jueves, 8 de julio de 2010

Maricha - Pandu - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | E | F | G | H1 | H2 | I | J1 | J2 | K1 | K2 | L | M1 | M2 | O | P1 | P2 | R1 | R2 | S1 | S2 | S3 | T1 | T2 | U | V1

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H1 - H - Harischandra
  • H2 - Harisrava - Hz
  • I
  • J1 - J - Jrimbhika
  • J2 - Jyestha
  • K1 - K - Kratusthaba
  • K2 - Krauncha - Kz
  • L
  • M1 - M - Margashirsha
  • M2 - Maricha - Mz
  • O
  • P1 - P - Pandu
  • P2 - Pandu o Prana - Py
  • R1 - R - Raivata
  • R2 - Raja - Ry
  • S1 - S - Sampati
  • S2 - Samrat - Sravaka
  • S3 - Sravana - Syu
  • T1 - T - Tungaprastha
  • T2 - Tuni - Tyu
  • U
  • V1 - V - Vedas


Maricha: (sáns. hindú). A Daitya, the son of Sunda.

Marichi: (sáns. hindú). l, A Prajapati, one of the nine Brahmâ rishis, or mind-born sons of Brahmâ; he was married to Sambhuti (fitness) one of the daughters of Daksha. Their son, Kasyapa, had an extensive posterity; 2, The chief of the Maruts, or personified winds.

Marichigarbhas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities belonging to the ninth Manwantara.

Marisha: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of the sage Kandu, and the nymph Pramlocha. An account of her birth has been given under Kandu: in a previous existence she was the widow of a prince, and left childless at her husband's death: she prayed to Vishnu that in succeeding births she might have honorable husbands and a son equal to a patriarch amongst men. The prayer was granted and she was married to the Prachetasas.

Markandeya: (sáns. hindú). The son of the Rishi Mrikanda.

Markandeya Purâòa: (sáns. hindú). This Purâòa contains an account of the nature of Vasudeva, and an explanation of some of the incidents described in the Mahabharata. It was narrated in the first instance by the Muni Markandeya, and in the second place by certain fabulous birds, of heavenly descent, profoundly versed in the Vedas. It contains a long episodical narrative of the actions of the goddess Durga, and furnished the pomp and circumstance of the great festival of Bengal, the Durga Puja, or public worship of that goddess. Professor Wilson says this Purâòa has a character different from that of all the others; it contains few precepts, moral or ceremonial. Its leading feature is narrative, and it presents a succession of legends, most of which, when ancient, are embellished with new circumstances; and when new, partake so far of the spirit of the old, that they are disinterested creations of the imagination, having no particular motives.

Marriage: (sáns. hindú). The forms of marriage are eight, the Brahmâ, Daiva, the Arsha, Prajapatya, Asura, Gandharba, Rakshasaand Paisacha. These different modes of marriage are described by Manu III, 27, &c. The Vishnu Purâòa describes the kind of maiden that should be selected by the man who has finished his studies, and proposes to enter into the married state. She should be a third of his own age; one who has not too much hair, but is not without any; one who is not very black nor yellow complexioned, and who is not from birth a cripple or deformed: he must not marry a girl who is vicious or unhealthy, of low origin or labouring under disease; one who has been ill brought up; one who talks improperly; one who inherits some malady from father or mother; one who has a beard, or is of a masculine appearance; one who speaks thick or thin, or croaks like a raven; one who keeps her eyes shut, or has the eyes very prominent; one who has hairy legs, or thick ankles; or one who has dimples in her cheeks when she laughs ;* let not a wise and prudent man marry a girl of such a description; nor let a considerate man wed a girl of a harsh skin; or one with white nails; or one with red eyes; or with very fat hands and feet; or one who is a dwarf, or who is very tall; or one whose eyebrows meet, or whose teeth are far apart and resemble tusks. Nota: * For tho credit of Hindu taste it is to be noticed that the commentator observes the hemistich in which this clause occurs is not found in all copies of the text.- Prof, Wilson.

Marshti, Marshtimat: (sáns. hindú). Two of the sons of Sarana of the family of Vasudeva.

Marttikavatas: (sáns. hindú). Princes of Mrittikavati.

Maru: (sáns. hindú). 1, The son of Sighra, a descendant of Rama. In the Vishnu Parana it is stated that Maru is, through the power of devotion, (Yoga) still living in the village called Kalapa, and in a future age will be the restorer of the Kshatriya race in the solar dynasty; 2, The name of the son of Hariyaswa, king of Mithila.

Marubhaumas: (sáns. hindú). The inhabitants of Marubhumi, the desert; an aboriginal tribe occupying the sandy deserts of Sindh.

Manideva: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Supratitha, a descendant of Ikshvaku.

Marut-loka: (sáns. hindú). The heaven of the winds and Vaisyas.

Maruts: (sáns. hindú). The winds. The sons of Diti, who having lost her children prayed for a son of irresistible prowess who should destroy Indra. The Muni Kasyapa granted his wife the great boon she solicited, but with one condition; that she should be pregnant a hundred years, and maintain a rigid observance of all religious rites during the whole period. Indra watched for an opportunity of frustrating her intentions, and in the last year of the century, an opportunity occurred. Diti retired one night to rest without performing the prescribed ablution of her feet, and fell asleep: on which Indra divided the embryo in her womb into seven portions. The child, thus mutilated, cried bitterly. Indra failing to silence it again divided each of the seven portions into seven, and thus formed the swift-moving deities called Marutas (winds.) They derived this appellation from the words with which Indra had addressed them (Marodih, weep not,) and they became forty-nine subordinate divinities, the associates of the weilder of the thunderbolt. V. P. This legend, says Professor Wilson, occurs in all the Purâòas in which the account of Kasyapa's family is related. The Vishnu Purâòa in another place, says the winds were the children of Marutwati. The Maruts are said to have given Bharata a son named Bharadwaja. q. v. Among the lesser gods, an important share of adoration is enjoyed by a group avowedly subordinate to India,—involving an obvious allegory,— the Maruts, or Winds, who are naturally associated with the firmament. We have, indeed, a god of the wind, in Vayu ; but little is said of him, and that chiefly in association with Indra, with whom he is identified by scholiasts on the Veda. The Maruts, on the contrary, are frequently addressed as the attendants and allies of Indra, confederated with him in the battle with Vritra, and aiding and encouraging his exertions. They are called the sons of Prisni, or the earth, and also Rudras, or sons of Rudra : the meaning of which affiliations is not very clear, although, no doubt, it is allegorical. They are also associated, on some occasions, with Agui ; an obvious metaphor, expressing the action of wind upon fire. It is also intimated that they were, originally, mortal, and became immortal in consequence of worshipping Agni, which is also easy of explanation. Their share in the production of rain, and their fierce and impetuous nature, are figurative representations of physical phenomena.— Wilson.

Marutta: (sáns. hindú). l, A celebrated Chakravartti, or universal monarch, the son of Avikshit. A Sanskrit verse thus sets forth the splendour of his proceedings: - " There never was beheld on earth a sacrifice, equal to the sacrifice of Marutta: all the implements and utensils were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated with the libations of Soma juice, and the Brahmâus were enraptured with the magnificent donations they received. The winds of heaven encompassed the rite as guards, and the assembled gods attended to behold it."

Marutta reigned 85,000 years, according to the Markendaya Purâòa; 2, A son of Karandhama, a descendant of Turvasa.

Marutwati: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to Dharma.

Matali: (sáns. hindú). The charioteer of Indra. It was he who was sent to convey Yayati to heaven, when Indra invited him thither. The Padma Purâòa relates a philosophical conversation that took place between the king and Matali, in which the imperfection of all corporeal existence, and the incomplete felicity of every condition of life are discussed. These attributes belong, it is said, even to the gods themselves, for they are affected with disease, subject to death, disgraced by the passions of lust and anger, and are consequently instances of imperfection and of misery. Various degrees of vice are then described, and their prevention or expiation are declared to be the worship of Siva or Vishnu, between whom there is no difference; they are but one, as is the case indeed with Brahmâ also; for * Brahmâ, Vishnu, and Maheswara are one form, though three gods; there is no difference between the three: the difference is that of attributes alone.' See Yayati.

Matanga: (sáns. hindú). A brahman mentioned in the Dasakumara who was killed while trying to preserve the life of another brahman. On reaching the city of souls, Yama said to Chandragupta * This man's hour is not yet come. He died in defence of a brahman.

That one virtuous act effaces all his former sins. Let liim behold the penalty paid to the wicked, and then restore him to his former body.' Beturning to life his adventures were still more remarkable. Aided by a prince whom he met in the forest he penetrated the path to PataJa. On arriving near the city, he cast himself into the flames of a fire he had prepared and rose again in an angelic form. A damsel richly arrayed and numerously attended, who said her name was Kalindi, daughter of the king of Asuras, and that she had come with the concurrence of her council to offer the kingdom and herself, twin wives, to his espousal. Matauga married her and became king of Patala. - Wilson's Works, Vol. I,p. 174.

Mathura: (sáns. hindú). A holy city, founded by Satrughna, (the younger brother of Rama.) It is situated in the banks of the Yamuna, where a demon at one time resided, named Madhu. His son the Rakshas Lavana, was slain by Satrungha, who afterwards built the shrine which obtained celebrity as a purifier from all sin. It was in this place that Dhruva's penance was performed.

Mati: (sáns. hindú). Understanding - that which discriminates and distinguishes objects preparatory to their fruition by the soul. It is often used to signify mind, intelligence, knowledge, wisdom.

Matinara: (sáns. hindú). The son of Rikska, the fifteenth in descent from Puru. V. P.

Matsya: (sáns. hindú). 1, The name of one of the Minor Dwipas; 2, A teacher of the Rig Veda, a disciple of Vedamitra.

Matsya, or fish Avatara : (sáns. hindú). The first of the ten Avataras of Vishnu. When, at the end of the last mundane age, the Bhagavata Purâòa relates, Brahmâ, the first god of the Trimurti, had fallen asleep, a powerful demon, Hayagriva, stole the Vedas which had issued from the mouth of Brahmâ, and lay by his side.

About that time, a royal saint, Satyavrata, had by his penance attained the rank of a Mann, and Vishnu, who had witnessed the deed of Hayagriva, and intended to slay him, assumed for this purpose the form of a very small fish, and glided into the hands of -the saint when the latter made his daily ablutions in the river.

Manu, about to release the little fish, was addressed and asked by it not to expose it to the danger that might arise to it from the larger fish in the river, but to place it in his water-jar. The saint complied with its wish; but in one night the fish grew so large, that at its request he had to transfer it to a pond. Yet soon the pond also becoming iusufiicient to contain the fish, Manu had to choose a larger pond for its abode; and, after successive other changes, he took it to the ocean. Satyavrata now understood that the fish was no other than Nardyana or Vishnu, and, after he had paid his adoration to the god, the latter revealed to him the imminence of a deluge which would destroy the world, and told him that a large vessel would appear to him, in which he was to embark together with the seven Rishis, taking with him all the plants and all the seeds of created things. Manu obeyed the behest of the god: and when the water covered the surface of the earth, Vishnu again appeared to him in the shape of a golden fish with a single horn, 10,000 miles long; and to this horn Manu attached the vessel, by means of Vishnu's serpent serving as a cord. While thus floating in the vessel, Manu was instructed by the fish-god in the philosophical doctrines and the science of the supreme spirit; and after the deluge had subsided, the fish-god killed Hayagriva, restored the Vedas to Brahmâ, and taught them to the Manu Satyavrata, who in the present mundane age was born under the name of Sraddhadeva, as the son of Vivasvat. A fuller account of this Avatara is given in the Matsya-Purâòa, where the instruction imparted to Manu by the fish-god includes all the usual detail contained in a Purâòa (q. v..) that relating to creation, the patriarchs, progenitors, regal dynasties, the duties of the different orders, and so forth. In the Mahabharata, where the same legend occurs, but without either that portion concerning Hayagriva, or the instruction imparted by the fish, there is, besides minor variations, that important difference between its story and that of the Purâòas, that the fish is not a personification of Vishnu, but of Brahmâ, and that the deluge occurs in the present mundane age, under the reign itself of the Manu, who is the son of Vivasvat. The origin of this Avatara is probably a kindred legend, which occurs in the Sathapatha hrahmayia of the White Yajurveda; but there the fish does not represent any special deity, and the purpose of the legend itself is merely to account for the performance of certain sacrificial ceremonies. - (Manu.)

Matsya Purâòa: (sáns. hindú). This Pumna, after the usual prologue of Suta and the Rishis, opens with the account of the Matsya or * fish' Avatara of Vishnu, in which he preserves a king named Manu, with the seeds of all things, in an ark, from the waters of that inundation which in the season of a Pralaya overspreads the world.

Whilst the ark floats fastened to the fish (Vishnu) Manu enters into conversation with him, and his questions, and the replies of Vishnu, forms the main substance of the compilation. The first subject is the creation, which is that of Brahmâ and the patriarchs; the regal dynasties are next described; and then follow chapters on the duties of the different orders, &c. The account of the universe is given in the usual strain. Saiva legends ensue; as the destruction of Triparasura; the war of the gods with Taraka and the Daityas, and the consequent birth of Kartikeya, with the various circumstances of Uma's birth and marriage, the burning of Kamadeva; the destruction of the Asuras Maya and Andhaka; interspersed with the Vaishnava legends of the Avataras. There are also chapters on law and morals, and one which furnishes directions for building houses and making images. See Vishnu Purâòa, Preface.

Matsyas: (sáns. hindú). The people of Dinajpur, Rangpur, and Cooch Behar. There are, however, two Matsyas, one of which according to the Yantra Samrit, is identifiable with Jaypur. In the Dig Vijaya of Nakula the Matsyas are placed farther to the west or in Guzerat.

