jueves, 8 de julio de 2010

Jyeshta - Kratusthala - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | E | F | G | H1 | H2 | I | J1 | J2 | K1 | K2 | S1 | S2 | T | U | V | Y | Z

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H1 - H - Harischandra
  • H2 - Harisrava - Hz
  • I
  • J1 - J - Jrimbhika
  • J2 - Jyestha
  • K1 - K - Kratusthaba


Jyeshta: (sáns. hindú). A lunar month corresponding to May.

Jyeshta: (sáns. hindú). The goddess of misfortune; produced at the churning of the ocean according to the enumeration in the Uttara Khanda of the Padma-Purana. - Also the name of a lunar mansion in Jaradgavi in the Central Avashtana.

Jyotiratha: (sáns. hindú). The name of a river mentioned in the Puranas, but not identified .

Jyotisha: (sáns. hindú). " Astronomy ;" an anga of the Vedas, or subsidiary portion of the Vedas. "New moon festivals, and full moon festivals, were integral elements in early Hindu worship, and each veda appears to have had a calendar, called jyotisha; but whether any original copies of these calendars still exist, seems doubtful.

They are interesting as being first steps in astronomy, although constructed solely with a view to the regulation of religious ceremonies.

The Surya Siddhanta, one of the most important of Sanscrit works on Astronomy, has been attacked and defended and explained by competent European scholars."

" M. Biot believed that the Hindus derived their system of nakshatras, or moon stations, from the Chinese; and Professor Whitney shows that the Hindu nakshatra does not mean the same thing as the Chinese stew, Siew means a single star, whereas nakshatra generally expresses a group of stars, or rather a certain portion of the starry heavens. * * * * xhe Arab manazil, and the signs of the lunar zodiac, bear a marked resemblance to the Hindu nakshatras, being groups of stars marking out the ecliptic into twelve nearly equal divisions. Such a system.

Professor Whitney observes, is as well suited as any that could be devised for a people seeking to define the daily stages of the moon's revolution, without the aid of fhstruments.

** The path of the moon was in fact marked by twenty-seven stations believed by Hindu observers to be equi-distant. But when a * new and more exact astronomy had been brought in from the West,' the moon was reduced in significance ' to one of a class of planetary bodies all whose movements were capable of being predicted, and their places at any given time determined, and their conjunctions calculated by an elaborate system of rules. Then first the lesser planets were mentioned by Hindu astronomers, and then first was an observation made by aid of the junction stars, which yielded a trustworthy date. That this must have been not far from A, D. 500 is. Professor Whitney considers, proved.

" The results of this one grand effort, never repeated and never rivalled, are recorded with occasional slight and unexplained modifications, by every succeeding author from century to century.

The date coincides with that of the Hindu Astronomer Aryabhata; and Aryabhata we understand, * availed himself largely of the progress which the Greeks, (especially Hipparchus) had made in astronomy; and * not only improved upon their new theories and inventions, but added also the results of his own independent investigations,'

'* The beginning of the sixth century stands out, therefore, as an important era in the history of astronomy in India; and every fragment of intelligence concerning Aryabhata and his works becomes invested with peculiar importance. (See Appendix, Art.

Aryabhata). His idea of the roundness of the earth is thus expressed: - ' The terrestrial globe, a compound of earth, water, fire and air, entirely round, encompassed by a girdle {the equator) wtands in the air, in the centre of the stellar sphere. Like as a ball formed by the blossoms of the nauclea kadamba is on every side beset with flowerets, so is the earth-globe with all creatures, terrestrial and aquatic'

" And this globe he believed to have a daily revolution.

* Aryabhata' says Dr. Kern, * for aught we know was the first, and remained almost the sole astronomer among his countrymen, who affirmed the daily revolution of the earth on its own axis.' He gives the following quotation from one of Aryabhata's works: -

' As a person in a vessel while moving forward, sees an immovable object moving backwards; in the same manner do the stars, however immovable, seem to move daily.' Thus showing it is the earth not the stars which move: -

" On another occasion Aryabhata says, * the sphere of the stars
is stationary; and the earth, making a revolution, produces the
daily rising and setting of stars and planets.'

*' Mr. Colebrooke states that * Aryabhata affirmed the diurnal revolution of the earth on its axis ;' that he accounted for it by a wind or current of aerial fluid, the extent of which, according to the orbit assigned to it by him, corresponds to an elevation of little more than a hundred miles from the surface of the earth; that he possessed the true theory of lunar and solar eclipses, and disregarded the imaginary dark planets of the mythologists and astrologers, - affirming the moon and primary planets (and even the stars) to be essentially dark, and only illumined by the sun, *' But after attaining this excellence, astronomy in India appears to have drifted away from science, for no second correct determination of polar longitude and polar latitude is recorded; and writers subsequent to Aryabhata confuse astronomy with astrology."* See Bhaskaracharya, Vai-ahamihira, &c.

The popular notion even at the present day is that an eclipse is caused by Rahu, the demon, attempting to devour a portion of the sun or moon. See Rahu.

Jyotishtoma: (sáns. hindú). One of the great sacrifices, in which especially the juice of the soma plant is offered for the purpose of obtaining Swarga or heaven.

* Mrs. Manning. A. and M. I., vol. 1, p. .367.

Jyotishmat: (sáns. hindú). The youngest of the ten sons of Priyavrata, - installed by his father king of Kusa-dwipa. Jyotishmat had seven sons, after whom the seven portions or varshas of the island were named. At the end of all things the seven solar rays dilate to seven suns, one of which is termed Jyotishmat. - Vishnu Purana.

Jyotsna: (sáns. hindú). " Dawn" - a form or manifestation of Brahma.


Ka: (sáns. hindú). 1, A name of Prajapati, the creator of the universe; " Ka is Prajapati; to him let us offer our oblations ;" 2, A name given to Daksha; 3, The name of the divinity who presides over the excretory and generative organs.

Kabandha: (sáns. hindú). l, A pupil of the Muni Sumanta who became a teacher of the Sanhitas of the Atharva Veda; 2, A mighty Rikshasa who attacked Rama and Lakshmana in the forest, and was slain by them. When mortally Avounded the Rakshasa informed them that he had originally been a Gandharva, but was changed by the curse of a sage to a Rakshasa until set free by Rama. He then, assuming his real shape as a Gandharva, counselled Rama to ally himself to Sugriva, with whose aid he might conquer Ravana. The story is thus translated by Mr. Griffiths.

** A hideous giant then he saw, Kabandha named, a shape of awe.

The monstrous fiend he smote and slew,
And in the flame the body threw;
When straight from out the funeral flame
In lovely form Kabandha came, And bade him seek in his distress
A wise and holy hermitess.

By counsel of this saintly dame
To Pampa's pleasant flood he came.

And there the steadfast friendship won
Of Hanuman the Wind-God's son.

Counselled by him he told his grief To great Sugriva, Vanar chief.

Who, knowing all the tale, before
The sacred flame alliance swore."

Kabir: (sáns. hindú). The most celebrated of the twelve disciples of the Hindu reformer Ramanand. He produced a great eflect in the state of popular belief; assailing the whole system of idolatrous worship, and I'idiculing the learning of the Pandits and doctrines of the Sastras, in a style peculiarly suited to the genius of his countrymen. Kabir lived at the beginning of the 15th century.

The Bhakta Mala gives an account of his birth and life. The doctrines taught by Kabir are contained in the Sukh Niddn, and do not differ much from those of the Vaishnavas. The moral code is short but favorable to morality. Wilson's Works, Vol. I, p. 153.

Kachchas: (sáns. hindú). An aboriginal tribe, the name of which implies that the people dwelt in districts contiguous to water and in marshy spots: such as the province still called Cutch.

Kachhapa: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Visvamitra.

Kadamba: (sáns. hindú). The name of the tree that grows on Mount Mandara, the flowers of which are said to yield a spirit on distillation, whence Kadambari is one of the synonyms of wine or spirituous liquor.

Kadru: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to Kasyapa and had a progeny of a thousand powerful many-headed serpents.

Kaikasi: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Sumali and Ketumati; Sumali with his family lived for a long time in Patala; and once happening to visit the earth he desired his daughter Kaikasi to go and woo Visravas, who received her graciously, and she became the mother of the dreadful Ravana, the huge Kumbhakarna, and the two younger brothers, who all grew up in the forest.

Kaikeya: (sáns. hindú). One of the four sons of Siva, who has given a name to a province and people in the northwest of India.

Kaikeyi: (sáns. hindú). One of the queens of Maharaja Dasaratha, and mother of Bharata. When it was proposed to instal Rama, the son of Queen Kausalya, as heir apparent, Kaikeyi was pleased, and offered a reward to her slave woman Manthara who brought her the news, saying"

I joy that Rama gains the throne, Kauyalya,
Kausalya son is as mine own."

But the old hag Manthara, who disliked Rama, excited the jealousy of Kaikeyi by representing the degradation and ruin that would come to Bharata and herself.

"When Rama's hand has once begun
Ayodhya's realm to sway."

This roused her to action and she ran to the chamber of displeasure, sulky and angry. The Maharaja afterwards sought her, and finding her in this state of affliction, protested his love and affection, but she remained silent; at last in a critical moment she extorted a promise from him and then with *' a woman's obstinacy compelled him to keep his word." " He had made the promise and she insisted upon its fulfilment. To all he could urge she had but one answer ' Unless Rama is exiled and Bharata is installed, you will be stigmatized as a liar and I will take poison.' "

"The monarch as Kaikeyi pressed
With cruel words her due request,
Stood for a time absorbed in thought,
While anguish in his bosom wrought."

The result was the exile of Rama; and when her own son Bharata returned from Girivraja he strongly reproached his mother for what she had done. She lived, however, to rejoice in Rama's return to his kingdom.

Kaikeyas: (sáns. hindú). The five sons of Dhristaketu, rajah of Kaikeya, are termed the Kaikeyas.

Kailakila Yavanas: (sáns. hindú). A race of kings, who lived when the Greek princes or their Indo-Scythic successors, following the course of the Indus, spread to the upper part of the western coast of the peninsula. From an inscription which has been found dated a. d. 1058, Kilakila, or Kilagila as it is there termed, is called the capital of Marasinha Deva, king of the Konkan.

Kailasa: (sáns. hindú). A mountain situated like Meru, in the lofty regions to the north of the Himalaya, and celebrated in the traditions and myths of India. "Meru and Kailasa are the two Indian Olympi. Perhaps they were held in such veneration because the Sanskrit speaking Indians remembered the ancient home where they dwelt with the other primitive peoples of their family before they descended to occupy the vast plains which extend between the Indus and the Ganges." - Gorresio.

In the Puranas Kailasa is a fabulous mountain several yojanas in breadth, to the west of Meru. Kailasa is described as a mountain of pure silver, brilliantly white, and as the residence of Siva. In former ages it is said all the mountains had wings; but their flights were productive of so much mischief and danger, that Indra struck off their wings with his thunderbolts, and fixed them in their present position. Kailasa is often mentioned in tho Ramayana, as in the region of the sacred lakes, near the northern heights of the Himalayas.

Kaisika: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Vidarbha, (q. v.) and grandson of Jyamagha.

