sama-veda, and author of a Sauhita still extant.

    Rebha: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi who had been hidden by raaglignant demons, bound, overwhelmed in the waters, (a well, according to the commentator,) for ten nights and nine days, and abandoned until he was nearly if not entirely dead; the Asvins drew him up as soma juice is raised with a ladle. - 0. S. jT., F, 245.

    Rechaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the three modifications of breathing in the pra('ti(;c of Prinfiydma: the first nri is expiration, which is performed through the right nostril whilst the left is closed with the fingers of the right haud; this is called Rechaka.

    Renuka: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Renu, and wife of Jamadagni, q. v.

    She was the mother of Parasurama, and an account of her death and restoration to life will be found under Jamadagni.

    Revanta: (sáns. hindú). In the Vishnu Purana Revanta is said to be a son of the sun by his wife Sanjna; according to other accounts he was the son of Vivaswat and Rajui.

    Revata: (sáns. hindú). The son of Auartta, king of the country called after his father Anartta, who dwelt at the capital denominated Kusasthali - in Guzerat.

    Revali: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Raivata, whose loveliuess was such that no one could be found on earth worthy of her hand. Her father therefore repaired with her to Brahma, to consult the god where a fit bridegroom was to be met with. When they arrived the quiristers Ilaha, Huhu, and others, were singing before Brahma; and Raivata, waiting till they had finished, imagined the ages that elapsed during their performance, to be but as a moment.

    At the end of their singing Raivata prostrated himself before Brahma and explained his errand. He was informed that many successions of ages had passed away while he had been listening to the heavenly songsters; that a portion of Vishnu was then reigning on earth in the person of Balarama at Dwaraka which had formerly been his own capital of Kusasthali. Raivata returned with his daughter to earth, where he found the race of men dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in intellect.

    He bestowed his unequalled daughter on Balarama, who beholding the damsel of excessively lofty height, shortened her with the end of his ploughshare and she became his wife. The object of this legend, says Professor Wilson, is obviously to account for the anachronism of making Balarama cotemporary with Raivata; the one early in the Treta age, and the other at the close of the Dwapara. V. P.

    Revati: (sáns. hindú). A lunar mansion in Vaiswanari, in the southern Avasthana.

    " The total number of hymus in the Rig Veda is about 1,020.

    Their composition was doubtleess the work of many men and of long periods of time. They bear evident marks of having been handed down by tradition, and although they were collected and arrauged in their present forms about ten centuries before the Christian era, a long time must have passed before they were brought together by the sage, who from his performance of this work is called Vyasa, the arranger.

    " The language of the hymns, besides being archaic, is very involved and elliptical, abounding with epithets of which it is difficult to see the force, and with metaphors and comparisons which are by no means obvious. It * teems with words which require a justification.' The hymns consequently demand, as Mr. Muller observes, a similar treatment to that bestowed upon the interpretation of ancient inscriptions; a careful collection of all grammatical forms, and a thorough comparison of all passages in which the same word occurs. The metre of the hymns is a very important guide to the correct reading of the text, but this presents so many apparent anomalies that its rules are variously explained. The hymns of the Rig Veda contain very little poetry of an agreeable or elevated order. The chief desires expressed are for riches, victory, and various temporal blessings. Moral sentiments rarely occur; the hymus addressed to Varuna contain the most.

    Often passages among the Mantras of the Veda are in the form of a dialogue, and in such cases, the discoursers were alternately considered as Rishi and Devata.

    Mr. Muller after working for more than twenty years at his translation of the Rig Veda, thus writes: - " My work is a mere contribution towards a better understanding of the Vedic hymns, and though I hope it may give in the main, a right rendering of the sense of the Vedic poets, 1 feel that in many points my translation is liable to correction, and will sooner or Jter bo replaced by a more satisfactory one." / *' With regard to the character and style of these hyni''8 on whicli so much labour has been expeMaJ j may be r"**'" that they contain very little poetry of an agreeable or elevated order: nothing whatever that could be compared for a moment with the Psalms of David. " As mere literary productions, apart from their archaic value, we doubt if any man could be found to read them. Snatches of poetry may here and there be found; a grand and elevated tone mixed with the most familiar and, to modern taste, most ignoble and unsuitable allusions. The mere reading of some of them conveys the impression that they are not fully understood, and sets the mind inquiring as to the meaning which may lie concealed in them. The following hymn, addressed to Agni the god of fire, and the Maruts, or the Storm-gods, is one of the most readable in the present volume: -

    1. Thou art called forth to this fair sacrifice for a draugh tof milk; with thq Maruts come hither O Agni !
    2. No god indeed, no mortal, is beyond the might of thee, the mighty one; with the Maruts, &c., &c.
    3. They who know of the great sky, the Visve Devas without guile; with the Maruts, &c.
    4. The wild ones who sing their song, unconquerable by force; with the Maruts, &c.
    5. They who are brilliant, of awful shape, powerful, and devourers of foes; with the Maruts, &c.
    6. They who in heaven are enthroned as gods, in the light of the firmament; with the Maruts, &c.
    7. They who toss the clouds across the surging sea; with the Maruts come hither, &c.
    8. They who shoot with their darts across the sea with might; with the Maruts, &c.
    9. I pour out to thee for the early draught the sweet juice of Soma: with the Maruts, &c." - Sat. Review, 1869.

    Rijiswan: (sáns. hindú). A king mentioned in the Rig Veda, the friend of Indra, and who conquered the Dasyu Krishna on the banks of the Ansumati.

    Rijrasva: (sáns. hindú). A person mentioned in the Rig Veda, who had been made blind by his cruel father, for slaughtering one hundred and one sheep, and giving them to a she-wolf to eat: the wolf having

    " The total number of liymus in the Rig Veda is about 1,020.

    Their composition was doubtleess the work of many men and of long periods of time. They bear evident marks of having been handed down by tradition, and although they were collected and arranged in their present forms about ten centuries before the Christian era, a long time must have passed before they were brought together by the sage, who from his performance of this work is called Vyasa, the arranger.

    " The language of the hymns, besides being archaic, is very involved and elliptical, abounding with epithets of which it is difficult to see the force, and with metaphors and comparisons which are by no means obvious. It ' teems with words which require a justification.' The hymns consequently demand, as Mr. Muller observes, a similar treatment to that bestowed upon the interpretation of ancient inscriptions; a careful collection of all grammatical forms, and a thorough comparison of all passages in which the same word occurs. The metre of the hymns is a very important guide to the correct reading of the text, but this presents so many apparent anomalies that its rules are variously explained. The hymns of the Rig Veda contain very little poetry of an agreeable or elevated order. The chief desires expressed are for riches, victory, and various temporal blessings. Moral sentiments rarely occur; the hymns addressed to Varuna contain the most.

    Often passages among the Mantras of the Veda are in the form of a dialogue, and in such cases, the discoursers were alternately considered as Rishi and Devata.

    Mr. Muller after working for more than twenty years at his translation of the Rig Veda, thus writes; - " My work is a mere contribution towards a better understanding of the Vedic hymns, and though I hope it may give in the main, a right rendering of the sense of the Vedic poets, 1 feel that in many points my translation is liable to correction, and will sooner or after be replaced by a more satisfactory one."

    *' With regard to the character and stylo af these hym's on which so much labour has been expended. it may be remarked that they contain very little poetry of an agreeable or elevated order: nothing whatever that could be compared for a moment with the Psalms of David. " As mere literary productions, apart from their archaic value, we doubt if any man could be found to read them. Snatches of poetry may here and there be found; a grand and elevated tone mixed with the most familiar and, to modern taste, most ignoble and unsuitable allusions. The noere reading of some of them conveys the impression that they are not fully understood, and sets the mind inquiring as to the meaning which may lie concealed in them. The following hymn, addressed to Agni the god of fire, and the Maruts, or the Storm-gods, is one of the most readable in the present volume: -

    1. Thou art called forth to this fair sacrifice for a draugh tof milk; with thq Maruts come hither O Agni !
    2. No god indeed, no mortal, is beyond the might of thee, the mighty one; with the Maruts, &c., &c.
    3. They who know of the great sky, the Visve Devas without guile; with the Maruts, &c.
    4. The wild ones who sing their song, unconquerable by force; with the Maruts, &c.
    5. They who are brilliant, of awful shape, powerful, and devourers of foes; with the Maruts, &c.
    6. They who in heaven are enthroned as gods, in the light of the firmament; with the Maruts, &c.
    7. They who toss the clouds across the surging sea; with the Maruts come hither, &c.
    8. They who shoot with their darts across the sea with might; with the Maruts, &c.
    9. I pour out to thee for the early draught the sweet juice of Soma: with the Maruts, &c"-Sat. Eeview, 1869.