Maudga: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Sama Veda, and disciple of Devadersa.

Maudgalyas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Brahmâns descended from Mudgala: they, as well as the Kanwas, were all followers or partisans of Angiras.

Maunas: (sáns. hindú). A dynasty of kings, consisting of eleven sovereigns; and forming part of the seventy-nine princes mentioned in the Vishnu Purâòa as to reign over the earth for one thousand three hundred and ninety years.

Mauneyas: (sáns. hindú). A name of the Gandharbas, dwelling in the regions below the earth, sixty millions in number, who defeated the tribes of the Nagas, or snake-gods, seizing upon their most precious jewels and usurping their dominion.

Mauryas: (sáns. hindú). A race of kings of Magadha commencing with Chandragupta, whose dynasty lasted for a hundred and thirtyseven years.

Maya: (sáns. hindú). A powerful Danava, of some note as the father of Vajrakama and Mahodari.

Maya: (sáns. hindú). Illusion. " Know that matter is illusion, and the great deity the possessor of illusion. The vedantists say that Brahmâ, the self-resplendent, the supremely happy, and the one sole essence, assumes, unreally, the form of the world through the influence of his own illusion." O. S. T., Vol. Ill, p. 195. " In the spirit of theBerkeleyan theory they affii*m that matter exists not independent of perception; and that substances are indebted for their seeming reality to the ideas of the mind. All that we see is Maya, deception, illusion. There are no two things in existence; there is but one in all. There is no second; no matter; there is spirit alone. The world is not God, but there is nothing but God in the world r- Wilson's Works, Vol. II, p. 98.

Maya: (sáns. hindú). * Deceit'; 1, A daughter of Adharma (vice); 2, A daughter of Anrita (falsehood).

Mayadevi: (sáns. hindú). The supposed wife of the Asura Sambara, who rescued Pradyumna when he was thrown into the sea as an infant, and swallowed by a fish (See Pradyumna.) She had deluded Sarabara for the purpose of protecting and rearing Pradyumna to whom she was afterwards married, and returned with him to Dwaraka to the great joy of Rukmini and Krishna.

Medha: (sáns. hindú). 'Intelligence'; 1, One of the three sons of Priyavrata who adopted a religious life; remembering the occurrences of a prior existence they did not covet dominion, but diligently practised the rites of devotion, in due season, wholly disinterested, and looking for no reward. V. P. 2, A daughter of Daksha who was married to Dharma.

Medatithi: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Priyavrata who became king of Plaksha dwipa. He had seven sons, and the Dwipa was divided amongst them, each division being named after the prince to whom it was subject, the people enjoyed uninterrupted felicity, being sinless, V. P., p. 197.

Medhavin: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Sunaya, of the race of Puru.

Mekala: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi, the father of the river Narmada; thence called Mekala and Mekalakanya: the mountain where it rises is also called Mekaladri.

Mekalas: (sáns. hindú). A tribe which according to the Purâòas live in the Vindhya mountains: this locality is confirmed by mythological personations. The Râmâyaòa places the Mekalas amongst the Southern tribes.

Mena: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of the Pitris, acquainted with theological truth and addicted to religious meditation; accomplished in perfect wisdom and adorned with all estimable qualities. She was married to Himavat, and was the mother of Mainaka and of Ganga, and of Parvati or Uma; 2, A river.

Menaka: (sáns. hindú). A divine nymph; one of the ten Apsarasas who are specified as of the Daivika or divine class, and whose principal occupation is the interruption of the penances of holy sages.

Mendicant: (sáns. hindú). See Vanaprastha.

Meru: (sáns. hindú). In the earlier Epic period this is probably the name given to the high table-land of Tartary, to the north of the Himalaya range, from the neighbourhood of which the Aryan race may originally have pushed their way southwards into the peninsula, and thus have preserved the name in their traditions as a relic of the old mountain worship.* In the Purâòas it is described as the golden mountain in the centre of Jambu-dwipa. Its height is eighty-four thousand Yajanas; and its depth below the surface of the earth sixteen thousand. Its diameter at the summit is thirty-two thousand Yojanas; (the yojana is nine miles) and at its base sixteen thousand; so that this mountain is like the seed cup of the lotus of the earth. V. P. Prof. Wilson in a note states " the shape of Meru according to this description, is that of an inverted cone; and by the comparison to the seed cup its form should be circular: but there seems to be some uncertainty upon this subject amongst the Pauranics. The Padma compares its form to the bell-shaped flower of the Dhatura. The Vayu represents it has having four sides of different colours; or white on the east, yellow on the south, black on the west, and red on the north: but notices also various opinions of the outline of the mountain, which, according to Atri, had a hundred angles: to Bhrigu a thousand; Savarni calls it octangular; Bhaguri quadrangular; and Varshayani says it has a thousand angles: Gilana makes it saucer-shaped; Garga, twisted, like braided hair: and others maintain that it is circular. The Linga makes its eastern face of the colour of ruby; its southern, that of the lotus; its western, golden; and its southern coral. The Matsya has the same colours as the Vayu and both contain this line * Fourcoloured, golden, four cornered, lofty: but the Vayu compares its summit in one place to a saucer; and observes that its circumference must be thrice its diameter. The Matsya also says the measurement is that of a circular form but it is considered quadrangular.

According to the Buddhists of Ceylon, Meru is said to be of the same diameter throughout. Those of Nepal consider it to be shaped like a drum."

On the summit of Meru is the vast city of Brahmâ, extending fourteen thousand leagues and renowned in heaven; and around it in the cardinal points and the intermediate quarters; are situated the stately cities of Indra and the other regents of the spheres. Mount Meru is in short the Olympus of India. Notes: * Thomson.

Merubhutas: (sáns. hindú). See Marubhaumas.

Merumandara: (sáns. hindú). A mountain to the south of Meru with a large Pipal tree on its summit.

Meru-savarnis: (sáns. hindú). The Manus from the ninth to the twelfth Manwantaras; described in the Vayu as the mind-engendered sons of a daughter of Daksha, by himself and the three gods Brahmâ, Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount Meru; whence they are called Meru-savarnis. They are termed Sivarnis from their being of one family.

Mimansa Darsana: (sáns. hindú). *' The founder of the Mimansa School was Jaimini, of whose history very little is known. He is described as a short young man, of light complexion, wearing the dress of a mendicant, and living at Nilavata-Mula. He was born at Dwaita-vana. His father, Sakatayana, was author of a Sanskrit dictionary, and his son, Kriti, wrote certain verses in the Devi Bhagavata.

There are about twenty-six works extant, illustrating the Mimansa system, the chief of which are the Sutras of Jaimini; the Bhashya, by Shavara (and comments thereon by Bhatta, Vachaspati Mishra and Ranaka); the Satika-Sastra-Dipiki, by Soma-Natha; the Dharma-Dipika; the Mimansa-Sara; and the Mimansa Sangraha.

From the three last-named works chiefly we gather the following abridgment of the system of Jaimini. He taught that God is to be worshipped only through the incantations of the Vedas: that the Vedas were uncreated, and contained in themselves the proofs of their own divinity, the very words of which were unchangeable.

His reasonings on the nature of material things were similar to those of Gautama, insisting that truth is capable of the clearest demonstration, without the possibility of mistake. Creation, preservation, and destruction, he represented as regulated by the merit and demerit of works; while he rejected the doctrine of the total destruction of the universe. He maintained that the images of the gods were not real representations of these beings, but only given to assist the mind of the worshipper; that the mere forms of worship had neither merit nor demerit in them; and that the promises of the Sistra to persons who presented so many offerings, so many prayers, &c., were only given as allurements to duty.

He directed the person, who sought final emancipation, to cherish a firm belief in the Vedas, as well as persuasion of the benefits of religion, and the desire of being engaged in the service of the gods; and then, by entering upon the duties of religion, and by degrees ascending through the states of a student, a secular, and a hermit, he would be sure to obtain final absorption in Brahmâ.

Of the three divisions of the Veda, the first, called the Karma Kanda, or " practical part," relates to religious ceremonies (including moral and religious obligations.) This portion Jaimini has attempted to explain in his Sutras and in the Purva Mimansa (i. e.f former " Mimansa," which is commonly referred to when the term "Mimansa' simply is used,) so called in distinction from the Uttara (or latter) Mimansa ascribed to Vyasa, which is the the same as the Vedanta, and is founded on the Jnana Kanda (or theological part) of the Vedas, treating of the spiritual worship of the Supreme Being or soul of the Universe.

Sound, says Jaimini, in opposition to the Nyaiyikas, who deny this, is uncreated and eternal, and is of two kinds, viz., simple sound, or that which is produced by an impression on the air without requiring an agent, as the name of God; and compound (smybolized or audible) sound. Thus, the state of the sea, in a perfect calm, represents simple, uncreated sound; but the sea, in a state of agitation, illustrates sound as made known by an agent.

Symbols, of sounds, or letters, are eternal and uncreated; as is also the meaning of sounds. For instance, when a person has pronounced ka, however long he may continue to utter ka, ka, it is the same sound, sometimes present and sometimes absent; but sound is never new. Its manifestation alone is new by an impression made upon the air. Therefore sound is God (Brahmâ), and the world is nothing but name.

The Veda has no human origin, but contains in itself the evidence of divine authorship, and comes forth a: the command of a monarch. It is incumbent on men to receive also, as divine, those works (of the sages) which are found to agree with the Veda, to contain clear definitions of duty, and to be free from contradictions.

What is religion ? That which secures happiness. And it is the duty of man to attend to the duties of religion, not only on this account, but in obedience to the commands of God. The divine law is called Vidhi.

Should any one say, then I have nothing to do with other kinds of instruction, since this alone is divine. To that it is replied, that forms of praise, motives to duty, and religious observances, are auxiliaries to the divine law, and have, therefore, a relative sanctity and obligation.

There are five modes of ascertaining the commands of God, viz: (1), the subject to be discussed is brought forward; (2), questions respecting it are stated; (3), objections are started; (4), replies to these objections are given; and (5), the question is decided. He who acts in religion according to the decision thus come to, does well; and so does he who rejects what will not bear this examination; but he who follows rules which have been hereby condemned, labours in vain.

Those actions from which future happiness will arise are called religious, or good, because productive of happiness; and those which tend to future misery are called evil, on account of their evil fruits. Hence, according to Jaimini, actions of themselves have in them neither good nor evil. Their nature can only be inferred from the declarations of the Veda respecting them, or from future consequences. The Hindus appear to have no just idea of moral evil.

Of all the works on the Civil and Canon Law, that of Mann is to be held in the greatest reverence, for Manu composed his work after a personal study of the Veda. Other sages have composed theirs from mere comments.

From the evidence of things which God has afforded, especially the evidence of the senses, mistakes cannot arise either respecting secular or religious affairs. When there may exist error in this evidence, it will diminish, but cannot destroy the nature of things.

If there be an imperfection in seed, the production may be imperfect, but its nature will not be changed. The seat of error and inattention is to be found in this reasoning faculty, and not in the senses; error arising from the confused union of present ideas (anubhava) with recollection.

Some affirm that ideas are received into the understanding separately, and never two at the same instant. This is incorrect; for it must be admitted, that while one idea is retained, there is an opening left in the understanding for the admission of another.

Thus, in arithmetical calculations, "one added to one makes two."

The Veda has, in some parts, forbidden all injury to sentient beings, and in others has prescribed the offering of bloody sacrifices Jaimiui explains this apparent contradiction by observing that some commands are general, and others particular: that the former must give way to the latter, as a second knot always loosens, in a degree, the first. So, when it is said that Saraswati is altogether white, it is to be understood, not literally, but generally, for the hair and eyebrows of the goddess are not white.

Therefore, in cases where general commands are given, they must be observed with those limitations which are found in the Sastra.

The promises of reward contained in the Sastra upon a minute attention to the different parts of duty, have been given rather as an incitement to its performance than with the intention of entire fulfilment. He who has begun a ceremony, but has, by circumstances, been unable to finish it, shall yet not be unrewarded.

The benefits resulting from the due performance of civil and social duties are confined to this life. Those connected with the performance of religious duties are to be enjoyed in a future state, while some meritorious actions, or virtues, reap their reward both in the present and the future life.

Works give birth to invisible consequences - either propitious or otherwise - according to their nature; and, besides works, there is no other sovereign or judge. These consequences, ever accompanying the individual, as the shadow the body, appear in the next birth, in accordance with the time and manner in which those actions were performed in the preceding birth. " Works rule, and men by them are led or driven, as the ox with a hook in its nose.'

The progress of all actions, whether they originate in the commands of the Sastras, or in the customs of a country, are as follows: - First, the act is considered and resolved on in the mind; then it is pursued by means of words; and, lastly, it is accomplished by executing the different constituent parts of the action. Hence it follows that religion and irreligion refer to thoughts, words, and actions. Some actions, however, are purely those of the mind, or of the voice, or of the body. The virtue or vice of all actions depend on the state of the heart.

The doctrine that, at a certain period, the whole universe will be destroyed at once, is incorrect. The world had no beginning, and will have no end. As long as there are works, there must bo birth, as well as a world like the present, to form a theatre on which they may be performed, and their consequences either enjoyed or endured.

One of the sages of the Mimansa school thus expresses himself: - * God is simple sound. To assist the pious in their forms of meditation (or incantations). He is represented as light; hut the power of liberation lies in the sound * God- God.' When the repeater is perfect, the incantation, or name repeated, appears to him in the form of simple light or glory.

The objects of worship, which are within the cognisance of the senses, are to be received; for without faith religious actions are destitute of fruit. Therefore, let no one treat an incantation as a mere form of alphabetic signs, nor an image as composed of the inanimate material, lest he should be guilty of a serious crime.' -Small, H. S. L.

Minaratha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Anenas, a king of Mithila, of the family of Janaka.