Kaitabha: (sáns. hindú). A formidable demon, who with his companion Madhu, sprung from the ear of Vishnu, when he was sunk in his sleep of contemplation, ( Yoganidra) at the end of the Kalpa; the demons were about to kill Brahma, when the latter, seeing Vishnu asleep, with the view of arousing him began to celebrate the praises of Yoganidra. O. S. T., Vol. IV., p. 371.

Kaivalya: (sáns. hindú). The fourth chapter of the Yoga Sutras, being a treatise on the extatic abstraction or isolation of the soul. The state of emancipation that may be obtained even during life: it is termed jivanmukti; and is the highest state of Yoga before the soul is actually re-absorbed into the Supreme Being. The body still exists, and of course the soul exists within it; but its connection with it is supposed to be entirely broken, and the soul can consequently quit and re-enter the body, and wander about where and as it lists. J. C. Thomson.

Kajnghas: (sáns. hindú). An aboriginal tribe mentioned in the Purana lists, but not satisfactorily identified.

Kakamukhas: (sáns. hindú). A nickname or term of derision, meaning crowfaced, applied to designate some of the aboriginal tribes.

Kakas: (sáns. hindú). A tribe of aborigines, dwelling on tho banks of tlio Indus, as it leaves the mountains.

Kakavarna: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Magadha, who reigned for thirty-six years; he was the son of Sisunaga.

Kakshas: (sáns. hindú). The same as Kaohchas.

Kaksheya: (sáns. hindú). One of the ten sons of Raudraswa, a descendant of Puru .

Kakshivat: (sáns. hindú). A young poet and sage, to whom Raja Swanaya on the banks of the river Indus, gave his ten daughters in marriage; and in return was duly praised in a vedic hymn composed by his enthusiastic son-in-law. Wilson's Rig Veda.

He was a worshipper of the Asvins, who bestowed on him wisdom, and caused a hundred jars of wine and honied liquor to flow forth from the hoof of their horse as from a sieve. O. S. T., Vol. V, p. 246.

Kakubha: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in Orissa.

Kakud: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to Dharma.

Kakudmin: (sáns. hindú). A name of Raivata, the prince who went to the heaven of Brahma to consult the god where a bridegroom fit for his lovely daughter should be found.

Kakutstha: (sáns. hindú). In the Treta age a violent war broke out between the gods and the Asuras, in which the former were vanquished.

They consequently had recourse to Vishnu for assistance and propitiated him by their adorations. Narayana had compassion on them and said, there is an illustrious prince named Puraujaya, the son of a royal sage; into his person I will infuse a portion of myself, and by him subdue all your enemies. Acknowledging with reverence the kindness of the deity, the immortals quitted his presence, and repaired to Puranjaya to solicit his alliance.

The prince replied, " Let this your Indra, the monarch of the spheres, the god of a hundred sacrifices, consent to carry me upon his shoulders, and I will wage battle with your adversaries as your ally." The gods and Indra readily answered, " So be it ;" and the latter assuming the shape of a bull, the prince mounted upon his shoulder. Being then filled with delight, and invigorated by the power of the eternal ruler of all movable and immovable things, he destroyed in the battle that ensued all the enemies of the gods; and because he annihilated the demon host whilst seated upon the shoulder (or the hump, Kakud) of the bull, he thence obtained the appellation Kakutstha (seated on the hump), V. P.

Kala: (sáns. hindú). In the Vishnu Purana the moon's surface is said to be divided into sixteen Kalas or phases; the moon is also apportioned as a receptable of nectar, into fifteen Kalas or digits, corresponding to the fifteen lunations on the fourteen of which during the wane, the gods drink the amvita, and in the fifteenth of which the Pitris, exhaust the remaining portion. Professor Wilson remarks on the indistinctness of this account, but states that none of the other Puranas make it any clearer. Colonel Warren explains Kala, in one of its acceptations, * the phases of the moon, of which the Hindus count sixteen.'

Kala: (sáns. hindú). (Kala,) A gradation or manifestation of the Mula Prakriti; the principal Kalas are Swaha, Swadha, Dakshina, Swasti, Pushti, Tushti, and others, most of which are allegorical personifications, as Dhriti, fortitude, Pratishta, fame, and Adharma, wickedness, the bride of Mrityu, or death, Aditi the mother of the gods, and Diti, the mother of the demons, are also KaUs of Prakriti. The list includes all the secondary goddesses. - Wilson's Works, Vol. I, p., 246.

Kala: (sáns. hindú). (Kala.) Time. A form of Vishnu. " The deity as Time is without beginning and his end is not known: and from him the revolutions of creation, continuance, and dissolution, unintermittingly succeed; for when, in the latter season, the equilibrium of the qualities (Pradhana) exists, and spirit (Puman) is detached from matter, then the form of Vishnu, which is Time, abides."
V. P., p. 12.

" This being the case it is asked what should sustain matter and spirit whilst separate, or renew their combination so as to renovate creation ? It is answered, Time, which is when every thing else is not; and which, at the end of a certain interval, unites Matter, Pradhana, and Purusha, and produces creation.

Conceptions of this kind are evidently comprised in the Orphic triad, or the ancient notion of the co-operation of three such principles in creation, as Phanes or Eros, which is the Hindu spirit or Purusha; Chaos, matter or Pradhana; and Chronos, or Kala, Time." (Professor Wilson). Kala is also a name of Yama, the Hindu Pluto. " In two remarkable hymns in the Rig Veda we find an altogether new doctrine; Kala or Time is there described as the source and ruler of all things." O. S. T., Vol. V., p. 407.

Kala: (sáns. hindú). (Kala) Thirty Kashtas make one Kala; fifteen twinklings of the eye make a Kashta. K41a or Time, is thus computed:

15 Nimishas = 1 Kashta
30 Kashtas = 1 Kala
30 Kalas = 1 Kshana
12 Kshanas = 1 Muhurtta
30 Muhurttas = 1 day and night.

Kala: (sáns. hindú). (Kala) The name of one of the eleven Rudras according to the Bhagavata; the son of Vasu Dhruva was named Kala.

One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to Kasyapa was named Kala.

Kalajoshakas: (sáns. hindú). One of the aboriginal races mentioned in the Puranas.

Kalaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to Kasyapa.

Kalakas, Kalakanjas, Kalakeyas: (sáns. hindú). The names applied to a class of Danavas who were powerful, ferocious, and cruel.

Kahlanabha: (sáns. hindú). One of the many sons of Hiranyaksha; also the name of a son of Viprachitti.

Kalanara: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Sabhanara, one of the descendants of Anu.

Kalanjara: (sáns. hindú). A fabulous mountain, is placed in the Puranas to the north of Meru.

Kala-nemi: (sáns. hindú). The uncle of Ravana; the.latter promised him half his kingdom if he would kill Hanuman. Kala-nemi consequently assumed the form of a devotee and created a magic hermitage on the mountain Gandha-madana. When Hanumun reached the mountain and perceived Kfila-nemi seated like a devotee upon a deer skin, with various rosaries round his neck, and apparently absorbed in meditation, he supposed he saw a devout sage worshipping the liuga. Presently Kala-nemi beheld Hanuraan, and welcomed him as his guest; but Hanuman refused food and drink, and would only bathe in the pond which was near. When he dipped his foot in the water it was seized by a crocodile, which however he soon killed; upon this a beautiful Apsara arose from the dead body, and told Hanuman how she had offended the sage Daksha, and had been cursed to become a crocodile until she should be delivered by Hanuman. She then thanked him for her deliverance and bade him beware of Kala-nemi, Meantime Kala-nemi being assured of the death of Hanuman, was pending over the division of the Raj of Lanka, when Hanuman suddenly appeared before him and said " O you false hermit I know who you are ;" and seizing him by the feet whirled him round and suddenly let him loose; he flew through the air to Lanka to the utter surprise of Ravana and his councillors. " Kala-nemi," says Mr. Wheeler, " is a Hindu Aluaschar. He counts upon the pleasure he shall enjoy when taking half the Raj without considering that Hanuman may be still alive. To this day when a Hindu thinks of future profit without being sure that he will get it, he is often compared with Kala-nemi."

Kalansa: (sáns. hindú). A sub-division of the more important Kalas, or manifestations of Prakriti; the Kalansas are all womankind, who are distinguished as good, middling, or bad, according as they derive their being from the parts of their great original in which the Satya, Rajas, and Tamo Guna, or property of goodness, passion and vice predominate.

Kalapa: (sáns. hindú). The name of the fabulous village in which Maru, a descendant of Kusa, has lived for a long period, through the power of devotion, that in a future age he may be the restorer of the Khshatriya race in the solar dynasty. V. P.

Kalasutra: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas, or hells, enumerated in the Vishnu Purana, and described as one of the awful provinces in the kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture.

Kalavas: (sáns. hindú). One of the aboriginal races mentioned in thePuranas.

Kalayavana: (sáns. hindú). The son of Gargya, as black as a bee, and heuce called Kalayavana. He was king of the Yavanas, and having assembled a large army of Mlechchas and barbarians, advanced impatiently against Mathura and the Yadavas. Through the intervention of Krishna Kalayavana was led to enter the cavern in which Muchukuuda was sleeping, and was there destroyed.

Professor Wilson thinks the story may have originated in some knowledge of the power and position of the Greek Bactrian princes, or their Scythiau successors, mixed up with allusions to the first Mahomedan aggressions.

Kalayavi: (sáns. hindú). A disciple of Bashkali and teacher of the Eig Veda.

Kali: (sáns. hindú). A male personification of the Kali age, or the fourth and last age through which the world is now passing. lie wished to obtain Damayanti in marriage, and when he found that she had chosen Nala, he was greatly enraged and determined to be revenged.

One evening when Nala failed in some ceremonial observance Kali seized the opportunity and straightway entered into him and possessed his inmost soul. Nala had a brother named Pushkara, and Kali said to Pushkara, go you and play at dice with Nala, and I will make you the winner of his Raj. Pushkara challenged Nala to a game at dice, and they sat down to play in the presence of Damayanti. They played for gold and jewels and raiment, for chariots and horses, but Nala was worsted at every throw, for Dwapara embodied the dice, and Kali had mastered him body and soul. Then the faithful friends of Nala prayed him to throw no longer, but he was maddened with the love of play, and shut his ears to all they said. He staked his Raj, and the vestments which he wore, and he lost all to Pushkara. Then followed his exile, see jN"ala. Kali after this induced Nala to desert Damayanti in the jungle, and this completed his revenge.

Kali: (sáns. hindú). (Kali.) The Moloch of Indian Mythology. A form of Parvati, called Kali, or Maha-Kali, the consort of Siva, in his destroying character of T-me. As such, she is painted of a black or dark blue complexion. In Calcutta, her images are usually seen of the last-mentioned colour. In plates, she is shown as trampling (as the personification of Eternity) on the body of Siva (Time). In one hand she holds the exterminating sword, in another a human head; a third points downward, indicating, according to some, the destruction which surrounds her, and the other is raised upwards, in allusion to the figure of regeneration of nature by a new creation.