    Rijiswan: (sáns. hindú). A king mentioned in the Rig Veda, the friend of Indra, and who conquered the Dasyu Krishna on the banks of the Ansumati.

    Rijrasva: (sáns. hindú). A person mentioned in the Rig Veda, who had been made blind by his cruel father, for slaughtering one hundred and one sheep, and giving them to a she-wolf to eat: the wolf having supplicftted the Asvius on behalf of her blind benefactor, they restored sight to Rijrasva - 0. S. T., V, 245.

    Rijudesa: (sáns. hindú). A. son of Vasudeva by his wife Devaki.

    Riksha: (sáns. hindú).

    l, A descendant of Bhrigu, the Vyasa of the twenty-fourth Dwapara, sometimes called also Valmika.
    2. A prince, the son of Ajamidha.
    3. A prince, the son of Akrodhana, a descendant of Kuru.
    4. A chain of mountains in Gondwana.

    Rina: (sáns. hindú). A Vyasa in the eighteenth Dwapara, Ripu, Ripnnjaya - Two of the sons of Slishti and Suchchaya, grandsons of Dhruva.

    Rishabha: (sáns. hindú). The son of king Nabhi by his queen Meru.

    Rishabha had a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Bharata; having ruled with equity and wisdom and celebrated many sacrificial rites, he resigned the sovereignty of the earth to the heroic Bharata, and, retiring to the hermitage of Pulastya, adopted the life of an anchoret, practising religious penance, and performing all prescribed ceremonies, until, emaciated by his austerities so as to be but a collection of skin and fibres, he put a pebble in his mouth and naked went the way of all flesh. V. P. In a note Wilson adds ' the great road' ' the road of heroes.' The pebble was intended either to compel perpetual silence, or to prevent his eating. The Bhagavata adverts to the same circumstances, and gives more details of Rishabha's devotion, and connects him with the spread of Jain doctrines in the western parts of the peninsula. Rishabha is the name of the first Tirthankara, or Jain saint of the present era.

    Rishabha: (sáns. hindú). 2, One of the seven Rishis of the second Manwantara; 3, A prince, the son of Kusagra; 4, A mountain on the north of Meru.

    Rishabha: (sáns. hindú). 5, One of the generals in Rama's army at the siege of Lanka; he was severely wounded by the magical weapons of Indrajit, and left apparently dead on the battle field; but was restored to life by the healing plants brought by Hauuman from the ifold(iii hill cnllcd Kishnbha.

    Rishabha: (sáns. hindú). 6, The name of a golden hill on the very crest of Kailisa; on which grew four medicinal herbs, by virtue of which the dead and wounded might be restored to life.

    Rishis: (sáns. hindú). Great Sages. Seven are enumerated; they are the same as the Prajapatis, q. v. One of the Rishis is an attendant on the sun in each month of the year, along with one of the Adityas, Gandharbhas, Apsarasas, Yakshas, etc. The Vishnu Purana says there are three kinds of Rishis, or inspired sages; royal Risliis, or princes who have adopted a life of devotion, as VisAvamitra; divine Rishis, or sages who are demi-gods also, as Narada; and Brahman Rishis, or sages who are the sons of Brahma, or Brahmans, as Vasishtha and others. Mr. J. C. Thomson writes " in the Epic period Rishi is merely a name for historical personages, distinguished for their piety and wisdom, either by their acts or their writings. In the Puranic period the Rishis, par excellence, are seven primeval personages, born of Brahma's mind, and presiding, under different forms, over each Manwantara." The word Rishi is derived from rish, an old vedic root meaning ' to see.'

    Rishis: (sáns. hindú). The constellation of the Great Bear. For an account of its revolutions see the Vishnu Purana, p. 485, and Wilson's learned notes on the subject.

    Rishika, Rishikulya: (sáns. hindú). A river that rises in the Mahendra mountain and flows into the sea near Ganjam.

    Rishikas: (sáns. hindú). A people placed by the Ramayanaboth in the north and in the south; Arjuna visits the former and exacts from them eight horses.

    Rishyamukha: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in the Dekhin where the Pampa rises, the abode of the monkeys, and the temporary abode of Rama.

    Rishya-sringa: (sáns. hindú). A horned sage, celebrated in the first book of the Ramayana.

    He was the son of Vibhandak, a Rishi descended from Kasyapa.

    " Bred with the deer that round him roam.

    The wood shall be that hermit's home.

    To him no mortal shall be known Except hi holy sire alone."

    He was thus brought up in the forest with his father and saw no other human being until he attained early manhood. At a season of great drought, Somapad, king of Anga, enquired what should be done to cause rain, when the brahmans said, " By every art O monarch try Hither to bring Vibhlndak's child, Persuaded, captured or beguiled, And when the boy is hither led To him thy daughter duly wed."

    After much deliberation as to the way in which the " wondrous boy" should be induced to leave his father's home, the poem proceeds, *' Then this shall be the plan agreed, That damsels shall be sent.

    Attired in holy hermit's weed
    And skilled in blandishment.

    That they the hermit may beguile With every art and amorous wile.

    Whose use they know so well.

    And by their witcheries seduce The unsuspecting young recluse
    To leave his father's cell.

    Then when the boy with willing feet Shall wander from his calm retreat, And in that city stand.

    The troubles of the king shall end And streams of blessed rain descend
    Upon the thirsty land.

    Thus shall the holy Rishyasring To Somapad the mighty king
    By wedlock be allied; For Santa, fairest of the fair.

    In mind and grace beyond compare.

    Shall be his royal bride."

    All this took place accordingly.

    " In ships with wondrous art prepared Away the lovely women fared, And soon beneath the shade they stood Of the wild lonely dreary wood.

    And there the leafy cot they found
    Where dwelt the devotee And looked with eager eyes around The hermit's son to see.

    Forth came the hermit's son to view The wondrous sight to him so new, And gazed in rapt surprise.

    For from his natal hour till then On woman or the sons of men
    He ne'er had cast his eyes.

    The scheme was successful. On the following day when his father went as usual to the forest, Rishyasring eagerly sought his charming visitants and accompanied them to their " lovely home."

    Vibhandak returned to his cottage in the evening to learn the will of fate -
    " A stately ship, at early morn.

    The hermit's son away had borne.

    Loud roared the clouds as on he sped, The sky grew blacker overhead; Till as he reached the royal town, A mighty flood of rain came down, By the great rain the monarch's mind The coming of his guest divined.

    To meet the honoured youth he went.

    And low to earth his head he bent.

    And sought, with all who dwelt within The city walls, his grace to win .

    He fed him with the daintiest fare, He served him with unceasing care, And gave to be the Brahman's bride His own fair daughter, lotus-eyed.

    Thus loved and honoured by the king, The glorious Brahman Rishyasring Passed in that royal town his life With Santa his beloved wife." - Griffiths Bamayana.

    Rita: (sáns. hindú). 1, Truth. The son of Dharma, by one of the daughters of Daksha; 2, A king of Mithila, the son of Vijaya.

    Ritadhaman: (sáns. hindú). The Manu of the thirteenth Manwantara, according to the list in the Padma and Matsya Puranas.

    Ritadhwaja: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the eleven Kudras, according to the enumeration in the Bhagavata; 2, One of the designations of Pratarddana, meaning he whose emblem was truth, being a great observer of veracity.

    Riteya: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the eldest of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a descendant of Puru.

    Ritu: (sáns. hindú). The Manu of the twelfth Manwantara.

    Ritudhaman: (sáns. hindú). The Indra of the twelfth Manwantara.

    Ritujit: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Aiijana.

    Rituparna: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Ayutaswa.

    Rochana: (sáns. hindú). A wife of Vasudeva.

    Rodha: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas; that for the punishment of the crimes of causing abortion, killing a cow, plundering, &c.