Misrakesi: (sáns. hindú). One of the Apsarasas, a Laukika nymph.

Mithi: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Nimi, the legend of whose birth is thus related in the Vishnu Purâòa. As Nimi left no successor, the Munis, apprehensive of the consequences of the earth being without a ruler, agitated the embalmed body of Nimi, and produced from it a prince who was called Janaka, from being born without a progenitor. In consequence of being produced by agitation.

(Mathana) he was further termed Mithi. The Râmâyaòa places a prince named Mithi between Nimi and Janaka, whence comes the name Mithila.

Mithila: (sáns. hindú). The modern Tirhoot. Mithila is celebrated in the Paranas as the country over which the descendants of Ikshvuku reigned for a long period. Mithi, from whom the country derived its name, was the grandson of Ikshvdku.

Mitra: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the twelve Adityas, the one who presides over the organs of excretion; 2, A sage, one of the seven sons of Vasishtha. V. P.

Mitra is the god of the day. Mitra is said to represent the sun by day, and Varuna the setting luminary. " Mitra re-appears in the Zendavesta as the well-known Mithra, who is the angel presiding over and directing the course of the sun." - Qiiarterly Review, July 1 870.

Mitrasaha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Sudisa. Having gone into the woods to hunt, he fell in with two tigers by whom the forest had been cleared of the deer. The prince slew one of these tigers with an arrow. At the moment of expiring the form of the animal was changed, and it became that of a fiend of a fearful figure and hideous aspect. Its companion, threatening the prince with its vengeance, disappeared. After some interval Saudasa celebrated a sacrifice which was conducted by Vasishtha. At the close of the rite Vasishtha wipnt out; when the Rakshasa, the fellow of the one that had been killed in the figure of a tiger, assumed the semblance of Vasishtha, and came and said to the king ** now that the sacrifice is ended, you must give me flesh to eat; let it be cooked and I will presently return. Having said this he with drew, and transforming himself into the shape of the cook, dressed some human flesh which he brought to the king, who, receiving it on a plate of gold, awaited the re-appearance of Vasishtha; as soon as the Muni returned the king offered to him the dish. Vasishtha knowing it to be human flesh was surprised at such an insult, and in his anger denounced a curse upon the Raja, transforming him into a cannibal. " It was yourself replied the Raja to the indignant sage, who commanded this food to be prepared." Vasishtha, haviug recourse to meditation then detected the whole truth: but though the curse was partially with drawn, the Raja became a cannibal every sixth watch of the day for twelve years, and in that state wandered through the forests and devoured multitudes of men. On one occasion he met with a brahman and his wife: seizing the husband, and regardless of the wife's reiterated supplications, he ate the brahman as a tiger devours a deer. He returned to his wife Madayanti at the expiration of the period of his curse, but suffered from the imprecation of the brahman's wife. V. P.

Mitravrinda: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven beautiful wives of Krishna.

Mitraya: (sáns. hindú). l, A scholar of Suta's and teacher of the Purâòas and legendary lore: he was also a composer of one of the Sanhitas afterwards collected into the Vishnu Purâòa; 2, The son of Divodasa, from whom the Maitreya brahmans were descended.

Mlechchas: (sáns. hindú). Outcastes. The Vishnu Purâòa states that various Kshatriya races were degraded by Sagara, by beiug deprived of established usages and the study of the Vedas; and thus separated from religious rites, and abandoned by the brahmans, these different tribes became Mlechchas.

Moha: (sáns. hindú). 1, ' Dulness' or ' Stupefaction,' a property of sensible objects; a kind of ignorance; or illusion produced by the notion of property or possession, and consequent attachment to objects, as children and the like, as being one's own. Moha also occurs in the Bhagavata and Matsya Purâòa amongst a series of Brahmâ's progeny, or virtues and vices; Moha is there translated by Wilson to mean Infatuation.

Mohini: (sáns. hindú). Vishnu in a female form. The product of Siva's union with Mohini was Ayenur, the only male among the Gramadevatas.

Moksha: (sáns. hindú). Absorption into the Deity. The Hindu idea of supreme blessedness. It is only those who attain to a full knowledge of the nature of the deity, the soul, the intellect, &c., derived from meditation, the teaching of the guru, experience, penance, &c., or the exalted ascetic, who, by austerities is said to have annihilated his passions, and freed his soul from earthly desire, that is considered ripe for this final emancipation or Moksha.

Monotheism: (sáns. hindú). In the Vishnu Purâòa it is said, * the only one God, Janarddana takes the designation of Brahmâ, Vishnu, and Siva, accordingly as he creates, preserves or destroys. This, says Professor Wilson, is the invariable doctrine of the Purâòas, diversified only according to the individual divinity to whom they ascribe identity with Paramatma or Parameswara. In the Vishnu Purâòa this is Vishnu; in the Saiva Purâòas, as in the Linga, it is Siva; in the Brahmâ-vaivartta it is Krishna. The identification of one of the hypostases with the common source, the triad, was an incongruity not unknown to the other theogonies; for Cneph amongst the Egyptians, appears on the one hand to have been identified with the Supreme Being, the indivisible unity, whilst on the other he is confounded with both Eureph and Ptha, the second and third persons of the triad of hypostases. Cud worth. Vol. I, p. 4-18.

Moon: (sáns. hindú). The Vishnu, Vayu, and Padma Purâòas all relate in detail the legend of the churning of the ocean, and state that the cool-rayed moon was one of the products of the operation; it was seized by Mahadeva. The Vishnu Purâòa says that the chariot of the moon has three wheels, and is drawn by ten horses, of the whiteness of the jasmine, five in the right half of the yoke and five in the left. The horses drag the car for a whole Kalpa. During the dark half of the month nectar and ambrosia are accumulated in the moon, and these are drunk by thirty-six thousand divinities during the light fortnight; the Pitris are nourished by it in the dark fortnight; vegetables with the cool nectary aqueous atoms it sheds on them; and through their development it sustains men, animals, and insects; at the same time gratifying them with its radiance. V. P., p. 239. The orb of the Moon, according to the Linga Purâòa is only congealed water.

Mrigavithi: (sáns. hindú). A division of the lunar mansions, in the southern Avashtana.

Mrida: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Nripaujaya, of the raceof Puru, 51

Mrigasiras: (sáns. hindú). A lunar mansion, in Gajavithi of the northern Avashtana.

Mrigavyadha: (sáns. hindú). One of the eleven Rudras, according to the enumeration in the Matsya Purâòa.

Mrikanda: (sáns. hindú). The son of Vidhjitri and Niryati, descendants of the daughters of Daksha who were married to the Rishis.

Mrittikavati: (sáns. hindú). A city in Malwa, near the Parnasa river, whose sovereigns were the Bhojas, descendants of Satwata.

Mritya: (sáns. hindú). l, * Death,' one of the progeny of Brahmâ; he is also represented in the same work, the Vishnu Purâòa, as the son of Bhaya and Maya; and his children are thus given Vyadhi (disease), Jara (decay), Soka (sorrow), Trishna (greediness), and Krodha (wrath); 2, The name of one of the eleven Rudras, in the Vayu list; 3, A Vyasa in the sixth Dwapara age.

Muchukunda: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Mandhatri, called the * king of men,* who in a battle between the gods and demons, had contributed to the defeat of the latter; and being overcome with sleep he solicited of the gods as a boon, that he should enjoy a long repose. * Sleep long and soundly, said the gods, and whoever disturbs you shall be instantly burnt to ashes by fire emanating from your body.' The black king, Kalyavana, met with this fate, by a stratagem of Krishna; and Muchukunda having fallen down and worshipped Krishna as the uudecaying, illimitable and imperishable being, departed to Gandhamadana to perform penance, and obtain emancipation from all existence. Another account states that "Muchukunda carried on war against the Buddhists till he was too weary to fight any longer; whereupon he sought the grateful seclusion of the Guttikonda cave. In this peaceful and salubrious spot he fell asleep; it was a sleep of the greatest profundity, and lasted for some centuries. In an evil moment for the Buddhists they entered the cave in pursnit of Krishna, and disturbed the placid slumbers of Muchukunda. After a nap of some hundreds of years, he was not a man to be trifled with; so he rose up in the exuberance of his renovated energies and extirpated the obnoxious Buddhists." A, Sf M. I.

Muda: (sáns. hindú). * Pleasure,' a son of Dharma by one of the daughters of Daksha, Santosha (Joy).

Mudgala: (sáns. hindú). l, A sage mentioned in the Mahabharata, who had lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, offering hospitality to thousands of brahmans, according to his humble means, with the grain which he gleaned like a pigeon, and which (like the widow of Zarephath's oil) never underwent diminution. At length another sage called Durvasas, famous in Hindu tradition for his irascible temper, came to prove Mudgala's powers of endurance; and six times devoured all the food which the hospitable saint possessed.

Finding that the temper of his host was altogether unaffected by these trials, Durvasas expressed the highest admiration of his virtue, and declared that he would go bodily to heaven. As he spoke these words a messenger of the gods arrived in a celestial car, and called upon Mudgala to ascend to a state of complete perfection. The sage, however desired first to learn the advantages and drawbacks of the heavenly state, and the messenger proceeded to tell him first what kind of people go there, viz; those who have performed austerities or celebrated great sacrifices, the truthful, the orthodox, the righteous, the self-restrained, the meek, the liberal, the brave, &c. These celestial abodes were, he said, shining, glorious, and filled with all delights. There is seen the vast-golden mountain Meru, and the holy garden Nandana, &c., where the righteous disport. There hunger, thirst, weariness, cold, heat, fear, are unknown; there is nothing disgusting or disagreeable; the scents are delightful; the sounds are pleasant to the ear and mind; there is no sorrow, nor lamentation, nor decay, nor labour, nor envy, nor jealousy, nor delusion. There the blessed are clothed with glorious bodies, which are produced by their works, and not generated by any father or mother. Their garlands are fragrant and unfading; they ride in aerial cars.

Beyond these regions there are, however, others of a higher character - those to which the Rishis, who have been purified by their works, proceed. Still further on are those where the Ribhus, who are gods even to the gods, dwell, and where there is no annoyance occasioned by women, or by envy arising from the sight of worldly grandeur. The blessed there do not subsist on oblatiou!, nor do they feed upon ambrosia; they have celestial and not coarse material bodies. These eternal gods of gods do not desire pleasure; they do not change with the revolutions of Kalpas (great mundane ages). How can they then be subject either to decay or death? They experience neither joy, nor pleasure, nor delight, neither happiness nor suffering, neither love nor hatred.

That highest state, so difficult to attain, and which is beyond the reach of those who seek after pleasure, is desired even by the gods.

This celestial felicity, the messenger says, is now within Mudgala's reach, - the fruit of his good deeds. The speaker next, according to his promise, explains the drawbacks of the heavenly state. As the frnit of works done on earth is enjoyed in heaven, whilst no other new works are performed there from which new rewards could spring, this enjoyment is cut off from its root, and must therefore come to an end. For this world is the place for works, while the other is the place for reward. This loss of gratifications to which the heart has become devoted, and the dissatisfaction and pain which arise in the minds of those who have sunk to a lower estate, from beholding the more brilliant prosperity of others, is intolerable. To this must be added the consciousness and the bewilderment of thoe who so descend, and the fear of falling which they experience when their garlands begin to fade. Such are the defects which attach to all existence till it is absorbed in Brahmâ.

But the state of those who have fallen from heaven is not altogether without compensation. As a result of their previous good deeds they are born in a condition of happiness; though, if they are not vigilant, they sink still lower. Having given this explanation, the messenger of the gods invites Mudgala to accompany him to paradise. The saint, however, after consideration, replies that he can have nothing to do with a state of happiness which is vitiated by so great defects, and the termination of which is followed by so great misery. He has therefore no desire for heaven; and will seek only that eternal abode where there is no sorrow, nor distress, nor change. He then asks the celestial messenger what other sphere there is which is free from all defects.

The messenger replies, that above the abode of Brahmi is the pure eternal light, the highest sphere of Vishnu who is regarded as the supreme Brahra. Thither none can proceed who are devoted to objects of sense, or who are the slaves of dishonesty, avarice, anger, delusion or malice; but only the unselfish, the humble, those who are indifferent to pain and pleasure, those whose senses are under restraint, and those who practice contemplation and fix their minds on the deity. The sage then dismissed the messenger of the gods, began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent to praise and blame, regarding clouds, stones and gold as alike.

Pure knowledge led to fixed contemplation; and that again imparted strength and complete comprehension, whereby he attained supreme eternal perfection. O. S. T., Vol. V, pp. 324-6.

Mudgala: (sáns. hindú). 2, A teacher of the Rig Veda; 3, One of the five sons of Hariyaswa, king of Panchala.

Mudita: (sáns. hindú). One of the five kinds of Bhavana or meditation, in which the Buddhist priests are required to engage. The mudita is the meditation of joy, but it is not the joy arising from earthly possessions. It feels indifferent to individuals, and refers to all sentient beings. In the exercise of this mode of meditation, the priest must express the wish, *' May the good fortune of the prosperous never pass away; may each one receive his own appointed reward."

Muhurtta: (sáns. hindú). l, A measure of time, thirty Kalas, according to the Vishnu Purâòa. Other Purâòas say that a Muhurtta is twelve kshanas, and that one kshana contains thirty kalas. The Bhagavata states that two Narikas make one Muhurtta; 2, The name of a daughter of Daksha.

Muka: (sáns. hindú). A Daitya, the son of Upasanada, famous in Puranic legend.

Mukhyas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities to come in the ensuing or eighth Manwantara.

Mula: (sáns. hindú). The nineteenth lunar mansion, in Ajavithi, of the Southern AvashthUna.