Mr. Ward, however, is of an opinion, which he has expressed respecting others of the deities, but which appears to be much at variance with the character of Kali, who is here annihilating Time itself, viz., that of the two last mentioned hands, one is bestowing a blessing, the other forbidding fear. Whatever her gestures may import, the image of this goddess is truly horrid, as are the devotional rites performed in honor of her. Her wild dishevelled hair reaching to her feet, her necklace of human heads, the wildness of her countenance, the tongue protruded from her distorted mouth, her cincture of blood-stained hands, and her position on the body of Siva, altogether convey in blended colours so powerful a personification of that dark character she is intended to pourtray, that whatever we may think of their tastes, we cannot deny to the Hindus our full credit for the possession of most extraordinary and fertile powers of imagination. A model of this goddess has the body of a dark blue, the insides of the hands are red, as is also the circlet of hands round the waist. The heads which form the necklace have a ghastly appearance. Her tongue is protruded from her mouth, the sides of which are marked with blood. Her head-dress and other ornaments are splendidly adorned with gems of various kinds. The body of Siva is white.

Kali is also called the goddess of cemeteries, under which form she is described dancing with the infant Siva in her arms, surrounded by ghosts and goblins (likewise dancing) in a cemetery amongst the dead. A paragraph appeared sometime ago in a Calcutta paper, which stated, that her images, under this form, were now worshipped by the Hindus as a propitiation against the destructive ravages of the cholera. To this ferocious goddess sanguinary sacrifices are made. The Kalika JPurana which details, in duo order and with much precision, the different descriptions of animals that ai*e to be sacrificed, and the length of time by which this insatiate lady will be gratified and kept in good humour by each, ordains that one man (ov a Hon) will please her for a thousand years, but that by the immolation of three men she will graciously condescend to be pleased one hundred thousand years. The sacrificer must repeat the name Kali and pay her the compliment of saying " Hraug, hriug, Kali, Kali ! O horrid-toothed goddess ! eat, cut, destroy all the malignant, cut with this axe; bind, bind, seize, seize, drink blood, spring, secure, secure, salutation to Kali !"

Immense sums of money are annually spent in the worship of this terrific deity. There is a celebrated temple dedicated to her at Kali-ghat in the vicinity of Calcutta, or the city of Kali, and impure sacrifices are offered to it; and on the occasion of the festivals of Kali, her temples are literally swimming with blood.

An adequate delineation of the scene, and of the horribly disgusting appearance of the executioners and other attendants of the place is scarcely possible.- Coleman, Myth. Hind, p, 94.

Kalidasa: (sáns. hindú). The greatest dramatist, and one of the most celebrated poets of India. He is known to the literary public of Europe especially through his di-ama Sakuntala which, first introduced to the notice of the western world by Sir William Jones (1789,) created so great a sensation throughout Europe, that the early success obtained by Sanskrit studies in England and Germany may be considered due to this master-piece of Sanskrit literature. Another drama of the same poet, and next in renown to Sahmtala is the Vihramorvasi, or the Hero and the Nymph.

Besides these works, Hindu tradition ascribes to his authorship a third drama and several poems, which no European critic will believe could ever have sprung from a mind like that of Kalidasa.

Professor Lassen, in the Indische AIterthumsku7ide, iasses the following judgment on this poet: 'Kalidasa may be considered as the brightest star in the firmament of Hindu artificial poetry. He deserves this praise on account of the mastery with which he wields the language, and on account of the consummate tact with which he imparts to it a more simple or more artificial form, according to the requirements of the subject treated by hira, without falling into the artificial diction of later poets, or over-stepping the limits of good taste; on account of the variety of his creations, his ingenious conceptions, and his happy choice of subjects; and not less on account of the complete manner in which he attains his poetical euds, the beauty of his narrative, the delicacy of his sentiment, and the fertility of his imagination.* But although we are enabled by his works to appreciate the merits of this poet, we know little of his personal history. That he lived at Ujjayini or Oujeiu, and that he was 'one of the nine gems of the court of Vikramaditya,' is all that is related in regard to him. But as there have been several Vikramadityas at Ujjayini, his date is as uncertain as that of any personage of the ancient history of India.

Dr. Bhao Daji, in a learned and ingenious essay ' On the Sanskrit Poet, Kalidasa' (Jour?ial of the Bombay Branch of the Boyal As. Soc.f October 1860), has endeavoured to identify Vikramaditya, the contemporary of Kalidasa, with Harsha Vikramaditya, and the great poet would, therefore, have lived in the middle of the sixth century of the Christian era. - Goldsiucker.

Kalika: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Yaiswanara, the wife of Kasyapa and mother of the ferocious and cruel Danavas.

Kalikamukha: (sáns. hindú). A distinguished Rakshasa chief, the son of Sumali and Retumati; he was the uncle of the great giant Ravana, and took part in the mythical battles with the gods.

Kalika Purana: (sáns. hindú). This work contains about nine thousand stanzas in ninety-eight chapters, and is the only work of the series dedicated to recommend the worship of the bride of Siva, in one or other of her manifold forms as Girija, Devi, Bhadrakali, Kali, Mahamya. It belongs therefore to the Sakta modification of Hindu belief, or the worship of the female powers of the deities.

The influence of this worship shows itself in the very first pages of the work, which relate the incestuous passion of Brahma for his daughter Sandhya, in a strain that has nothing analogous to it in the Vayu, Linga, or Siva Puranas.

The marriage of Siva and Parvati is a subject early described, with the sacrifice of Daksha, and the death of Sati; and this work is authority for Siva's carrying the dead body about the world, and the origin of the Pithast'hanas, or places where the diflTerent members of it were scattered, and where Lingas were consequently erected. A legend follows of the births of Bhairava and Vetala, whose devotion to different forms of Devi furnishes occasion to describe in great detail the rites and formulae of which her worship consists, including the chapters on sanguinary sacrifices, translated in the Asiatic Researches. - Wilson, Kalinda - The father of Kalindi, the goddess of the Jumna.

Kalindas: (sáns. hindú). One of the tribes of Kshatrijas who from seeing no brahmans became outcasts. O. S. T., Vol. I, p. 482.

Kalindi: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the wives of Krishna, the daughter of the Sun, whom Krishna met on one of his visits to Indraprastha, and who claimed him as the reward of her penance; 2, The goddess of the Jumna; 3, One of the widows of king Asit, and mother of Sagara;

There came the other widowed queen
With lotus eyes and beauteous mien
Longing a noble son to bear,
And wooed the saint with earnest prayer.

When thus Kalindi fairest dame,
With reverent supplication came,
To her the holy sage replied:
' Born with the poison from thy side,
O happy queen shall spring ere long
An infant fortunate and strong
Then weep no more and check thy sighs
Sweet lady of the lotus eyes.'Griffiths Ramayana.

4. The daughter of the king of the Asuras, who after her father's death offered her kingdom and herself, twin wives, to Matanga (q. v.) who readily assented, married the damsel, and became king of Patala.

Kalinga: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sons of Bali. Kalinga is the name of the sea coast west of the mouths of the Ganges, with the upper part of the Coromandel Coast. The inhabitants are called Kalingas.

Kaliya: (sáns. hindú). A serpent king, into whose lake Krishna when a boy once leaped, and was severely bitten; Krishna was then exhorted to put forth his celestial vigour, and soon bruised the head of the venomous and powerful snake. Kaliya then prayed for mercy saying, behold I am now without strength, without poison, deprived of both by thee, * Spare my life.' The snake king was then liberated and sent into the sea.

Kali Yuga: (sáns. hindú). The last age. It consists of 1,200 years of the gods, a year of men being a day of the gods; these divine years may, therefore, be converted into years of mortals by multiplying them by 360, which makes the duration of the Kali Yuga 432,000 years. The date of its commencement is fixed in the thirteenth or fourteenth century b. c, when Vishnu returned to heaven after his incarnation as Krishna. During this age all things will decline, and the deterioration of mankind will be general. The Vedas will be disregarded. The minds of men will be wholly occupied in acquiring wealth; and wealth will be spent solely on selfish gratifications. Women will follow their inclinations and be fond of pleasure. Men of all degrees will consider themselves equal to Brahmans. Cows will be held in esteem only as they supply milk. These are a few of the evils, selected from the long catalogue of them contained in the Vishnu Purana which are to prevail in the Kali age. A few redeeming properties of the age are, however, mentioned. The efficacy of devotion to Vishnu is more strikingly manifested. The least moral merit obtains in this age, the greatest reward; and is by all classes most easily displayed. The Kali Yuga is to be followed by the Krita Yuga.

Kalki: (sáns. hindú). An Avatara of Vishnu to be born near the close of the Kali age, when all whose minds are devoted to iniquity shall be destroyed, and righteousness be established on earth; and the minds of those who live at the end of the Kali age shall be awakened and be as pellucid as crystal.

Kalmashapada: (sáns. hindú). A prince, called also Saudasa. Kalmashapada, whilst hunting, encountered Saktri, the son of Vanish t'ha, in the woods; and on his refusing to make way, struck the sage with his whip. Saktri cursed the king to become a cannibal; and Viswamitra, who had a quarrel with Vasisht'ha, seized the opportunity to direct a Rakshasa to take possession of the king, that he might become the instrument of destroying the family of the rival saint. Whilst thus influenced, Mitrasaha, a Brahman, applied to Kalm*shapida for food, and the king commanded his cook to dress human flesh, and give it to the Brahman, who, knowing what it was, repeated the curse of Saktri, that the king should become a cannibal; which taking effect with double force, Kalmashapada began to eat men. One of his first victims was Saktri, whom he slew and ate; and then killed and devoured, under the secret impulse of Viswamitra's demon, all the other sons of Vasist'ha. Vasist'ha, however, liberated him from the Rakshasa who possessed him, and restored him to his natural character. V. P. For a somewhat different version of the legend, see O. S. T. Vol. I, p. 414.

Kalpa: (sáns. hindú). A period of time: a great mundane age; a day of Brahma. The most simple calculation of a Kalpa is its being 1,000 great ages or ages of the gods. Thus 4,320,000 years or a divine age, multiplied by 1,000 is equal to 4,320,000,000 years, or a day or night of Brahma.

One year of mortals is equal to one day of the gods. 12,000 divine years are equal to a period of four Yugas which is thus made up, viz.: - Krita Yuga, with its mornings and evenings, 4,800 divine years.

TretdYuga, " " 3,600 "
Dvapara Yuga, " " 2,400 "
Kali Yuga, " " 1,200
making 12,000 divine years.

As a day of the gods is = to one year of mortals, the 12,000 divine years must be multiplied by 360, the assumed number of days in a year, to give the number of the years of mortals in this great period of four Yugas, thus: 12,000 divine years X 360 = 4,320,000 years of mortals. 1,000 of these periods of 12,000 divine, or 4,320,000 human years- i c, 4,320,000,000 human years, are = 1 day of Brahma, and his night is of the same duration. Within that period of a day of Brahma, 14 Manus reign, and a Manwantara, or period of Manu, is consequently = the 14th part of a day of Brahma. In the present Kalpa (= a day of Brahma) six Manus, of whom Svayambhuva was the first, have ah'eady passed away, the present Manu being Vaivasvata. In each Manwantara seven Rishis, certain deities, an Indra, a Manu, and the kings, his sons, are created and perish. A thousand of the systems of four Yugas, as has been before explained, occur coincidently with these 14 Manwantaras; and consequently about 7i systems of 4 Yugas elapse during each Manwantara, and measure the lives of the Manu and the deities of the period. At the close of this day of Brahma a collapse of the universe takes place, which lasts through a night of Brahma, equal in duration to his day, during which period the three worlds are converted into one great ocean, when the lotus born god, expanded by his deglutition of the universe, and contemplated by the yogis and gods in Janaloka, sleeps on the serpent Sesha. At the end of that night he awakes and creates anew. - Wilson.