    Rohini: (sáns. hindú). l, The wife of Vasudeva. Kansa, king of Mathura, captured Vasudeva and his wife Devaki, imprisoned them in his own palace, set guards over them, and slew the six children whom Devaki had already borne. She was now about to give birth to the seventh, who was Balarama, the playfellow* of Krishna, and like him, supposed to be an incarnation of Vishnu; but by divine agency the child was transferred before birth to the womb of Vasudeva's other wife, Rohini, who was living in Gokula.

    2. One of the wives of Krishna.
    3. The name of the wife of one of the Rudras.
    4. The daughter of Surabhi, and parent of horned cattle.
    5. A lunar mansion in Gajavithi, in the northern Avashthana,

    Rohita: (sáns. hindú). 1, The Manu, according to some of the Puranas, of the ninth Manwantara; 2, The son of Harischandra , q. v.

    Rohitaswa: (sáns. hindú). Called also Eohita. The son of Harischandra, q. V. Traces of his name appear in the strongholds of Rotas, in Behar, and in the Panjab. The Bhagavata has a legend of his having been devoted to Varuna before his birth, by his father, who having on various pleas deferred offering his son as promised, was afflicted by a dropsy. Rohita at last purchased Sunahsephas who was offered as a victim in his stead.

    Romaharshana: (sáns. hindú). A disciple of Vyasa, and the narrator of the Puranas. See Suta, Romanas, Ropanas - A people mentioned in the Puranas; it has been conjectured that the Romans may be meant.

    Romapada: (sáns. hindú). l, A son of Vidarbha and the princess rescued by Jyamagha, (q. v.); 2, A prince, the son of Chitraratha.

    Ruchi: (sáns. hindú). One of the Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma.

    He was married to Akuti, who bore him twins, Yajna and Dakshina, who afterwards became husband and wife, and had twelve sons, the deities called Yamas, in the ManAvantara of Swa yambliuva.

    Ruchiradhi: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Sankrite, of the race of Bharata.

    Ruchiraswa: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Seuajit, descendant of Has tin.

    Rudhirandha: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas, designed for incendiaries, treacherous friends, soothsayers, &c.

    Rudra: (sáns. hindú). An agent in creation; who sprang from the forehead of Brahma, radiant as the noontide sun, fierce, and of vast bulk, and of a figure which was half-male, half-female. At the command of Brahma, Rudra became two-folds disjoining his male and female natures. His male being he again divided into eleven persons, of whom some were agreeable, some hideous, some fierce, some mild: and he multiplied his female nature manifold, of complexions black or white. This is considered by Professor Wilson to be the primitive form of the legend.

    The Vishnu Purana gives another account, as follows: In the beginning of the Kalpa, as Brahma purposed to create a son, who should be like himself, a youth of a purple complexion appeared, crying with a low cry, and running about. Brahma, when he beheld him thus afflicted, said to him, " Why dost thou weep ?" " Give me a name," replied the boy. " Rudra be thy name," rejoined the great father of all creatures: " be composed; desist from tears." But, thus addressed, the boy still wept seven times, and Brahma therefore gave to him seven other denominations; and to these eight persons regions and wives and posterity belong. The eight manifestations, then, are named Rudra, Bhava, Sarva, Isana, Pasupati, Bhima, Ugra, and Mahadeva, which were given to them by their great progenitor. He also assigned to them their respective stations, the sun, water, earth, air, fire, ether, the ministrant Brahman, and the moon; for these are their several forms.

    The Vayu details the application of each name severally. These eight Rudras are therefore but one, under as many appellations, and in as many types. The Padraa, Markandeya, Kurma, Linga, and Vayu agree with the V. P., in the nomenclature of the Rudras, and their types, their wives, and progeny.

    Rudra: (sáns. hindú). A name of Siva; one of the five great lords or faces of Siva, the name Rudra occurs in the Rig Veda as one of the inferior gods.

    Rudrakali: (sáns. hindú). A form of Uma, in which she accompanied Virabhadra when he was sent by Siva to spoil the sacrifice of Daksha.

    Rudraksha: (sáns. hindú). A rosary, or string of beads, the fruit of the eleocarpus, resembling in form, size, and colour, the nufmeg, but with a rough surface. The meaning of the word is Rudra's {%. e., Siva*s) eye, and then also tear. It is said that Siva once, in a war with the Asuras, having burned three cities, wept at the loss of lives involved, and the tears falling to the ground, sprung up as shrubs, producing berries, which were thence called Rudraksha.

    Rudra-loka: (sáns. hindú). The heaven above Brahma-loka.

    Rudrani: (sáns. hindú). The wife of the Rudra Dhritavrata.

    Rukmakavacha: (sáns. hindú). A Yadava prince, the son of Siteya".

    Rukmisha: (sáns. hindú). The grandson of the preceding Yadava king.

    Rukmin: (sáns. hindú). The son of Bhishmaka, king of Vidarbha. He had a beautiful sister named Rukmini, with whom Krishna fell in love and selected in marriage; but her brother, who hated Krishna, would not assent to the espousals. The father then affianced Rukmiui to Sisupala. In other to celebrate the nuptials, Jarasandha and other princes, the friends of Sisupala, assembled in Kundina, the capital of Vidarbha; and Krishna, attended by Balai-ama and many other Yadavas, also went to witness the wedding. When there Krishna contrived to carry off the princess, leaving Rama and his kinsmen to sustain the weight of his enemies.

    The sovereigns who had assembled to be present at the marriage, indignant at the insult, exerted themselves to kill Krishna; and Rukmin, vowing that he would never enter Kundina until he had slain him in fight, pursued and overtook him. In the combat that ensued Krishna destroyed with his discus the whole host of Rukmin, and would have put him to death, but was withheld by the entreaties of Rukmini. Rukmin, thus spared, built the city Bhojakata, and in pursuance of his vow, ever after dwelt therein.

    He was ultimately killed by Balarama in a quarrel which occurred at a game of dice.

    Rukmini: (sáns. hindú). The sister of the above. After the defeat of Rukmin, Krishna married Rukmini in due form, having first made her his own by the Rakshasa ritual, V. P. According to the Bhagavata, Rukmini sent to invite Krishna to carry her off, and instructed him how to proceed. She was the mother of Pradyumna. On the death of Krishna she and four other of his wives burnt themselves with his body.

    Rupa: (sáns. hindú). A river, from the Saktimat mountain.

    Rupavahikas, Rupavasikas: (sáns. hindú). People mentioned in the Puranas as Southern tribes, probably in the vicinity of the Rupa river.

    Ruruka: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Vijaya, and ancestor of Sagara.

    Rushadra: (sáns. hindú). The son of Swahi, and grandfather of Sasavinda.


    Sabhanara: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ann.

    Sadacharas: (sáns. hindú). Fixed observances; the institutions or obseryances of the pious; the perpetual obligations of a householder, consisting of daily purifications, ablutions, libations, and oblations; hospitality, obsequial rites, ceremonies to be observed at meals, at morning and evening worship, and on going to rest.

    Sadakanta, Sadanira: (sáns. hindú). Puranic rivers, the latter is said to flow from Paripitra.

    Sadaswa: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Samara.

    Sadhus: (sáns. hindú). Saints; just or pious men; those who are free from all defects.

    Sadhya: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Daksha and one of the wives of Dharma.

    Sadhyas: (sáns. hindú). A class of demi-gods, the sons of Sadhya; according to the Vayu the Sadhyas are the personified rites and prayers of the Vedas, born of the metres and partakers of the sacrifices. It also enumerates them amongst the gods of the present Manwantara.

    Sadnova: (sáns. hindú). The youngest son of the Raja of Chitapur, who was thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil for delaying to join his father in an expedition against Arjuna. Sadnova prayed to God, and the oil became quite cold. Sadnova came out unhurt and went with the army to fight against Arjuna, but he and all his brethren were slain.

    Sadwati: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Pulastya and wife of Agni.

