viernes, 30 de abril de 2010

Glossary of Terms - Purebhakti

Glossary of Terms


Gäëapatya - a worshiper of Gaëeça.

Gandharvas - celestial beings situated in the higher planets who are especially noted for their expertise in singing and music.

Gaìgä - the holy river, Gaìgä, also known as the Ganges (see Gaìgä in the Glossary of Places).

Gaöhana - the formation, structure, or composition of a thing.

Gauòéya Vaiñëava Äcäryas - prominent teachers in the line of Lord Caitanya.

Gauòéya Vaiñëava Sampradäya - the school of Vaiñëavism following in the line of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu.

Gauëa - literally means “that which possesses qualities” or “that which is secondary.” Relates to a quality, having qualities; connected to the three guëas (qualities of material nature); subordinate, secondary, unessential.

Gauräbda - a year in the era beginning from the appearance of Çré Gauräìga Mahäprabhu (corresponding to 1486 AD).

Gaura-lélä - the divine pastimes of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu, who is identical to Çré Kåñëa.

Gaura-Näma-Rasa - transcendental taste which comes from chanting the holy name of Lord Gaura.

Gäyatré-mantra - a sacred mantra repeated by brähmaëas at the three junctures of the day. The gäyatré mantra is personified as a goddess, the wife of Brahmä and mother of the four Vedas (see dékñä-mantra).

Ghäöa - a landing-stage (as on the bank of a river, pond, and so on).

Ghaöa-äkäça - is the space that one can see in a pot. (Maha-äkäça is the great unlimited sky).

Godruma - one of the nine divisions of Navadvépa (see Glossary of Places).

Gopas - the cowherd boys who serve Kåñëa in the mood of intimate friendship. This may also refer to the elderly gopas headed by Nanda Mahäräja who serve Kåñëa in the mood of parental affection.

Gopés - the young cowherd maidens of Vraja headed by Çrématé Rädhikä who serve Kåñëa in the mood of amorous love. This may also refer to the elderly gopés headed by mother Yaçodä who serve Kåñëa in the mood of parental affection.

Go-çälä - shelter for the cows.

Gosvämé - one who is the master of his senses; a title for those in the renounced order of life. This often refers to the renowned followers of Caitanya Mahäprabhu who adopted the lifestyle of mendicants.

Descendants of the relatives of such Gosvämés or of their sevaites often adopt this title merely on the basis of birth. In this way, the title Gosvämé has evolved into use as a surname.

Leading temple administrators are also sometimes referred to as Gosvämés.

Gåhastha - the word stha means “to reside.” The word gåha means house,” and also refers to the family members who inhabit a house; as a verb, it means “to grasp, take on, or accept.” The second äçrama or stage of life in the varëäçrama system; family life.

Gåhastha-tyägé - one who has renounced household life.

Gullé-òaëòä - a game played with a bat and stick.

Guëa - (1) in relationship to Kåñëa this refers to His transcendental qualities which are heard, described, and meditated upon by bhaktas as part of the practice of sädhana-bhakti. (2) qualities of objects such as hardness and softness. (3) qualities in general such as compassion, tolerance, and mercy. (4) the three ropes (binding qualities) known as – sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas (ignorance).

Guëävatära - the primary presiding deities of the tri-guëas (three guëas), Viñëu, Brahmä and Çiva presiding over the qualities of sattva, rajas, and tamas respectively.


Haàsa - the third stage of sannyäsa, as mentioned in Çrémad- Bhägavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this çloka, Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura defines an ascetic in the haàsa stage as jïäna-äbhyäsa-niñöhä, one established in the cultivation of transcendental knowledge.

Hari - a name for Çré Kåñëa (see Glossary of Names).

Hari-kathä - narrations of the holy name, form, qualities, and pastimes of Çré Hari.

Hari-näma - the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. Unless accompanied by the word saìkértana, it usually refers to the practice of chanting the Hare Kåñëa mahä-mantra to oneself on a strand of tulasé beads.

Hari-väsara - the day of Lord Hari; this refers especially to Ekädaçé; it also refers to other holy days such as Janmäñöamé and Rämanavamé (check this Glossary for explanation of these terms).

Haviñya - rice dried in the sun, cooked with water and mixed with ghee

Heya - undesirable; fit to be given up; contemptible, base, vile.


Ibäda - an Islamic term for divine worship.

Ignorance five types - Lord Brahmä first creates these five types of ignorance (Çrémad-Bhägavatam 3.12.2.). Because of the desire to enjoy mäyä, the jéva develops the false ego that he can enjoy material sense gratification, and then the five types of ignorance – tamaù (not knowing anything about the spirit soul), moha (the illusion of the bodily concept of life), mahä-moha (madness for material enjoyment), tämisra (forgetfulness of one’s constitutional position due to anger or envy) and andha-tämisra (considering death to be the ultimate end) – cover his pure, atomic nature.

Éçänugata - those who are devoted or surrendered to Éña (Çré Bhagavän); the Vaiñëavas.

Içhqh - an Islamic term for love (spiritual or mundane).

Iñöa-deva - one’s worshipful deity; the particular form of Kåñëa toward whom one is attracted and who is the object of one’s love and service.

Éçvara - the Supreme Lord or Supreme Controller.

Itihäsa - (1) history in general. (2) a book which contains instructions on dharma, artha, käma, and mokña, and narrations of ancient events (dharmärtha-käma-mokñäëäm upadeça-samanvitam pürva-våta kathä-yuktam itihäsaà pracakñate). This definition is quoted in Gauòéya-Vaiñëava-abhidhäna. (3) the fifth Veda. According to both çruti and småti, the Itihäsa and the Puräëas are considered the fifth Veda. Çrémad-Bhägavatam (3.12.39) states, itihäsa-puräëäni païcamaà vedam; and (1.4.20), itihäsa puräëaï ca païcamo veda ucyate. In his commentary on (1.4.20), Jéva Gosvämé quotes the Mahäbhärata (Mokña-dharma 340.21), vedän adhyäpayämäsa mahäbhärata-païcamän iti, “Vyäsa taught the Vedas along with the fifth of their number, the Mahäbhärata.” Similarly in Manu-småti (3.232) it is said, äkhyänänétihäsaàç ca. In his Manu-vartha-muktävalé commentary on this çloka, Kullüka Bhaööa (a celebrated commentator on Manusmåti from the twelfth century) states, itihäsän mahäbhäratädén, “The word itihäsän refers to the Mahäbhärata and other literature.”

These references establish that the word itihäsa specifically refers to the Mahäbhärata. Within the Mahäbhärata is found the Bhagavad-Gétä, which is accepted as the essence of all the Vedas even by Çré Çaìkaräcärya, who states in the introduction to his Gétä commentary, tad idaà gétä-çästraà samasta-vedärtha-särasaìgraha-bhütam, “This Gétä-çästra is the essence of the purport of all the Vedas.” This further confirms that the itihäsa is part of the body of Vedic literature. Çruti itself (Chändogya Upaniñad 7.1.2) declares that the Itihäsa and Puräëas are the fifth Veda among the body of Vedic literature, itihäsaà puräëaà païcamaà vedänäà vedam.


Jaòa - inanimate object; worldly, material.

Jaòa-anuräga - attachment for mundane material objects.

Jaòa-çakti - the material or external potency also known as mäyä.

Jaòéya-käla - material time which is designated by the divisions of past, present, and future.

Jaiva-dharma - the constitutional function of the jéva; unadulterated love for the Supreme Lord.

Jaìgama - moving living beings such as animals, birds, insects, aquatics, and humans.

Janma - birth, origin.

Janmäñöamé - the appearance day of Lord Çré Kåñëa which occurs on the eighth day of the dark lunar fortnight of the month of Bhädra (August-September). According to the Viñëu Puräëa, however, Janmäñöamé occurs on the eighth day of the dark lunar fortnight of the month of Çrävaëa (July-August). The reason for this difference is that in some years the mukhya-cändra-mäsa, or principal lunar month falls in Çrävaëa. The mukhya-cändra-mäsa refers to a lunar month which ends with a conjunction of planets, whereas gauëacändra-mäsa refers to a lunar month which ends with an opposition of planets. When the mukhya-cändra-mäsa occurs in Çrävaëa, Janmäñöamé falls in that month instead of Bhädra.

Jäti - caste, race, or species.

Jäti-bheda - caste distinction; the difference between various castes or species.

Jism - an Islamic term for matter.

Jéva - the eternal individual living entity who, in the conditioned state of material existence, assumes a material body in any of the innumerable species of life.

Jïäna - (1) knowledge, (2) knowledge which leads to impersonal liberation: this concerns the ätmä’s distinction from matter and its identity with brahma.

Jïäna-adhikära - eligibility for knowledge leading to liberation.

Jïäna-käëòa - a division of the Vedas which relates to knowledge of the one, undifferentiated spirit known as brahma.

Jïäna-mudrä - the traditional posture of the hand formed with the tip of the thumb touching the tip of the index finger.

Jïäna-niñöhä - those who are fixed in the pursuit of monistic knowledge aiming at liberation.

Jïäna-viddha - vaiñëava-dharma which is adulterated with jïäna, knowledge directed toward the attainment of impersonal liberation.

Jïäna-yoga - the path of spiritual realization through a philosophical search for truth.

Jïäné - one who pursues the path of jïäna, or knowledge, directed toward impersonal liberation.


Kali-yuga - the present age of quarrel and hypocrisy which began five thousand years ago (see yuga).

Kämya-karma - religious rites performed to obtain some specific material benefit.

Kaniñöha-bhakta - the neophyte practitioner of bhakti.

Karatälas - small brass hand cymbals used for devotional songs.

Karma - (1) any activity performed in the course of material existence. (2) pious activities leading to material gain in this world or in the heavenly planets after death. (3) fate; former acts leading to inevitable results.

Karma-adhikära - eligibility for pious action leading to material gain.

Karma-käëòa - a division of the Vedas which relates to the performance of ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites directed toward material benefits or liberation.

Karma-viddha - vaiñëava-dharma which is adulterated with karma, activities directed toward material benefits.

Karma-yoga - the path to God realization through dedication of the fruits of one’s work to God.

Karmé - one who pursues the Vedic path of karma directed toward material gain or elevation to the heavenly planets.

Kärya-çakti - the potency by which activity is carried out.

Kauòé - a small shell used as currency

Käya-vyüha - direct expansions. All the four types types of Çrématé Rädhikä’s sakhés are nitya-siddha, and they are direct expansions (käya-vyüha) of Çrématé Rädhikä’s own svarüpa. She eternally manifests eight bhävas as the eight principle sakhés and Her four different types of service moods as the four different types of sakhés - namely, priya-sakhés, narma-sakhés, präëa-sakhés, and parama-preñöha sakhés.

All these sakhés are käya-vyüha direct expansions, whereas the sädhana-siddha gopés are not expansions. The queens in Dvärakä fall into a different category of expansion known as vaibhava-prakäça, and the Lakñmés in Vaikuëöha are vaibhava-viläsa expansions of Çrématé Rädhäräné. The wives of Vämana and other avatäras in Devaloka are also expansions. Durgä-devé in this world is a material expansion.

Käyastha - a particular caste in Hindu society; those born from a kñatriya father and a südra mother. They are generally well-educated, and many work as writers. The käyasthas claim to be descendents of Citragupta (the scribe of Yamaräja).

Käzé - a Muslim magistrate, usually the ruler of a town or city (like a mayor).

Khicaré - a savory dish of rice and dahl boiled together with ghee and spices.

Khodä - an Islamic term for God.

Kértana - congregational singing of Kåñëa’s holy names, sometimes accompanied by music. This may also refer to loud individual chanting of the holy name, as well as oral descriptions of Bhagavän names, forms, qualities, associates, and pastimes. Kértana is the most important of the nine aìgas of bhakti.