Kalpa: (sáns. hindú). The name of a son of Dhruva; also an Anga of the Vedas, containing the Ritual: the ceremonials of the AtharvaVedas are called the five Kalpas.

Kalpa-sutras: (sáns. hindú). Aphorisms regarding the performance of sacrifices enjoined by the vedas; written by human authors, and therefore not considered as Sruti or revelation, are yet regarded as of very high authority.

Kama-deva: (sáns. hindú). The Hindu Cupid or Eros, or god of Love, considered to be one of the most pleasing creations of Hindu fiction, is the son of Vishnu or Krishna by Lakshmi, who is then called Maya or Rukmini. According to another account he was first produced in the heart of Brahma, and coming out in the form of a beautiful female, was looked upon by Brahma with amorous emotions. He is usually represented as a handsome youth, sometime conversing with his mother and consort in the midst of his gardens and temples; sometimes riding by moonlight on a parrot or lory, and attended by nymphs, one of whom bears his banner, which consists of a fish on red ground. Endeavouring to influence Siva with a passion of love for his wife Parvati, he discharged an arrow at him; but Siva, enraged at the attempt reduced him to ashes, or as some say to a mere mental essence, by a beam of fire darted from his central eye. Afterwards the relenting god declared that he should be born again in the form of Pradyumna, son of Krishna by Maya or Rukmini. The bow of Kamadeva is made of flowers, with a string formed of bees, and his five arrows are each tipped with the blossom of a flower, which is devoted to and supposed to preside over a sense. He is lord of the Apsarasas. Many names are applied to Kama-deva. He is called the god of desire; the mind agitator; the maddener; the inflamer; the destroyer of devotional tranquillity.

It is well known that Greek mythology connected Eros, the god of love, with the creation of the universe, somewhat in the same way as Kama is associated with it in the Rig Veda, x. 129. (See Eros in Dr. Smith's Dictionary.) In another hymn of the Atharva beda, Kama, like the Eros of the Greeks and Cupid of the Latins, is described as the god of sexual love. " May Kama, having well-directed the arrow which is winged with pain, barbed with longing, and has desire for its shaft, pierce thee in the heart." &c. O. S. T., Vol. V, p. 407.

Kamagamas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities of the eleventh Manwantara.

Kamakhya, Kamakshi: (sáns. hindú). The name of a form of Durga in the north-east of Bengal. There are some celebrated temples in Assam dedicated to the goddess under this form.

Kamarupa: (sáns. hindú). The name given to the eastern part of Bharatavarsha. Also the name of a place of pilgrimage in Assam, where the temples referred to in the preceding article are built.

Kambala: (sáns. hindú). One of the many-headed serpent kings, of the progeny of Kadru.

Kambalavarhish: (sáns. hindú). One of the four sons of Andhaka.

Kambojas: (sáns. hindú). A north-western tribe famous for their horses, of which they appear to have possessed a remarkably fine breed.

They were conquered by Sagara, who would have destroyed them utterly, but at the request of Vasisht'ha contented himself with imposing on all the vanquished tribes peculiar distinguishing marks, such as shaviug their heads, letting their beards grow, &c.

Kameri: (sáns. hindú). The Indian cuckoo, or bird of Kama, whose emblems are peculiarly appropriate, being a bow and arrow composed of roses and jessamine, and other flowers in which no thorns ever lurk. Colonel Tod says " the Kameri poured forth its monotonous but pleasing notes, from an umbrageous peepul, amidst the stillness of a lovely scene, where the last tints of sunset illuminated the dark hues of the surrounding woods."

Kampilya: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sons of Haryaswa. Their father said these my five (pancha) sous are able (alam) to protect the countries; hence they were called the Panchalas. Panchala was at first the country north and west of Delhi, between the foot of the Himalaya and the Chambal. It was afterwards divided into northern and southern Panchala separated by the Ganges. Kampilya was the name also given to part of the country, and was called Kampil by the early Mahommedan invaders. Kampilya was the city of Raja Drupada.

Kamya: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Kardanea who was married to Priyavrata.

Kamyaka: (sáns. hindú). An extensive forest on the banks of the Saraswati, to which the Pandavas retired, on the occasions of their second exile.

Kanakas: (sáns. hindú). Inhabitants of Mushika, or the country of thieves, a name applied to the pirate coast of Konkan. Professor Wilson thinks it may also designate Malabar where polyandry then as now prevailed.

Kanakhala: (sáns. hindú). The name of the village according to the Linga Purana, where the great sacrifice of Daksha took place. Gangadwara, the place where the Ganges descends to the plains, - or Haridwar, as it is more usually termed, is commonly specified as the scene of action.

Kanchana: (sáns. hindú). The son of Bhima, a descendant of Pururavas.

Kandarpa: (sáns. hindú). A name of Kama the Indian Cupid.

Kandu: (sáns. hindú). An eminent sage, who practised pious austerities on the lovely borders of the Gomati river. Indra sent the nymph Pramlochi to disturb his penance, and the sweet-smiling damsel diverted the sage from his devotions. They lived together in the valley of Mandura for a huudred and fifty years, wholly given up to enjoyment. Then the nymph requested permission to return to heaven; but the sage still fondly attached to her, prevailed upon her to remain for some time longer; and the graceful damsel continued to reside for another hundred years and delight the great sage by her fascinations. Then she again wished to return to the abodes of the gods, and again the Muni desired her to remain. Similar scenes occurred several times.

" On one occasion the sage was going forth from their cottage in a great hurry. The nymph asked him where he was going.

* The day,' he replied, * is drawing fast to a close: I must perform the Sandhya worship, or a duty will be neglected.' The nymph smiled mirthfully as she rejoined, * Why do you talk, grave sir, of this day drawing to a close: your day is a day of many years, a day that must be a marvel to all: explain what this means.' The Muni said, * Fair damsel, you came to the riverside at dawn; I beheld you then, and you then entered my hermitage. It is now the revolution of evening, and the day is gone. What is the meaning of this laughter ? Tell me the truth.' Pramlocha answered, * you say rightly,' venerable Brahman, * that I came hither at morning dawn, but several hundred years have passed since the time of my arrival. This is the truth.' The Muni, on hearing this, was seized with astonishment, and asked her how long he had enjoyed her society; to which the nymph replied, that they had lived together nine hundred and seven years, six months, and three days. The Muni asked her if she spoke the truth, or if she was in jest; for it appeared to him that they had spent but one day together: to which Pramlocha replied, that she should not dare at any time to tell him who lived in the path of piety an untruth, but particularly when she had been enjoined by him to inform him what had passed.

" When the Muni, princes, had heard these words, and knew that it was the truth, he began to reproach himself bitterly, exclaiming, * Fie, fie upon me; my penance has been interrupted; the treasure of the learned and the pious has been stolen from me; my judgment has been blinded: this woman has been created by some one to beguile me: Brahma is beyond the reach of those agitated by the waves of infirmity. I had subdued my passions, and was about to attain divine knowledge. This was foreseen by him by whom this girl has been sent hither. Fie on the passion that has obstructed my devotions. All the austerities that would have led to acquisition of the wisdom of the Vedas have been rendered of no avail by passion that is the road to hell.' The pious sage, having thus reviled himself, turned to the nymph, who was sitting nigh, and said to her, ' Go, deceitful girl, whither thou wilt: thou hast performed the office assigned thee by the monarch of the gods, of disturbing my penance by thy fascinations. I will not reduce thee to ashes by the fire of my wrath. Seven paces together is sufficient for the friendship of the virtuous, but thou and I have dwelt together. And in truth what fault hast thou committed ? why should I be wrath with thee ? The sin is wholly mine, in that I could not subdue my passions: yet fie upon thee, who, to gain favour with Indra, hast disturbed my devotions; vile bundle of delusion.'

" Thus spoken to by the Muni, Pramlocha stood trembling, whilst big drops of perspiration started from every pore; till he angrily cried to her, * Depart, begone.' She then, reproached by him, went forth from his dwelling, and, passing through the air, wiped the perspiration from her person with the leaves of the trees. The nymph went from tree to tree, and as with the dusky shoots that crowned their summits she dried her limbs, which were covered with moisture, the child she had conceived by the Rishi came forth from the pores of her skin in drops of perspiration.

The trees received the living dews, and the winds collected them into one mass. " This," said Soma, " I matured by my rays, and gradually it increased in size, till the exhalation that had rested on the tree tops became the lovely girl named Marisha." V. P.

Kanishtas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities of the fourteenth Manwantara.

Kanka: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ugrasena.

Kanouj: (sáns. hindú). A city on the banks of the river Soue. The Ramayana contains an extraordinary legend of its foundation.

The Raja Kusanabha had a hundred beautiful daughters to whom Vayu the god of wind made some amorous proposals which they rejected, declaring that they would only accept such husband as their father might give them. Vayu then rendered them hunchbacked. Subsequently they were all married to a young Raja, Brahmadatla, who cured them by a touch, and the city in which they dwelt was henceforth called Kanyakubja, the hunch-backed, and still goes by the name of Kanouj. - See GritdcM, Kusandbha.

Kanyakagunas: (sáns. hindú). A race of Aborigines.

Kanyakubja: (sáns. hindú). The city of the Bent Virgins, the modern Kanouj.

Kansa: (sáns. hindú). Rajah of Mathura; he deposed his father Ugrasena; and threatened to slay his cousin Devaki on her wedding day.

Vasudeva engaged to deliver up her children to him. He was warned before the birth of Krishna, that the latter would take away his life. He accordingly attempted to destroy Krishna as soon as he was born; failing in this he ordered that all the worshippers of Vishnu, young and old, should be slain; and he commanded his warriors to make search for all young children throughout that country, and to slay every male child. He afterwards employed demons to find and kill Krishna, and sent Akrura to W'ing him to Mathura. Public games were celebrated with great splendour; there was a severe contest in which Krishna slew the powerful demon Chanura, and afterwards killed king Kansa himself.

Kansa, Kansavati, Kanki: (sáns. hindú). Daughters of Ugrasena.

Kanwa: (sáns. hindú). l, A teacher of the white Yajush, and founder of several schools for the purpose; 2, The name of a son of Apratiratha from whom the Kanwayana brahmans descended; 3, A son of Ajamidha, a descendant of Hastin.

Kapali, Kaparddi: (sáns. hindú). Two of the eleven Rudras according to the Vishnu Purana.