Mulaka: (sáns. hindú). The son of Asmaka. The Vishnu Purâòa states that when the warrior tribe was extirpated upon earth, he was surrounded and concealed by a number of females; whence he was denominated Nari-kavacha (having women for armour.) Mulaka, or * the root* refers also to his being the stem whence the Kshatriya races again proceeded. V. P. and note, p. 383.

Mummies: (sáns. hindú). The Vishnu Purâòa states that the corpse of Nimi was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fragrant oils and resins, and it remained entire as if it were immortal. This, says Professor Wilson, shows that the Hindus were not unacquainted with the Egyptian art of embalming dead bodies, though such a practice would be thought impure in the present day.

Mundas: (sáns. hindú). A dynasty of kings, consisting of thirteen, who are said in the Vishnu Purâòa to be sovereigns of the earth for upwards of two hundred years; Wilford regards them as Huns, the Morunda of Ptolemy. Notes to Vishnu Purâòa.

Muni: (sáns. hindú). 1, Any great sage or Rishi. In Southern India they are said to be forty-eight thousand: they are supposed to be holy persons who by different' kinds of austerities have acquired great gifts, and power to bless and curse most effectually. The accounts given of them are rather contradictory; they are said to need neither sleep nor rest, neither food nor drink; and yet that they perform severe penance before God continually; 2, The name of a daughter of Daksha who was married to Kasyapa.

Munjakesa: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Atharva Veda, and founder of a school. Sometimes Munjakesa is regarded as another name for Babhra.

Mura: (sáns. hindú). A demon of great power who had seven thousand sous.

He defended Pragjyotisha by surrounding the environs with nooses as sharp as razors, but Krishna cut them to pieces by throwing his discus, Sudarsana, amongst them. He afterwards slew the demon and burnt all his sons, like moths, with the flame of the edge of his discus.

Murdhabhishikta: (sáns. hindú). An anointed Rajah. Hindu rajahs were formerly consecrated by having water from a sacred stream mixed with honey, ghee, and spirituous liquor, as well as two sorts of grass and the spirits of corn, poured on their heads while seated on a throne prepared for the purpose. The term applies to the Kshatriya as the caste from which kings are taken.

Murtti: (sáns. hindú). 'Form' a daughter of Daksha, married to Dharma.

Murundas: (sáns. hindú). See Mundas.

Musala: (sáns. hindú). A club, born of Sambu for the destruction of the Yadavas. Ugrasena had the club, which was of iron, ground to dust, and thrown into the sea; but the particles of dust there became rushes (erakaj. There was one part of the iron club which was like the blade of a lance, and which the Andhakas could not break; this, when thrown into the sea, was swallowed by a fish; the fish was caught, the iron spike was extracted from its belly, and was taken by a hunter named Jara, by whom Krishna was subsequently killed.

Mushtika: (sáns. hindú). A demon celebrated as a great wrestler. At the games of Mathura, when Kansa hoped to destroy Krishna, Balabhadra wrestled with Mushtika and at last killed him.


Nabha: (sáns. hindú). A powerful Danava, the son of Viprachitti by Sinhika, the sister of Hiranyakasipu.

Nabhaga-nedishta: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata; his name means * no share,' and in the Aitareya Brahmâna he is said to have been excluded from all share of his inheritance on the plea of his being wholly devoted to a religious life. The Bhagavata says that having protracted his period of study beyond the usual age, his brothers appropriated his share of the patrimony. On his applying for his portion they consigned their father to him, by whose advice he assisted the descendants of Angiras in a sacrifice, and they presented him with all the wealth that was left at its termination. Rudra claimed it as his; and Nabhaga acquiescing, the god confirmed the gift, by which he became possessed of an equivalent for the loss of territory.

Nabhaga: (sáns. hindú). l, The son of the preceding; he became a Vaisya through carrying off and marrying the daughter of a Vaisya; it appears from this that a race of Vaisya princes was recognised by early traditions; 2, A son of Sruta, a descendant of Sagara; 3, A son of Yayati.

Nabhas, Nabhasya: (sáns. hindú). l, A name of the months, Sravana and Bhadra, corresponding to July and August, the names occur in the Vedas and belong to a system now obsolete; 2, The son of Nala, a descendant of Kusa.

Nabaswati: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Antarddhina, a descendant of Pritha.

Nabhi: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine sons of Agnidhra, to whom the country of Himahwa was assigned.

Nachiketas: (sáns. hindú). A philosopher, the son of Gautama, mentioned in the Katha Upanishad, of whom Dr. Roer says, ** the enthusiasm and intimate conviction which Nachiketas shows about the infinite Buperiority of what is good to the pleasures of the world, and the firmness which he maintains amidst all the allurements which are placed before him, bears some resemblance to the energy of mind with which Plato, in the first and second books of his ' Republic,* shows that justice has an incomparable worth, and ought to be preserved under any circumstances/'* ( Notes: Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. XV, p. 91) In an interview with Yama, who promised Nachiketas any boon, the latter requested to be instructed in the nature of the soul, Yama objected saying, even gods have doubted and disputed on this subject, for it is not easy to understand it. But Nachiketas could not be persuaded to think any other boon worth asking for. (Notes: A, and M. I., Vol, I, p. 136.)

Naga: (sáns. hindú). 1, A mountainous ridge in the north of Meru; 2, A serpent, one of the progeny of Kadru; 3, Originally the Cobracapella, or Colubernaga.

Nagadwipa: (sáns. hindú). A division of Bharata Varsha.

Nagas: (sáns. hindú). The 'Snake gods,' children of Kadru. In mythology these beings have human heads and the bodies of serpents: they are one thousand in number and bear jewels in their heads. They are the sons of Kasyapa and Kadru, subject to Vishnu's bird, Garuda, and inhabiting part of Patala, called Naga-loka, the capital of which is Bhogavati. When they were deprived of their power by the Gandharbas, they despatched their sister, Narmada, to solicit the aid of Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions below the earth where being filled with the might of the deity he destroyed the Gandharbas. The snake gods, in acknowledgment of Narmadd's services, conferred upon her as a blessing, that whoever should think of her and invoke her name, should never have any dread of the venom of snakes.

Nagas: (sáns. hindú). " The Saiva Sannyasa who go naked are distinguished by this term. They smear their bodies with ashes, allow their hair, beards, and whiskers to grow, and wear the projecting braid of hair, called the Jata; like the Vairaji Nigas they carry arms, and wander about in troops, soliciting alms, or levying contributions. The Saiva Nagas are chiefly the refuse of the Dandi and Atit orders, or men who have no inclination for a life of study or business: when weary of the vagrant and violent habits of the Naga they re-enter the better disposed classes, which they had first quitted. The Saiva Nagas are very numerous in many parts of India." - Wilson.

Nagas: (sáns. hindú). The designation of nine kings who reigned in Padmavati.

Nagavithi: (sáns. hindú). l, A division of the lunar mansions in the Northern Avashthana; 2, The milky way, daughter of Yami (night).

Nagna: (sáns. hindú). A Jain mendicant; a naked ascetic.

Nagnas: (sáns. hindú). Apostates. The Rig, Yajur, and Sama Vedas, constitute the triple covering of the several castes, and the sinner who throws this off is said to be naked or apostate. The three Vedas are the raiment of all orders of men, and when that is discarded they are left bare. (V. P.) Wilson in his notes, adds, ascetics whether of the Buddha or Digambara order of Jains, are literally Nagnas, "going naked." The qualified application of it, however, was rendered necessary by the same practice being familiar to ascetics of the orthodox faith. To go naked was not necessarily the sign of a heretic, and therefore his nudity was understood to be rejecting the raiment of holy writ. Thus the Vayu Purâòa extends the word to all ascetics, including naked brahmans, who practice austerities fruitlessly, that is heretically or hypocritically.

Nagnajiti: (sáns. hindú). One of the wives of Krishna, termed in the Vishnu Purâòa the virtuous Nagnajiti.

Nahusha: (sáns. hindú). 1, The son of Ambarisha; 2, The eldest of the five sons of Ayus, who having attained the rank of Indra, compelled the Rishis to bear his litter, and was cursed by them to fall from his state and re-appear upon earth as a serpent. From this form he was set free by philosophical discussions with Yudhishtira, and received final liberation; 3, The name of one of the progeny of Kadru, a powerful many-headed serpent.

Naigama: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Rig Veda, a pupil of Sakapui-rii.

Naigameya: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Kumara.

Naikaprishtas: (sáns. hindú). Au aboriginal tribe mentioned in the Purâòas, so termed probably in derision; it means having more than one back.

Naishadha: (sáns. hindú). A tract of country near the Vindhya mountains.

Nakhis: (sáns. hindú). Religious mendicants who practice various austerities, never cut their finger nails, and wear the Saiva marks.

Nakshatra-Yoginis: (sáns. hindú). The chief stars of the lunar mansions, or asterisms in the moon's path: these are fabled to have been the twenty-seven daughters of Daksha, who became the virtuous wives of the moon.

There are twenty-seven divisions of the lunar orbit; each marking the motion of the moon in one lunar day. Such is their simple reference, astronomically; but the Hindu astrologers make them of great practical consequence, from their assumed good or evil influence. They reckon from the first degree of Aries, in the old Astronomy.

1. Asvini, the ram's head good.
2. Bharini bad.
3. Kirtica, Pleiades - very bad.
4. Rohini, hyades - good.
5. Mrigasiras, a triple star - good.
6. Ardra, one star - bad.
7. Punarvasu, four stars - good.
8. Pushya, nebula in Cancer - good.
9. Aslesha, five stars - bad.
10. Magha, cor leonis - good.
11. Purvaphalguni, two stars medium.
12. Uttara Phalguni, two stars medium.
13. Hasta, five stars good.
14. Chitra, one star bad.
15. Swati, one star good.
16. Visaka, four stars bad.
17. Anuradha, four stars good.
18. Jyeshta, three stars bad.
19. Mula, eleven stars, cor scorpionis very bad.
20. Purvashadha, four stars medium.
21. Uttara shadha, three stars good.
22. Sravana, three stars good.
23. Dhanishta, four stars bad.
24. Satabhisha, a hundred stars bad.
25. Purva bhadrapada, two stars medium.
26. Uttara bhadrapada, two stars medium.
27. Revati, thirty-two stars good.

These influences refer principally to marriages. The Nakshatras are classified as deva, divine; Manushya,humano; rakshasa, savage; if the two parties to be married are born in the same class, it is well: if one asterism be divine, the other human, it may pass; but divine and savage is a cross that may not be permitted.

An intercalary abhijit, one-fourth of a Nakshatra, is sometimes introduced between 21 and 22 for astrological purposes, or to make up a complete cycle of the moon's motion. - Taylor.

Nakta: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Prithu, who reigned over one of the divisions of Bharatavarsha in the first or Swayambhuva Manwantara.

Nakula: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Pandu by his wife Madri, though really begotten by the elder of the two Asvinan (see Pandu).

He is half-brother to Sahadeva, the son of Dasra, by the same mother, and nominally brother to the three other Pandavas, He is always referred to as one of the wisest of mortals.

Nala: (sáns. hindú). The king of Nishada, whose histoiy forms part of the third book of the Mahabharata and is called the Nalopakhyanam.

Nala possessed all the noble qualities and acquirements that could distinguish an Indian monarch. The king of Berar had an only daughter, the most beautiful and accomplished of her sex - the gentle Damayanti. Nala and Damayanti became mutually enamoured of each other from the mere fame of each other's virtues. Damayanti preferred Nala to Indra, Sani, and two other demi-gods who became incarnate for the purpose of attending the Swayamvara of the princess. Incensed at Damayanti's refusal to marry him, Sani, a malevolent being, persecuted the royal couple with great hatred, and caused Nala to lose his kingdom by gambling, and (o be banished to the wilderness j and as his faithful consort could not be persuaded to return to her father, he took her with him into the forest; but not being willing to cause her so much suffering as a life in the woods involves, he resolved to leave her alone when she was sleeping under a tree, thinking she would then return to her father's house. But this she did not do; lamenting, she sought her husband, and when she could not find him she went to a certain king and became maid of honour to the queen; whilst Nala wandered about and became so black he could no longer be recognised as king Nala. Finally he became cook to the king at whose court Damayanti lived; and was such a skilful cook that his skill in cooking has become a proverb; and after all he was recognised oy his faithful spouse as king !N'ala; and having soon recovered his former pleasing appearance he also regained his throne. See Damayanti; 2, The name of a prince, the son of Yadu; 3, The name of a river that falls into the Ganges.

Nalakanakas: (sáns. hindú). A people mentioned in the Puranic lists but not identified.

Nalini: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the five streams formed by the Ganges after it escaped from Siva.

Nama: (sáns. hindú). Literally name: the term applied to the tridental mark which the Vaishnavas wear on their forehead, the mark, or figure, is called Tirunama, * holy name' it is an imitation of Vishnu's trident almost like the Hebrew character shin. It consists of two white lines, extending from the hair to the eyebrows, and then leading to the nose where they meet, and a red perpendicular line between them form the nose to the hair.

Namasivaya: (sáns. hindú). The principal Mantra of the Saivas, called Pauchakshara five characters, and means * O Siva, be praised :' or ' Adoration to Siva.'

Namuchi: (sáns. hindú). A powerful Danava, one of the sons of Viprachitti.

This Asura was a friend of India; and taking advantage of his friend's confidence, he drank up Indra's strength along with a draught of wine and soma. Indra then told the Asvins and Sarasvati that Namuchi had drunk up his strength. The Asvins and Sarasvati, in consequence gave Indra a thunderbolt in the form of a foam, with which he smote oflf the head of Namuchi.

The Asvins then drauk the soma mixed with blood and wine, from the belly of Namuchi and transferred it pure to Indra; and by transferring it they delivered Indra. 0. S. T., Vol. V, p. 94.

Nanda: (sáns. hindú). l, The chief of the cowherds, and brother of Radha.