Kåñëa-bahirmukha - being oblivious to Kåñëa due to having one’s attention focused outwardly toward the material world; ignorance of Kåñëa and enthrallment with material enjoyment.

Kåñëa-däsya - service to Kåñëa; the dharma, or spiritual function of the jéva. In its perfectional state this refers to prema.

Kåñëa-lélä - the divine pastimes of Çré Kåñëa (see lélä).

Kåñëa-prema - pure love for Kåñëa (see prema).

Kåñëa-unmukha - those whose attention is focused upon Kåñëa.

Kåñëa-vimukhatä - the state of having one’s attention turned away from Kåñëa; the state of absorption in the material world.

Kñatriya - the second of the four varëas, or castes, in the varëäçrama system; an administrator or warrior.

Kñayonmukha - the decline or diminution of any object or thing; the stage in which a jéva’s relationship with the material world gradually diminishes due to engagement in spiritual practice.

Kñudra-cetana - possessing minute consciousness; the living entities.

Kuïja - a grove or bower; a natural shady retreat with sides and a roof formed mainly by trees and climbing plants.

Kuöicaka - the first of four stages of sannyäsa. According to the Vedic system, when one first renounces family life, the ascetic will construct a cottage (kuöéra) just outside his village and will accept the necessities for his maintenance from his family members or the villagers. This stage has been referred to in Çrémad-Bhägavatam (3.12.43). In Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura’s commentary on the afore-referenced çloka, he defines the kuöicaka stage as sväçrama-karma-pradhäna, predominated by the performance of karma which pertains to one’s own äçrama, or stage of life.

Kuöéra - a cottage or hut.


Laukika - worldly, mundane, secular, pertaining to the material world.

Laukika-jïäna - worldly knowledge, knowledge of worldly phenomena.

Laukika-çraddhä - worldly regard; faith which is based on customor tradition and not on a deep understanding of the çästra.

Liìga-çaréra - the subtle material body consisting of mind, intelligence, and ego.

Lobhamayé-çraddhä - means that the bhakta wants to serve Kåñëa in one of the four rasas: däsya, sakhya, vätsalya or mädhurya, following in the footsteps of the vraja-väsés. He should be greedy to attain this. That is called lobhamayé-çraddhä.

Loöä - a thin steel container for water.


Mädhavé - a fragrant flower which is white when it blossoms and turns pink during the course of the day; the vine of the mädhavé flower.

Mädhukaré - collecting alms from door to door in the manner of a bee who collects honey (madhu) by going from flower to flower.

Madhyähna - the third period of the day; mid-day, noon (see añöakäléya-lélä).

Madhyama-bhakta - the practitioner of bhakti who is on an intermediate level.

Mahäjana - a great personality who teaches and sets an example for others.

Mahänta - the head of a monastery or temple.

Mahäprabhu - the Supreme Lord, Çré Kåñëa Caitanya (see Caitanya in the Glossary of Names).

Mahä-äkäça - is the great, unlimited sky or space.

Mahäprasäda - see prasäda.

Mahätmä - magnanimous or great soul; a title of respect offered to those elevated in spiritual consciousness.

Malphuö - an Islamic term for ignorance.

Mälaté - a kind of jasmine flower or its plant.

Mämäjé - maternal uncle.

Mamatä - literally means ‘my-ness’; attachment or possessiveness. Mamatä for material objects or persons is the cause of bondage, whereas mamatä for guru, Vaiñëavas, and spiritual objects is the cause of liberation; in the spiritual world mamatä is one of the characteristics of prema.

Mäna - consists of the bhävas (such as Çrématé Rädhikä’s jealous anger) that prevent the näyaka and näyikä from meeting freely, although they are together, and attracted to each other.

Manu-saàhitä - a religious çästra spoken by the forefather of mankind Manu, delineating the codes of behavior for all human beings.

Mäyä - illusion; that which is not; Çré Bhagavän’s external potency which influences the living entities to accept the false egoism of being independent enjoyers of this material world.

Mäyä-çakti - the potency that creates bewilderment, which is responsible for the manifestation of the material world, time, and material activities.

Mäyäväda - the doctrine of illusion; a theory advocated by the impersonalist followers of Çaìkaräcärya which holds that the Lord’s form, this material world, and the individual existence of the living entitities are mäyä or false.

Mäyävädé - one who advocates the doctrine of illusion (see mäyäväda).

Mäyä-vikrama - see mäyä-çakti.

Mäyika-tattva - the fundamental truth concerning Bhagavän’s deluding potency, which relates to the material world. One of the aspects of sambandha-jïäna.

Mémäàsä - a philosophical doctrine which has two divisions: (1) pürva or karma-mémäàsä founded by Jaiminé, which advocates that by carrying out the ritualistic karma of the Vedas, one can attain the celestial planets, and (2) uttara-mémäàsä founded by Bädaräyaëa Vyäsadeva, which deals with the nature of brahma. (See pürvamémäàsä and uttara-mémäàsä).

Mémäàsaka - a philosopher. One who adheres to the mémäàsä philosophical doctrine of which there are two divisions. This usually refers to those who follow the karma-mémäàsä of Jaimini.

Mémäàsä-çästra - (1) a çästra which ascertains fundamental philosophical truths through analytical examination. (2) çästra dealing with a branch of Vedic philosophy (see mémäàsä).

Miçra - mixed, adulterated.

Mithyä-abhimäna - false egoism; identification with the gross and subtle material bodies.

Mleccha - derived from the sanskrit root mlech meaning to utter indistinctly (sanskrit) – a foreigner; non-Äryan; a man of an outcaste race; any non-Sanskrit-speaking person who does not conform to the Hindu social and religious customs.

Mokña - see mukti.

Mådaìga - a double-headed clay drum which is used in the performance of devotional songs.

Mujarrad - an Islamic term for spirit or consciousness.

Mukta-daçä - the liberated state.

Mukta-jéva - the liberated soul; those who are liberated from the influence of material nature while still residing in this world, or those who reside in the spiritual world.

Mukulita-cetana - budding consciousness. This refers to human beings whose consciousness is superior to that of lower life-forms, but who are devoid of morality and ethics. It also refers to those who have a conventional sense of morality, but who have no faith in God.

Mullah - Muslim religious scholar

Mumukñä - the desire for liberation.

Mumukñu - a person who is seeking liberation.

Mürti - the Deity form of Çré Bhagavän.


Nagara - a town or city.

Nagara-saìkértana - act of singing religious songs in procession through a city or village.

Naimittika-dharma - the temporary or circumstantial function of an object or conscious being; that which relates to one’s acquired nature; circumstantial duty or religion.

Naimittika-karma - occasional religious duties induced by specific circumstances.

Naimittika-sukåti - pious actions which bear temporary results; pious actions leading to material enjoyment, opulence, acquisition of knowledge, and mystic powers.

Naiñöhika-brahmacäré - one who accepts a life-long vow of celibacy.

Naitika - that which is related to morality and ethics (see néti).

Näma - the holy name of Kåñëa, chanted by bhaktas as the main limb of the practice of sädhana-bhakti.

Näma-bhajana - the practice of chanting the holy name softly to oneself on tulasé beads.

Nämäbhäsa - a semblance of the holy name. The stage of chanting in which one is becoming cleared of sins and offenses but has not yet attained pure chanting.

Näma-aparädha - offensive chanting of the holy name, or chanting of the holy name which is subject to the ten kinds of näma-aparädha. (see Chapter 24).

Näma-rasa - transcendental taste which comes from chanting the holy name.

Näma-saìkértana - the practice of chanting the holy name of Kåñëa, especially congregational chanting.

Nämañkära - offering obeisance, or the act of offering adoration, praise, or reverence. Obeisance to Çré Bhagavän is of four types: (1) abhivädana, salutation or bowing; (2) añöaìga, prostrated obeisance performed with eight parts of the body (two hands, two feet, two knees, the chest, and the forehead); (3) païcaìga, obeisance performed with five parts of the body (two knees, two arms, and the forehead); and (4) kara-çira-saàyoga, obeisance by joining the hands to the head and bowing.

Nämé - Çré Bhagavän; the person addressed by the name.

Namäz - a system of Muslim prayer Nara-mätram - refer to all human beings, regardless of caste, creed, or material designation.

Näräyaëa - an expansion of Kåñëa. The opulent Lord of Vaikuëöha.

Navadhä-bhakti - nine primary types of bhakti: çravaëam, kértanam, viñëu-smaraëam, päda-sevanam, arcanam, vandanam, däsyam, sakhyam, and ätma-nivedanam – hearing, chanting, and remembering the glories of Kåñëa, serving His lotus feet, worshiping Him, praying to Him, carrying out His orders in the mood of a servant, making friends with Him, and offering one’s very self to Him (see under the individual headings for more information on each of these).

Nimitta - a cause, reason, motive, instrument, or agent.

Nirapekña - a Vaiñëava who is detached from all material enjoyment and the designations associated with varëäçrama; literally means independent, or one who is without needs.

Nirbheda - undifferentiated; that which is devoid of distinguishing characteristics or qualities; often used as an adjective to describe the impersonal brahma.

Nirbheda-brahma-jïäné - one who seeks to attain the impersonal brahma through the process of monistic knowledge.

Nirguëa - free from the influence of the material qualities of goodness, passion, and ignorance. In relationship to Çré Kåñëa, this implies that He is endowed with transcendental qualities.

Nirväëa - extinction, disappearance, dissolution; final emancipation from matter and re-union with the Supreme Spirit; Mäyäväda conception – absolute extinction or annihilation of individual existence.

Niçänta-lélä - Kåñëa’s daily pastimes are divided into eight periods.

Niçänta-lélä takes place at the end of night just prior to dawn (see añöa-käléya-lélä).

Nisarga - the acquired nature of a thing; that nature which is acquired through long association or identification; the distorted nature of a thing.

Niñöhä - firm faith; steadiness in one’s devotional practices. This is the fourth stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti.

Niñöhä occurs after the elimination of the major portion of one’s anarthas.

Néti - moral science, ethics, social morality, moral conduct or behavior; political wisdom or science.

Nitya - eternal; invariable; daily; that which has no beginning and no end.

Nitya-dharma - the eternal characteristic function of a thing, or that which relates to its eternal constitutional function.

Nitya-karma - daily obligatory religious duties.

Nitya-satya - eternal truth or reality.

Nitya-sukåti - pious deeds which bear eternal results; pious deeds which foster the eternal function of bhakti, such as the association of bhaktas and contact with acts of devotion.

Nitya-tattva - eternal truth, reality or philosophical principle.

Nivåtti-märga - the path of detachment or abstinence from material fruitive action and ritualistic religion.

Nyäya - the philosophy dealing with a logical analysis of reality, also known as nyäya-darçana. This system of philosophy was founded by Mahaåñi Gautama (see Gautama in the Glossary of Names). The nyäya-darçana accepts sixteen principles: 1) pramäëa (evidence; the means to obtain factual knowledge), 2) prameya (that which is to be ascertained by real knowledge), 3) saàçaya (doubt about the point to be discussed), 4) prayojana (a motive for discussing the point in question), 5) dåñöänta (citing instances or examples), 6) siddhänta (demonstrated conclusion of an argument), 7) avayava (component parts of a logical argument or syllogism), 8) tarka (persuasive reasoning), 9) nirëaya (deduction, conclusion, or application of a conclusive argument), 10) väda (thesis, proposition, or argument), 11) jalpa (striking disputation or reply to defeat the argument of the opposition), 12) vitaëòä (destructive criticism; idle carping at the assertions of another without attempting to prove the opposite side of the question) 13) hetv-äbhäsa (fallacy; the mere appearance of a reason), 14) chala (deceitful disputation; perverting the sense of the opposing party’s words), 15) jäti (logic based merely on false similarity or dissimilarity), and 16) nigraha-sthäna (a weak point in an argument or fault in a syllogism).