Kapalika: (sáns. hindú). The following description of the Kapalika is from the Sankara Vijaya of Anandagiri:

" His body is smeared with ashes from a funeral pile, around his neck hangs a string of human skulls, his forehead is streaked with a black line, his hair is wove into the matted braid, his loins are clothed with a tiger's skin, a hollow skull is in his left hand (for a cup), and in his right he carries a bell, which he rings incessantly, exclaiming aloud, ho, Sambhu Bhairava - ho, lord of Kali."

Kapi: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Urukshaja, who afterwards became a brahman. V. P., p. 451.

Kapila: (sáns. hindú). A great Rishi, who destroyed the sons of Sagara.

When the latter commenced the performance of the solemn sacrifice of a horse, it was guarded by his own sons; nevertheless some one stole the animal, and carried it oiF into a chasm in the earth.

Sagara commanded his sons to search for the steed. They at last found it freely wandering about in Patala, and at no great distance saw the Rishi Kapila sitting, absorbed in profound meditation, and illuminating the surrounding space with radiance as bright as the splendour of the autumnal sun, shining in an unclouded sky* Exclaiming " This is the villain who has interrupted our sacrifice and stolen the horses, kill him; kill him; they ran towards him with uplifted weapons. The Muni slowly raised his eyes and for an instant looked upon them, and they were reduced to ashes by the sacred flame that darted from his person. Kajjjla was the founder of the Sankya school of philosophy. A work said to bo written by him, called the Sankya-Pravdchana, or Preface to the Sankya Philosophy, is still extant, and was printed at Serampore in 1821. The great reverence in which Kapila was held, may be presumed from the fact that he is sometimes considered as an incarnation of the god Agni; and sometimes of Vishnu himself.

He seems to belong only to the Puianic period. See Sinkya. 2, A renowned Danava. 3, One of the serpent kings of the progeny of Kadru. 4, The name of a mountain in the west of Meru. 5, One of the Purdnic rivers. 6, A city mentioned in the Puranas.

Kapilasrama: (sáns. hindú). The name of the hermitage of Kapila, on the shore of the island of Sagara, which is still the scene of an annual pilgrimage.

Kapilaswa: (sáns. hindú). One of the three sons of Kuvalayaswa, who survived the great conflict with the demon Dhunda.

Kapotoroman: (sáns. hindú). The son of Vrishta, a descendant of Sini.

Karabhanjikas: (sáns. hindú). An aboriginal mountain tribe of the north.

Karakas, KarataS: (sáns. hindú). Aboriginal tribes enumerated in the Puranas.

Karali: (sáns. hindú). The terrific one; one of the many names of the consort of Siva. O. S. T., Vol. IV, p. 364.

Karambhi: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Sakuni of the race of Jyamagha.

Karandhama: (sáns. hindú). The powerful, wealthy, and valiant son of Khaninetra, who when besieged by revolted tributaries is said to have created an army by breathing in his hands; hence his name.

Karari: (sáns. hindú). Is the worshipper of Devi in her terrific forms, the representative of the Aghora Ghanta and Rapalika who as lately as only seven or eight centuries ago, there is reason to suppose, sacrificed human victims to Kali, Chamunda, and other hideous personifications of the Sakti of Siva. - Wilson's Work, Vol. I, p. 264.

Kardama: (sáns. hindú). A Prajapati, who was married to one of the daughters of Daksha named Devahuti. The names given to their daughters show that they are allegorical personifications of intelligences and virtues and religious rites. 2, A son of Pulaha.

Karishakas, Karitis: (sáns. hindú). Aboriginal tribes enumerated in the Puranas.

Karkkotta: (sáns. hindú). One of the serpent kings of the progeny of Kadru.

Karli: (sáns. hindú). Is situated about half way between Poona and Bombay, and is celebrated for the numerous inscriptions in its caves in the Pali language; of a date estimated at 543 b. c. to 1 76 A. d. The religion, or divinities or sages mentioned are Buddhist; the invocation is to the Triad; no doubt meaning Buddha, Dharma, Sanga. The kings or princes mentioned, Dr. Wilson says, are, Vijara, but Dr. Stevenson, Arodhana, lord of India. Garga, ruler of the Sakas. Of the numerous Buddhist inscriptions in the cave temple at Karli, Drs. Wilson and Stevenson are not quite agreed about the reading. Garga, the '" ruler of the Sakas" (Sakya, Buddha's tribe), is mentioned.

The cave temples, in the southern part of India, are classed byMr. Fergusson into (a) the Vihara or monastery caves, which consist of (1) natural caverns or caves slightly improved by art.

These are the most ancient, and are found appropriated to religious purposes in Behar and Cuttack; next (2) a verandah, opening behind into cells for the abode of priests, as in Cuttack and in the oldest Vihara at Ajanta; the third (3) has an enlarged hall supported on pillars: the most splendid of these caves are those of Ajanta; though the Dherwarra at Ellora is also fine, and there are same good specimens at Salsette and Junir.

(b) Buddhist Chetya caves form the second class. These are the temples or churches of the series and one or more of them is attached to every set of caves in western India, though none exist on the eastern side. Unlike the Viharas, all these caves have the same plan and arrangement, and the Karli cave is the most perfect in India. All these consist of an external porch or music gallery, an internal gallery over the entrance; a central aisle, which may be called a nave, roofed by a plain waggon vault, and a semi-dome terminating the nave, under the centre of which always stands a Dagoba or Chaitya. In the oldest temples, the Dagoba consists of a plain central drum surmounted by a hemispherical dome crowned by a Tee, which supported the umbrella of state, of wood or stone.

These two classes comprehend all the Buddhist caves in India.

The third class consists of brahmanical caves, properly so called.

The finest specimens are at Ellora and Elephanta though some good ones exist also on the island of Salsette and at Mahabalipur.

In form, many of them arc copies of, and a good deal resemble the Buddhist Vihara. But they have not been appropriated from the Buddhists, as the arrangement of the pillars and position of the sanctuary are different.

The Fourth class consists of rock cut models of structural Brahmanical temples. To this class belong the far famed Kylas at Ellora, the Sivite temple at Doomnar, and the Ruths at Mahabalipur. This last is cut out of isolated blocks of granite, but the rest stand in pits.

The Fifth or true Jaina cavcs: occur at Khandagiri in Cuttack and in the southern parts of India, but are few and insignificant. In that in the rock of Gwalior fort, there are cut in the rock a number of rude colossal figures, from 30 to 40 feet high, of one of the Thirtankaras, some sitting and some standing.

The Ajanta, are the most complete series of Buddhist caves in India, without any mixture of Brahmanism, and contain types of all the rest; they are in a ravine or small valley in the ghat south of the Taptee. At Bang in a ravine or small valley in the ghat, on the north side of the valley of the Taptee, are three ancient Buddhistical caves.

The Salsette or Kannari caves in the island of Salsette, are also purely Buddhist, but very inferior to the former. The Kannari caves are excavated in a hill situated in the midst of an immense tract of forest country, and Mr. Fergusson supposes their date about the 9th or 10th century of the christian era.

Dhumnar, about 40 miles S. E. from Neemuch but close to Chundwassa, contains Buddhist caves with a Brahraanical rock temple behind.

The Ellora caves are excavated in a porphyritic green stone or amygdaloid.

The Elephanta caves are cut in a harder rock than those of Ellora.

Those of Dhumnar and Ellora contain a strong admixture of Brahmanism, and those of Elephanta are entirely Brahmanical, though perhaps of the same age as those of Ellora. - Balfour's Ci/clopcedia.

Karma: (sáns. hindú). According to the doctrines of Buddhism the power that controls the universe is Karma, literally Action; consisting ofkusala and akusala, or merit and demerit. There is no such monad as an immaterial spirit, but at the death of any being, the aggregate of his merit and demerit is transferred to some other being, which new being is caused by the karma of the previous being, and receives from that karma all the circumstances of its existence. Thus, if the karma be good, the circumstances are favourable, producing happiness, but if it be bad, they are unfavourable, producing misery.

The manner in which being first commenced cannot now be ascertained. The cause of the coyitinuance of existence is ignorance, from which merit and demerit are produced, whence comes consciousness, then body and mind, and afterwards the six organs of sense. Again, from the organs of sense comes contact; from contact, desire; from desire, sensation; from sensation, the cleaving to existing objects; from this cleaving, reproduction; and from reproduction, disease, decay, and death. Thus, like the revolutions of a wheel, there is a regular succession of death and birth, the moral. cause of which is the cleaving to existing objects, whilst the inarumental cause is karma. It is, therefore, the great object of aVi beings who would be released from the sorrows of successiv-fe birth to seek the destruction of the moral cause of continiaed existence, that is to say, the cleaving to existing objects, or ,fvil desire. It is possible to accomplish this destruction, by /attending to a prescribed course of discipline, which results in an entrance to one of the four paths, with their fruition, that lead, by different modes, to the attainment of nirwana. They in whom evil desire is entirely destroyed are called arhats. The freedom from evil desire ensures the possession of a miraculous energy. At his death the arhat invariably attains nirwana, or ceases to exist. - Spence Hardy.

Kanuosa: (sáns. hindú). The eldest son of the Patriarch Pulaka. In the Bhagavata he is designated Karmasreshta.

Kama: (sáns. hindú). The son of Pritha, or Kunti, by the Phoebus of Hindu mythology. Pritha was the child of a Yddava prince, Sura, who gave her to his childless cousin Kuntibhoja, under whose care she was brought up. One day before her marriage she paid such respect and attention to the great sage Durvasas, a guest in her father's house, that he gave her a charm and taught her an incantation, by virtue of which she was to have a child by any god she liked to invoke. This power she did not suffer to lie idle, but invoked the sun by whom she had a child, born like Minerva ready equipped for the field; armed with a miraculous cuirass and lance. Pritha, afraid of the censure of her relatives, deserted the child, and exposed it in the Jumna. It was found by Dhritarashtra*s charioteer Adhiratha, and nurtured by his wife Radha, whence the child was afterwards called Radheya, though named by his foster parents Vasushena. When he was grown up Indra tricked him out of his armour, by appealing to his generosity in the guise of a brahman. Indra in return conferred upon him enormous strength and changed his name to Kama, - Monier Williams, I, E.P., p. 94.

Kama, though in reality the half-brother of the live Pandava princes, was on more friendly terms with their cousins, the Kurus, and joined Duryodhana and Sakuni in various schemes for destroying the Pandus. In the great war he became a general in the Kuru army; for five days he had the command of the whole army; he engaged to slay Arjuna, and when the latter went forth to a final battle against him, the armies stopped fighting and the gods descended from heaven. He was finally slain by Arjuna with a crescent-shaped arrow. His widows, children and dependants were treated with great kindness by Arjuna and Yudhisthira. Kama's relationship to the Pandus was not known by Arjuna at that time, and his death was afterwards lamented by all the brothers.

" The birth of Kama was secret, and he was reputed to be the son of Naudana the charioteer of Dhritarashtra, having been found floating in the river Yamuna, although the son of Pritha by the Sun; he was born in celestial panoply, and with splendid ear-rings, whence his first appellation was Vasushena, or abounding in wealth. Indra disguised as a brahman begged of him his divine coat of mail, in order to obtain it for his own son Arjuna, and from the act of cutting it or detaching it from his body, the prince was named Kama; he is also entitled Vaikarttana from Vikarttana the sun. Indra in return for the armour presented Kama with a javelin freighted with the certain death of one individual whether god, man, or demon. Kama launched it at Ghotokacha, the Rakshasa son of Bhima, and it destroyed him, but left its possessor helpless against the charmed weapons, offensive and defensive, of Arjuna, by whose hand Kama ultimately fell." - Wilson's Works, Vol. Ill, p. 333.