    Sagara: (sáns. hindú). The son of Bahu or Bahuka. His birth is thus narrated in the Vishnu Purana. Bahu was vanquished by the tribes of Haihayas and Talajanghas, and his country overrun by them; in consequence of which he fled into the forests with his wives. One of these was pregnant, and being an object of jealousy to a rival queen, the latter gave her poison to prevent her delivery. The poison had the effect of confining the child in the womb for seven years. Bahu, having waxed old, died in the neighbourhood of the residence of the Muni Aurva. His queen having constructed his pile, ascended it with the determination of accompanying him in death; but the sage Aurva, who knew all things, past, present, and to come, issued forth from his hermitage, and forbade her, saying, " Hold ! hold ! this is unrighteous; a valiant prince, the monarch of many realms, the offerer of many sacrifices, the destroyer of his foes, a universal emperor, is in thy womb; think not of committing so desperate an act !" Accordingly, in obedience to his injunctions, she relinquished her intention, The sage then conducted her to his abode, and after some time a very splendid boy was there born. Along with him the poison that had been given to his mother was expelled; and Aurva, after performing the ceremonies required at birth, gave him on that account the name of Sagara (from Sa, ' with,' and Gara, ' poison.') The same holy sage celebrated his investure with the cord of his class, instructed him fully in the Vedas, and taught him the use of arms, especially those of fire, called after Bhirgava.

    When the boy had grown up, and was capable of reflection, he said to his mother one day, "Why are we dwelling in this hermitage ? where is my father ? and who is he ?" His mother, in reply, related to him all that had happened. Upon hearing which he was highly incensed, and vowed to recover his patrimonial kingdom, and exterminate the Haihayas and Talajanghas, by whom it had been overrun. Accordingly when he became a man he put nearly the whole of the Haihayas to death, and would have also destroyed the Sakas, the Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, and Pahnavas, but that they applied to Vasishtha, the family priest of Sagara, for protection. Vasishtha regarding them as annihilated (or deprived of power), though living, thus spake to Sagara i "Enough, enough, my son, pursue no farther these objects of your wrath, whom you may look upon as no more. In order to fulfil your vow I have separated them from affinity to the regenerate tribes, and from the duties of their castes." Sagara, in compliance with the injunctions of his spiritual guide, contented himself therefore with imposing upon the vanquished nations peculiar distinguishing marks. He made the Yavanas shave their heads entirely: the Sakas he compelled to shave (the upper) half of their heads; the Paradas wore their hair long; and the Pahnavas let their beards grow, in obedience to his commands.

    Them also, and other Kshatriya races, he deprived of the established usages of oblations to fire and the study of the Vedas; and thus separated from religious rites, and abandoned by the Brahmans, these different tribes became Mlechchhas. Sagara, after the recovery of his kingdom, reigned over the seven-zoned earth with undisputed dominion.

    Sumati the daughter of Kasyapa, and Kesini the daughter of Raja Viderbha, were the two wives of Sagara. Being without progeny, the king solicited the aid of the sage Aurva with great earnestness, and the Muni pronounced this boon, that one wife should bear one son, the upholder of his race, and the other should give birth to sixty thousand sons; and he left it to them to make their election. Kesini chose to have the single son; Sumati the multitude: and it came to pass in a short time that the former bore Asamaujas, a prince through whom the dynasty continued; and the daughter of Viuata (Sumati) had sixty thousand sous, " The elder consort bare A son called Asamanj, the heir.

    Then Sumati, the younger, gave Birth to a gourd,* O, hero brave, Whose rind, when burst and cleft in two, Gave sixty thousand babes to view."

    The son of Asamanjas was Ausumat.

    Asamanjas was from his boyhood of very irregular conduct.

    His father hoped that as he grew up to manhood he would reform; but finding that he continued guilty of the same immorality, Sagara abandoned him. The sixty thousand sons of Sagara followed the example of their brother Asamanjas, The path of virtue and piety being obstructed in the world by the sons of o Ikshv<(ku, the name of a king of Ayodhya, who is regarded as the founder of the solar race, means also a yourd. Hence perhaps the myth. - Griffiths.

    Sagara, the gods repaired to the Muui Kapila, who was a portion of Vishnu, free from fault, and endowed with all true wisdom.

    Having approached him with respect, they said, " lord, what will become of the world, if these sous of Sagara are permitted to go on in the evil ways which they have learned from Asamanjas !
    Do thou, then, assume a visible form, for the protection of the afflicted universe." " Be satisfied," replied the sage, " in a brief time the sons of Sagara shall be all destroyed."

    At that period Sagara commenced the performance of the solemn sacrifice of a horse, which was guarded by his own sons: nevertheless some one stole the animal, and carried it off into a chasm in the earth. Sagara commanded his sons to search for the steed; and they, tracing him by the impressions of his hoofs, followed his course with perseverance, until coming to the chasm where he had entered, they proceeded to enlarge it, and dug downwards each for a league. Coming to Patala, they beheld the horse wandering freely about, and at no great distance from him they saw the Rishi Kapila sitting, with his head declined in meditation, and illuminating the surrounding space with radiance as bright as the splendours of the autumnal sun, shining in an unclouded sky. Exclaiming, " This is the villain wlio has maliciously interrupted our sacrifice, and stolen the horse ! kill him ! kill him !" they ran towards him with uplifted weapons.

    The Muni slowly raised his eyes, and for an instant looked upon them, and they were reduced to ashes by the sacred flame that darted from his person.

    " Then all the princes lofty souled.

    Of wondrous vigour, strong and bold, Saw Vasudeva standing there In Kapil's form he loved to wear.

    And near the everlasting God, The victim charger cropped the sod.

    They saw with joy and eager eyes The fancied robber and the prize, And on him rushed the furious baud Crying aloud, stand, villain ! stand !

    * Avaunt ! avaunt ! great Kapil cried, His bosom flu'shed with passion's tide; Then by his might that proud array - All scorched to heaps of ashes lay." '*

    When Sagara learned that his sons, whom he had sent in pursuit of the sacrificial steed, had been destroyed by the might of the great Rishi Kapila, he despatched Ansumat, the son of Asamanjas, to effect the animal's recovery. The youth, proceeding by the deep path which the princes had dug, arrived where Kapila whs, and bowing respectfully, prayed to him, and so propitiated him, that the saint said, " Go, my son, deliver the horse to your grandfather; and demand a boon; thy grandson shall bring down the river of heaven on the earth." Ansumat requested as a boon that his uncles, who had perished through the sage's displeasure, might, although unworthy of it, he raised to heaven through his favour. " I have told you," replied Kapila, " that your grandson shall bring down upon earth the Ganges of the gods; and when her waters shall wash the bones and ashes of thy grandfather's sons, they shall be raised to Swarga. Such is the efficacy of the stream that flows from the toe of Vishnu, that it confers heaven upon all who bathe in it designedly, or who even become accidentally immersed in it: those even shall obtain Swarga, whose bones, skin, fibre?, hair or any other part, shall be left after death upon the earth which is contiguous to the Ganges." Having acknowledged reverentially the kindness of the sage, Ansumat returned to his grandfather, and delivered to him the horse.

    Sagara, on recovering the steed, completed his sacrifice; and in affectionate memory of his sons, denominated Sagara the chasm which they had dug.

    Sagara is still the name of the ocean, and especially of the Bay of Bengal, at the mouth of the Ganges. V. P.

    * It appears to me that this my third story has reference to the volcanic phenomena of nature. Kapil may very possibly be that hidden fiery force which suddenly unprisons itself and bursts forth in volcanic effects. Kapil is, moreover, one of the names of Agni, the god of Fire.-GORRESio.

    Sahadeva: (sáns. hindú). l, The fifth and youngest son of Pandu by his wife Madri, but mystically begotten by Dasra, the younger of the two Aswinau. He is considered as the beau ideal of masculine beauty.

    He was taught Astronomy and the use of the sword by Droria.

    When the Pandavas applied for service to the Raja Virata, Sahadeva was made master of the cattle, and caster of nativities and teller of fortunes j 2, A prince, the son of Srinjaya; 3, The son of Harshavarddhana; 4, A son of Sudasa; 5, A son of Jarasandha; 6, The son of Divdkara, of the family of Ikshvaku.

    Sahajanya: (sáns. hindú). A divine nymph; one of the ten in the class termed Daivika.

    Sahauji: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Kunti.

    Saharaksha: (sáns. hindú). The fire of the Asuras; the Bhagavata explains the different fires to be so many appellations of fire employed in the invocations with which different oblations to fire are offered in the ritual of the Vedas.

    Sahas, Sahasya: (sáns. hindú). The names of two of the months, occurring in the Vedas and belonging to a system now obsolete.

    Sahasrabala: (sáns. hindú). A prince, a descendant of Kusa, according to the lists in the Matysa, Linga, &c.