He was the foster father of Krishna, as it was to his care the infant Krishna was committed when Kansa sought to destroy the child; 2, One of the sons of Vasudeva; 3, The son of Mahananda, and sometimes called Mahapadma, because he was avaricious. He brought the whole earth under one umbrella, and had eight sons, or descendants rather, according to Professor Wilson, who governed for a hundred years; when the brahman Kautilya overthrew the dynasty and placed Chandragupta on the throne. The Mudra Rakshasa illustrates this affair.

Nandana: (sáns. hindú). The grove of Indra, situated to the north of Mount Meru.

Nandayania: (sáns. hindú). A pupil of Bashkali and teacher of the Rig Veda.

Nandi: (sáns. hindú). The snow white bull, the attendant and favourite vehicle of Siva. It is represented on a pedestal crouching in front of Saiva fanes; the head turned towards the small door of the shrine. On one occasion Nandi, by assuming the likeness of Siva, caused a blush on the cheeks of Parvati, and for this offence, Siva sent his vehicle down to earth to do penance; hence the mountain Nandi-durga - (Nandidroog.) Another mission to earth was in the person of the elder Basava.

Nandi: (sáns. hindú). ' Delight,' the wife of Dharraa and mother of Hersha (joy-)

Nandimukhas: (sáns. hindú). A class of Pitris: there seems to be some uncertainty about the character of the Nandimukhas; and they are addressed both as Pitris and gods; being in the former case either the ancestors prior to the great grand-father, ancestors collectively, or a certain class of them; and in the latter being identified with the Viswadevas. The terra Nandimukha is also applied to the rite itself, or to the Vriddhi Srddda, and to one addressed to maternal ancestors. See Wilson's Notes to Vishnu Purâòa, p. 315.

Nandivardhana: (sáns. hindú). 1, The son of Urdavasu, king of Mithila; 2, The son of Janaka, king of Magadha; The son of Udayaswa, king of Magadha.

Nara: (sáns. hindú). Paramatma: the waters it is said were the progeny of Nara; that is they were the first productions of God in creation.

Nara: (sáns. hindú). l, A pious sage, the son of Dharma by Murtti; 2, A prince, the son of Gaya; 3, A prince, the son of Sudhriti; 4, One of the sons of Bhavanraanyas of the royal family of Bharata.

Nara: (sáns. hindú). ' Bodily forms' in which spirit is enshrined; and of which the waters, with Vishnu resting upon them, are a type.

Waters, the first product of Nara. Vishnu Pui-ino, p. 28.

Narada: (sáns. hindú). A Prajapati or divine Rishi, born from the hip of Brahmâ; the invention of the vena, or Indian lyre, is attributed to Narada; also a code of laws, and one of the eighteen Purâòas entitled Naradiya Pui-ana. In the Brahmâ Purâòa he is called the smooth-speaking Narada, and his likeness to Orpheus is carried still further by a descent which he made from heaven to visit Patala, the nether regions. In Manu and in the Vishnu Purâòa he is called a Prajipati, in the Mahabharata he is one of the Gandharbhas. It was he who dissuaded the sons of Daksha from multiplying their race; they accordingly scattered themselves through the regions of the universe to ascertain its extent, &c., and the patriarch Daksha finding that all his sons had vanished was incensed and denounced an imprecation on Narada. It was Narada who informed Kansa that the supporter of the earth Vishnu, was going to become incarnate as the eighth child of Devaki. When Narada visited Krishna he presented him with the flower Parijata from the world of the gods. Krishna gave it to Rukmini, which so excited the jealousy of one of his favourite mistresses Satyabhama, that in order to appease her, Krishna went to the heaven of the gods and brought away the tree itself that bore the flower. In mythology Narada is often described as bearing a resemblance to Hermes or Mercury, being engaged in conveying messages and causing discord among the gods and men.

He is usually represented as sitting in a fire, having his hands folded over his head, and stretching his legs also towards his head, his arms and legs being tied together with a girdle.

Narada Purâòa: (sáns. hindú). This Purâòa is related by Narada and gives an account of the Vrihas Kalpa. It is communicated to the Rishis at Naimisharanya, on the Gamati river. Professor Wilson regards it as a sectarial and modern compilation intended to support the doctrine of Bhakti, or faith in Vishnu. It contains a number of prayers addressed to one or other form of that divinity; a variety of observances and holidays connected with his adoration; and different legends, some perhaps of an early, others of a more recent date, illustrative of the efficacy of devotion to Hari. There are the stories of Dhruva and Prahlada, the latter told in the words of the Vishnu Purâòa; whilst the second portion of it is occupied with a legend of Mohini, the will-born daughter of a king called Rukmangada; beguiled by whom the king offers to perform for her whatever she may desire. She calls upon him either to violate the rule of fasting on the eleventh day of the fortnight, a day sacred to Vishnu, or to put his son to death; and he kills his son, as the lesser sin of the two. This shews the spirit of the work.

Its date may also be inferred from its tenor, as such monstrous extravagancies in praise of Bhakti are certainly of modern origin.

One limit it furnishes itself, for it refers to Suka and Parikshit, the interlocutors of the Bhagavata, and it is consequently subsequent to the date of that Purâòa: it is probably considerably later, for it affords evidence that it was written after India was in the hands of the Mohammedans. In the concluding passage it is said, "Let not this Purâòa be repeated in the presence of the * killers of cows* and contemners of the gods." It is possibly a compilation of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. Vishnu Purâòa. Preface.

Naraka: (sáns. hindú). Hell; of which twenty-eight different divisions are enumerated, said to be situated beneath the earth, below Patala and to be terrific regions of darkness, of deep gloom, of fear, and of great terror. lu the Vishnu Purâòa, Vol. II, c. 6, they are particularly described, with the crimes punished in them respectively. The gods in heaven are beheld by the inhabitants of hell as they move with their heads inverted; whilst the gods, as they cast their eyes downwards, behold the sufferings of those in hell; the commentator observes that the sight of heavenly bliss is given to the lost to exacerbate their sufferings; whilst the inflictions of hell are exhibited to the gods, to teach them disregard of even heavenly enjoyments, as they are but of temporary duration. Heaven is that which delights the mind; hell is that which gives it pain; hence vice is called hell; virtue is called heaven. V. P.

Naraka: (sáns. hindú). 1, A son of Aurita (falsehood) and Nikriti (immorality); 2, A Danava, one of the sons of Viprachitti; 3, A son of the Earth who ruled over the city of Pragjyotisha. Indra went to Dwaraka and reported to Krishna the tyranny of Naraka*

Having heard this account, the divine Hari, mounting Garuda, flew to. Pragjyotisha; there a fierce conflict took place with the troops of Naraka, in which Govinda destroyed thousands of demons; and when Naraka came into the field, showering upon the deity all sorts of weapons, the wielder of the discus cut him in two with his celestial missile. Naraka being slain, Earth bearing the two earrings of Aditi, approached the lord of the world and said, " When I was upheld by thee in the form of a boar, thy contact then engendered this my son. He whom thou gavest me has now been killed by thee; take therefore these two earrings and cherish his progeny. Forgive the sins whicli Naraka has committed." Krishna then proceeded to redeem the various gems from the dwelling of Naraka. In the apartments of the women he found sixteen thousand and one hundred damsels, who became Krishna's wives; in the palace were six thousand large elephants each having four tusks; twenty-one lakhs of horses of Kamboja and other excellent breeds; these Govinda dispatched to Dwaraka, in charge of the servants of Naraka. The umbrella of Varuna, the jewel mountain which he also recovered, he placed upon Garuda; and mounting himself, and taking Satyabhama with him, he set off to the heaven of the gods to restore the earrings of Aditi. V. P.

Narantaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the giant Ravana who was killed at the scige of Lanka.

Naras: (sáns. hindú). ' Centaurs,' or beings with the limbs of horses and human bodies, created by Brahmâ along -with Kinuaras, Rakshasas, &c. V. P., p. 42.

Narasinha Avatara: (sáns. hindú). The fourth incarnation of Vishnu, in the form of a man-lion (Mara a man, and Sinha a lion.) One of the two doorkeepers of Vishnu's paradise, (see Varaha) came down to earth as a monarch, named Hiranyakasipu. He was cruel, tyrannical, unjust; particularly so towards his son named Prahlada. But he had obtained from Bramhi, by severe penance, the boon that he should not be slain by any created being; in consequence of which he became very proud, and required all persons to honor him by saying. " Om Hiranya" (Adoration to Hirauya); and those who would not say so he ordered to be punished. His son Prahljida, who was a devout worshipper of Vishnu, would not obey his father's order, but continued to say *' Om namah" (meaning by Om Vishnu). Hiranya remonstrated with him because of this, but in vain. Then he attempted to punish and kill him, but in vain: Prahlada was struck heavily but did not feel the strokes; he was cast into the fire, but was not burnt; he was trampled on by elephants, but continuing to think of Vishnu he was not hurt: he was thrown fettered into the sea, but a fish carried him safely to shore. At last, when Prahlada did not cease praising Vishnu, and asserted that he was everywhere and in everything, Hiranya retorted. " If so why dost thou not show him unto me ?" Upon this Prahlada rose and struck a column of the hall in which they were assembled; and behold, there issued from it Vishnu, in a form which was half-man and half-lion, and tore Hiranya to pieces. V. P.

Narayana: (sáns. hindú). l, A name of Vishnu, meaning *he whose place of abiding was the deep.' The waters are called Nira, because they were the ofi'spring of Nara (the supreme spirit); and as in them his first (Ayana) progress (in the character of Brahmâ) took place, he is thence named Narayana; 2, A sage, the son of Dharma by Murtti; 3, A prince, the son of Bhumimitra, of the Kanwa dynasty.

Narishyanta: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the sous of the Manu Vaivaswata; 2, The son of Marutta, the fourteenth of the posterity of Dishta.

Narika: (sáns. hindú). A measure of time, fifteen Laghus.

Narikavacha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Mtilaka, q. v.

Narmada: (sáns. hindú). The river Narbadda, the Namadus of Ptolemy. It rises in the Vindhya, or in the Riksha mountains, taking its origin in Gondwana. Mythologically the personified Narmada was the sister of the Nagas, and had a son named Trasadasya.

Narttaka: (sáns. hindú). A dancer, who also performs extraordinary feats of strength and agility.

Nata: (sáns. hindú). An actor; in popular acceptation it comprehends jugglers, buffoons, and persons practising sleight of hand, and exhibiting feats of agility. - Wilson.

Navala: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of the patriarch Vairaja, and wife of the Manu Chakshusha.

Navaratha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Bhlmaratha.

Naya: (sáns. hindú). (Polity) a son of Dharma by Kriya.

Nedishta: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata.

Nichakra: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Asima Krishna, who when Ilastindpura was washed away by the Ganges, removed the capital toKausambi.

Nidagha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Pulastya and disciple of Ribhu; to him Ribhu willingly communicated perfect knowledge. The residence of Pulastya was at Viranagara, on the banks of the Devika river.

"In a beautiful grove adjoining to the stream, the pupil of Ribhu, Nidagha, conversant with devotional practices, abode. When a thousand divine years had elapsed, Ribhu went to the city of Pulastya, to visit his disciple. Standing at the doorway, at the end of a sacrifice to the Viswadevas, he was seen by his scholar, who hastened to present him the usual offering, or Arghya, and conducted him into the house; and when his hands and feet were washed, and he was seated, Nidagha invited him respectfully to eat, (when the following dialogue ensued): -

" Ribhu. * Tell me, illustrious Brahman, what food there is in in your house; for I am not fond of indifferent viai'd.

" Nidagha. * There are cakes of meal, rice, barley, and pulso in the house; partake, venerable sir, of whichever best pleases you.'

" Eibhu. * None of these do I like; give me rice boiled with sugar, wheaten cakes, and milk with curds and molasses.'

" Niddgha. * Ho dame, be quick, and prepare whatever is most delicate and sweet in the house, to feed our guest*

** Having thus spoken, the wife of !Nidagha, in obedience to her husband's commands, prepared sweet and savoury food, and set it before the Brahman; and Nidagha, having stood before him until he had eaten of the meal which he hud desired, thus reverentially addressed him: -

" Nidagha. Have you eaten sufficiently, and with pleasure, great Brahman ? and has your mind received contentment from your food ? Where is your present residence ? Whither do you purpose going ? and whence, holy sir, have you now come ?

" Ribhu. * A hungry man. Brahman, must needs be satisfied when he has finished his meal. Why should you inquire if my hunger has been appeased ? When the earthly element is parched by fire, then hunger is engendered; and thirst is produced when the moisture of the body has been absorbed (by internal or digestive heat.) Hunger and thirst are the functions of the body, and satisfaction must always be afforded me by that by which they are removed; for when hunger is no longer sensible, pleasure and contentment of mind are faculties of the intellect: ask their condition of the mind then, for man is not affected by them. For your three other questions. Where I dwell ? Whither I go ? and whence I come ? hear this reply. Man, (the soul of man) goes everywhere, and penetrates everywhere, like the ether; and is it rational to inquire where it is ? or whence or whither thou goest ?

I neither am going nor coming, nor is my dwelling in any one place; nor art thou, thou; nor are others, others; nor am I, I. If you wonder what reply I should make to your inquiry why I made any distinction between sweetened and unsweetened food, you shall hear my explanation. What is there that is really sweet or not sweet to one eating a meal ? That which is sweet, is no Jonger so when it occasions the sense of repletion; and that which is not sweet, becomes sweet when a man (being very hungry) fancies that it is so. What food is there that first, middle, and last is equally grateful. As a house built of clay is strengthened by fresh plaster, so is this earthly body supported by earthly particles; and barley, wheat, pulse, butter, oil, milk, curds, treacle, fruits, and the like, are composed of atoms of earth. This therefore is to be understood by you, that the mind which properly judges of what is or is not sweet is impressed with the notion of identit} and that this effect of identity tends to liberation,'

" Having heard these words, conveying the substance of ultimate truth, Nidagha fell at the feet of his visitor, and said, * Shew favour unto me, illustrious Brahman, and tell me who it is that for my good has come hither, and by whose words the infatuation of my mind is dissipated.' To this, Ribhu answered, ' I am Ribhu, your preceptor, come hither to communicate to you true wisdom; and having declared to you what that is, I shall depart. Know this whole universe to be the one undivided nature of the supreme spirit, entitled Vasudeva.' Thus having spoken, and receiving the prostrate homage of Nidagha, rendered with fervent faith, Ribhu went his way." V. P., p. 53-55.