According to nyäya-darçana, misery is of nineteen types: the material body, the six senses including the mind, the six objects of the senses, and the six transformations – birth, growth, production, maintenance, dwindling, and death. In addition to these, happiness is considered as the twentieth form of misery because it is simply a transformed state of distress. The naiyäyikas, adherents of the nyäya-darçana, accept four types of evidence: pratyakña (direct perception), anumäna (inference), upamäna (comparison), and çabda (the authority of the Vedas).

The nyäya-darçana accepts the existence of eternal infinitesimal particles known as paramäëu. These, they claim, are the fundamental ingredients from which the creation has sprung. But in order for the creation to take place, there is need of an administrator who is known as Éçvara, Çré Bhagavän. Bhagavän creates the world by setting the atomic particles in motion. Like these atomic particles, Éçvara is eternal and without beginning. Although the naiyäyikas accept the existence of Éçvara, they do not believe that He personally carries out the creation. He is merely the primeval cause. By His desire, the atoms are set into motion whereupon they create all the subtle and gross elements from which the creation comes about.

According to the nyäya-darçana, the jévas are innumerable, eternal, and without beginning. The naiyäyikas do not think that the jévas are of the nature of consciousness, but that they are only substantive entities which may be associated with intellectual, volitional, or emotional qualities as a result of a proper combination of causes and conditions. The nyäya-darçana advocates that the jéva and Éçvara are two entirely separate truths. The jéva’s material existence is due to karma. The creation occurs under the influence of karma, and within the creation the jévas suffer the reactions of their karma. Éçvara’s sole function is to set the creation in motion and to reward the results of karma.

The naiyäyikas say that the jéva can attain liberation from material existence through philosophical knowledge of the sixteen principles.

They define mukti as complete cessation of material misery.

There is no factual happiness in mukti. In this liberated condition the jéva is as if unconscious.

Nyäya-çästra - the çästras dealing with a logical analysis of reality.

The precepts of nyäya are mostly explained through analogies drawn from an analysis of common objects such as a clay pot (ghaöa) and a piece of cloth (paöa), so these words are repeatedly encountered in discussions of nyäya.


Päda-sevanam - literally means to serve the feet. However, the question arises as to how a sädhaka can serve the feet of the Lord. Therefore in his Krama-sandarbha commentary on Çrémad-Bhägavatam, Jéva Gosvämé has defined päda-sevanam as follows: päda-seväyäà päda çabdo bhakty eva nirdiñöa tata seväyäà sädaratvaà vidhéyate – “In the term päda-sevä the word päda refers only to bhakti. The word sevä indicates that this bhakti, or service, should be done with great love and respect.” To take darçana of the Deity, to touch the Deity, to do parikramä of the Deity, to follow the Deity in a procession, to visit the Lord’s temples or holy places such as the Gaìgä, Puruñottama-kñetra, Dvärakä, and Mathurä; to observe festivals, and to serve the Vaiñëavas and tulasé are all included in päda-sevanam.

This is one of the nine primary aìgas of bhakti.

Païca-mahäpäpa - killing a brähmaëa, drinking intoxicating liquors, theft, committing adultary with the wife of çré-guru and associating with anyone guilty of these crimes.

Païcopäsana - worship of the five deities – Sürya, Gaëeña, Çakti, Çiva, and Viñëu.

Paëòita - Paëòä means ‘the intelligence of one who is enlightened by knowledge of the çästra’, and the word paëòita refers to one who has such intelligence.

Päpa - sin.

Parabrahma - the Supreme brahma, the source of the brahma effulgence, Çré Bhagavän.

Paräk-våtti - the tendency to be focused outward toward the external world or toward the senses and sense objects.

Päralaukika - concerning the next world; extra-mundane; spiritual.

Parama-dharma - the supreme or ultimate function of the jéva.

Parama-guru - grand-spiritual master; the guru of one’s guru.

Paramahaàsa - the fourth and final stage of sannyäsa, which has been referred to as niñkriya (freedom from all material obligations) in Çrémad-Bhägavatam (3.12.43). In his commentary on this çloka, Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura has defined niñkriyä as präptatattva, realization of the Supreme Absolute Truth.

Paramärtha - the highest truth; spiritual knowledge; the highest object of attainment.

Päramärthika - that which relates to the supreme spiritual truth or ultimate reality; real, essential, true; that which relates to a higher object.

Paramätmä - the Supersoul situated in the hearts of all living entities as the witness and source of remembrance, knowledge, and forgetfulness.

Paramätma-pravåtti - the tendency of the jéva to seek Kåñëa in the heart, who is known as Paramätmä.

Parä-çakti - Çré Bhagavän’s superior potency which has three divisions: cit, taöasthä, and mäyä.

Paravyoma - means ‘the spiritual sky’. Generally this refers to the region of the spiritual sky where the Vaikuëöha planets reside.

Päöha-çälä - literally means a school in which four subjects (päöha) are taught. These four subjects refer to the study of the four Vedas or the four subjects – Sanskrit grammar, rhetoric, logic, and philosophy.

Phalgu-vairägya - futile renunciation; renunciation which is unfavorable to bhakti. This is defined in Bhakti-rasämåta-sindhu (1.2.256):

When people who desire liberation give up objects which are related to Kåñëa, considering them to be material, their renunciation is known as phalgu-vairägya.” Çréla Jéva Gosvämé has explained in his commentary that this especially refers to giving up prasäda, or remnants of food and other articles offered to Him. This giving up of prasäda is of two types: never requesting Kåñëa’s prasäda, and refusing it when it comes unsolicited. The second one in particular is considered to be an offense and therefore unfavorable to bhakti.

Piëòa - riceballs or flour cake offered to the Pitåis, or deceased ancestors; a çräddha oblation.

Prabhu - master or Lord.

Prabhu-tattva - the fundamental truth concerning Bhagavän, who is the master of the living entities and of material nature. This is one of the aspects of sambandha-jïäna.

Prädeçika - regional, territorial, provincial. This comes from the word pradeça, a province. When it is used in reference to particular statements of the Vedas, it means that which is limited to a particular context, or that which defines only a partial aspect of a concept.

This is in contrast to mahäväkyas which are statements defining the underlying essence of the entire Vedas (see mahäväkya in this Glossary).

Prahara - a day is divided into eight periods known as prahara, each roughly three hours in duration.

Prakäça - a particular type of manifestation of Bhagavän. When a single form is manifest in many places simultaneously and each of these forms is identical in terms of bodily features, qualities, and pastimes, such a manifestation is called prakäça.

Präkåta-bhakta - an unrefined or undeveloped bhakta. This is a term which refers to the kaniñöha, or neophyte bhakta‚ who worships the Deity with faith but who renders no service to the Kåñëa’s bhaktas.

Prakåti - (1) nature, the material world, the power that creates and regulates the world. (2) matter as opposed to puruña, spirit. (3) the primordial female energy, a woman or womankind.

Prakåti Devé - the goddess of nature.

Präëa-nätha - literally means the Lord of one’s life, but it carries the sense of one who is infinitely more dear than life itself.

Präëé - a living or sentient being. Präëé comes from the word präëa which means the breath of life or vital air. That which is living, breathing, or possessed of vital air is called präëé.

Prapatti - surrender or submission to Çré Bhagavän.

Prärabdha-karma - the results of previous activities which have already begun to bear fruit.

Prasäda - literally means mercy; especially refers to the remnants of food offered to the Deity; may also refer to the remnants of other articles offered to the Deity such as incense, flowers, garlands, and clothing.

Pratibimba-bhakti-äbhäsa - a reflective semblance of bhakti. This refers to those who adopt the practices of bhakti with a desire for material enjoyment and especially liberation. Because these people have no faith in Kåñëa and no desire to please Him, their semblance of bhakti is of the nature of an image which is disconnected from its object, and is therefore compared to a reflection.

Pratyak-våtti - the tendency to be focused inward toward the soul.

Pravåtti-märga - the path of fruitive action or ritualistic religion which yields material piety and the facility to enjoy this material world.

Prayojana - a goal or object of attainment. In terms of bhakti, this refers to the ultimate goal, kåñëa-prema.

Prema - (1) love for Kåñëa which is extremely concentrated, which completely melts the heart, and which gives rise to a deep sense of mamatä or possessiveness in relation to the Lord (this is the general definition of prema given in Bhakti-rasämåta-sindhu, 1.4.1). (2)

When rati becomes firmly rooted and unchecked by any obstacle it is known as prema. When some cause arises that could conceivably ruin the relationship between the lover and beloved and yet their bond remains completely unaffected, such an intimate loving relationship is known as prema. When prema is augmented, it is gradually transformed into sneha, mäna, praëaya, räga, anuräga, and bhäva. (Ujjvala-nélamaëi, 14. 59, 63).

Prema-bhakti - a stage of bhakti which is characterised by the appearance of prema (see above); the perfectional stage of devotion; the eighth and fully blossomed state of the bhakti-latä.

Prema-dharma - the religion which has as its goal the attainment of unalloyed love for Çré Kåñëa.

Premädhikära - eligibility for the unalloyed loving service of Çré Bhagavän.

Préti - love for Kåñëa which is also known as prema or bhakti. Jéva Gosvämé has defined préti in Préti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 65): tasyä hlädinyä eva käpi sarvänandätiçäyiné våttir-nityaà bhakta-våndeñv eva nikñipyamäëä bhagavat-prétyäkhyayä varttate – “When the eternal pleasure-giving faculty of the hlädiné potency, which alone has the power to bring supreme delight to Kåñëa, manifests in the bhakta’s

heart, it is known as bhagavat-préti, or love for Bhagavän.” The symptom of this préti is an uninterrupted desire to please the object of préti, Çré Kåñëa.

Påthak - distinct; different.

Puräëas - the eighteen historical supplements to the Vedas.

Pürëa-Brahma - the complete brahma who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavän. Bhagavän is pürna, the complete reality.

brahma, because it is the bodily effulgence of Bhagavän, is an aspect of that reality.

Pürëa-cetana - possessing full consciousness; Çré Bhagavän.

Pürëa-çakti - complete potency.

Pürëa-vikasita-cetana - fully blossomed consciousness. This refers to the bhäva-bhaktas, or those who have awakened deep attachment and love for Bhagavän.

Puruña - (1) the primeval being as the soul and original source of the universe, the Supreme Being or Soul of the universe. (2) the animating principle in living beings, the soul, spirit as opposed to prakåti, or matter. (3) a male or mankind.

Puruñärtha - the goals of human attainment. In the Vedic çästras these are classified into four categories: dharma, religious duty; artha, acquisition of wealth; käma, satisfaction of material desires; and mokña, liberation from material existence. Beyond all of these is the development of unalloyed love for the Supreme Lord, who is the embodiment of spiritual bliss and transcendental rasa. This is known as parama-puruñärtha, the supreme object of attainment.

Pürva-mémäàsä - the philosophy established by Mahaåñi Jaimini, also known as jaimini-darçana (see Jaimini in the Glossary of Names).

To thoroughly examine a topic and arrive at a conclusion is known as mémäàsä. Mémäàsä comes from the verbal root man, to think, reflect, or consider. Because in his book, Mahaåñi Jaimini has established the correct interpretation of the Vedic statements and how they may be decided through logical analysis, this book is known as mémäàsä-grantha. The Vedas have two divisions: pürva-käëòa (the first part), dealing with Vedic karma; and uttarä-käëòa (the latter part), dealing with the Upaniñads or Vedänta. Since Jaimini’s book deals with an analysis of the first part of the Vedas, it is called pürva878

mémäàsä. As Jaimini’s philosophy deals exclusively with an analysis of Vedic karma, it is also known as karma-mémäàsä.

Jaimini has minutely examined how Vedic ritualistic karma is to be performed and what its results are. He has accepted the Vedas as apauruñeya (not created by any man), beginningless, and eternal. His philosophy is established on the basis of the Vedas.