    Sahasrajit: (sáns. hindú). l, The eldest son of Yadu; 2, One of the sons of Bhajamana.

    Sahishna: (sáns. hindú). l. One of the sous of the patriarch Pulaka; 2, A son of Vanakapivat, and father of Kamadeva.

    Sahya: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven principal chains of mountains in Bharata; the northern portions of the Western Ghauts, the mountains of the Konkan.

    Saindhava, or Saindhavayana: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Atharva Veda, and founder of a school of brahmans.

    Saindhavas: (sáns. hindú). l. The inhabitants of Sindh, and Western Rajpootana; 2, A school of brahmans.

    Saineyas: (sáns. hindú). The descendants of Sini, a branch of the Yadavas.

    Sainhikeyas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Danavas, the sons of Viprachitti and Sinhika.

    SaisikataS: (sáns. hindú). Inhabitants of mountainous regions and sandy deserts.

    Saisiri: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the White Yajush. V. P., 281.

    Saisiriya: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Rig Veda, a disciple of Vedamitra, called also Sakalya.

    Saisunaga: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, and founder of the dynasty of that name, consisting often kings. He relinquished Benares to his son and established himself at Girivraja in Behar, where he is said to have reigned forty years.

    Saiva Purana: (sáns. hindú). The fourth Parana in the enumeration given in the Vishnu Purana. In some lists it is omitted, and when that is the case it is replaced by the Vayu, or Vayuviya. When the Saiva is specified, as in the Bhagavata, then the Vayu is omitted; intimating the possible identity of these two works. This Purana contains the genealogies of the patriarchs, a description of the universe, and the incidents of the first six Manwantaras; intermixed with legends and praises of Siva. A long account of the Pitris or progenitors is also peculiar to this Purana; as are stories of some of the most celebrated Rishis, who were engaged in the distribution of the Vedas. See Vayu Purana.

    Saivya: (sáns. hindú). The wife of king Satadhanu, and a woman of great virtue. The legend of her life is peculiar to the Vishnu Purana and is thus narrated. She was devoted to her husband, benevolent, sincere, pure, adorned with every female excellence, with humility, and discretion. The Raja and his wife daily worshipped the god of gods, Janarddana, with pious meditations, oblations to fire, prayers, gifts, fasting, and every other mark of entire faith, and exclusive devotion. On one occasion when they had fasted on the full moon of Kartika, and had bathed in the Bhagirathi, they beheld, as they came up from the water, a heretic approach them, who was the friend of the Raja's military preceptor. The Raja, out of respect to the latter, entered into conversation with the heretic; but not so did the princess; reflecting that she was observing a fast, she turned from him, and cast her eyes up to the BUD. On their arrival at home, the husband and wife, as usual, performed the worship of Vishnu, agreeably to the ritual. After a time the Raja, triumphant over his enemies, died; and the princess ascended the funeral pile of her husband.

    In consequence of the fault committed by Satadhanu, by speaking to an infidel when he was engaged in a solemn fast, he was born again as a dog. His wife was born as the daughter of the Raja of Kasi, with the knowledge of the events of her pre-existence, accomplished in every science, and endowed with every virtue.

    Her father was anxious to give her in marriage to some suitable husband, but she constantly opposed his design, and the king was prevented by her from accomplishing her nuptials. With the eye of divine intelligence she knew that her own husband had been regenerate as a dog, and going once to the city of Vaidisd, she saw the dog, and recognised her former lord in him. Knowing that the animal was her husband, she placed upon his neck the bridal garland, accompanying it with the marriage rites and prayers: but he, eating the delicate food presented to him, expressed his delight after the fashion of his species; at which she was much ashamed, and, bowing reverently to him, thus spake to her degraded spouse: " Recall to memory, illustrious prince, the ill-timed politeness on account of which you have been born as a dog, and are now fawning upon me. In consequence of speaking to a heretic, after bathing in a sacred river, you have been condemned to this abject birth. Do you not remember it ?" Thus reminded, the Raja recollected his former condition, and was lost in thought, and felt deep humiliation. With a broken spirit he went forth from the city, and falling dead in the desert, was born anew as a jackal. In the course of the following year the princess knew what had happened, and went to the mountain Kolahala to seek for her husband. Finding him there, the lovely daughter of the king of the earth said to her lord, thus disguised as a jackal, " Dost thou not remember, oh king, the circumstance of conversing with a heretic, which I called to thy recollection when thou wast a dog ?" The Raja, thus addressed, knew that what the princess had spoken was true, and thereupon desisted from food, and died.

    He then became a wolf; but his blameless wife knew it, and came to him in the lonely forest, and awakened his remembrance of his original state. " No wolf art thou," she said, " but the illustrious sovereign Satadhanu. Thou wast then a dog, then a jackal, and art now a wolf." Upon this, recollecting himself, the prince abandoned his life, and became a vulture; in which form his lovely queen still found him, and aroused him to a knowledge of the past. *' Prince," she exclaimed, " recollect yourself: away with this uncouth form, to which the sin of conversing with a heretic has condemned you !" The Raja was next born as a crow; when the princess, who through her mystical powers was aware of it, said to him, " Thou art now thyself the eater of tributary grain, to whom, in a prior existence, all the kings of the earth paid tribute." Having abandoned his body, in consequence of the recollections excited by these words, the king next became a peacock, which the princess took to herself, and petted, and fed constantly with such food as is agreeable to birds of its class. The king of Kasi instituted at that time the solemn sacrifice of a horse.

    In the ablutions with which it terminated the princess caused her peacock to be bathed, bathing also herself; and she then reminded Satadhanu how he had been successively born as various animals.

    On recollecting this, he resigned his life. He was then born as the son of a person of distinction; and the princess now assenting to the wishes of her father to see her wedded, the king of Kasi caused it to be made known that she would elect a bridegroom from those who should present themselves as suitors for her hand.

    When the election took place, the princess made choice of her former lord, who appeared amongst the candidates, and again invested him with the character of her husband. They lived happily together, and upon her father's decease, Satadhanu ruled over the country of Videha. He offered many sacrifices, and gave away many gifts, and begot sons, and subdued his enemies in war; and having duly exercised the sovereign power, and cherished benignantly the earth, he died, as became his warrior birth, in battle. His queen again followed him in death, and, conformably to sacred precepts, once more mounted cheerfully his funeral pile.

    The king then, along with his princess, ascended beyond the sphere of Indra to the regions where all desires are for ever gratified, obtaining ever-during and unequalled happiness in heaven, the perfect felicity that is the rarely realised reward of conjugal fidelity."

    Saivya: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated legendary king of ancient India, of whom an affecting story is related of a hawk and a dove.

    " Saivya, a king whom earth obeyed, Once to a hawk a promise made, Gave to the bird his flesh and bone And by his truth made heaven his own."

    " Learn from that tale, the Hawk and Dove, How strong for truth was Saivya's love Pledged by his word the monarch gave His flesh the suppliant bh-d to save."

    " The following is a free version of this very ancient story, which occurs more than oace in the Mahabharata.

    The Suppliant Dove.

    Chased by a hawk there came a dove
    With worn and weary Aviug, And took her stand upon the hand
    Of Kasi's mighty king.

    The monarch smoothed her ruffled plumes
    And laid her on his breast, And cried, * No fear shall vex thee here, Rest, pretty egg-born, rest !
    Fair Kasi's realm is rich and wide.

    With golden harvests gay, But all that's mine will I resign
    Ere I my guest betray.'
    But panting for his half-won spoil
    The hawk was close behind.

    And with wild cry and eager eye
    Came swooping down the wind:
    * This bird,' he cried, my destined prize, 'Tis not for thee to shield:
    'Tis mine by right and toilsome flight
    O'er hill and dale and field.

    Hunger and thirst oppress me sore, Aud I am faint with toil:
    Thou shouldst not stay a bird of prey
    Who claims his rightful spoil.

    * They say thou art a glorious king, Aud justice is thy care:
    Then justly reign in thy domain, Nor rob the birds of air.'
    Then cried the king: * A cow or deer For thee shall straightway bleed, Or let a ram or tender lamb
    Be slain, for thee to feed.

    Mine oath forbids me to betray My little twice-born guest:
    See how she clings with trembling wings To her protector's breast.'
    * No flesh of lambs,' the hawk replied, * No blood of deer for me; The falcon loves to feed on doves.