Nidra: (sáns. hindú). Sleep; a form of Brahmâ. In the Uttara Khanda of the Padraa Purâòa, Nidni is entered as one of the products of the churning of the ocean.

Nighna: (sáns. hindú). The son of Anamitra, and father of Satrajit, to whom the divine Aditya, the sun, presented the Syamautaka gem.

Nikriti: (sáns. hindú). (Immorality.) A daughter of Adharma (vice.).

Nikumbha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Haryyasva.

Nila: (sáns. hindú). Blue. I, A range of mountains in Orissa; 2, A central range to the north of Meru, running east and west; 3, A son of Yadu; 4, A son of Ajamidha.

Nilalohita: (sáns. hindú). A name of Rudra, from the Vaishnava Purâòas, which give only one original form, instead of eight as in the Vishnu Purâòa, and to which the name of Nilalohita, the blue and red or purple complexioned, is assigned.

Nilini: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Ajamidha.

Nimisha: (sáns. hindú). A measure of time- a twinkle of the eye - a second; according to the Bhagavata, three Lavas.

Nimi: (sáns. hindú). One of the three distinguished sons of Ikshvaku. He instituted a sacrifice that was to endure a thousand years, and applied to Vasishtha to offer the oblations. Vasishtha in answer said, that he had been pre-engaged by Indra for five hundred years, but that if the Raja would wait for some time, he would come and officiate as superintending priest. The king made no answer, and Vasishtha went away, supposing that he had assented.

When the sage had completed the performance of the ceremonies he had conducted for Indra, he returned with all speed to Nimi, purposing to render him the like office. When he arrived, however, and found that Nimi had retained Gautama and other priests to minister at his sacrifice, he was much displeased and pronounced upon the king, who was then asleep, a curse to this effect, that since he had not intimated his intention, but transfered to Gautama the duty he had first entrusted to himself, Vasishtha, Kimi should thenceforth cease to exist in a corporeal form. When Nimi woke, and knew what had happened, he in return denounced as an imprecation upon his unjust preceptor, that he also should lose his bodily existence, as the punishment of uttering a curse upon him without previously communicating with him. Nimi then abandoned his bodily condition. The spirit of Vasishtha also leaving his body, was united with the spirits of Mitra and Varuna for a season, until, through their passion for the nymph Urvasi, the sage was born again in a different shape. The corpse of Nimi was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fragrant oils and resins, and it remained as entire as if it were immortal. When the sacrifice was concluded, the priests applied to the gods, who had come to receive their portions, that they would confer a blessing upon the author of the sacrifice. The gods were willing to restore him to bodily life, but Nimi declined its acceptance, saying, " O deities, who are the alleviators of all worldly suffering, there is not in the world a deeper cause of distress than the separation of soul and body: it is therefore my wish to dwell in the eyes of all beings, but never more to resume a corporeal shape !" To this desire the gods assented, and Nimi was placed by them in the eyes of all living creatures; in consequence of which their eyelids are ever opening and shutting. V. P.

Nipa: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Para, a descendant of Hastin.

Niramitra: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the Pandavas, the son of Nakula; 2, The son of Khandapani; 3, The son of Ayutayus.

Nirmalas: (sáns. hindú). One of the divisions of the Sikhs who profess to dedicate themselves exclusively to a religious life. They lead a life of celibacy, and disregard their personal appearance, often going nearly naked. They do uot assemble together in colleges, nor do they observe any particular form of Divine service, but confine their devotion to speculative meditation on the perusal of the writings of Nanak, Kabir, and other unitarian teachers.

They are always solitary, supported by their disciples, or wealthy persons who may happen to favour the sect. The Nirmalas are known as able expounders of the Vedanta philosophy a in which Brahmans do not disdain to accept of their instructions. They are not a very numerous body on the whole; but a few are almost always to be found at the principal seats of Hindu wealth, and particularly at Benares.: (sáns. hindú). Wilson's Worhs, Vol. I..

Nirmanaratis: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities who belong to the eleventh Manwantara.

Nirrita: (sáns. hindú). One of the eleven Eudras, according to the Vayu list.

Nirukta: (sáns. hindú). An Anga of the Vedas, containing a glossarial comment.

Niruktakrit: (sáns. hindú). The name of the pupil to whom Sakapuriiigave his glossary (Nirukta) of the Rig Veda.

Niruta: (sáns. hindú). A giant; a regent or guardian of the south-west point of the world. He is represented as of a green colour, and is said to have been raised to the dignity he enjoys in consequence of his severe penance, On his head he wears a crown, and on his forehead Siva's sign of sacred ashes. Of his four hands one is empty, and in the other three he holds respectively a banner with the sign of a fish, a ring, and a wine jug; his vehicle is a crocodile

NifVritti: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Vrishui, a descendant of Jyamagha.

Nirwana: (sáns. hindú). The blowing out. Extinction. The summumbonum of Buddhism. It was long thought that Nirwana simplymeant final beatitude, the emancipation of the soul from the body: its exemption from further transmigration, and re-union with the deity. Some still maintain this view, and regard Nirwana as synonymous with Moksha; the absorption of the individual soul into the divine essence; which the Hindus represent as the highest goal of their religion and philosophy. But it has been shown by Mr. Spence Hardy, Mr. Max Müller, and other high authorities, that Nirwana means utter annihilation, or the destruction of all elements which constitute existence. There are four paths, an entrance into any of which secures either immediately, or more remotely, the attainment of Nirwana, They are; (1,) Sowdti, which is divided into twenty-four sections, and after it has been entered there can be only seven more births between that period and the attainment of Nirwana which may be in any world but the four hells; (2,) Sakraddgdmi, into which he who enters wdll receive one more birth. He may enter this path in the world of men, and afterwards be born in dcva-lbka; or he may enter it in a deva-Ibka, and afterwards be born in the world of men. It is divided into twelve sections; (3,) Anitgdmi into which he who enters will not again be born in a kama-lbka; he may, by the apparitional birth, enter into a brahma-lbka, and from that world attain Nirwdna. This path is divided into forty-eight sections; (4,) Arya or Aryahaty into which he who enters has overcome or destroyed all evil desire. It is divided into twelve sections.

Those who have entered into any of the paths can discern the thoughts of all in the same, or preceding paths. Each path is divided into two grades; 1, The perception of the path; 2, Its fruition or enjoyment. The mode in which Nirwana, or the destruction of ah the elements of existence, may be reached, is thus pointed out by Mr. Spence Hardy, in his ' Eastern Monachism :'

" The unwise being who has not yet arrived at a state of purity, or who is subject to future birth, overcome by the excess of evil desire, rejoices in the organs of sense, Ayatana, and their relative objects, and commends them. The Ayatanas therefore become to him like a rapid stream to carry him onward toward the sea of repeated existence; they are not released from old age, decay, death, sorrow, &c. But the being who is purified, perceiving the evils arising from the sensual organs and their relative objects, does not rejoice therein, nor does he commend them, or allow himself to be swallowed up by them. By the destruction of the 108 modes of evil desire he has released himself from birth, as from the jaws of an alligator; he has overcome all attachment to outward objects; he does not regard the unauthorized precepts, nor is he a sceptic; and he knows that there is no ego, no self.

By overcoming these four errors, he has released himself from the cleaving to existing objects. By the destruction of the cleaving to existing objects he is released from birth, whether as a brahma, man, or any other being. By the destruction of birth he is released from old age, decay, death, sorrow, &c. All the afflictions connected with the repetition of existence are overcome. Thus all the principles of existence are annihilated, and that annihilation is Nirwana."

Nisatha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Balarama by his wife Revati.

Nischara: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven Rishis in the second Mauwantara.

Nishadas : (sáns. hindú). Inhabitants of the Vindhya mountains - barbarians.

Nishadha was the country of Nala, and has consequently attained celebrity, but its situation has not been certainly determined; it was not far from Vidarbha (Berar) as that was the country of Damayanti.

Nishadha: (sáns. hindú). 1, A range of mountains to the south of Meru; one of the central ranges, next to Meru, running east and west, and extending one hundred thousand Yojanas; 2, A prince, the son of Atithi, and grandson of Kusa.

Nisitha: (sáns. hindú). A son of Kalpa; the name means 'the middle of night.'

Nisunda: (sáns. hindú). A Daitya, the son of Hlada.

Nitala : (sáns. hindú). One of the seven regions of Patala.

Nivata-kavachas : (sáns. hindú). Banavas, to the number of thirty millions, residing in the depths of the sea. The Mahabharata describes their destruction as one of the exploits of Arjuna. The Vishnu Purâòa says they were born in the family of the Daitya Prahlada.

Niyama : (sáns. hindú). The second stage of Yoga, being self-restraint, of which five kinds are specified: -

1. Purity of mind and body
2. Cheerfulness under all circumstances
3. Religious austerity
4. The repetition of incantations
5. The association of all religious ceremonies with the
Supreme Being.

These are also designated five duties or obligations, namely purity, contentment, devotion, study of the Vedas, and adoration of the Supreme.

Niyama: (sáns. hindú). Precept. A son of Dharma by one of the daughters of Daksha.

Niyati: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Meru who was married to Vidhatri.

Niyat: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Mahan one of the eleven Rudras.

Niyodhaka: (sáns. hindú). A prize-fighter, either as a wrestler or boxer or a swordsman - in some parts of India he also fights with gauntlets armed with steel spikes. - Wilson.

Nrichaksha: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Richa, of the race of Puru.

Nriga: (sáns. hindú). A son of the Manu Vaivaswata; the Linga Purâòa relates his transformation to a lizard by the curse of a brahman.

Nripanjaya: (sáns. hindú). l, A prince, the son of Suvira; 2, The son of Medhavin of the race of Puru.

Nriyajna: (sáns. hindú). One of the five great obligations or sacrifices, viz., that of hospitality; a duty on which great stress is laid.

Nyagrodha: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ugrasena.

Nyaya: (sáns. hindú). Logic. One of the six schools or systems of Philosophy of the Hindus.

The Nyaya system was originally taught by Gautama, of whose personal history, however, but little is known. From the Râmâyaòa and the Purâòas, wc learn that he was bora at Himalaya, about the same time as Rama, i. e., at the commeucement of the Treta Yuga (or second age of the world); that he married Ahalya, the daughter of Brahmâ (q. v.) He is said to have lived as a very austere ascetic, first at Pryaga (now Allahabad), then in a forest at Mithila (Muttra), and latterly (after the repudiation of of his wife) in the Himalayan mountains. His son, Satanauda, w&s priest to Janaka, king of Mithila the father of Sita, the wife of Kama. From the above statements we may see how little leliance can be placed on the historical veracity of the Purâòas.

These works assure us that Gautama, though he lived in the second or silver age, married a daughter of Brahmi; but they meet the anachronism by atfirmiug that all the sages live through the four Yugas (the Satya, Treta, Dwapas, and Kali,) into which the Hindus divide the whole course of the world's existence.

' The Nyaya offers the sensational aspect of Hindu Philosophy. In saying this, it is not meant that the Nyaya confines itself to sensation, excluding emotion and intellection; nor that the other systems ignore the fact of sensation; but that the arrangement of this system has a more pointed regard to the fact of the five senses than the others have, and treats the external more frankly as a solid reality.

" The word Nyaya means ' propriety or fitness,' and the system undertakes to declare the proper method of arriving at that knowledge of the truth, the fruit of which, it promises, is the chief end of man. The name is also used, in a more limited application, to denominate the proper method of setting forth argument. This has led to the practice of calling the Nyaya the * Hindu Logic, a name which suggests a very inadequate conception of the scope of the system. The Nyaya system was delivered by Gautama in a set of aphorisms, so very concise, that they must, from the first, have been accompanied by a commentary, oral or written. The aphorisms of the several Hindu systems, in fact, appear designed, not so much to communicate the doctrine of the particular schools, as to aidf by the briefest possible suggestions, the memory of him to whom the doctrine shall have been already communicated. To this end they are in general admirably adapted. The sixty aphorisms, for example, which constitute the first of Gautama's Five Lectures, present a methodical summary of the whole system, while the first aphorism, again, of the sixty, presents a summary of these sixty. The first aphorism is as follows: - From knowledge of the truth in regard to evidence, the ascertainable, doubt, motive, example, dogma, confutation, ascertainment, disquisition, controversy, cavil, fallacy, perversion, futility, and occasion for rebuke, - there is the attainment of the Summum Bonum.

" In the next aphorism, it is declared how knowledge operates mediately in producing this result. * Pain, birth, activity, fault, false notions, - since, on the successive departure of these in turn, there is the departure of the antecedent one, there is Beatitude.'

That is to say, when knowledge of the truth is attained to, 'false notions' depart; on their departure, the * fault of concerning one's-self about any external object ceases; thereupon the enlightened sage ceases to * act ;' then, there being no actions that call for either reward or punishment, there is no occasion, after his death, for his being born again to receive reward or punishment; then, not being born again, so as to be liable to pain, there is no room for * pain and the absence of pain is the Nyaya conception of the Summum Bonum

As to the instruments adapted to the acquisition of a knowledge of the truth, Gautama teaches that " proofs" i. e., (instruments of right knowledge,) " are the senses, the recognition of signs, the recognition of likenesses, and speech (or testimony.")