However, he has given prominence only to Vedic karma. He states that the jévas are meant to performVedic karma only. By proper performance of Vedic karma, one can obtain parama-puruñärtha, the supreme goal, which in his opinion refers to the attainment of the celestial planets.

In Jaimini’s view, the visible world is anädi, without beginning, and it does not undergo destruction. Consequently, there is no need for an omniscient and omnipotent Éçvara to carry out the creation, maintenance, and destruction of the world. Jaimini accepts the existence of pious and sinful karma. According to his doctrine, karma automatically yields the results of its own actions.

Therefore, there is no need for an Éçvara to award the results of karma.

Putra - a son; one who delivers his forefathers from the hell known as put.


Räga - a deep attachment which is permeated by spontaneous and intense absorption in the object of one’s affection. The primary characteristic of räga is a deep and overpowering thirst for the object of one’s affection. The desire for water is called thirst. When the body is deprived of water, thirst arises. The greater the thirst, the greater the longing for water. When this thirst reaches the point that without water one can no longer maintain the body, it is known as an overpowering thirst. Similarly, when the loving thirst to please the object of one’s affection becomes so intense that in the absence of such service one is on the verge of giving up his life, it is known as räga.

Räga-märga - the path of rägä, or spontaneous attachment; see rägänugä.

Rägamayé bhakti - bhakti which is permeated with räga, or spontaneous affection. Rägamayé bhakti is not within sädhana. It refers to the stage after prema has arisen. In the beginning, there is prema, which then develops into sneha, mäna, praëaya, räga, anuräga, bhäva and mahäbhäva. When prema attains the state of räga it is called rägamayé. It comes after one takes his birth in the womb of a gopé and attains the association of Kåñëa’s rägätmikä-bhaktas. By that association, first prema will come and then it will gradually evolve to the stage of räga and on up to mahäbhäva. The word tåñëä used here means ‘thirst’ to drink Kåñëa, His form (rüpa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha), sound (çabda) and touch (sparça). The word premamayé is a general term that can indicate the stage of prema anywhere in its development from the stage of sneha right up to the stage of mahäbhäva.

Rägänugä-bhakti - bhakti which follows in the wake of the rägätmika nature present in the hearts of the Lord’s eternal associates in Vraja is known as rägänugä-bhakti.

Rägänugä-prakåti - nature which impels one to follow the soul’s spontaneous attraction toward Kåñëa. When the intelligence is liberated from the bondage of mäyä, human nature no longer needs to be governed by rules and prohibitions; rather, it is prompted by spontaneous love. The rägänugä nature is the unadulterated nature of the jéva. It is svabhäva-siddha (the perfected state of the self), cinmaya (transcendental), and jaòa-mukta (free from bondage to dull matter).

Rägänugä-sädhana - Çré Rüpa Gosvämé’s conclusions regarding the method for performing rägänugä-bhajana are stated in Bhaktirasämåta-sindhu (1.2.294-296) as follows: “One should constantly remember one’s dearest nava-kiçora Çré Nanda-nandana and the beloved associates of Kåñëa who are possessed of sajätéya-bhäva or the identical mood for which one aspires. One should always reside in Çré Vraja-dhäma with great attachment for hearing topics regarding Kåñëa and His devotees. If one is physically unable to live in Vraja, one should do so mentally. This is the method of rägänugäbhakti-sädhana.” Çré Rüpa Gosvämé continues: “A sädhaka who has lobha for rägänugä-bhakti should serve Çré Kåñëa both in the sädhaka rüpa and the siddha-rüpa in accordance with the bhäva of the Vrajaparikaras who possess the same mood for which he aspires. The aìgas of bhakti such as çravana, kértana, çré guru-padaäçraya, and others in regard to vaidhé-bhakti, are also useful and necessary in rägänugäbhakti.

But judicious sädhakas will adopt only those aìgas which nourish their specific bhäva, avoiding those which hamper it.”

Examples of the aìgas of bhakti in regard to rägänugä-sädhana are as follows: Çravaëam in madhura-rasa means that one will hear how a maidservant serves Lalitä, Viçäkhä, Rädhä and Kåñëa. Kértana means that one will learn how to do pati-vaïcanam, that is speaking sweet words to the husband in order to cheat him and go to participate in the lélä of Rädhä and Kåñëa. Smaraëam means to remember how Lalitä and Viçäkhä are rendering service to Çrématé Rädhäräëé.

Päda-sevanam means to take Çrématé Rädhäräëé to meet with Kåñëa at night. Arcanam is done with the corner of the eyes. When Kåñëa is returning from the cow-pastures with the cowherd boys and the cows, all the gopés are standing at their doorsteps doing arcana with the corner of their eyes. Everything is there; the flame is there, water is there, sneha, mäna, praëaya and everything else is there.

Kåñëa also accepts their worship with the corner of His eyes. This is called arcana. Ätma-nivedanam means gopéjana-vallabhäya svähä:I am the maidservant of Rädhä and Kåñëa, and I am offering my entire being to Them.”

Rägätmika - one in whose heart there naturally and eternally exists a deep spontaneous desire to love and serve Çré Kåñëa; one whose bhakti is permeated with räga. This specifically refers to the eternal residents of Vraja, who are attracted to Çré Kåñëa in a mood of intimate love, free from any conception of the Lord’s opulence or majesty (aiçvarya-jïäna).

Rajas - (See rajo-guëa).

Räjasika - of the nature of rajo-guëa.

Rajo-guëa - the quality or nature of living beings which is characterised by intense activity and passion.

Räma-navamé - the appearance day of Çré Räma which occurs on the ninth day of the light lunar fortnight of the month of Caitra (March-April).

Raïjakatä - in chapter twenty-one raïjakatä is used to mean attraction. The special implication is that a person’s heart becomescolored’, or dyed very thoroughly by an object due to his strong attachment for it. That is the state of räga. When the person sees the beautiful object, his vision at once becomes drawn to it, and his heart becomes colored. Then, even if the beautiful object goes out of his sight, still his heart continues to perceive it everywhere.

The coloring of the heart is called raïjakatä and the strong attachment that is established in the heart when the consciousness becomes dyed in this way is known as räga.

Rasa - (1) the spiritual transformation of the heart which takes place when the perfectional state of love for Kåñëa, known as rati, is converted into liquid emotions by combination with various types of transcendental ecstasies. In Bhakti-rasämåta-sindhu (2.1.5)

bhakti-rasa is defined: “When the sthäyibhäva, or the permanent emotion of the heart in one of the five primary relationships of neutrality, servitude, friendship, parental affection, or conjugal love, mixes with vibhäva, anubhäva, sättvika-bhäva, and vyabhicärébhäva, thus producing an extraordinary taste in the heart of the bhakta, it is called bhakti-rasa.

The explanation of bhakti as rasa is the unique contribution of Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé. The common view is that rasa applies to the emotional experience of poetry or drama. This theory of rasa originated from the Näöya-çästra of Bharata Muni, a famous work on Sanskrit poetics and drama. Rüpa Gosvämé’s explanation of how rasa is generated is exactly in accordance with Bharata Muni’s definition; yet he has explained the experience of rasa in terms of bhakti, or love for Kåñëa. Thus, there is both a transcendental and secular conception of rasa.

(2) the state of aesthetic consciousness.

Rasaräja - the emperor of rasa; one who is supreme in relishing the mellows of rasa; this is a name for Çré Kåñëa who is akhila-rasämåtamürti, the embodiment of the essence of all rasa.

Rasika-bhakta - one who is able to relish bhakti-rasa within his heart. At the stage of bhäva, a bhakta’s heart becomes infused with çuddha-sattva from the heart of one of Kåñëa’s eternal associates in Vraja. This çuddha-sattva is then known as kåñëa-rati, the first dawning of divine love. When this permanent sentiment of love combines with other ecstatic emotions, it generates the unique experience of bhakti-rasa. One who is eligible to taste this rasa is known as a rasika-bhakta.

Rati - (1) attachment, fondness for. (2) a stage in the development of bhakti which is synonymous with bhäva (see bhäva-bhakti).

Riraàsä - means the desire to taste Kåñëa for one’s own enjoyment, not for Kåñëa’s pleasure. If that riraàsä is to please Kåñëa, then it comes in the category of käma and prema. Riraàsä should be present in kämänuga, whether it is tat-tad-bhäva-icchämayé or sambhogaicchämayé; riraàsä is present in both. Riraàsä is present in tad-tadbhäva-icchämayé, but it is tasted when the gopés and Kåñëa meet together. And in sambhoga-icchämayé, the gopés are meeting with Kåñëa in order to please Him. Riraàsä is also present in Kubjä, but only to satisfy herself. Riraàsä is not for one’s personal enjoyment in sambhoga-icchämayé and tat-tad-bhäva-icchämayé.

If one has this riraàsä toward Kåñëa and is practicing strictly according to vaidhé-bhakti then he will attain to the class of Kåñëa’s queens in Dvärakä. In vaidhé-bhakti one worships Lakñmé-Näräyaëa. Sädhakas who have riraàsä towards Kåñëa will attain Kåñëa, but their käma will be of the nature of Dvärakä, so they will follow the mahiñés (queens). Vaidhé means to be married by çästravidhi.

In the vaidhé-bhäva, one desires to have Kåñëa as one’s husband. One may desire the Kåñëa of Vraja, but there is no marriage in Vraja. Therefore, one cannot obtain Vraja bhäva; instead, one will attain Dvärakä.

Åñi - a great sage learned in the Vedas.

Ruci - taste. This is the fifth stage in the development of the creeper of bhakti. Ruci develops after one has acquired steadiness in bhajana.

At this stage, with the awakening of actual taste, one’s attraction to spiritual matters, such as hearing, chanting, and other such devotional practices, exceeds one’s attraction to any type of material activity.

Rüh - an Islamic term for the soul.

Rüh-mujarrad - an Islamic term for the liberated soul.


Sac-cid-änanda - that which is composed of sat (eternal existence), cit (full spiritual consciousness), and änanda (spiritual bliss); often refers to the transcendental form of Çré Kåñëa.

Çacénandana - a name for Caitanya Mahäprabhu; the son of mother Çacé (see Caitanya).

Sädhaka - one who follows a spiritual discipline to achieve a specific goal. In this book this especially refers to a practitioner of bhakti.

Sädhana - the method one adopts in order to obtain a specific goal is called sädhana. Without sädhana one cannot obtain sädhya, the goal of one’s practice. There are many different types of sädhana corresponding to various goals. Those who desire material enjoyment adopt the path of karma as their sädhana. Those who desire liberation adopt the path of jïäna as their sädhana. Those who aspire for the eternal loving service of Çré Kåñëa adopt the path of bhakti as their sädhana. The sädhana of bhakti refers to spiritual practices such as hearing, chanting, and so on.

Sädhana-bhakti - the practising stage of devotion; a stage of bhakti in which the various spiritual disciplines performed for the satisfaction of Çré Kåñëa are undertaken through the medium of the senses for the purpose of bringing about the manifestation of bhäva, or spiritual prema.

Sädhana-catuñöaya - four types of sädhana (mentioned in Chapter twelve) which are; nityänitya-vastu-viveka (discriminating between eternal and temporary objects); 2) ihänutra-phala-bhoga-viräga (detachment from enjoying the results of this life and the next life); 3) çama-damädi sat-sampatti (the six types of opulences headed by control over the mind and senses); and 4) mumukñä (the desire for liberation).

Sädhya - the object or goal which is desired by a person and for the attainment of which he undergoes a suitable process, is known as sädhya. There are many different types of sädhyas, or objects of attainment, and these are generally grouped into four categories: dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), käma (material enjoyment), and mokña (liberation). The sädhya-vastu, or object of attainment, for the bhaktas is bhagavat-préti, love for the Supreme Lord. This is also known as prema. Bhakti or prema, being an eternal function of Çré Bhagavän’s svarüpa-çakti, is not produced by anything. Yet, when the bhakta’s heart is purified by performing sädhana-bhakti, it becomes fit to receive the manifestation of His hlädiné or pleasure giving potency. At that time Kåñëa manifests this potency in the bhakta’s heart and it becomes known as bhagavatpréti (see préti and puruñärtha).