    And such is Heaven's decree.

    But if affection for the dove Thy pitying heart has stirred.

    Let thine own flesh my maw refresh, Weighed down against the bird.'
    He carved the flesh from off his side, And threw it in the scale.

    While women's cries smote on the skies
    With loud lament and wail.

    He hacked the flesh from side and arm.

    From chest and back and thigh.

    But still above the little dove The monarch's scale stood high.

    He heaped the scale with piles of flesh, With sinewg, blood, and skin,
    And when alone was left him bone He threw himself therein.

    Then thundered voices through the air;
    The sky grew black as night; And fever took the earth that shook
    To see that wondrous sight.

    The blessed Gods, from every sphere, By Indra led, came nigh; While drum and flute and shell and lute
    Made music in the sky.

    They rained immortal chaplets down, Which hands celestial twine.

    And softly shed upon his head
    Pure Amrit, drink divine.

    Then God and Seraph, Bard and Nymph
    Their heavenly voices raised.

    And a glad throng with dance and song
    The glorious monarch praised.

    They set him on a golden car
    That blazed with many a gem; Then swiftly through the air they flew, And bore him home with them.

    Thus KaM's lord, by noble deed.

    Won heaven and deathless fame; And when the weak protection seek
    From thee, do thou the same.

    - Griffiths. Scenes from the Ra?ndi/an, Sfc.

    2. Saivya was also the name of a king of the Si vis, who was an ally of the Pandavas; the Silex of the Greeks.

    Saivya: (sáns. hindú). l, The wife of Harischandra, (q. v.) whose heroic fortitude was shown in her patient endurance of the long series of severe trials to which she and her husband were subjected by Visvamitra.

    " According to the Markandeya Purana, Harischaudia gave up his whole country, and sold his wife and son, and finally himself, in satisfaction of Visvamitra*s demands for money. The sufferings of Harischandra, his wife, and son, are very pathetically depicted, and the effect of the various incidents is heightened with great artistic skill. The story, in fact, appears to me one of the most touching to be found in Indian literature. Harischandra, the Purana tells us, was a royal Rishi who lived in the Treta age, and was renowned for his virtues, and the universal prosperity, moral and physical, which prevailed during his reign. On one occasion, when hunting, the king heard a sound of female lamentation which proceeded, it appears, from the sciences who were becoming mastered by the austerely -fervid sage Visv4mitra, in a way they had never been before by any one else; and were consequently crying out in alarm at his superiority. In fulfilment of his duty as a Kshattriya to defend the weak, and inspired by the god Ganesa, who had entered into him, Harischandra exclaimed " * What sinner is this who is binding fire in the hem of his garment, while I, his lord, am present, resplendent with force and fiery vigour ?' He shall to-day enter on his long sleep, pierced in all his limbs by arrows, which, by their discharge from my bow, illuminate all the quarters of the firmament." Visvamitra was provoked by this address. In consequence of his wrath the sciences instantly perished, and Harischandra, trembling like the leaf of an asvattha tree, submissively represented that he had merely done his duty as a king, which he defined as consisting in the bestowal of gifts on eminent Brahmans and other persons of slender means, the protection of the timid, and war against enemies. Visvamitra hereupon demands a gift as a Brahman intent upon receiving one.

    The king offers him whatever he may ask: Gold, his own son, wife, body, life, kingdom, good fortune. The saint first requires the present for the Rajasuya sacrifice. On this being promised, and still more offered, he asks for the empire of the whole earth, including everything but Harischandra himself, his wife and Hon, and his virtue which follows its possessor wherever he goes.* Harischaiulra joyfully agrees. Visvamitra then requires him to strip off all his ornaments, to clothe himself in the bark of trees, and to quit the kingdom with his wife Saivya and his son.

    When he is departing the sage stops him and demands payment of his yet unpaid sacrificial fee. The king replies that he has only the persons of his wife, his son, and himself left. Visvamitra insists that he must nevertheless pay; and that "unfulfilled promises of gifts to Brahmans bring destruction." The unfortunate prince, after being threatened with a curse, engages to make the payment in a month; and commences his journey with a wife unused to such fatigues, amid the universal lamentations of his subjects. While he lingers, listening to their affectionate remonstrances against his desertion of his kingdom, Visvdmitra comes up, and being incensed at the delay and the king's apparent hesitation, strikes the queen with his staff, as she is dragged on by her husband. All this Harischandra endures with patience, uttering no complaint. Then the five Visvedevas, merciful gods, exclaimed, " * To what worlds shall this sinner Visvamitra go, who has thrust down this most excellent of sacrifices from the royal dignity ? Whose faith shall now sanctify the soma-juice poured out with recitation of texts at the great sacrifice, that we may drink it, and become exhilarated' ? " Visvamitra heard what they said, and by a curse doomed them to become men; he relented, however, so far as to exempt them from having offspring, and from other family ties and human weaknesses, and promised that they should eventually be restored to their pristine position as gods.

    * Compare Manu's very striking verses, which may be freely rendered as follows: -

    " Our virtue is the only friend that follows us in death; All other ties and friendships end with our departing breath.

    Nor father, mother, wife, nor son beside us then can stay.

    Nor kinsfolk: - virtue is the one companion of our way.

    Alone each creature sees the light, alone the world he leaves; Alone of fictions, wrong or right, the recompense receives.

    Like log or clod, beneath the sod their lifeless kinsman laid.

    His friends turn round and quit the ground; but virtue tends the dead.

    Be then a hoard of virtue stored, to help in day of doom; By virtue led, we cross the dread, immeasurable gloom."

    They inconsequence became partailly incarnate as the five Fundus, the sous of Draupadi. Resuming the story of Harischandra, the writer tells us that he then proceeded with his wife and little son to Benares, imagining that this divine city, as the special property of Siva, could not be possessed by any mortal. Here he found the relentless Visvamitra waiting for him, and ready to press his demand for the payment of his sacrificial gift, even before the expiration of the full period of grace. In this extremity Saivya the queen suggests with a sobbing voice that her husband should sell her. On hearing this proposal Harischandra swoons, then recovers, utters lamentations, and swoons again, and his wife, seeing his sad condition, swoons also. While they are in a state of unconsciousness, their famished child exclaims in distress, "O father, father, give me bread; O mother, mother, give me food: hunger everpowers me; and my tongue is parched." At this moment Visvamitra returns, and after recalling Harischandra to consciousness by sprinkling water over him, again urges payment of the present. The king again swoons, and is again restored. The sage threatens to curse him if his engagement is not fulfilled by sunset. Being now pressed by his wife, the king agrees to sell her, adding', however, " If my voice can utter such a wicked word, I do what the most inhuman wretches cannot perpetrate." He then goes into the city, and in selfaccusing language offers his queen for sale as a slave. A rich old Brahman offers to buy her at a price corresponding to her value, to do his household work. Harischandra's heart was torn, and he could make no reply. The Brahman paid down the money, and was dragging away the queen by the hair of her head, when her little son Rohitdsva, seeing his mother about to be taken away from him, began to cry, and laid hold of her skirts. The mother then exclaims: " * Let me go, let me go, venerable sir, till I look upon my son. I shall hardly ever behold him again. Come, my darling, see thy mother now become a slave. Touch me not, young prince; I may no longer be handled by thee.* Seeing his mother dragged away, the child ran after her, his eyes dimmed with tears, and crying * mother.' The Brahman purchaser kicked him when he came up; but he would not let his mother go, and continued crying " mother, mother.' The queen then said to the Brahman, * Bo so kind, my master, as to buy also this child, as without him I shall prove to thee but a useless purchase. Be thus merciful to mo in ray wretchedness; unite me with ray son, like a cow to her calf.'* The Brahman agrees: * Take this money and give me the boy.' " When his wife and Eon were being carried away, Harischandra broke out into lamentations: " * She, my spouse, whom neither air, nor sun, nor moon, nor stranger had beheld, is now gone into slavery. This my son, a scion of the solar race, with his delicate hands and fingers, has been sold. Woe to me, wicked wretch that I am.'" - 0, S. T., Vol. /, pp. 379-383.

    2. Saivya, was the name of the wife of king Jyaraagha. Her history will be found in the account of her husband. ( Jyamagha.)