The objects in regard to which we have to obtain right knowledge, by means of the appropriate instruments, he enumerates as follows: - " Soul, body, sense, sense-object, knowledge, the mind, activity, fault, transmigration, fruit, pain, and beatitude, - these are the objects regarding which we are to seek for right knowledge." Here it is to be carefully observed that the soul is spoken of as an entirely different entity from the mind. Dugald Stewart tells us that the mind can attend to only one thought at a time.

Gautama, recognising the same fact, but speaking of the knoivn invariably as the soul, accounts for the fact in question by assuming that there is an instritment or internal organ, termed the mind, through which alone knowledge can reach the soul, and which, admitting only one thought at a tinier the Naiyayika inferred must be no larger than an atom.

" Pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, volition, and knowledge,"

says Gautama, " are that whereby we recognise the (atman) ;" and, again, " the sign" (whereby we infer the existence) " of the mind" (manas) " is the not arising of cognitions" (in the soul)

*' simultaneously." Thus the soul may be practically regarded as corresponding to the thinking principle, and the mind (manas) to the faculty of attending to one, and only one, thing at a time; it being further kept in remembrance that the Naiyayika reckons the mind to be a substance and not a faculty, " In the list of the objects regarding which right knowledge is to be obtained, the next after mind, is activity. This is defined as ' that which originates the (utterance of the) voice, the (cognitions of the) understanding, and the (gestures of the) body.' This activity, we have seen under A ph. II., Gautama regards with an evil eye, as the cause of birth, which is the cause of pain, which it is the snmmum bonum to get permanently rid of.

He further holds that it is through our own ' fault' that we are active; and he tells us that faults (or failings) have this characteristic, that they cause * activity.' These faults are classed under the heads of affection, aversion, and stolidity or delusion, each of which he regards as a fault or defect, inasmuch as it leads to actions, the recompense of which, whether good or evil, must be received in some birth, or state of mundane existence, to the postponement of the great end of entire emancipation."

The immediate obstacle to " emancipation" moksha, or apavarga, namely, " transmigration" pretyabhava, he next defines as " the arising again" punarutpatti. " Pain," duhka, he defines as " that which is characterised by uneasiness," and absolute deliverance therefrom is " emancipation." This summum bonam is to be obtained by an abnegation of all action, good or bad." - Small, H. S. L.


Oblations: (sáns. hindú). The householder after pouring libations to the gods, sages, and progenitors, is to offer oblations with fire, not preceded by any other rite, to Brahmâ. Oblations are made with such ceremonies, and in such form, as are adapted to the religious rite which is intended to be subsequently performed. The residue of oblations to be offered to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, at the four cardinal parts of his dwelling; and in the north-east quarter it is to be presented to Dhanwantari. See V. P., p. 304.

Obsequies: (sáns. hindú). See Sraddha.

Ocean: (sáns. hindú). Churning of. See Amrita.

Odra: (sáns. hindú). The ancient name of Orissa.

Oghavati: (sáns. hindú). The name of a river in the Purâòas, that has not been identified.

Om or Omkara: (sáns. hindú). A combination of letters invested by Hindu mysticism with peculiar sanctity. In the Vedas it is said to comprehend all the gods; and in the Purâòas it is directed to be prefixed to many sacred formulas. The syllable Om, says the Padma Purâòa is the leader of all prayers; and to be employed in the beginning of all prayers. According to the same authority one of the mystical imports of the term is the collective enunciation of Vishnu expressed by A, of Sri, his bride, intimated by U, and of their joint worshipper designated by M. A whole chapter of the Vayu Purâòa is devoted to this term. It is said to typify the three spheres of the world, the three holy fires, the three steps of Vishnu, &c. It is identified with the supreme uudefinablc deity, or Brahmâ. In the Bhagavat Gita it is said " Repeating Om, the monosyllable, which is Brahmâ, and calling me to mind ;" The form or sensible type of Vasudeva, is considered to be tljc monosyllable Om. Mr. J. C. Thomson says, a more probable origin of the word is that it is composed of the initials of the three personifications of the triad of elements, which is a much more ancient trinity than that of Brahmâ, Vishnu and Siva. The A woukl then represent Agni, or fire; the U Varuna, water; and the M Marut, wind or air. The reverence attached to this monosyllable may be inferred from the foct that some transcribers of MSS. have been afraid to write the awful word itself, and have substituted some other.

Oshta-karnakas: (sáns. hindú). A nickname or term of derision, or derived from some exaggeration of national ugliness, applied to some of the aborigines of India. It means having lips extending to their ears.

Oxydracse: (sáns. hindú). The Sudra people of in the west, or north-west, towards the Indus. Pliny has Sudraci for the people who formed the limit of Alexander's eastern conquests, or those liitherto inaccurately called Oxydracae.


Padmakalpa: (sáns. hindú). A Maha Kalpa - a day of Brahmâ already expired.

Padmanabha: (sáns. hindú). Lotus-navel; with the addition of Svami, a name of Narayana in the Malayalam country. One of the titles of the Travancore rajah was ' the slave of Padmanabha/

Padmapurana: (sáns. hindú). A very voluminous work containing fifty-five thousand slokas. These are divided amongst five books or Khaudas; 1, The Srishti Khanda, or section on Creation; the Bhumi Khanda, a description of the Earth; the Swarga Khanda, a chapter on Heaven; Patala Khanda, a chapter on the regions below the earth; and 5, Uttara Khanda, the last or supplementary chapter There is also current a sixth division, the Kriya Yoga Sara, a treatise on the practice of devotion.

The denominations of these divisions of the Padma Purâòa convey but an imperfect and partial notion of their contents. In the first, or section which treats of creation, the narrator is Ugrasravas the Suta, the son of Lomaharshana, who is sent by his father to the Rishis at Naimisharanya to communicate to them the Purâòa, which, from its containing an account of the lotus (padma), in which Brahmi appeared at creation, is termed the Padma or Padma Purâòa. The Suta repeats what was originally communicated by Brahmâ to Pulastya, and by him to Bhishma. The early chapters narrate the cosmogony, and the genealogy of the patriarchal families, much in the same style, and often in the same words, as the Vishnu; and short accounts of the Manwantaras and regal dynasties: but these, which are legitimate Pauranik matters, soon make way for new and unauthentic inventions, illustrative of the virtues of the lake of Pushkara, or Pokher in Ajmir, as a place of pilgrimage.

The Bhumi Khinda, or section of the earth, defers any description of the earth until near its close, filling up one hundred and twenty-seven chapters with legends of a very mixed description, some ancient and common to other Purâòas, but the greater part peculiar to itself, illustrative of Tirthas, either figuratively so termed - as a wife, a parent, or a guru, considered as a sacred object - or places to which actual pilgrimage should be performed.

The Swarga Khanda describes in the first chapters the relative positions of the Lokas or spheres above the earth, placing above all Vaikuntha, the sphere of Vishnu; an addition which is not warranted by what appears to be the oldest cosmology. Miscellaneous notices of some of the most celebrated princes then succeed, conformably to the usual narratives; and these are followed by rules of conduct for the several castes, and at different stages of life. The rest of the book is occupied by legends of a diversified description, introduced without much method or contrivance; a few of which, as Daksha's sacrifice, are of ancient date, but of which the most are original and modern.

The Patala Khanda devotes a brief introduction to the description of Patala, the regions of the snake-gods; but the name of Rama having been mentioned, Sesha, who has succeeded Pulastya as spokesman, proceeds to narrate the history of Rama, his descent and his posterity; in which the compiler seems to have taken the poem of Kalidasa, the Raghu Vausa, for his chief authority. An originality of addition may be suspected, however, in the adventures of the horse destined by Rama for an Asvvamedha, which form the subject of a great many chapters. When about to be sacrificed, the horse turns out to be a Brahman, condemned by an imprecation of Durvasas, a sage, to assume the equine nature, and who, by having been sanctified by connexion with Rama, is released from his metamorphosis, and despatched as a spirit of light to heaven. This piece of Vaishnava fiction is followed by praises of the Sri Bhagavata, an account of Krishna's juvenilities, and the merits of worshipping Vishnu. These accounts are communicated through a machinery borrowed from the Tantras: they are told by Sadasiva to Parvati, the ordinary interlocutors of Tantrika compositions.

The Uttara Khanda is a most voluminous aggregation of very heterogeneous matters, but it is consistent in adoptiug a decidedly Vaishnava tone, and admitting no compromise with any other form of faith. The chief subjects are first discussed in a dialogue between king Dilipa and the Muni Vasishtha; such as the merits of bathing in the month of Magha, and the potency of the Mantra or prayer addressed to Lakshmi Narayana. But the nature of Bhakti, faith in Vishnu - the use of Vaishnava marks on the body - the legends of Vishnu's Avataras, and especially of Rama - and the construction of images of Vishnu - are too important to be left to mortal discretion: they are explained by Siva to Parvati, and wound up by the adoration of Vishnu by those divinities. The dialogue then reverts to the king and the sage; and the latter states why Vishnu is the only one of the triad entitled to respect; Siva being licentious, Brahmâ arrogant, and Vishnu alone pure.

Vasishtha then repeats, after Siva, the Mahatmya of the Bhagavat Gita; the merit of each book of which is illustrated by legends of the good consequences to individuals from perusing or hearing it.

Other Vaishnava Mahatmyas occupy considerable portions of this Khanda, especially the Kartika Mahatmya, or holiness of the month Kartika, illustrated as usual by stories, a few of which are of an early origin, but the greater part modern, and peculiar to this Purâòa.

The Kriya Yoga Sara is repeated by Suta to the Rishis, after Vyasa's communication of it to Jaimini, in answer to an inquiry how religious merit might be secured in the Kali age, in which men have become incapable of the penances and abstraction by which final liberation was formerly to be attained. The answer is, of course, that which is intimated in the last book of the Vishnu Purâòa - personal devotion to Vishnu: thinking of him, repeating his names, wearing his marks, worshipping in his temples, are a full substitute for all other acts of moral or devotional or contemplative merit.

The different portions of the Padma Purâòa are in all probability as many different works, neither of which approaches to the original definition of a Purâòa. There may be some connexion between the three first portions, at least as to time; but there is no reason to consider them as of high antiquity. They specify the Jains both by name and practices; they talk of Mlechchhas, * barbarians,' flourishing in India; they commend the use of the frontal and other Vaishuava marks; and they notice other subjects which, like these, are of no remote origin. The Patala Khanda dwells copiously upon the Bhagavata, and is consequently posterior to it. The Uttara Khanda is intolerantly Vaishnava, and is therefore unquestionably modern. It enjoins the veneration of the Salagram stone and Tulasi plant, the use of the Tapta-mudra, or stamping with a hot iron the name of Vishnu on the skin, and a variety of practices and observances undoubtedly no part of the original system. It speaks of the shrines of Sri-rangam and Venkatadri in the Dekhin, temples that have no pretension to remote antiquity; and it names Haripur on the Tungabhadra, which is in all likelihood the city of Vijayanagar, founded in the middle of the fourteenth century. The Kriya Yoga Sara is equally a modern, and apparently a Bengali composition. No portion of the Padma Purâòa is probably older than the twelfth century, and the last parts may be as recent as the fifteenth or sixteenth. - Wilson.

Padmavati: (sáns. hindú). A titular name which may be understood of Laks/wii, as seated on a lotus-flower (padma) it is commonly used to designate a goddess of the Jainas; especially at some shrines of the eastern and western Chalukyas; corresponding with the northern part of Telingana and the southern Mahratta provinces.

Padmavati: (sáns. hindú). A city amongst the Vindhya hills.

Pahlavas: (sáns. hindú). A northern or north-western nation, often mentioned in Hindu writings, in Manu, the Râmâyaòa, the Purâòas, &c. They were not a Hindu people, and may have been some of the tribes between India and Persia.

Pahnavas: (sáns. hindú). Probably the same as the Pahlavas. Border tribes on the confines of Persia. They were conquered by Sagara, but spared on the intercession of Vasishtha, the family priest of Sagara.

Paila: (sáns. hindú). The compiler of the Rig Veda; a disciple or co-adjutor of Vyasa in arranging the Vedas. Professor Wilson thinks the tradition records the first establishment of a school, of which the Vyasa was the head, and Paila and the other persons named were the teachers.

Pakayajna: (sáns. hindú). A sacrifice, in which food is offered; one that may be made by a Sudra. It implies either the worship of the Viswadevas, the rites of hospitality, or occasional oblations, as building a house, the birth of a child, or any occasion of rejoicing.

Paksha: (sáns. hindú). A lunar fortnight; fifteen days of thirty Muhurttas each.

Pakshaja: (sáns. hindú). One of the three classes of clouds; those which were originally the wings of the mountains, and which were cut off by Indra.

Palaka: (sáns. hindú). A protector or ruler; loka palaka is an epithet applied to a king. Dik-palaka is a regent of one of the eight points of the heavens: each point being supported by one of the ashta dik gajas, or elephant caryatides. The names of the dikpalakas are Indra, E., Varuna, W., Kuvera, N., Yama, S., Isdni, N.E., Niruta, S.W., Vayu, N.W., Agni, S.E.

Palaka: (sáns. hindú). The son of Pradyota, king of Magadha. There were five kings of the house of Pradyota, who reigned for a hundred and thirty-eight years.

Palasini: (sáns. hindú). A river from the eastern portion of the Himalaya, a feeder of the Mahanada.

Palin: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Prithu.

Palita: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Paravrit: he was the brother of Jyamagha, and ruled over Videha.

Pampa: (sáns. hindú). A river, that rises in Rishyamuka in the Dekkin.

Panchadasa hymns: (sáns. hindú). A collection of hymns, created along with the Yajur Veda from the southern mouth of Brahmâ.