Sädhya, susiddha, siddha and ari - These are four kinds of doña (faults) calculated according to jyotiña-çästra concerning the nature of a çiñya in accordance with his pürva-karma. Some of them appear to be good qualities, but from the absolute perspective, anyone who takes a material birth has fault. In this context sädhya indicates that the candidate has the adhikära to attain prema-bhakti if he endeavors fully in this life. Susiddha has the adhikära to attain perfection with very little endeavor and siddha has somewhat less adhikära than him. Ari indicates that the çiñya has so many ari (inauspicious planets) in his chart that almost any endeavor he makes for bhakti will simply create further hindrances. However, when these four kinds of çiñyas accept kåñëa-mantra from sad-guru all of their hindrances can be removed.

Sägnika-brähmaëa - is a brähmaëa who keeps a perpetual fire burning in his house for the sake of performing yajïa.

Çaiva - a worshiper of Çré Çiva.

Sakhé - a female friend, companion, or attendant.

Sakhya - love or attachment for the Lord which is expressed in the mood of a friend; one of the five primary relationships with Kåñëa which are established in the heart when the sädhaka has attained the stage of bhäva or prema.

One of the aìgas of sädhana-bhakti; the worship of the Lord while one is in the stage of sädhana in the mood of being a friend of the Lord. Although Çré Bhagavän possesses all opulences and majesty, a bhakta who thinks of the Lord as his friend and endeavors to please Him in this way exhibits this mood of friendship toward the Lord. In the summer season, thinking that his worshipful Lord must be suffering greatly from the heat, the sädhaka will fan Him and offer Him sandalwood and other fragrant and cooling substances. When one does so, he demonstrates a mood of friendship toward the Lord. The difference between däsyam and sakhyam is that sakhyam is imbued with viçrambha-sevä, the mood of intimacy, free from any formal restraint. This is one of the nine primary aìgas of bhakti.

Çäkta - a worshiper of Çakti or Durgä.

Çakti - (1) power or potency. (2) the wife of Lord Çiva, also known as Durgä, who presides over the material energy; one of the five deities worshiped by the païcopäsakas.

Çäktyäveça-avatära - an empowered incarnation; a jéva who, due to submission to Bhagavän becomes äveña (empowered) by Him to act powerfully on His behalf.

Samädhi - meditation or deep trance either upon the Paramätmä or upon Kåñëa’s lélä.

Samäja - human society; a meeting, assembly, congregation or community.

Sämäjika - that which relates to society and social ideas (see samäja).

Sambandha-jïäna - knowledge regarding sambandha-tattva, the mutual relationship between the Lord, the living entities, and the material energy. The word sambandha means connection, relationship, and binding. The living entities are eternally and inseparably connected to the Supreme Lord, who is therefore the true object of relationship. The general relationship between the living entities and Çré Bhagavän is one of servant and served. But in the perfectional stage of bhakti, one becomes established in a specific relationship with the Lord either as a servant, friend, parent, or beloved.

Sambandha-tattva - the principle regarding the mutual relationships between Bhagavän, the living entities, and the material energy.

Sambhoga - full pleasure. Experienced in the loving dealings between

Kåñëa and His associates in Vraja. The object of these dealings, which embody a wonderful, ecstatic sentiment of rejoicing, is solely to give pleasure to each other.

Saàhitä-çästras - religious çästras which delineate the laws for human beings.

Sampradäya - (samyak + pradäya): that process or path that bestows the Supreme Absolute Truth thoroughly and perfectly. A line of disciplic succession; established doctrine transmitted from one teacher to another; a particular system of religious teaching. The Padma Puräëa predicts the advent of four authorized lines of Vaiñëava disciplic succession as well as their founding äcäryas in the age of Kali: ata kalau bhaviñyanti catväraù sampradäyinaù çrébrahma-rudra-sanakä vaiñëaväù kñiti-pävanä – “In the age of Kali four Vaiñëava sampradäyas will purify the earth. These are known as the Çré (Lakñmé), Brahmä, Rudra, and Sanaka (Catuùsana) sampradäyas.”

These sampradäyas are renowned by the names of the äcäryas who established their doctrines in recent times (Padma Puräëa): rämänujaà çré svécakre madhväcäryam caturmukha çré viñëusväminaà rudro nimbädityaà catuùsana – “Lakñmédevé accepted Rämänuja, Caturmukha Brahmä accepted Madhväcärya; Rudra accepted Viñëusvämé; and Catuùsana, the four Kumäras, accepted Nimbäditya as the respective heads of their sampradäyas.”

Although Çré Gauräìga Mahäprabhu claimed a link with the Madhva sampradäya, His line is distinguished as the Gauòéya sampradäya (the sampradäya established in the land of Gauòa). Because He is Çré Bhagavän Himself He has presented the highest conceptions of love of God which were previously unknown to any of the sampradäyas.

Saàsära - (1) material existence; the cycle of repeated birth and death. (2) householder life; domestic life.

Saàskära - (1) a sacred or sanctifying ceremony. (2) reformation or training of the mind; impression on the mind of any previous experience or acts done in a former state of existence.

Saàvit - this refers to svarüpa-çakti which is predominated by saàvit (see svarüpa-çakti). Saàvit is the potency which relates to the cit, or cognizant, aspect of Çré Bhagavän. Although Bhagavän is the embodiment of knowledge, saàvit is the potency by which He knows Himself and causes others to know Him. When the saàvit potency is prominent in viçuddha-sattva, it is known as ätma-vidyä, knowledge of the individual self and Bhagavän. This ätma-vidyä has two faculties: (1) jïäna, knowledge itself; and (2) jïäna-pravartaka, one who or that which promotes knowledge.

The worshiper’s knowledge is manifest by these two faculties.

Knowledge of absolute reality is possible only with the help of ätma-vidyä.

Sandhiné - this refers to svarüpa-çakti which is predominated by sandhiné (see svarüpa-çakti). Sandhiné is the potency which relates to the sat, or existential aspect of Çré Bhagavän. This is the potency by which He maintains His own existence and the existence of others. When the sandhiné potency is prominent in viçuddha-sattva, it is known as ädhära-çakti, the all-accomodating potency. The spiritual abode of the Lord and His associates are manifest by this ädhära-çakti.

Sandhyä - evening – the junction of day and night.

Sandhyä-äraté - the ceremony of worshiping a Deity with various types of paraphernalia such as incense, flowers, and a ghee lamp, performed at evening twilight with the chanting of devotional hymns and musical accompaniment.

Sandhyä-vandanä - the chanting of Vedic mantras such as brahmagäyatré at dawn, noon and sunset.

Säìkhya - the path of knowledge involving an analysis of spirit and matter. This philosophy is atheistic in nature. It was propagated by the sage Kapila, who is different from the avatära of the Lord known as Kapila, the son of Kardama and Devahüti. The sage Kapila, who was born in the dynasty of Agni, is referred to in the Mahäbhärata (Vana-parva 221.21): kapilaà paramarñiï ca yaà prähur yataya sadä agni sa kapilo näma säìkhya-yoga pravartaka – “That person whom the renunciates proclaim as the founder of the säìkhya-yoga system is the great sage Kapila who appeared in the dynasty of Agni.”

Saìkértana - congregational chanting of the names of Kåñëa.

Saìkucita-cetana - contracted consciousness. This refers to animals, birds, insects, and aquatics. Their consciousness is more developed than that of the non-moving entities, yet inferior to human consciousness. Saìkucita-cetana is mainly limited to the activities of eating, sleeping, mating, fearing, moving about of their own volition, fighting with other animals over territory and possessions which they claim as their own, and becoming angry in the face of encroachment. Beings at this stage of consciousness have no knowledge of the next life and no tendency to inquire about God.

Sannyäsa - the fourth äçrama, or stage of life in the varëäçrama system; renounced ascetic life.

Sannyäsé - a member of the renounced order.

Çaraëägati - also known as çaraëäpatti; surrender; approaching for refuge or protection. In Bhakti-sandarbha (Anuccheda 236)

çaraëägati is described: änukülyasya saìkalpa prätikülyasya varjanam

rakñiñyatéti viçväso goptåtve varaëaà tathä

ätma-nikñepa kärpaëye ñaò-vidhä çaraëägati

There are six symptoms of self-surrender: acceptance of that which is favorable to bhagavad-bhajana, rejection of that which is unfavorable, firm faith in the Lord as one’s protector, deliberate acceptance of the Lord as one’s guardian and nourisher, submission of the self, and humility.

Särärtha-darçiné - commentary on Çrémad-Bhägavatam, Çréla Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura gives the following commentary on çlokas 11.20.27-30, 32-33: “In the first two çlokas quoted above, the nature of a person who is in the beginning stage of eligibility for bhakti is described. By the association of sädhus one develops a taste for hearing hari-kathä. At that time he loses interest in all other activities, and begins to chant çré-näma with firm determination.

However, due to his previous habits and conditioning, he is unable to give up material enjoyment and the desire for such enjoyment.

Yet even while engaged in such enjoyment he knows that it is offensive and he condemns it.

What is meant by dåòha-niçcaya, firm determination? ‘Whether my attachment for family, home, and so on is destroyed or increased, whether I experience ten million impediments in bhajana or none, even if I am impelled to lust, or must go to hell for my offenses, I will never give up bhakti. I will not agree to adopt karma or jïäna, even if Brahmä himself comes to recommend it.’ This is known as dåòhaniçcaya.

From the outset, the more one’s bhajana is firmly resolved for bhakti, the less it will be distracted by unfavorable things.

Will the bhakta remain obstructed by desires for material enjoyment?

No. This is answered by Çré Bhagavän in the next two çlokas.

By hearing and repeating hari-kathä, all desires for material enjoyment within the bhaktas heart are gradually destroyed. When the sädhaka worships Me, I come and sit in his heart, at which time his faults can no longer remain. Why? Because it is not possible for material desires to sit in the same heart with Me, just as it is impossible for the sun and darkness to be present in the same place. The knot of the false ego is pierced without delay, all doubts are dispersed, and the desires for karma are annihilated. This is My eternal edict.’

A bhakta thus develops faith in hearing hari-kathä, and having abandoned faith in the pursuits of karma and jïäna, he loses interest in such activities. But suppose for some improbable reason he were to desire the fruits of such activities – then what? This is answered in the next two çlokas. ‘The benedictions of elevation to the celestial planets, liberation, the attainment of My supreme abode, as well as whatever else is obtained by fruitive activities, austerity, knowledge, renunciation, yoga practice, charity, religiosity, or other beneficial methods of sädhana, are easily obtained by My bhaktas through the power of bhakti-yoga.‘”

Çaréra - the body; bodily frame.

Çäréraka-bhäñya - the commentary on Vedänta-sütra by Çré Çaìkaräcärya; Inquiry into the Nature of the Embodied Spirit (see Çaìkaräcärya in the glossary of names).

Çärérika - that which relates to the material body and its acquisitions (see çaréra).

Sarva-darçé - one who is all-seeing; one who sees that Bhagavän is the complete Absolute Truth and the source of brahma and Paramätmä.

Särva-kälika - activities which are applicable for all time.

Çästra - Scripture especially the Vedic scriptures.

Çästréya-çraddhä - conviction based on deep faith in the çästras in the practice of bhakti.

Sat-karma - pious deeds recommended in the karma-käëòa section of the Vedas.

Sat-saìga - see sädhu-saìga.

Sattä - existence.

Sattva-guëa - the quality or nature of living beings which is characterised by wisdom and purity.

Sättvika - of the nature of sattva-guëa.