Karnapravaranas: (sáns. hindú). A nickname applied in the Puranas to some of the aboriginal tribes, meaning those who wrap themselves up in their cars.

Kamatakas: (sáns. hindú). The Canarese people; the inhabitants of the centre of the peninsula, the proper Karnata, or Carnatic.

Kartika: (sáns. hindú). The name of one of the lunar months, corresponding to October.

Kartikeya: (sáns. hindú). The Hindu Mars, or god of war, generated from the vivifying principle of Siva cast into Agni, or Fire, -who unable to retain it, cast it into Ganga, or the Ganges. On the banks of this river was born the beautiful boy who was destined to lead the armies of the gods, and to be the destroyer of Tdraka, and Sura, a demon who by his austerities, had alarmed both gods and men, and gained the dominion of the universe. When born Kartikeya was nursed by six nymphs called the Krittikas, or Pleiades, who each called him her son, and offering her breast, the child assumed to himself six mouths and received nurture from each. He is considered to be the brother of Ganesa who was the reputed eldest son of Siva and Parvati. He is represented riding on a peacock; sometimes with one face, sometimes with six faces and twelve arms. One account of his birth is as follows: Siva emitted from his eyes sparks of fire, which being thrown into the lake Saravana, became six infants, who were nursed by the wives of the Rishis who are to be seen in the sky as the Pleiades. When Parvati saw the children she was so transported with their beauty, and embraced all of them together so forcibly, that their six bodies became one, while their six heads and twelve arms remained, Kartikeya is better known in the south of India as Subramanya, and Tuesday is the weekly day of his devotees. The Skanda Purana gives the fullest account of Subramanya, containing his war with Sura, and relates how he was sent by his father to frustrate the sacrifice of Daksha, and, at the instigation of the latter, was delayed in his way by beautiful damsels, who entertained him with song and music. Hence it is the practice still for the dancing girls who serve in the pagodas, to be betrothed and married to him, and then not allowed to marry men though they may prostitute themselves.

Karttavirya: (sáns. hindú). The son of Kritavirya and sovereign of the Kaikaya tribe. He is said to have invaded Lanka and taken Ravana prisoner. The Vishnu Purana says that by propitiating the sage Dattatreya he obtained these boons; a thousand arms; never acting unjustly; subjugation of the world by justice, and protecting it equitably; victory over his enemies; and death by the hands of a person renowned in the three regions of the universe. With these means he ruled over the earth with might and justice; and offered ten thousand sacrifices. At the expiration of his long reign (eighty-five thousand years) he was killed by Parasurama, as related under Jamadagni, Karundhaka - One of the tQn sous of Sura and brother of Visudeva, in whose family Krishna was born.

Karusha: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Manu Vaiwaswata, from whom descended the celebrated warriors termed Karushas, who lived in the Paripatra or Vindhya mountains.

Kasa: (sáns. hindú). The son of Suhotra of the family of Ayus, and king of Kasi.

Kaseramat: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine divisions of the Varsha of Bharata.

Kashtha: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa; she was the mother of beasts with uncloven hoofs.

Kashtha: (sáns. hindú). Fifteen twinklings of the eye, or Nimishas; five Kshanas.

Kasi, or Varanasi: (sáns. hindú). Benares, q. V. the sacred city of the Hindus, which they believe to have descended from the gods originally.

Kasina: (sáns. hindú). An ascetic rite among the Buddhists, by which it is supposed that a miraculous energy may be received. There are ten descriptions of this rite,

1. Prathawi earth.
2. Apo water.
3. Tejo fire.
4. Vayu wind.
5. Nila blue.
6. Pita golden.
7. Lohita blood red.
8. Odata white.
9. Alaka light.
10. Akasa space.

There are various ceremonies prescribed for the performance of these different kinds of Kasiua, and from its practice in any one of its forms, a Buddhist priest expects to derive many advantages. See Hardy's Manual of Buddhism.

Kasiraja: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Kasi - the son of Kasa, an ally of the Pandavas.

Kasis: (sáns. hindú). The people of the Benares district, and that opposite.

Kasmiras: (sáns. hindú). The people of Kashmir.

Kasya: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Senajit, one of the descendants of Hastin.

Kasyapa: (sáns. hindú). A sage, the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma, and one of the Prajapatis or progenitors of created things. He married thirteen of the daughters of Daksha; from whom descended the twelve Adityas; the nymphs of the lunar constellations; the Daityas and Danavas; many classes of animals, etc., etc. His share in creation was thus no unimportant one, as he was the father of the gods and demons, man, beasts, and reptiles. Kasyapa was the father of Vivasvat, and he again of Manu. " Righteous was this wise Manu on whom a race was founded. Hence this family of men became known as the race of Manu. Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and other men sprang from this Manu." (0. S. T., Vol. I, p. 125.) "The Chhandogya Upanishad agrees with the above passage from the Mahabharata, in recognising Manu as the progenitor of the brahmans as well as the other castes." (p. 196.)

*' Having assumed the form of a tortoise Prajapati created offspring.

That which he created, he made; hence the word kurma. Kasyapa means tortoise; hence men say all creatures are descendants of Kasyapa. This tortoise is the same as Aditya." (Vol. IV, p. 23.)

The Mahabharata states: " From Kasyapa, who was the son of Marichi, were produced the deities and the Asuras; and he was the source from which all beings sprang. Aditi had twelve sons, beginning with Sakra. The youngest of them was Vishnu, on whom the worlds are supported." " Ansa, Bhaga, Milj-a, Varuna, lord of the waters, Dhatri, Aryaman, Jayauta, Bhaskara, Tvashtri, Pushan, Indra, and Vishnn, who is called the twelfth; these aro the twelve Adityas, the sons of Kasyajaa, according to tradition (or the veda sruti.ya In another passage Vivasvat and Savitri occur instead of Jayanta and Bhaskara; Tvashtri is placed the eleventh in order, and it adds " the twelfth is called Vishnu, who though the latest born, surpasses all the Adityas in his attributes." (Vol. IV, p. 103,104.)

In the Ramayana the following passage occurs; Visvaraitra speaks: - "At this period O Rama, the divine Kasyapa, luminous as fire, glowing, as it were, with splendour, attended by the goddess Aditi, having completed an act of austerity which had lasted for a thousand years of the gods, celebrated thus the praises of the boon-bestowing Madhusudana. ' Through intense austerity I behold thee the Supreme Spirit, whose essence is austerity, who art a congeries of austerity, the impersonation of austerity, whose wealth is austerity. In thy body, lord, I behold this whole universe; thou art unbeginning, and ineffable; to thee I have resorted as my refuge.' Then Hari, gratified, whose taint of sin had been purged away; * Ask a boon; may good attend thee; thou art regarded by me as deserving a boon.' Hearing these words of his, Kasyapa, the son of Marichi, replied; * Sinless lord, become the son of Aditi and myself. Slayer of the Asuras become the younger brother of Sakra. (Indra.) Thou oughtest to succour the gods who are oppressed with grief, Vishnu, of mighty energy, was accordingly born of Aditi, shaded by an umbrella, in the form of a mendicant, resplendent with a drinking gourd, and a lock of hair on his crown." {Ibid, p. 116.)

Kasyapa is supposed by some modern writers to be a personification of the remains of the antediluvian race, who took refuge in tho central Asiatic chain, in which traces of his name so plentifully abound, as in the Koh-i-Kas or Caucasus, the Kaspian, and I{!ashmir.

It is asserted that the thirteen Gotras or families of Brahmans owe their origin to as many divine sages called after their names.

Kasyapa is one of the number. The Asvalayana Sutra of the Rig Veda contains the enumeration of the Gotras and their sub-divisions, but in a very involved and unintelligible style. The popular enumeration of them, however, is now wholly confined to the South of India, where several of the reputed representatives of these tribes yet exist; especially about Gooty and Gondavir.

Nandavaram, it is said, was a grant to the thirteen Gotras by the sovereign of India, Nanda, in the year of Kali 980; but if there be any foundation for the grant, it is of much more recent date, Nanda having lived in the fourth century before the Christian era. - Hind., Theatre, Vol. II, p. 11.

Kasyata: (sáns. hindú). A son of Paurnamasa, a descendant of one of the daughters of Daksha who was married to one of the Rishis.

Katyayana: (sáns. hindú). A Sanskrit author who lived at the time of and after Panini and published criticisms on the Sutra of the great grammarian. Max Müller places him in the second half of the fourth century, b. c. Katyayana is said to have been a boy of great talent and extraordinaiy powers of memory. He was able to repeat to his mother an entire play after hearing it once at the theatre; and before he was even initiated he was able to repeat the Pratisakhya which he had heard from byali. He completed and corrected Panini's Grammar such as we now possess it. Katyayana has been identified with Vararuchi (q. v.) the compiler of the doctrines of Saunaka. A. S. L.

Kaukundakas, Kaukattakas, Kaunkanas: (sáns. hindú). Aboriginal tribes inhabiting the mountainous districts of the Konkan and its neighbourhood.

Kaumara Creation: (sáns. hindú). The creation of Rudra or Nilalohita, a form of Siva, by Bramhi, and of certain other mind-born sons of Brahma, termed Sanatkum?ira, &c., who declining to create progeny, remained, as the name implies, ever boys, kumaras, that is ever pure and innocent; whence their creation is called the Kaumara. Sanatkumara and his brethren are described in the Saiva Puranas as Yogis. The Linga Purana has " Being ever as he was born he is called a youth; and hence his name is well known as Sanatkumara."

Kaumarabhritya: (sáns. hindú). One of the eight branches of medical science embraciug midwifery and the management of children. Vishnu Purana, p. 407.

Kauravas: (sáns. hindú). The sons of the Maharaja Dhritarashtra and his wife Gandhari. At an early period they became jealous of their cousins, the Pandavas, who were brought up with them in their father's court. Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas, attempted to take the life of his cousin Bhima. The chief incidents of their lives are related under their respective names, q. v.

Kausalya: (sáns. hindú). One of the queens of Mahiraja Dasaratha and mother of Rama, of whom she was extremely fond. She was oveijoyed when it was decided that Rama should be installed as heir-apparent, and when Rama himself informed her that he was to be evicted and Bharata made Yuva-raja, " she fell down to the earth like the bough of a saul tree lopped by the axe of a forester." She urged Rama to seize the government and slay the Maharaja. She afterwards acknowledged her fault. Bharata declared to her his loyal attachment to Rama.