Panchajana: (sáns. hindú). A demon in the form of a couch shell, who lived in the sea of Prabhasa, and was killed by Krishna, in order that the son of Sandipani might be rescued.

Panchajanya: (sáns. hindú). The name of Krishna's conch. It was made of the bones of the giant Panchajana. When Krishna was getting up his military acquirements, the son of his acharya, or tutor, Sandipani, was drowned in the sea of Prabhasa, and carried down to the bottom by the said giant. Krishna plunged in, dived down, slew the giant, brought up his bones to make a conch of, and restored his son to the grieving tutor.

Panchanga: (sáns. hindú). The Hindu Calendar, Panchanga means five members. It contains five principal heads, namely, the days of the month, the sign in which the moon is each day to be found, the day of the week, the eclipses, and the place of the planets. It likewise marks the good days and the evil; those on which one may journey towards any of the four cardinal points; for each point of the compass has its lucky and unlucky days; and a person who might to-day travel very successfully towards the north, would expose himself to some grievous danger if he took a southward course. It farther contains a vast number of predictions of all sorts which would be too tedious for this place.

Panchala: (sáns. hindú). The country north and west of Delhi, between the foot of the Himalaya and the Chambal. It was afterwards divided into northern and southern Panchala separated by the Ganges.

The name is derived from the five (pancha) sons of Hariyaswa, who were able (alam) to protect the countries; and hence they were termed the Panchalas.

Pancha-lakshana: (sáns. hindú). An epithet applied to the Purâòas, meaning ' that which has five characteristic topics ;' these are primary creation, or cosmogony; secondary creation, or the destruction and renovation of worlds; including chronology; 3, Genealogy of gods and patriarchs; 4, Reigns of the Manus, or periods called Manwantaras; and, 5, History, or such particulars as have been preserved of the princes of the solar and lunar races, and of their descendants to modern times.

Pancha Tantra: (sáns. hindú). The collection of Fables and stories termed Pancha Tantra or Panchopakhyana, is one of the oldest in the world. It was translated from Sanskrit into Persian in the sixth century; and from Persian into Arabic in the ninth century; it was afterwards rendered into Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Syriac; from these versions successive translations were made into all the languages of modern Europe, until it became universally known as Pilpay's Fables.

The narrator of the stories is in the Arabic version called Bidpai; in the Sanscrit original no name similar to this occurs; but it is certain that the name Pilpay, by which the work is known in Europe, is a corruption of Bidpai.

The Arabic translation of the Pancha Tantra is called Kalila wa Damna; it is thus designated in allusion to two jackals which act a conspicuous part in the first story of the Arabic version, and which we recognise in the Sanskrit and Canarese under the forms Karataka and Damanaka.

The most admired Persian translation is not that which was first made, but the one written at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and known under the title of Anwar-i-soheili; which was afterwards rendered into Turkish with the designation of Humayun Nam eh.

With the exception of the Bible and the Pilgrim's Progress, there is probably no work that has been translated into so many languages as the Pancha Tantra. In India it has retained its popularity to the present time, and is found in some form in all the spoken dialects of the country.

The Sanskrit epitome of the Pancha Tantra is termed the " Hitopadesa," or " Salutary Instruction." This has been translated into English by Sir William Jones and by Sir Charles Wilkins.

" Its popularity" says Professor Johnson, " through so many ages, apaidst such various nations, is evidence of intrinsic merit; and the pictures of domestic manners and human nature which it presents, however tinctured by national peculiarities, must have been recognised as universally true, as well as diverting; or they would not have been naturalized in the west as well as in the east.

In the maxims also which the tales serve to illustrate, there must have been much which secured the acquiescence of all mankind, or the remarks would have been left to enlighten the moralists of India alone. These merits, however, were such as admitted of transfusion into other languages; the merits of its composition are those which have chiefly recommended its preservation by the Press, and its circulation amongst the cultivators of Sanskrit literature."

There is a great diversity in the manuscript copies of the Pancha Tautra. Many differences occur in the various stories. In some versions the residence of the king is in Mahilaropya, a city in the south of India, whicli Professor Wilson identifies with St. Thome.

The Canarese version of the Pancha Tantra follows the Hitopadesa in making the residence of the king in Pataliputra on the Ganges.

The king had three sons who were deficient in ability and application. He made this known to his counsellors and sought their advice; asking them "of what use is a son who has neither knowledge nor virtue ? of what use is a cow who has no milk with her calf, &c. ? A learned brahman who was present offered to relieve the king of his anxiety by taking the princes to his house and instructing them perfectly. He then composed in their benefit these five chapters; Mitra Bheda, Dissension of friends; Mitra Prapti, acquisition of friends; Kakolukiya, inveterate enmity; Labda Nashta, loss of advantage; Asamprekshya karitwa, inconsiderateness. Through reading these the princes became in six months highly accomplished, and the five tantras were famous throughout the world.

An analytical account of the Pancha Tantra is contained in the Works of H. H. Wilson, Vol. IV.

Pandava: (sáns. hindú). Patronymic from Pandu, applied first to his five sons, and then generally to their party or army. Also to Aijuna in particular.

Pandavas: (sáns. hindú). The five sons of the Raja Pandu. After their father's death they returned to Hastiuapur, and were kindly received by their uucle Dritarashtra; they were brought up with their cousins the Kauravas, in the old palace of Hastinapur; but from the days of their early youth the sons of Dritarashtra were ever jealous of the sons of Pandu. Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas, attempted to take the life of Bhima. Soon after, a famous Brahman preceptor, named Drona, arrived at the city of Hastinapur. Their Uncle Bhishma engaged him to instruct the Kauravas and Pandavas in arms and sciences. Drona took great pains in teaching all the young men, but especially in teaching the Pandavas. To Yudhishthira he imparted the use of the spear, but that young prince became more renowned for wisdom and goodness than for deeds of arms. To Arjuna he taught the use of the bow, and Arjuna became the most famous archer of his time. To Bhima he taught the use of the club, for Bhima was a young man of great appetite and enormous strength, and could wield the club right lustily. To Nakula he taught the whole art of taming and managing horses, and to Sahadeva Astronomy and the use of the sword. Drona instructed the Kauravas in like manner, as well as his own son Aswatthama. But of all his pupils the most beloved was Arjuna, for he was the most perfect of all; and thus, while Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas was jealous of all the Pandavas, he was the most jealous of Arjuna.

This feeling increased and led to many quarrels; ultimately to the exile of the Pandavas, who were sent by Dritarashtra to the city of Varanavata. Here Duryodhana plotted their destruction by having them invited to a house built of combustible materials, with the intention of setting it on fire at night when they were all asleep. A retainer of his, Purochana, was the agent sent to effect this. The plot was discovered; an underground passage was dug through which they might escape; and Bhima set on fire the house of Purochana; the flames reached the house of the Pandavas, who were conducted by Bhima through the passage underground, and went into the jungle with their mother Kunti.

They afterwards lived as mendicant brahmans in the city of Ekachakra (q. v.) Their subsequent history embraces the events which led to the Great War in the plain of Kurukshetra; the details of which will be found under the names of the various actors in it. The brothers at last assumed the garb of devotees, and after passing through many lands, they reached the Himalaya mountains, and there died one after the other, and were transported to the heaven of Indra. The fine description of the renunciation of their kingdom by the five brothers, and their journey towards Indra's heaven, has been well translated by Monier Williams: -

When the four brothers knew the high resolve of king Yudhishthira,
Forthwith with Draupadi they issued forth, and after them a dog
Followed; the king himself went out the seventh from the royal city,
And all the citizens and women of the palace walked behind .
But none could find it in their heart to say unto the king, 'Return.'
And so at length the train of citizens went back, bidding adieu.
Then the high-minded sons of Pandu and the noble Draupadi
Roamed onwards, fasting with their faces towards the east; their hearts
Yearning for union with the Infinite; bent on abandonment
Of worldly things. They wandered on to many countries, many a sea
And river. Yudhishthira walked in front, and next to him came Bhima,
And Arjuna came after him, and then, in order, the twin brothers.
And last of all came Draupadi, with her dark skin and lotus-eyes -
The faithful Draupadi, loveliest of woman, best of wives -
Behind them walked the only living thing that shared their pilgrimage,
The dog- And by degrees they reached the briny sea. There Arjuna
Cast in the waves his bow and quivers. Then with souls well-disciplined
They reached the northern region, and beheld with heaven-aspiring hearts
The mighty mountain Himavat. Beyond its lofty peak they passed
Towards the sea of sand, and saw at last the rocky Meru, king
Of mountains. As with eager steps they hastened on, their souls intent
On union with the Eternal, Draupadi lost hold of her high hope.
And faltering fell upon the earth.

" One by one the others also drop, till only Bhima, Yudhishthira, and the dog are left. Still Yudhishthira walks steadily in front, calm and unmoved, looking neither to the right hand nor to the left, and gathering up his soul in inflexible resolution. Bhima, shocked at the fall of his companions, and unable to understand how beings so apparently guileless should be struck down by fate, appeals to his brother, who without looking back explains that death is the consequence of sinful thoughts and too great attachment to worldly objects; and that Draupadi's fall was owing to her excessive affection for Arjuna; Sahadeva's (who is supposed to be the most humble-minded of the five brothers) to his pride in his own knowledge; Nakula's (who is very handsome) to feelings of personal vanity; and Arjuna's to a boastful confidence in his power to destroy his foes. Bhima then feels himself falling, and is told that he suffers death for his selfishness, pride, and too great love of enjoyment. The sole survivor is now Yudhishthira, who still walks steadily forward, followed only by the dog.

When with a sudden sound that rang through earth and heaven, came the god
Towards him in a chariot, and he cried, "Ascend, O resolute prince."
Then did the king look back upon hi.s fallen brothers, and address'd
These words unto the Thousand-eyed, in anguish-" Let my brothers here ,
Come with me. Without them, God of Gods, I would not wish to enter -
E'en heaven; and yonder tender princess Draupadi, the faithful wife,
Worthy of happiness, let her too come. In mercy hear my prayer."

Upon this, Indra informs him that the spirits of Draupadi. brothers are already in heaven, and that he alone is permitted to ascend there in bodily form. Yudhishthira now stipulates that his dog shall be admitted with him. Indra says sternly, " Heaven has no place for those who are accompanied by dogs (Swavatam) ;" but Yudhishthira is unshaken in his resolution, and declines abandoning the faithful animal. Indra remonstrates - " You have abandoued your brothers and Draupadi; why not forsake the dog ?"

To this Yudhishthira haughtily replies, " I had no power to bring them back to life; how can there be abandonment of those who no longer live ?"

The dog, it appears, was his own father Dharma in disguise (Mahaprasthanika-parva.) Reassuming now his proper form he praises Yudhishthira for his constancy, and they enter heaven together. There, to his surprise, he finds Duryodhana and his cousins, but not his brothers or Draupadi. Hereupon he declines remaining in heaven without them. An angel is then sent to conduct him across the Indian Styx (Vaitarini) to the hell where they are supposed to be. The scene which now follows may be compared to the Necyomanteia in the eleventh book of the Odyssey, or to parts of Dante.

" The particular hell to which Yudhishthira is taken is a dense wood, whose leaves are sharp swords, and its ground paved with razors. The way to it is strewed with foul and mutilated corpses.

Hideous shapes flit across the air and hover over him. Here there is a horror of palpable darkness. There the wicked are burning in flames of blazing fire. Suddenly he hears the voices of his brothers and companions imploring him to assuage their torments, and not desert them. His resolution is taken. Deeply affected, he bids the angel leave him to share their miseries. This is his last trial.

The whole scene now vanishes. It was a mere illusion, to test his constancy to the utmost. He is now directed to bathe in the heavenly Ganges; and having plunged into the sacred stream, he enters the real heaven, where at length, in company with Draupadi and hw brothers, he finds that rest and happiness which were unattainable on earth."* ? Indian Epic Poetry, p. 29 to 31.

Pandu: (sáns. hindú). The second son of the Vyasa, Krishna Dvvaipayana and Ambalika one of the widows of Raja Vichitravirya, - the Pale, was the half-brother of Dhritarashtra who was blind. " The reason given for these defects is curious. Ambika, (the mother of Dhritarashtra) was so terrified by the swarthy complexion and shaggy aspect of the sage Vyisa, that when he visited her she closed her eyes, and did not venture to open them while he was with her. lu consequence of this assumed blinduess her child was born blind. Ambdlika, on the other hand, though she kept her eyes open, became so colourless with fright, that her son was born with a pale complexion, Pandu seems in other respects to have been good looking."1He was the father of the five Pandava priuces Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. He married Kunti, or Pritha, and sometime afterwards his uncle Bhishma, wishiug him to take a second wife, " made au expedition to Salya, king of Madra, and prevailed upon him to bestow his sister Madri upon Pandu, in exchange for vast sums of money and jewels. "2But as Pandu had incurred a curse from a deer which he shot, he was prevented from having progeny himself, and the Pandava princes were therefore begotten respectively by the gods Dharma, Vayu, Indra, and the twin Aswinau.

Pandu was carefully educated by his uncle Bhishma, who afterwards installed him as Raja of Bharata. The Raja Pandu was a great warrior, and is said to have undertaken a campaign which would have extended his empire over all Hindustan, from the Punjab to Bengal, and from the slopes of the Himalayas to the Vindhya mountains. But he was addicted to hunting, and he went with his two wives to the Himalaya mountains; but his life there is filled with mythical details which may be passed over. While the five princes were still children, Pandu, forgetting the curse of the sage whom he had killed in the form of a deer, ventured one day to embrace his wife Madri, and died in her arms. She and Kunti then had a dispute for the honour of becoming a sati (suttee) which ended with Madri burning herself with her husband's corpse3.

Notes 1: Indian Epic Poetry, p. 92.
Notes 2: Ibid
Notes 3: Ibid

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