    Saka: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven Dwipas, or great insular continents; it is surrounded with a sea of railk. In this Dwipa there are seven mountains and seven sacred rivers. There grows a largo Suka (teak) tree, frequented by the Siddhas and Gandharbas, the wind from which, as produced by its fluttering leaves, diffuses delight. The inhabitants are described as sinless and hnppy.

    Sakalya: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Rig Veda. He is said in the Vishnu Purana to have divided the Sanhito, or collection of hymns, given to him, into five Sanhitas, which he distributed amongst as many disciples, who became founders of schools for teaching the truths of the Veda.

    Sakapurni: (sáns. hindú). (Grilled also Rathantara.) A teacher of the Rig Veda, who divided the original Sanhita into three portions, and added a glossary (Nirukta) constituting a fourth. See Vishnu Purana, 277.

    Sakas: (sáns. hindú). The Sakai and Sacoe of classical writers; the IndoScythians of Ptolemy; Turks or Tartar tribes, who established themselves about a century and a half before our era, along the western districts of India, from the Hindu Koh to the mouths of the Indus. Professor Wilson thinks they were not improbably

    * The whole of this reads like a scene from " Uncle Tom's Cabin."

    connected with our Saxon forefathers. Sixteen kings of this race are mentioned in the Vishnu Parana which also mentions their conquest by Sagara, along with the Yavanas and Kambojas.

    Sakha: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Kumara, and grandson of Agni.

    Sakha: (sáns. hindú). A branch (i. e., of the Veda considered as a tree); it means sometimes a division or part; sometimes an edition or recension. A Sakha generally comprised a Sauhita and a Brdhmana.

    Sakra: (sáns. hindú). 1, A name of Indra, (q. v.); 2, One of the twelve Adityas.

    Sakra: (sáns. hindú). The powerful god, an epithet of India.

    Saktas: (sáns. hindú). The worshippers of the Sakti, the power or energy of the divine nature in action, are exceedingly numerous amongst all classes of Hindus. This active energy is, agreeably to the spirit of the mythological system, personified, and the form with which it is invested, considered as the especial object of veneration, depends upon the bias entertained by the individuals towards the adoration of Vishnu or Siva. In the former case the personified Sakti is termed Lakshmi, or Maha Lakshmi, and in the latter, Parvatt, Bhavani, or DurgA. Even Sarasvati enjoys some portion of homage, much more than her lord, "Brahma, whilst a vast variety of inferior beings of malevolent character and formidable aspect receive the worship of the multitude. The bride of Siva, however, in one or other of her many and varied forms, is by far the most popular emblem in Bengal and along the Ganges.

    The worship of the female principle, as distinct from the divinity, appears to have originated in the literal interpretation of the metaphorical language of the Vedas, in which the will or purpose to create the universe is represented as originating from the creator, and co-existent with him as his bride, and part of himself. Thus in the Rig Veda it is said, " That divine spirit breathed without afflation, single with ( Svadha) her who is sustained within him; other than him nothing existed. First desire was formed in his mind, and that became the original productive seed," and the Sama Veda, speaking of the divine cause of creation, says, " Ho felt not delight, being alone. He wished another, and instantly became such. He caused his own self to fall in twain, and thus became husband and wife. He approached her, and thus were human beings produced." In these passages it is not unlikely that reference is made to the primitive tradition of the origin of mankind, but there is also a figurative representation of the first indication of ivish or will in the Supreme Being.

    Being devoid of all qualities whatever, he was alone, until he permitted the wish to be multiplied, to be generated within himself.

    This wish being put into action, it is said, became united with its parent, and then created beings were produced. Thus this first manifestation of divine power is termed Ichchharupa, personified desire, and the creator is designated as Svechchha)naya, united with his own will, whilst in the Vedanta philosophy, and the popular sects, such as that of Kabir, and others, in which all created things are held to be illusory, the Sakti, or active will of the deity, is always designated and spoken of as Maya or Mahamaya, original deceit or illusion.

    Another set of notions of some antiquity which contributed to form the character of the Sakti, whether general or particular, were derived from the Sankhya philosophy. In this system nature, Prakriti, or Mula IBrahiti is defined to be of eternal existence and independent origin, distinct from the supreme spirit, productive though no production, and the plastic origin of all things, including even the gods. Hence Prakriti has come to be regarded as the mother of gods and men, whilst as one with matter, the source of error, it is again identified with Maya, or delusion, and as co-existent with the supreme as his Sakti, his personified energy, or his bride.

    These mythological fancies have been principally disseminated by the Puranas, in all which Frakriti, or Maya bears a prominent part. The aggregate of the whole is given in the Brahma Vaivurtta Purana, one section of which, the Prakriti Khanda, is devoted to the subject, and in which the legends relating to the principal modifications of the female principle are narrated; -

    Sakti: (sáns. hindú). Energy. Potency. Mythologically the word means consort of a deity. Parvati is the Sakti of Siva. Sarasvati the Sakti of Brahma. The Sakti is said to have originated in God, the Supreme Being. From the first Sakti nine others are derived who are called Navasakti. They for their arrogance, were banished from heaven to earth; and when here obtained the office of protecting mankind from demons; hence temples are erected and festivals celebrated in their honour. They are in fact the Gramadevatas so often mentioned. The Sakti is worshipped in the pagodas under the form of the Sivalinga. There are many special forms of Sakti-worship, some of them accompanied with the grossest obscenities. The Abbe Dubois terms one of them an " occult sacrifice, secret and abominable." The Sakti worship is to a certain extent sanctioned by the Purdaas, but it is especially prescribed in certain works called Tantras. The female forms of Rudra, white and black, are termed in the Vishnu Purana, Saktis.

    Sakti, Saktri: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated sage, the son of Vasishtha. King Kalmashapdda, one day metSakti, in a narrow path in a thicket and desired him to stand out of his way. The sage refused; on which the raja beat him with his whip, and Sakti cursed him to become a Rakshas, or cannibal. The Raja in this transformation killed and ate its author, Sakti, and all the other sons of Vasishtha.

    Parasara was a posthumous son of Sakti. In the twenty-fifth Dwapara Sakti was the Vyasa.

    Saklini: (sáns. hindú). l, The son of the Raja of Gandhara, who conducted his sister Gandhari to the city of Hastinapur to be married to Raja Dritardshtra. He was very skilful in throwing dice, and in playing with dice that were loaded; so that he always won the game. At the celebrated gambling match when Yudhishthira lost all his property, himself, his brothers and his wife, it was Sakuni who threw the dice and won every game, and obliged the Pandavas to go into exile. Sakuni plotted with Duryodhana to seize Krishna, when the latter revealed his divinity and disconcerted the whole.

    Sakuni: (sáns. hindú). 2, A Daitya of great prowess, one of the sous of Hiranyaksha.

    Sakuni: (sáns. hindú). A female fiend or Asura, the daughter of Bali, and uUUn- of Putaiju,

    Sakuntala: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of the celebrated Rishi Visvamitra, by one of the Apsarasas named Menaka, who was sent from heaven, by Indra to allure the sage from his solitary penance.

    " Visvamitra yielded and lived with Menaka in connubial bliss for some years. When Visvamitra returned to his ambitious austerities, Menaka went back to heaven, and their child, Sakuntala, was adopted by the Rishi Kanwa, and brought up at his hermitage, in a forest to the south of Hastindpura, the city in which were reigning the princes of the Lunar line. To Dushyanta, the reigning monarch, it was decreed by the celestials, the daughter of Menaka should be married ;"* the plot of Kalidasa's drama of 'o' Sakuntala or the Lost Ring," is arranged to bring about the marriage.

    Sakwala: (sáns. hindú). A mundane system; being the space to which the light of a sun extends, each sakwala, of which there is a great number, including a heaven, earth, hells, &c.

    Sakya, or Sakyamuni: (sáns. hindú). The author or reviver of Buddhism, whose birth appears to have occurred in the seventh, and death in the sixth century before Christ (b. c 621-543). He was the son of Suddhodana, king of Kapila-vastu, or of Magadha (Behar.) See Buddha and Gautama.

    Sala: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Bahlika, of the family of Kuru.

    Salagrama: (sáns. hindú). A holy place of pilgrimage, often mentioned, but the locality is unknown. The kings Agnidhra, Bharata, and others, are said to have retired thither to a life of penance. The term Salagrama is usually applied to a stone, an ammonite, which is supposed to be a type of Vishnu, and of which the worship is enjoined in some books. Ammonites are found chiefly in the Gaudak river, and Professor Wilson thinks that the Silagrdma Tirtha was probably at the source of that stream, or at its confluence with the Ganges. He adds that its sanctity, and that of the stone, are probably of comparatively modern origin.

    Salaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight branches of medical science; that which treats of external organic affections; this and Salya constitute surgery.

    * Mrs. Manning, A. and M. I.

    Saligotra: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Sama-veda; he was the son of Ldogali and established six schools.

    Salin: (sáns. hindú). One of the fifteen teachers of the white Yajush.

    Salisuka: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, of the Maurya dynasty, the son of Sangata.

    Saliya: (sáns. hindú). A disciple of Vedamitra and teacher of the Rig Veda.

    Salmali: (sáns. hindú). One of the Dwipas or seven great insular continents into which the Puiinas divide the world. In this Dwipa there arc seven mountain ranges abounding in precious gems and medicinal herbs. There are seven rivers whose waters wash away sins. A large Silmali (silk cotton) tree grows in this Dwipa and gives it its name. The Dwipa is sourrounded by the Sura sea (sea of wine) of the same extent as itself.

    Salwas, or Salyas: (sáns. hindú). Are placed by the Viyu and Mat"ya amongst the central nations, and seem to have occupied part of RAjasthan, a Silwa Raja being described in the Vishnu Purana as engaging in hostilities with the people of Dwdraka in Guzerat.

    Salya: (sáns. hindú). The first of the eight branches of medical science, that which treats of the extraction of extraneous bodies. Salya and Salaka constitute surgery.

    Salya: (sáns. hindú). l, A Danava, the son of Viprachitti renowned for great strength; 2, The Raja of Madra. Ho sold his sister Midri to be wi fe to Pindu. He was Raja of one of the mountain tribes occupying the southern slopes of the Himalayas. At the beginning of the threat war he was on the side of the Pindavas, but afterwards dr ' 1 u <) iliera, and drove the chariot of Kama in his combat with Arjuna. He obtained the command of the army for one day, the last of the war, and was slain by Yudhishthira.

    Samadhi: (sáns. hindú). The result of meditation; or that state of mind when there is an absence of all idea of iuilividuality, when the meditator, the meditation, and the thing or object meditated upon, are all considered to be but one. According to the text of Patanjali: * Restraint of the body, retention of the mind, and meditation, which thence is exclusively confined to one object is Dhyana; the idea of identification with the object of such meditation, so as if devoid of individual nature, is Samadhi. The word is sometimes used to express the power that enables its possessor to exercise an entire control over all his faculties, and keep them in perfect restraint.

    Saman: (sáns. hindú). The name of the third Veda. See Sama-veda.

    Samanera: (sáns. hindú). The novice of Buddhism, from sranana, an ascetic.

    He must be at least eight years of age, and must have received the consent of his parents to his abandonment of the world. The vows of the Samanera are not in any case irrevocable, and there are many circumstances that make his yoke less onerous than that of the stricter communities among the western celibates.

    Samanodakas: (sáns. hindú). People who are related or connected only by presentations of water. V. P., p. 316.

    Samara: (sáns. hindú). The eldest of the hundred sons of Nipa, and king of Kampilya in the Doab. The Matsya makes Samara the son of Kasya.

    Samara vira: (sáns. hindú). A king in Bharatakshetra, whose daughter Yasoda was married to prince Varddhamana, who afterwai'ds became the distinguished Jaina saint Mahavira.

    Sama-veda: (sáns. hindú). Saman is the name of third Veda, which in the Bhagavat Gita is called the best of the three. It appears to be little more than a recast of the Rich, (see Rig Veda) consisting chiefly of the same hymns, broken up and arranged so as to be chanted during the various expiatory ceremonies. Thus, while the Rich is said to be in regular metre to be recited aloud; and the Yajush consists chiefly of prose to be inaudibly muttered, the Saman contains a certain rhythm, or mode, which was sung to music, and the name is also generally employed to designate a hymn.

    The principal part of the Sama-veda is that entitled Archika.

    It comprises prayers ari-anged in six chapters; sub-divided into half chapters and into sections, ten in each chapter, and usually containing exactly ten verses each. The same collection of prayers, in the same order, but prepared for chanting, is distributed in seventeen chapters, under the title of Grdmageya gdna. Another portion of the Sama-veda, arranged for chanting, bears the title of Aranya-gana, and is sub-divided in the same manner as the Archika.

    There are four Brahmanas of this Veda, received by four different schools. One is denominated Shadvifisa, probably from its containing twenty-six chapters. Another is called the Adhhuta Brdhmana. But the best known is that entitled the Tandya, and an exposition of it by Sayandcharya. Its principal Upanishad is the Chhandogya, divided into eight chapters. Another is called the Kena Upanishad. These works are disquisitions on abtruse and mystical theology. The Kena has been translated by Rammohan Roy. Small. H. S. L.

    Samba: (sáns. hindú). A son of Krishna by his wife Jambavati, celebrated for his great strength. At the Swayamvara of the daughterof Duryodhana, the princess was carried off by Samba. Duryodhana, Kama, Bhishma, Drona, and other celebrated chiefs, incensed at his audacity, pursued him and took him prisoner. When the Yddavas heard of the occurrence, they prepared for war; but Balardma undertook alone to procure the liberation of Samba; he succeeded by threatening to throw the city of Hastinapura into the River. Samba for deceiving and ridiculing the Rishis was cursed to bring forth an iron pestle, which was broken and thrown into the sea; a spike of it, that could not be broken, was swallowed by a fish; the fish was caught, and the spike extracted by a hunter named Jara, who tipped his arrow with the spike. Krishna was ultimately killed with this arrow. V. P.

    Sambara: (sáns. hindú). l, An ancient aboriginal king mentioned in the Rig Veda as a black-skinned enemy, who dwelt forty years on the mountains and possessed a hundred impregnable cities. These cities were coveted by one of Indra's white-complexioned friends, the * hospitable Divodasa.' Divodasa was repulsed, and obliged to hide himself in the water; but Indra to give him pleasure, struck off the head of Sambara. Sambara lived in Udavraja, " a country into which the waters flow." He believed himself invulnerable: but Indra discovered him when issuing from the mountain, and scattered the hundreds and thousands of his hosts. For the mighty Divodisa, Indra, who dances with delight in battle, destroyed ninety cities. Indra hurled Sambara from the mountain; ninety-nine cities he destroyed; the hundredth lie gave to Divodisa. - Wilson's Rig Veda.

    Sambara: (sáns. hindú). 2, A great Asura or demon, ' terrible as death,' who knowing that Pradjumna, if he lived, would be his destroyer, carried off the infant and threw him into the ocean. Pradyumna was preserved by a fish and rescued. When he reached manhood and heard, what Sambara had done; he challenged the demon, and after a terrible conflict, killed him. V. P.

    Sambara: (sáns. hindú). 3, One of the demons who personify drought; they are described in the Rig Veda as shutting up the watery treasures in the clouds, until Indra attacks them and after severe contests overcomes them, and the clouds discharge their imprisoned waters on the thirsty earth.

    " And now the clouds disperse, the blue
    Of heaven once more comes forth to view.

    The sun shines out, all nature smiles.

    Redeemed from Vrittra's powers and wiles;
    The gods, with gratulations meet, And loud acclaim, the victor greet;
    While Indra's mortal votaries sing
    The praises of their friend and king."

    - 0. S. T., Vol. V,p. 135.

    Sambhala: (sáns. hindú). A village celebrated as the birth-place of the sage Kalki, who was endowed with eight superhuman faculties.

    Sambhu: (sáns. hindú). 1, One of the eleven Rudras; 2, The wife of Dhruva.

    Sambhuta: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Trasadasyu.

    Sambhuti: (sáns. hindú). * Fitness,' A daughter of Daksha and wife of Marichi.

    Samika: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Sura and brother of Vasudeva.

    Sampadvasa: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven principal solar rays - the one which supplies heat to the planet Mars.

    Sampara: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Samara.

    Samparayana: (sáns. hindú). One of the fifteen teachers of the White Yojush, who founded various new schools.

    Sampati: (sáns. hindú). The son of Syeni and brother of Jatayu. It was he who informed Hanuman that Ravana had carried Sita to Lanka.

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