Sättvika-bhäva - one of the five essential ingredients of rasa; eight symptoms of spiritual ecstasy arising exclusively from viçuddhasattva, or in other words, when the heart is overwhelmed by emotions in connection with the five primary moods of affection for Kåñëa or the seven secondary emotions. The eight symptoms that constitute sättvika-bhäva are: (1) stambha (becoming stunned), (2) sveda (perspiration), (3) romäïca (standing of the hairs on end), (4) svara-bhaìga (faltering of the voice), (5) kampa (trembling), vaivarëa (pallor or change of color), (7) açru (tears), and (8) pralaya (loss of consciousness or fainting).

Satya - truth, reality; demonstrated conclusion.

Saura - a worshiper of Sürya, the sun god.

Sauträmaëé-yajïa - a particular sacrifice in honor of Indra which is described in the Yajur Veda. It is said that by performing this yajïa, one obtains a place in the heavenly planets. Although drinking wine is forbidden for brähmaëas, this yajïa involves the acceptance of wine in a manner that does not result in a brähmaëa’s falldown.

Saviçeña-väda - the doctrine which acknowledges that the Absolute Truth is a transcendental personality possessing non-material form, features, and attributes.

Saviçeña-vädé - one who adheres to the doctrine of saviçeñaväda.

Sevä - service, attendance on, reverence, devotion to.

Seväite - priests or servants of a Deity.

Shallow earthen plate - (quoted in chapter 10) Vaiñëavas who now live at Gädégächä in Navadvépa, who look upon the world as a shallow earthen plate. The shallow earthen plate is a lid for a water pot. Even if the pot is very large, it can only hold a small quantity of water. i.e. Nyäyaratna is saying although the earth is a vast container, it was reduced to a shallow lid by the immense scholarship and authority of the Vaiñëavas of Godruma.

Siddha - (1) realized or perfected. (2) liberated souls who reside in the spiritual world. (3) a liberated soul who accompanies Bhagavän to the material world to assist in His pastimes, or one who has attained the perfectional stage of bhakti (prema) in this life, whose symptoms are described in Bhakti-rasämåta-sindhu (2.1.180): avijïätäkhila kleça sadä kåñëäçrita kriyä siddhä syu santata prema saukhyäsväda paräyaëä – “One who is always fully immersed in activities related to Çré Kåñëa, who is completely unacquainted with impediments or material distress, and who incessantly tastes the bliss of prema is called a siddha-bhakta.”

Siddhänta - philosophical doctrine or precept; demonstrated conclusion; established end; admitted truth.

Siddhi - eight mystical perfections attained through yoga (see yogasiddhi).

Siddhi-kämé - one who covets mystic powers (see yoga-siddhi).

Çikñä - instructions received from a teacher; as one of the limbs of bhakti, this specifically refers to instructions received from a guru about bhakti.

Çikñä-guru - the person from whom one receives instructions on how to progress on the path of bhajana is known as çikñä-guru, or instructing spiritual master. After hearing instructions from the çravaëa-guru, the person from whom one hears about the fundamental truths of Bhagavän, a desire may arise to engage in bhajana. If such a desire arises, the person whom one approaches in order to learn how to perform bhajana is known as a çikñä-guru. The çravaëaguru and çikñä-guru are usually one and the same person as stated in the Bhakti-sandarbha, Anuccheda 206 – atha çravaëa-guru bhajanaçikñä- gurvo präyakaà-ekatam-iti tathaiväha.

Çiva - a qualitative expansion of Çré Bhagavän (see Glossary of Names).

Çiva-rätré - a festival in honor of Çiva which is observed with a fast during the day and night of the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month of Phälguna (February-March).

Smaraëam - rememberance and meditation upon Kåñëa’s names, forms, qualities, and pastimes. Smaraëam should be done in connection with näma-saìkértana. There are five stages in the process of smaraëa known as smaraëa, dhärana, dhyäna, dhruvänusmåti, and samädhé: (1) a little investigation or examination of Çré Hari’s names, forms, and so on is called smaraëa; (2) to withdraw the mind from all external objects and fix it in a general way upon the name, form, etc. of Çré Hari is called dhärana; (3) to contemplate the Lord’s names, forms, etc. in a concentrated manner is called dhyäna; (4) when that rememberance proceeds in an uninterrupted manner like a continuous flow of nectar, it is called dhruvänusmåti, and (5) that meditation in which the object of one’s contemplation is the only thing manifest in the heart is called samädhi. Smaraëam is one of the nine primary aìgas of bhakti.

Smärta - an orthodox brähmaëa. One who rigidly adheres to the småti-çästras (in particular, the dharma-çästras or codes of religious behavior), being overly attached to the external rituals without comprehending the underlying essence of the çästra. They are distinct from the Vaiñëava smärtas and småti-çästras such as Hari-Bhakti-Vilasa

Smärta-karma - social and religious rites prescribed by the småtiçästras.

Småti - (1) that which is remembered (2) tradition as distinguished from çruti, revelation. The body of sacred literature which is remembered (in contradistinction to çruti, or that which is directly heard by or revealed to the åñis). These include the six Vedäìgas, the dharma-çästras such as Manu-saàhitä, the Puräëas, and the itihäsas.

Sneha - affection. In chapter twenty-one two kinds of sneha are being described by Bäbäjé Mahäçaya. He says that sneha is related to sakhya-bhäva, this does not mean in the intimate sense of relationship.

That kind of sakhya-bhäva comes under the category of sambandha-rüpa. Sakhya-bhäva in this chapter means the ordinary type of sakhyam, which comes in the nine items of bhakti that Prahläda Mahäräja mentions in Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Here sakhyam is in vaidhé-bhakti, and it means to serve Kåñëa with an ordinary sense of friendliness (sakhya-bhäva), and to know Kåñëa as a friend (sakhä). Since this comes under the jurisdiction of vaidhé-bhakti, it is not part of rägänugä-bhakti. The other kind of sneha comes in the category of prema (sneha, mäna, praëaya, etc.), and therefore cannot be performed in rägänugä-sädhana, but it can come in rägätmikä-bhakti. It cannot be followed. It can only develop in prema after vastu-siddhi, when the bhakta has taken birth in the womb of a vraja-gopé, and so it cannot be practiced in rägänugäsädhana-bhakti.

Çraddhä - faith. This refers to faith in the statements of the çästras

which is awakened after accumulating pious devotional activities over many births. Such faith is aroused in the association of saintly

bhaktas and it is the external manifestation of the seed of the creeper

of bhakti. The inner essence of that seed is the conception which is planted in the heart of the disciple to serve Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa in

a particular capacity (see also bhakti-latä-béja).

Çräddha - a ceremony in honor of and for the benefit of deceased

relatives. The forefathers are offered piëòa, an oblation of rice and

meal, which endows them with a body suitable to attain pitå-loka, the planet of the forefathers. There they enjoy a high standard of

material enjoyment.

Çravaëa-guru - the person from whom one hears instructions regarding

the fundamental truths of Çré Bhagavän, His energies, the living entities, and bhakti is known as the çravaëa-guru.

Çravaëam - hearing the transcendental descriptions of Bhagavän’s names, forms, qualities, pastimes, and associates from the mouths of advanced bhaktas. One of the nine most important aìgas of


Çré Bhäñya - The commentary which Reveals the Transcendental Beauty and Opulence of the Lord; a commentary on Vedänta-sütra

by Çré Rämänujäcärya.

Çruti - (1) that which is heard. (2) revelation, as distinguished from

småti, tradition; infallible knowledge which was received by Brahmä

or by the great sages in the beginning of creation and which descends in disciplic succession from them; the body of literature which was directly manifest from the Supreme Lord. This applies

to the original four Vedas (also known as the nigamas) and the Upaniñads.

Sthävara - non-moving living entities like trees, creepers, shrubs, and stones.

Sthäyébhäva - one of the five essential ingredients of bhakti-rasa; the permanent sentiment of love for the Lord in one of the five primary relationships of tranquility, servitude, friendship, parental affection, or conjugal love. This dominant emotion of the heart in

one of the five primary relationships is also known as mukhya-rati, primary attachment. The sthäyébhäva can also refer to the dominant sentiment in the seven secondary mellows of laughter, wonder, heroism, compassion, anger, fear, and disgust. In that case it is known as gauëa-rati, secondary attachment.

Sthüla-çaréra - the gross material body consisting of physical elements.

Çubha-karma - activities producing auspicious results.

Çuddha-abhimäna - pure egoism; the conception of being a servant of Kåñëa.

Çuddha-bhakta - a pure bhakta; one who performs çuddha-bhakti.

Çuddha-bhakti - pure devotion; devotion which is unmixed with

fruitive action or monistic knowledge, and which is devoid of all desires other than the exclusive pleasure of Kåñëa; this is also known

as uttama-bhakti.

Çuddha-bhäva - the pure or genuine state of bhäva-bhakti; the genuine spiritual emotions which manifest at the state of bhäva.

Çuddha-jéva - the pure spiritual entity in his liberated state free from material designations.

Çuddha-jïäna - knowledge of the relationship between Bhagavän, the jévas, and mäyä.

Çuddha-näma - pure chanting of the holy name. When one is freed

from all offenses and anarthas, the pure holy name descends and

appears on the fully purified and transcendental senses – known

thus as çuddha-näma.

Çuddhävasthä - the pure or liberated state of the jéva.

Çüdra - the lowest of the four varëas, or castes, in the varëäçrama

system; artisans and laborers.

Sukåti - piety, virtue; pious activity. Sukåti is of two types: nitya, eternal, and naimittika, temporary. The sukåti by which one obtains sädhu-saìga and bhakti is nitya-sukåti. It is eternal because it produces eternal fruit. Bhakta-saìga, or the association of bhaktas, and bhakti-kriya-saìga, or contact with acts of devotion, are nityasukåti.

These activities are said to be nitya-sukåti and not bhakti

proper when they are performed accidentally or without pure çraddhä. When this type of sukåti acquires strength after many

lifetimes, çraddhä develops toward sädhu-saìga and ananya-bhakti.

The sukåti by which one obtains material enjoyment and impersonal liberation is naimittika-sukåti. It is temporary because it produces temporary results. Karma, yoga, and jïäna are all naimittikasukåti.

Naimittika-sukåti does not have the power to awaken faith

in transcendental objects, such as the Lord’s holy name, mahäprasäda, bhakti, and the Vaiñëavas.

Çünyaväda - the doctrine of nihilism or voidism, which has as its goal complete annihilation of the self.

Sura - a god, divinity, deity, sage; this specifically refers to the devas situated in the celestial planets. The brähmaëas are known

as bhü-sura, gods on earth, because they represent the Supreme Lord.

Svabhäva - the true nature of a thing which forms an essential part of its composition.

Svabhävika-anuräga - the spontaneous attraction that one experiences toward the Supreme Lord and His bhaktas when one becomes established in one’s pure spiritual nature.

Sva-dharma - (1) one’s ‘own duty’; the true eternal spiritual function

of the self. (2) in regard to varëäçrama-dharma, this refers to the temporary duties prescribed in accordance with one’s social caste. Thus sva-dharma is used in both the absolute and relative sense.

Svärasiké - in chapter twenty-one is used in the sense of undivided

remembrance of Kåñëa’s lélä. When räga has awakened in

the heart of the bhakta, then Kåñëa’s lélä automatically manifests in his heart in a continuous flow, without cessation or interruption.

Such a condition is called svärasiké.

Svarüpa-çakti - Çré Bhagavän’s divine potency. It is called svarüpaçakti

because it is situated in His form. This potency is cinmaya, fully

conscious, and thus it is the counterpart and antithesis of matter.

Consequently it is also known as cit-çakti, potency which embodies the principle of consciousness. Because this potency is intimately

connected with the Lord, being situated in His form, it is further

known as antaraìga-çakti, the internal potency. Because it is superior

to His marginal and external potencies both in form and glory, it is known as parä-çakti, the superior potency. Thus, by its qualities, this potency is known by different names – svarüpa-çakti, citçakti, antaraìga-çakti, and parä-çakti.