Kausambi: (sáns. hindú). An ancient city of Hindustan, which appears as the capital of Vatsa. According to the Ramayana, it was built by Kusamba, the son of Kusa, a descendant of Rama. Buchanan, upon the authority of the Bhagavata, ascribes its foundation to Chakra, a descendant of Arjuna; but neither the Bhagavata nor Vishnu Purana state that Nimichakra built Kausambi. They only say that when Hastinipura shall be washed away by the Ganges, Nimichakra will reside at Kausambi. From which it is to be inferred, that Kausambi existed at the time that Hastinapura was destroyed. The site of Kausambi, Buchanan supposes to have been that of the ruins ascribed to Hastinapura, but it was most probably lower down in the Doab, bordering upon Magadha on one side, and Kosala on the other. In the Hindu drama Ratnavali the scene is laid in the palace of King Vatsa at Kausambi. Wilson, ff. T.

Kausharavi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Maitreya, a disciple of Parasara, who related the V. P. to him.

Kausika: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Vasudeva by his wife Vaisali: the half-brother of Krishna.

Kausikas: (sáns. hindú). The descendants of Viswamitra. The Gotras, the families or tribes of the Kausika brahmans are given in the V. P., (p. 405) and are said to have been multiplied by intermarriages with other tribes, who were originally of the regal cast, like Viswamitra; but like him, obtained Brahmanhood through devotion. As these Gotras partook more of the character of schools of doctrine, in which teachers and scholars became one family by intermarrying, it shows the interference of the Kshatriya caste, with the Brahmanical monopoly of religious instruction and composition.

Kausiki: (sáns. hindú). A character in the Hindu Drama Agnimitra and Malavika; the sister of the Raja's minister Sumati. On one occasion when her brother had to convey the princess Malavika, she accompanied them, and on their way through the Vindhya mountains they were attacked by foresters, and in the affray Sumati was slain and Malavika was lost. Kausiki left alone committed her brother's body to the flames, and resumed her journey.

Kausiki soon found out Malavika but forbore to discover herself, confiding in the prophecy of a sage, who had foretold that the princess, after passing through a period of servitude would meet with a suitable match.

Kausiki: (sáns. hindú). The name of the river into which Satyavati was transformed for following her husband in death. It is now called the Kosi, which rising in Nepal, flows through Puraniya into the Ganges, nearly opposite to Rajamahal.

Kaustabha: (sáns. hindú). The jewel worn by Vishnu, and which was one of the articles produced at the churning of the ocean.

" And Kaustabha the best Of gems, that burns with living light, Upon Lord Vishnu's breast."

" And Kaustabha the gem Whose ever beaming lustre glows In Vishnu's diadem."

Kautilya: (sáns. hindú). A name of the brahman Chinakya, through whoso agency the Nandas were destroyed, and Chandragupta raised to the throne of Palibothra.

Kavasha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Iluslia by a slave girl. The Rishis, when holding a sacrificial session on the banks of the Saraswati expelled Kavasha from their Soma sacrifice, saying, how should the son of a slave girl, a gamester, who is no brahman, remain among us ? So they drove him into the desert that he might not drink the water of the Saraswati. But a prayer was revealed to him by which he obtained the favour of the waters, and the Saraswati surrounded him on all sides. When the Rishis saw this they said the gods know him let us call him back - Haug, Ait. Br.

Kaveri: (sáns. hindú). A river which takes its rise in Coorg, runs through the south of India, and empties itself in the Bay of Bengal. It seems always to have borne the same appellation, being the Chaberis of Ptolemy.

Kavi: (sáns. hindú). I, One of the sous of the Manu Chakshusha; 2, the name of one of the sons of Priyavrata according to the Bhagavata; 3, A son of the Kshatriya Urukshaya, who afterwards became a Brahman.

Kaviraja: (sáns. hindú). The author of the curious poem entitled RaghavaPandaviya, a remarkable specimen of " studied ambiguity," as it may, at the option of the reader, be interpreted as relating the history of Rama and the other descendants of Dasaratha, - or that of Yudhishthira and the other sons of Pandu. - Colebrooke.

Kavyas: (sáns. hindú). l, The name given to the descendants of Kavi, as a race of brahmans; 2, One of the classes of Pitris, or progenitors, identified with the cyclic years.

Kekaya: (sáns. hindú). An ancient city supposed to have been in the Panjab.

The king Asvapati, (lord of horses) was the father of Raja Dasaratha's wife Kaikeyi.

Kerala: (sáns. hindú). An ancient name of Malabar proper; the inhabitants arc called Keralas.

Kerari: (sáns. hindú). A sect who worshipped Parvati in her terrific forms, and used to offer up human sacrifices. They used to inflict upon themselves bodily tortures, and pierce their flesh with hooks, &c. Such things are now made a criminal offence.

Kesidhwaja: (sáns. hindú). The celebrated son of Kritadhwaja. He had a cousin named Khandikya, who was renowned for religious rites, and the importance he attached to them; while Kesidhwaja regarded spiritual knowledge as the great object of pursuit. The quarrel became so serious that Khandikya was expelled from his dominions by Kesidhwaja. The latter, on an occasion of great perplexity, was informed by his counsellors, that none but his emy Khandikya could give him the information he wished to obtain. The desired interview took place, and Kesidhwaja's difficulties were all removed. He, anxious to reward his preceptor, wished him to name the remuneration that would be most pleasing to himself. His friends recommended him to require his whole kingdom to be restored to him. But Khindikya, addressing Kesidhwaja said " As it is known that you are learned in the spiritual learning that teaches the doctrine of the soul, if you will communicate that knowledge to me, you will have discharged your debt. Declare to me what acts are efficacious for the alleviation of human affliction." Then Kesidhwaja delivered a discourse on the nature of ignorance and the benefits of the Yoga or contemplative devotion. See V. P., pp. 649-659.

Kesin: (sáns. hindú). A powerful demon, who was ordered by Kansa to destroy Krishna. He assumed the form of a horse " spurning the earth with his hoofs, scattering the clouds with his mane, and springing in his paces beyond the orbits of the sun and moon."

The formidable demon, however, soon had " his mouth rent open by the arm of Krishna, and fell down, torn asunder like a tree struck by lightning; thus he lay separated into two portions, each having two legs, half a back, half a tail, one ear, one eye, and one nostril." Krishna was afterwards called Kesava in honour of this exploit. V. P., p. 540.

Kesini: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the wives of Sagara, who beiug childless, solicited the aid of the sage Aurva, and the Muni pronounced this boon, that one wife should bear one sou, and the other sixtythousand; and he left it to them to make their election. Kesini chose to have the single son; 2, The name of the wife of Visravas.

Kesini: (sáns. hindú). 1, The fair-haired maid servant of Damayanti, who was sent with a message to Nala, and in the interview perceived his divine powers, and reported accordingly to Damayanti.

Ketu: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine planets; or the sons of Sinhika; his chariot is drawn by eight horses of the dusky red colour of lac or the smoke of burning straw.

Ketumala: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of king Agnidhra, and sovereign of Gaudhamadana. Also the name of a Varsha or country.

Ketumta: (sáns. hindú). l, A Lokapala, the son of Rajas, regent of the west; 2, The name of the son of Dhanwantari.

Ketumati: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Sumali, the great Rakshasa chief.

Kevala: (sáns. hindú). l , A prince, the son of Nara; 2, The name of one of the Puranic countries.

Khandas: (sáns. hindú). 1, The name applied to the divisions or portions of the Skanda and Padma Puranas; 2, The divisions of the Bhirata Varsha.

Khandapani: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Ahinara, of the race of Puru.

Khandava-prastha: (sáns. hindú). A country on the banks of the river Jumna, in which the Pandavas settled and reigned when the Raj of Bharata was divided between them and the Kauravas " It was ilot so much a division of the kingdom as of the family; one branch remaining at Hastinapur, whilst the other went out to wrest a new country from the Aborigines."

Khandikya: (sáns. hindú). A son of Amitadhwaja, who taught his cousin Kesidhwaja the expiation of a sin, and was by him instructed in the Yoga doctrine.

Khakis: (sáns. hindú). One of the Vaishnava sects of Hindus, of modern origin. Many of them go nearly naked, smearing their bodies with ashes and earth. They add the worship of Hanuman to that of Vishnu.

Khandas: (sáns. hindú). The elements of sentient existence among the Buddhists, of which there are five constituents.

1 . The organized body, or the whole of being apart from mental processes.
2. Sensation.
3. Perception.
4. Discrimination.
5. Consciousness.

The four last Khandas are results or properties of the first, which mu st be understood as including the soul as well as the body. At death the Buddhists believe the Khandas entirely vanish. Gautama says that none of the Khandas, taken separately, are the Ego; and that taken conjointly they are not the Ego. Yet there is no such thing as an Ego apart from the five Khandas.

Khaninetra, Khanitra: (sáns. hindú). Two princes of the descendants of Nedishtha; the priests of the royal family conspired against Khanitra, and were put to death by his ministers.

Khara: (sáns. hindú). The brother of Ravana, who after several unsuccessful contests with Rama was at length slain by him.

Khasa: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Daksha who was married to Kasyapa.

Khasikas, Khasiras: (sáns. hindú). Non-Aryan or Aboriginal tribes in the north-east of Bengal; or it has been thought that they may be referred to the situation of Kashgar.

Khasrima: (sáns. hindú). A chief of the Danavas, one of the sous of Viprachitti.

Khatwanga: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Visivisaha, called also Dilipa. He rendered important aid to the gods in one occasion, and being asked by them to demand a boon, he enquired * what is the duration of my life.' * The length of your life is but an hour,* the gods replied; on hearing which he descended to the world of mortals, and prayed for final emancipation. Thus he obtained absorption, according to this stanza * Like unto Khatwanga will be no one upon earth, who having come from heaven, and dwelt amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his liberality and knowledge of truth.

Khonds: (sáns. hindú). A non-aryan or aboriginal tribe in Orissa. Their condition is in many respects peculiar. They have come less into contact with civilization, and evince greater wildness of deportment, than most of the other non-aryan tribes. " Their religion is very peculiar, and in its whole features entirely distinct from Hinduism. Their supreme god is called Bura-Pennou the god of light, who created for himself a consort, the earth-goddess called Tari-Pennou the source of evil in the world. The god of light arrested the action of physical evil, while he left man at perfect liberty to reject or receive moral evil. They who rejected it were deified, while the great mass of mankind who received it were condemned to all kinds of physical suffering, with death, besides being deprived of the immediate care of the Creator, and doomed to the lowest state of moral degradation. Bura-Pennou and his consort, meanwhile, contended for superiority, and thus the elements of good and evil came to be in constant collision both in the heart of man and in the world around him. At this point the Khonds diverge into two sects, which are thus described by Major Macpherson in an interesting memoir read before the Asiatic Society, and inserted in their Journal: - " One sect," says he, holds that the god of light completely conquered the earthgoddess, and employs her, still the active principle of evil, as the instrument of his moral rule. That he resolved to provide a partial remedy for the consequences of the introduction of evil, by. enabling man to attain to a state of moderate enjoyment upon earth, and to partial restoration to communion with the Creator after death. And that, to effect this purpose, he created those classes of subordinate deities, and assigned to them the office - first, of instructing man in the arts of life, and regulating the powers of nature for his use, upon the condition of his paying to them due worship; secondly, of administering a system of retributive justice through subjection to which, and through the practice of virtue during successive lives upon earth, the soul of man might attain to beatification. The other sect hold, upon the other hand, that the earth-goddess remains unconquered; that the god of light could not, in opposition to her will, carry out his purpose with respect to man's temporal lot; and that man, therefore, owes his elevation from the state of physical suffering into which he fell through the reception of evil, to the direct exercise of her power to confer blessings, or to her permitting him to receive the good which flows from the god of light, through the inferior gods, to all who worship them. With respect to man's destiny after death, they believe that the god of light earned out his purpose. And they believe that the worship of the earthgoddess by human sacrifice, is the indispensable condition on which these blessings have been granted, and their continuance may be hoped for; the virtue of the rite availing not only for those who practice it, but for all mankind.