The svarüpa-çakti has three divisions: (1) sandhiné, the potency

which accommodates the spiritual existence of Kåñëa and all of

His associates; (2) saàvit, the potency which bestows transcendental knowledge of Him; and (3) hlädiné, the potency by which

Kåñëa enjoys transcendental bliss and bestows such bliss upon

His bhaktas (see sandhiné, saàvit, and hlädiné).

The supreme entity known as Parabrahma is composed of saccid-

änanda. These features (eternal existence, full-cognizance, and supreme bliss) can never be separated from each other. Similarly

sandhiné, saàvit, and hlädiné are always found together. No one of these potencies can ever be separated from the other two.

However, they are not always manifest in the same proportion.

When sandhiné is prominent in viçuddha-sattva, it is known as svarüpa-çakti predominated by sandhiné. When saàvit is prominent, it is known as svarüpa-çakti predominated by saàvit. And

when hlädiné is prominent, it is known as svarüpa-çakti predominated

by hlädiné.

Svarüpa-siddhi - the stage in which a bhakta’s svarüpa, or internal spiritual form and identity, becomes manifest. This comes at the stage of bhäva-bhakti.

Svarüpata-jaòa-mukti - liberated from matter in terms of the revelation

of one’s svarüpa. This refers to svarüpa-siddhi, the stage in

which bhäva manifests in the bhakta’s heart from the heart of one of the Lord’s eternal associates. At this stage one’s internal spiritual identity becomes manifest and the intelligence is freed from

the influence of matter, yet one’s relationship with the material world remains intact due to the presence of the material body.


Tamas - (see tamo-guëa).

Tämasika - of the nature of tamo-guëa.

Tamo-guëa - the quality or nature of tämasika jévas which is characterized

by indolence and ignorance.

Tantras - the verbal root tan means “to expand”, so tantra is that which expands the meaning of the Vedas. A class of Vedic literature dealing with a variety of spiritual topics and divided into three branches: the Ägamas, Yämala, and principal Tantras; a class of works teaching magical and mystical formularies, mostly in the form of

dialogues between Çiva and Durgä. These are said to expound upon

five subjects: (1) the creation, (2) the destruction of the world, (3)

the worship of the gods, (4) the attainment of all objects, especially

of six superhuman faculties, and (5) the four methods of union with

the supreme spirit by meditation.

Täntrika - one who is completely versed in the mystical science of

the Tantras.

Tapasyä - asceticism; austerity.

Tarkébé - an Islamic term for the conditioned soul.

Taöa - the border region between land and water; a shore. A marginal state.

Taöasthä-çakti - the marginal or jéva potency of Çré Bhagavän. Because the jéva-çakti is included neither within the svarüpa-çakti nor

within mäyä-çakti, it is known as taöasthä-çakti, the marginal potency.

The word taöa means a shore or bank, like the shoreline of an

ocean; and the verbal root stha means to be situated. The shore is not part of the ocean, yet it is not part of the land which borders the ocean. One situated on the shoreline is known as taöastha. He is situated neither within the ocean, nor on the land.

In his Paramätma-sandarbha, Jéva Gosvämé has described the taöasthä-çakti as follows: “The jéva-çakti is known as taöasthä-çakti

for two reasons. First of all it cannot be included within mäyäçakti

for it is beyond mäyä-çakti. Secondly, although jéva-çakti is

overcome by ignorance, the defect of being overcome in this way

cannot touch the Paramätmä situated in his heart. This is understood

by the following analogy. We see that some portion of the sun’s rays can be covered by shade or clouds, but the sun itself

cannot be covered. Similarly, the individual soul, who is vibhinnäàça, a separated part of Him, can be covered by mäyä, but Kåñëa Himself can never be covered.

From this it may be understood that the jéva-çakti is separate from the svarüpa-çakti also for the following reason. Svarüpa-çakti

is present in the Paramätmä. If the jéva-çakti were included within

the svarüpa-çakti, then the defect of the jévas being overcome by

ignorance would be transposed upon the svarüpa-çakti situated

within the Paramätmä as well, and ultimately upon the Paramätmä

Himself. Since that is not the case, it is evident that the jéva-çakti

is not included within svarüpa-çakti. Consequently, because the jéva-çakti is included neither within svarüpa-çakti nor within mäyäçakti, it is known as taöasthä-çakti.”

Taöasthä-vikrama - see taöasthä-çakti.

Tätkälika - activities which are relative to a particular period of time.

Tattva - truth, reality, philosophical principle; the essence or substance of anything.

Tättvika-çraddhä - real faith; faith which is based on the understanding

of tattva and which prompts one to dedicate one’s entire being to attain the Supreme Lord.

Öhäkura - a term addressing Çré Bhagavän and the Deity. Other

great personalities such as Çréla Bhaktivinoda Öhäkura are sometimes so called, implying that they have become säkñäd-dharitva, qualitatively as good as God through their full dedication to Bhagavän.

Tilaka - clay markings worn on the forehead and other parts of the body by Vaiñëavas, signifying their devotion to Lord Kåñëa or Viñëu, and consecrating the body as the Lord’s temple.

Tridaëòa - a staff which is carried by the Vaiñëava sannyäsés. It consists of three rods symbolizing engagement of body, mind, and

words in the service of the Lord. These three rods may also signify

the eternal existence of the servitor (the bhakta), the object of

service (Bhagavän), and service, thus distinguishing Vaiñëava sannyäsa from the mäyäväda ekadaëòa sannyäsa.

Tulasé - a sacred plant whose leaves and blossoms are used by

Vaiñëavas in the worship of Lord Kåñëa; a partial expansion of


Tulasé-mälä - a strand of wooden beads made of the tulasé plant, used like a rosary by Vaiñëavas for counting their chanting of

harinäma; a necklace of small tulasé beads, known as kaëöhi-mälä, worn on the neck by Vaiñëavas to indicate their devotion to Çré

Kåñëa and acceptance of dékñä.

Tyägé - a renunciate or ascetic.


Uddépana-vibhäva - an aspect of vibhäva which refers to those things which stimulate rememberance of Çré Kåñëa, such as His dress and

ornaments, the spring season, the bank of the Yamunä, forest groves, cows, peacocks, and so on. Vibhäva is one of the five essential ingredients of rasa (see vibhäva).

Udita-viveka - one whose spiritual discrimination has been awakened; the spiritually awake.

Upacära - a figurative expression; assignment of meaning, quality, or appellation to something, metaphor.

Upakaraëa - (1) ingredient, constituting material, instrument. (2)

the upakaraëas of rasa are the ingredients which combine to produce rasa; namely, sthäyébhäva, vibhäva, anubhäva, sättvika-bhäva, and

vyäbhicäré-bhäva. (3) upakaraëa may also refer to the paraphernalia which is offered to the Deity.

Upanayana - a ceremony in which a guru initiates a boy into one of

the three twice-born classes by investing the boy with the sacred

thread, and teaching him the Brahma-gäyatré mantra, whereupon

he becomes eligible to study the Vedas under his guru. This is one of

the Vedic saàskäras, or purificatory ceremonies.

Upäsanä - spiritual practices, especially worship of the Deity.

Upäsanä literally means ‘to sit near’. Thus upäsanä refers to all those activities by which one approaches the Lord in order to offer worship.

Ürddhva-puëòra-tilaka - the vertical clay markings of the Vaiñëavas worn on the forehead and other parts of the body to symbolize their

devotion to Lord Kåñëa or Viñëu.

Uttama-bhakta - the topmost practitioner of bhakti.

Uttara-mémäàsä - the philosophy established by Vyäsadeva dealing

with the latter division of the Vedas (see Vyäsa in the Glossary

of Names). After thorough analysis of the Upaniñads, which comprise the latter portion of the Vedas, and the småti-çästras which

are supplements to the Upaniñads, Vyäsadeva summarized the philosophical conclusions of those treatises in his Brahma-sütra. This Brahma-sütra, or Vedänta-sütra, is also known as vedänta-darçana or


Like the other philosophical systems, vedänta-darçana accepts certain fundamental principles. The principles of the vedäntadarçana

are not the imagination of Vyäsadeva, but are established

on the basis of the apauruñeya-veda-çästras, which are understood

to have been spoken directly by Çré Bhagavän. The statements of

Bhagavän are by definition completely free from the defects of

mistakes, illusion, cheating, and imperfect senses. On the other

hand, the fundamental principles which are accepted in the other

systems are products of their authors’ imaginations. The other

systems are based on man-made çästras, composed by greatly learned

sages. As a result they are subject to the defects of human limitation.

The vedänta-darçana accepts brahma as the supreme fundamental truth. What is the nature of that brahma? The first sütra of vedäntadarçana

states: athäto brahma-jijïäsä – “Now, therefore, inquiry

should be made into brahma.” The entire vedänta-darçana is presented

in order to answer this inquiry. In the course of analyzing

what brahma is, one also becomes acquainted with the truths of the jévas, the creation, liberation, and other such topics. As this is a vast subject matter, only a brief introduction has been given here.


Vaidha-dharma - duties which have been prescribed by the Vedas or

their corollary çästras.

Vaidhé-bhakti - devotion prompted by the regulations of çästra.

When sädhana-bhakti is not inspired by intense longing, but is instigated

instead by the discipline of the çästra, it is called vaidhé-bhakti.

Vaidhé-prakåti - the nature of the sädhaka which impels him to follow the rules and regulations of çästra. As long as the intelligence is under the control of mäyä, human nature must be regulated

by rules and prohibitions. Thus, in this condition the vaidhé

nature will certainly be in effect.

Vaidhé-pravåtti - the proclivity to follow the religious codes of çästra.

Vairägya - detachment or indifference to this world; a spiritual discipline involving the acceptance of voluntary austerities to achieve detachment from the sense objects.

Vaiçeñika - a later division of the nyäya school of philosophy, also known as vaiçeñika-darçana. It was founded by Kaëäda Åñi and

differs from the nyäya system of Gautama (see Kaëäda in the Glossary

of Names). Kaëäda accepted six principles: (1) dravya (elementary

substances which are nine in number – earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, the soul, and the mind), (2) guëa (characteristics of all created things such as form, taste, smell, sound, and tangibility), (3) karma (activity), (4) sämänya (universality; the connection of different objects by common properties), (5)

viçeña (individuality; the essential difference between objects), and (6) samaväya (inseparable concomitance; the relation which

exists between a substance and its qualities, between a whole and

its parts, or between a species and its individuals).

According to the vaiçeñika-darçana the jévas are innumerable.

The merit or demerit attaching to a man’s conduct in one state of

existence and the corresponding reward or punishment which he receives in another is called adåñöa (that which is beyond the reach of consciousness or observation). Due to the force of this unforseen accumulated karma, the jéva falls into the cycle of creation

and undergoes birth, death, happiness, and distress. When

the jéva obtains philosophical knowledge of the six principles, his adåñta is destroyed and he can attain liberation from the bondage of material existence. The vaiçeñikas define mukti as final release from material misery. There is no direct mention of Éçvara in the vaiçeñika-darçana of Kaëäda.

Vaiçeñika-jïäna - knowledge of worldly phenomena; classification of such phenomena into various categories such as dravya (objects), guëa (qualities) and so on.

Vaiñëava - literally means one whose nature is ‘of Viñëu’ in other words, one in whose heart and mind only Viñëu or Kåñëa resides. a bhakta of Çré Kåñëa or Viñëu.

Vaiñëava-dharma - the constitutional function of the soul which has as its goal the attainment of love for Kåñëa. This is also known as jaiva-dharma, the fundamental nature of living beings, and nityadharma, the eternal function of the soul.

Vaiçya - the third of the four varëas or castes in the varëäçrama system; agriculturalists and businessmen.

Vänaprastha - the third äçrama or stage of life in the varëäçrama system; retired life which entails freedom from family responsibilities and the acceptance of spiritual vows.