" In addition to these human sacrifices, which still continue to be offered annually, in order to appease the wrath of Tari, and propitiate her in favour of agriculture, there is a fearful amount of infanticide among the Khond people. It exists in some of the ti'ibes of the sect of Boora to such an extent, that no female infant is spared, except when a woman's first child is female; and that villages containing a hundred houses may be seen without a female child."

The revolting rites of human sacrifice and female infanticide have prevailed from time immemorial among these barbarous people. The British government, however, has happily succeeded in almost completely abolishing these bloody rites. Many children, who had been stolen from their parents, and sold to the Khonds for sacrifice, have been rescued from a cruel death, and put into asylums for Christian education and training. The manner in which the revolting human sacrifices were conducted by the Khonds is thus described by Mr. Fry, a government agents who has i-escued numbers from the sacrificial knife: - " The victim," he inform us, *Is surrounded by a crowd of half-intoxicated Khonds, and is dragged around some open space, when the savages, with loud shouts, rush on the victim, cutting the living flesh piecemeal from the bones, till nothing remains but the head and bowels, which are left untouched. Death has by this time released the unhappy victim from his torture; the head and bowels are burnt, and the ashes mixed with grain." These Meriah sacrifices, as they are called, are almost abolished.

Khyati: (sáns. hindú). Celebrity,' a young and bright-eyed daughter of Daksha married to the Muni Bhrigu. Khyati is also the faculty of discriminating objects by appropriate designations; or the means of individual fruition. - Wilson's Notes to Vishnu Purana,

Khumbandas: (sáns. hindú). An order of beings among the Buddhists who are believed to be the attendants of Viradha who is one of the four guardian Devas. They are of great size and disgusting form, have blue garments, hold a sword in one hand, and ride on blue horses. They form one of the thirteen orders of intelligence, exclusive of the supreme Buddhas.

Kichaka: (sáns. hindú). The brother of the Rani of Raja Virata. He insulted Draupadi, and on her complaining to the Raja, followed her to the Council hall, where his influence was so great that the Raja refused to interfere. Di-aupadi then professed to receive his offers and engaged to meet him at midnight in the dancing room.

On his arrival he was seized by Bhima, who, after a fight, slew him and rolled the body into a ball.

Kikatas: (sáns. hindú). A tribe of aborigines who lived to the east of Saraswati, " they drew no milk to mix with the soma, and by them the sacrificial kettle was never heated."

Kilakila: (sáns. hindú). See Kailakila.

Kimpumsha: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine sons of Agnidhra, king of Jambu-dwipa, to whom his father gave the country of Hemakuta.

Kimpurushas: (sáns. hindú). Demigods, attached to the service of Kuvera, the god of wealth, celestial musicians, represented like centaurs reversed, with human figures and horses' heads.

Kinnaru: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Sunakshatra, of the family of Ikshwaku.

Kinnaras: (sáns. hindú). A race of beings of human shape but with the heads of horses; different to Naras, which are centaurs, or beings with the limbs of horses and human bodies; created from the limbs of Brahma. Called also Kimpurushas.

Kiratarjuniya: (sáns. hindú). A poem written by Bharavi on the subject of Arjuna's obtaining celestial arms from Siva, Indra, and other gods, by a rigid observance of severe austerities, and afterwards by his prowess in a conflict with Siva, in which Arjuna prevails: this is the whole subject of the poem, which is ranked among the six excellent compositions in Sanscrit.

Kiratas: (sáns. hindú). Aboriginal tribes dwelling in the East of Bharata; foresters and mountaineers are intended, the inhabitants to the present day of the mountains east of Hindustan.

Kirtaratha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Raja Pratindhak, and thirteenth in descent from Maharaja Janaka, Kirtirat - The great grandson of the above; *' Mahandhrak's son of boundless might, Was Kirtirat who loved the right."

Kirtti: (sáns. hindú). " Fame." A daughter of Daksha, married to Dharma.

Kirttimat: (sáns. hindú). l, A son of the patriarch Angiras. 2, A son of the Manu Uttanapada. 3, A son of Vasudeva and Devaki, who was killed by Kausa.

Kishkindhya: (sáns. hindú). The monkey city of Bali, the elder brother and enemy of Sugriva. Kishkindhya is supposed to have been situated north of Mysore: " somewhere in that strip of British territory which separates the kingdom of Mysore from the Nizam's territory." - Cal. Rev.

Klesa: (sáns. hindú). In the Patanjala philosophy Klesa is the term employed to designate the five afflictions of the soul, viz., Ignorance, Selfishness, Love, Hatred, Dread of temporal suffering.

Kodagu: (sáns. hindú). Steep mountains; the name of the country which has been anglicised into Coorg: a country formed by the summits and eastern declivities of the Western Ghauts; about 60 miles in length and 40 in breadth. It comprises 1,585 square miles: covered by forest, save here and there where the clearing of a coffee plantation, or ragi patch, or the park like open glades with their beautiful green sward and varied foliage, afford a charming variety to the landscape. The Kodagus or Coorgs are supposed to belong to the Dravidian family; and not to have descended from the Pandavas as some have argued, but for which no evidence has been adduced. The Coorgs were probably connected with the Pandya kiugdom which flourished in the South of India perhaps in the fifth century before Christ; but the Mahabharata Pandavas have nothing to do with this Pandyan kingdom, whose rulers were not Kshatriyas but belonged to the agricultural class. - Richter's Manual of Coorg 1870.

Kokanakas, Kokarakas: (sáns. hindú). The names of aboriginal tribes enumerated in the Vishnu Purana.

Kolaria: (sáns. hindú). The ancient name for India. In the modern map of India we find indications of the same name in every province from Burmah to Malabar, viz., the Kols of Central India; the Kolas of Katwar; See Dr. Keith Johnston's Index to his Map of India from the Royal Atlas, for a full confirmation of this view, as stated in Mr. W. Hunter's Dissertation in his Dictionary of Non-Aryan Languages.

Kolikod: (sáns. hindú). The ancient and present native name of Calicut.

Kosala: (sáns. hindú). The Ramiyana contains the following description of Kosala: " In ancient times there was a great country named Kosala; and that country was happy and joyous, and abounded in cattle, and grain, and riches. And in that country on the banks of the river Sarayu, was a famous city named Ayodhyi; and there all the houses were large and beautifully arranged, and the streets were always watered, and there were very many temples richly decorated, and stately palaces with domes like the tops of mountains, with pleasant gardens full of birds and flowers, and shady groves of trees loaded with delicious fruits, and above all there were the sacred and resplendent chariots of the gods. And the tanks in that city were magnificent beyond all description, and covered with the white lotus; and the bees thirsted for the honey, and the wind drove the white lotuses from the bees as modesty drives away the coy bride from her husband. And the ducks and the geese swam upon the surface of the tanks, or dived under the clear waters; and the brilliant kingfishers, wroth as they beheld their own reflection in the bright wave, and under pretence of catching the fish, they beat the water with their wings. And the plantain trees round the tanks were bending with the weight of the fruit, like reverential pupils bowing at the feet of their preceptors.

The whole city .was adorned with gems, so that it resembled a mine of jewels, and it was like unto Amaravati, the city of India.

It was perfumed with flowers and incense, and decked out with gorgeous banners; and it was ever filled with the sweet sound of music, the sharp twanging of bows, and the holy chaunting of Vedic hymns. The city was encompassed round about with very lofty walls, which were set in with variously-coloured jewels; and all round the walls was a moat filled with water, deep and impassable; and the city gates were strongly barred, and the porticoes of the gates and the towers on the walls were filled with archers, and stored with weapons of every description. Every quarter of the city was guarded by mighty heroes, who were as strong as the eight gods who rule the eight points of the universe, and as vigilant as the many-headed serpents who watch at the entrance of the regions below."

"On Sarju's bank of ample size,
The happy realm of Kosal lies,
With fertile length of fair champaign o
And flocks and herds and wealth of grain,
There, famous in her old renown
Ayodhya* stands, the royal town
In bygone ages built and planned
By sainted Manu's princely hand.

Imperial seat ! her walls extend Twelve measured leagues from end to end.

And three in width from side to side, With square and palace beautified.

Her gates at even distance stand; Her ample roads are wisely planned.

Right glorious is her royal street.

Where streams allay the dust and heat.

On level ground in even row.

Her houses rise in goodly show: o " The ruins of the ancient capital of Rama and the children of the Sun, may still be traced in the present Ajudhya (Ayodhya) near Fyzabad. Ajudbya (Ayodhya) is the Jerusalem or Mecca of the Hindues' -Grijffiths.

Terrace and palace, arcli and gate, The queenly city decorate.

High are her ramparts, strong and vast, By ways at even distance passed, With circling moat both deep and wide, And store of weapons fortified." - Griffiths.

The name Kosala is variously applied. Its earliest and most celebrated application is that given above, to the country on the banks of the Sarayu, the kingdom of Rama, of which Ayodha was the capital. In the Mahabharata we have one Kosala in the east, and another in the south; besides the Prak-kosalas and Uttarakosalas in the east and north. The Puranas place the Kosalas in the back of Vindhya; and it would appear from the Vayu, that Kusa, the son of Rama, transferred his kingdom to a more central position; he ruled over Kosala at his capital of Kusasthali, or Kusavati, built upon the Vindhyan precipices. In later times the country of Kosala lay south of Oude, for in the Ratnavali the general of Vatsa surrounds the king of Kosala in the Vindhyan mountains: Ptolemy has a Kouta Kosala in the south, probably one of the Kosalas of the Hindus. Wilson's Notes to Vishnu Purana and Hindu Theatre, Vol. II.

Kotavi: (sáns. hindú). An eighth portion of Rudrani, and the tutelary goddess of the Daityas, composed of incantations. The Vishnu Purana states that as Krishna was in the act of casting his discus, to kill Bana, the mystical goddess Kotavi, the magic lore of the demons, stood naked before him, in order to prevent him.

Koutsya: (sáns. hindú). A mythical sage, the disciple of Maharishi Varatanta, who rewarded his tutor with fourteen crores of rupees for the fourteen branches of study completed under him. For the way in which the money was obtained, see Raghu.

Kratha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Vidarbha; and grandson of Jyimagha, q. v.

Kratu: (sáns. hindú). 1, A Prajapati, or one of the mind-born sons of Brahma and one of the seven glorious spirits who abide in the orb of the sun, scattering light throughout the universe, married to Saunati, daughter of Daksha; 2, A son of Uru, of the race of Dhruva.

Kratusthala: (sáns. hindú). The celestial nymph who resides in the car of the sun during the month Chaitra, as one its seven guardians.

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