Vandanam - principally refers to the offering of prayers or the recitation of Sanskrit çlokas composed by çuddha-bhaktas. Akrüra attained perfection through vandana, offering prayers.

Vandanam may also be divided into another three categories: (1) käyika, by the body; (2) väcika, by speech; and (3) mänasika, by the mind. Although vandanam is actually included within arcana (worship), it has been listed as an independent aìga to show its importance. To offer obeisance with one hand, to offer obeisance directly facing the Deity, behind the Deity, or with one’s right side facing the Deity are all considered to be offenses. Vandanam is one of the nine primary aìgas of bhakti.

Väntäçé - one who eats his own vomit. This refers to one who abandons household life and formally enters the renounced order, but who again establishes connection with women.

Varëa - one of the four social orders, castes – priest, administrator, businessman, or laborer – in which one carries out corresponding socio-religious duties in the system known as varëäçrama.

Varëäçrama-dharma - the Vedic social system, which organizes society into four occupational divisions and four stages of life (varëas and äçramas).

Västava-vastu - any really existing or abiding substance; that which is grounded in transcendence; Bhagavän, His atomic parts (the jévas), and His potency (mäyä).

Vastu - an object, thing, or substance; that which has existence.

Vastu-siddhi - the stage in which the vastu, or substantive entity known as the jéva is fully liberated from matter. After giving up the material body, the living entity who has already attained svarüpasiddhi enters into Çré Kåñëa’s manifest lélä, where he or she receives the association of Kåñëa and His eternal associates for the first time. There one receives further training from His eternal associates. When one becomes established in the mood of their prema and one’s eternal service to Kåñëa, one gives up all connection with this world and enters His spiritual abode. At this point the jéva becomes situated in his pure identity as a vastu, known as vastu-siddhi.

Vastuta-jaòa-mukti - liberated in terms of one’s constitutional make-up as a vastu, or conscious living entity; permanent release from the encasement of the gross and subtle bodies which cover the ätmä and facilitate the jéva’s interaction with the material energy; complete freedom from all contact with matter and the material world. This refers to vastu-siddhi.

Vätsalya - love or attachment for Çré Kåñëa expressed in the mood of a parent.

Vedänta - the end of Vedic knowledge. The Upaniñads are the latter portion of the Vedas, and the Vedänta-sütra summarizes the philosophy of the Upaniñads in concise statements. Therefore, the word Vedänta especially refers to the Vedänta-sütra (see uttaramémäàsä).

Çrémad-Bhägavatam is considered to be the natural commentary on Vedänta-sütra by the same author, Vyäsadeva. Therefore, in the opinion of the Vaiñëavas, Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the culmination or ripened fruit of the tree of all Vedic literature.

Vibhäva - the causes for tasting bhakti-rasa. These are of two types: (1) älambana, the support (this refers to Kåñëa and His bhaktas who possess in their hearts spiritual love known as rati which can be transformed into rasa by combination with the other four ingredients of rasa); and (2) uddépana, the stimulus (objects connected to Kåñëa which arouse one’s spiritual love for Him and cause that love to be transformed into rasa).

Vibhinnäàça - Çré Bhagavän’s separated portions; the living entities.

Viddha-Vaiñëava-dharma - religious practices which go by the name of Vaiñëava dharma but which are adulterated with karma and jïäna.

Vidhi - rule, law, religious injunction or regulation.

Vidhi-märga - the path of bhakti which follows rules and regulations.

Vidyä - knowledge, learning, science, philosophy.

Vidyädhara - a class of supernatural beings who possess magical powers and knowledge of various heavenly arts and sciences, especially

singing and dancing.

Vidyädharé - females of the above class of supernatural beings.

Vigraha - (1) individual form, shape, or embodiment. (2) the Deity

form of Kåñëa.

Vijïäna - realized knowlege; knowledge distinguishing one thing

from another; science.

Vikarma - prohibited acts; actions against the codes of çästra.

Vikasita-cetana - budding consciousness. This refers to human beings who have an increased sense of morality and have also awakened faith in God. It also refers to those who have developed a taste for the practice of sädhana-bhakti in accordance with the directions of çästra.

Viläsa - (1) pastimes, especially the playful amorous pastimes of Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa in Vraja. (2) a particular type of manifestation of the Lord. That form which, although manifesting different bodily features for the purpose of accomplishing particular pastimes, is almost identical with its original root form, is known as viläsa.

Véëä - a stringed musical instrument of melodious sound, the favorite instrument of Närada Muni and of various other celestial personalities.

Vipakña-vaiçiñöya - is a specific incident that is either seen (dåñöa) or is inferred (anumati) about relating with vipakña (an opposing party).

Viñaya - an object of the senses, anything perceptible by the senses; any object of affection, concern, or attention; sensual enjoyment.

Viñaya-jïäna - knowledge of material objects, knowledge acquired through the senses.

Viñayälambana - the object of the transcendental senses on which there is älambana (dependence) for the advancement of prema. This is an aspect of vibhäva, which is one of the five essential ingredients of rasa (see vibhäva).

Viñayé - a materialistic person, a sensualist.

Viçeña-guëa - special characteristic quality. The special characteristic quality of a truly abiding entity, or västava-vastu, is its svabhäva.

Viñëu - the Supreme Lord of the cosmos (see Glossary of Names).

Viñëu-mäyä - Çré Bhagavän’s external potency, also known as Durgä.

Viçrambha - lit. vigita means ‘completely devoid of’ and çrambha means ‘awarness of his majesty or greatness’ i.e. complete intimacy without feelings of inferiority or worship. (1) loosening, absence of restraint, confidence, trust, intimacy, love. (2) In his Locana-rocané commentary on Ujjvala-nélamaëi (14.108) Jéva Gosvämé has defined viçrambha as the feeling of complete identification with the beloved such that one’s identity is not separate from that of the beloved.

In his Änanda-candrikä commentary on the same çloka, Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura has defined viçrambha as deep faith, devoid of formality. Viçrambha impels one to think that one’s life, mind, intelligence, body, and possessions are one in all respects with the life, mind, intelligence, and body of the beloved.

Viçrambha-guru-sevä - service to guru which is imbued with deep

faith and intimacy (see viçrambha). Service devoid of formality.

Complete absence of any feeling of separateness from the guru.

This type of service is possible only in an advanced stage.

Viçuddha - completely pure; beyond the influence of material nature.

Viçuddha-sattva - the state of unalloyed goodness; the quality of

existence which is beyond the influence of material nature. Çrédhara Svämé has defined viçuddha-sattva in his commentary on a çloka

from the Viñëu Puräëa (1.2.69): tad evaà tasyäs try-ätmakatve siddhe

yena svaprakäçatä-lakñanena tad-våtti-viçeñeëa svarüpaà vä svarüpaGl O S S A R Y OF T E R M S �� 907

çakti-viçiñöaà vävirbhavati, tad-viçuddha-sattvaà tac-cänya-nirapekñas

tat-prakäça iti jïäpaà jïäna-våttikatvät samvid eva, asya mäyayä

sparçäbhävät viçuddhatvam – “The Lord’s cit-çakti is known as svaprakäça.

The term sva-prakäça means that it reveals itself and illuminates others also. Just as when the sun rises it makes itself known

and illuminates other objects, so when cit-çakti arises in the heart, one can then understand the nature of cit-çakti and come to know

oneself according to one’s true spiritual identity.

Because the cit-çakti is sva-prakäça, its våtti is also sva-prakäça.

The word våtti literally means function, which refers to the active agency through which the cit-çakti operates. The cit-çakti is composed

of hlädiné, sandhiné, and saàvit. The particular svaprakäçavåtti

of this three-fold cit-çakti which reveals Bhagavän, His form, and the transformations of His cit-çakti, such as His associates and dhäma, is known as viçuddha-sattva. In other words, viçuddhasattva

is the self-revealing agency of the cit-çakti, through which

the Bhagavän and His paraphernalia are revealed to the bhaktas.

Because it has no contact with the external energy, it is known as viçuddha-sattva.”

Viçväsa - belief, trust, faith, confidence.

Viveka - discrimination; conscience; judgment; spiritual knowledge.

Viveké - one who discriminates; one whose spiritual consciousness is awakened.

Vraja-rasa - the mood of ecstatic love for Kåñëa which inundates the hearts of Kåñëa’s eternal associates in Vraja (see rasa).

Vyabhicäré-bhäva - one of the five essential ingredients of rasa;

thirty-three internal spiritual emotions which emerge from the nectarean ocean of sthäyébhäva, cause it to swell, and then merge back into that ocean. These include emotions like despondency, jubilation, fear, anxiety, and concealment of emotions. They are of two kinds: dependent (paratantra) and independent (svatantra).

Dependent emotions are those that are under the control of either

mukhya or gauëa-rati. Mukhya dependent emotions are either

superior (vara) or inferior (avara). The superior mukhya dependent emotions are those that (a) arise in connection with rati, and also (b) nourish the rati. Of these, the direct (säkñät) superior

mukhya emotions nourish mukhya-rati, and the separated

(vyavahita) superior mukhya emotions nourish gauëa-rati.

The inferior (avara) mukhya dependent emotions are those that arise in connection with rati, but do not nourish either the mukhya

or the gauëa-rati.

The independent vyabhicäré-bhävas (svatantra), are those that are not controlled either by the mukhya or gauëa-rati. These are divided into the following three categories: (1) Rati-çünya: emotions that arise in people who do not have kåñëa-rati.

(2) Raty-anusparçana: emotions that do not have the quality of

kåñëa-rati, but which contact rati later, due to some particular


(3) Rati-gandhi: emotions that manifest a trace of rati, even

though they are independent.

Vyabhicäré-bhäväbhäsa - refers to vyabhicäré-bhävas that are observed

in improper or inappropriate persons or things. There are two types: antagonistic (prätikülya) and improper (anaucitya).

Antagonistic vyabhicäré-bhävas are emotions that arise in people who are hostile to Çré Kåñëa, and who have no rati. There are two types of improper äbhäsa: non-existence (asatyatva) and incapability

(ayogyatva). When a bhakta experiences some emotion toward

Kåñëa and projects that feeling upon non-moving living

entities or animals as if they were experiencing that emotion, the äbhäsa is said to exhibit non-existence in the case of the nonmoving

entities and incapability in the case of animals. However, these distinctions do not apply to Kåñëa’s eternal associates in

Vraja, who serve Him in species such as trees, plants, and animals.

Vyäkula - agitated and restless Vyavahära - behavior, conduct, social customs, practice.

Vyavahärika - routine, common, ordinary; relating to practical life and social customs.


Yäga - offering oblations; any ceremony in which offerings or oblations are presented.

Yajïa - a sacrifice in which a deity is propitiated by the chanting of

prayers and mantras and the offering of ghee into the sacred fire.

Yati - an ascetic; one who has restrained his passions and abandoned

his involvement with material civilization.

Yavana - a barbarian, a Muslim, i.e. one who does not follow

çuddhäcära, (pure lifestyle), one who eats flesh, takes intoxicants and does other degraded activities. This term sometimes refers to any foreigner or to those excluded from varëäçrama society.

Yoga - (1) union, meeting, connection, combination. (2) a spiritual discipline aiming at establishing one’s connection with the Supreme.

There are many different branches of yoga such as karma-yoga, jïänayoga, and bhakti-yoga. Unless specified as such, the word yoga usually refers to the añöäìga-yoga system of Pataïjali (see añöäìga-yoga).

Yukta-vairägya - appropriate renunciation; renunciation which is suitable for entrance into bhakti. This is defined in Bhakti-rasämåtasindhu (1.2.255): “When one is detached from material sense enjoyment, but accepts in appropriate proportion objects which are favorable to one’s bhakti, and shows special inclination toward things which are directly related to Kåñëa, such as mahäpräsada, his renunciation is known as yukta-vairägya.” (See phalgu-vairägya with which this is contrasted.)


Zamindar - a landowner, landlord (responsible for property taxes to the government).

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