viernes, 30 de abril de 2010

Glossary of Places - Purebhakti (Jaiva Dharma)

Glossary of Places



Bilva-puñkariëé - also known as Bael-pukura. Çré Nélambara Cakravarté, the maternal grandfather of Çréman Mahäprabhu, lived at this place. It is situated near the northern border of Sémantadvépa and forms part of the area known as Simuliyä.

Brahmäloka - the planet of Çré Brahmä situated above Tapoloka at the upper limit of the universe. This planet is also known as Satyaloka.

Brähmaëa-puñkariëé - presently known as Bämana-pukura. According to Çré Narahari däsa’s Parikramä-paddhati, the place now known as Bämana-pukura was formerly called Brähmaëa-puñkara: bämanapukure puëya-gräma, brähmaëa-puñkara e vidita pürva näma. According to a book named Citre Navadvépa, part of Bämana-pukura is included in Antardvépa and part in Sémantadvépa. Bämanapukura is presently situated north of the Yogapéöha and east of the Bhägérathé. From the description in the beginning of Chapter Twelve it appears that Brähmaëa-puñkariëé was situated just south of Bilva-puñkariëé, and together these two areas made up the district known as Simuliyä. This must have been the case either at the time this book was written (1896) or at the time the story is set (c.1600). On the 1916 map of Çrédhäma Navadvépa, however, we see that there is a considerable distance between Bael-pukura and Bämana-pukura, and Bämana-pukura is south of the Bhägérathé. This type of shift of the land and modification of the names of places is a common feature of the Navadvépa area, largely due to the ever-changing course of the Gaìgä and its branches flowing through Navadvépa-maëòala.


Campahaööa - a place in the southwest part of Rtudvépa, also known as Cämpähäöé. It was formerly known as Campakahaööa because there was a market (haööa) there that sold the flowers of the Campaka trees that grow profusely in this area. It is considered non-different from the Khadiravana forest of Våndävana. The great poet Jayadeva Gosvämé wrote the Géta-Govinda while residing in Campahaööa.


Devapallé - a town three miles south-west of Kåñëa-nagara in Godrumadvépa where all the devas resided. In Satya-yuga, Lord Nåsiàhadeva rested at Devapallé after killing Hiranyakaçipu. This place is also thus known as Nåsiàhapallé. There is an ancient Deity of Nåsiàhadeva at this place, said to date back to Satyayuga.


Gädigächä - often equated with the entire region of Godruma-dvépa. In Citre Navadvépa, Çréyukta Çarad-indu Näräyaëa Räya has stated that Godruma is called Gädigächä in the Apabhraàça language. In Chapter Ten of this book, Gädigächä is referred to as a small area within Godruma-dvépa where the Vaiñëavas of Pradyumna-kuïja were living. On the 1916 map of Çrédhäma Navadvépa, Gädigächä is also portrayed as a small area of Godrumadvépa.

Gaìgä - derived from the verbal root gam (to go) meaning Go! Go! or ‘swift goer’. The holy river, Gaìgä, which flows southeast from the Himälayan Mountains to the Bay of Bengal; also known as the Ganges, Jähnavé, Bhägérathé, and Alakänanda (see these entries in this Glossary).

Godruma - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa, situated east of the Bhägérathé and south of the Jalaìgé. It is bordered by Sémantadvépa on the north side and by Madhyadvépa on the west.

This place is so named because Surabhi, a cow (go) of divine origin, worshiped Çré Gauräìga here under the shade of a large banyan

tree (druma). Each of the nine divisions of Navadvépa embodies

one of the nine principal practices of bhakti, such as hearing

about, chanting, and remembering the names, form, qualities and

pastimes of Çré Kåñëa. Godrumadvépa personifies the practice of

kértanam, chanting.

Goloka Våndävana - the highest realm of the spiritual world. This

is the abode of Çré Kåñëa where He is manifest in His original and

topmost feature as a cowherd boy, surrounded by His intimate and

loving servitors, the gopas and gopés of Vraja.

Gorä-hrada - a pond near the Gädigächä area where Çré Gorä (Go-

Govinda, Rä-Rädhä) sported.

Govardhana - a sacred mountain situated in the middle of Vrajamaëòala about 26 km north-west of Mathurä. This mountain is

also known as Çré Giriräja (the king among mountains). He is

identical with Çré Kåñëa and is also known as haridäsa-varya, the best devotee of Çré Hari, for He facilitates Çré Kåñëa’s pastimes

with His intimate friends and especially the most sacred pastimes

with the gopés. Govardhana Hill lies in the shape of a peacock, with Rädhä-kuëòa and Çyäma-kuëòa as His eyes.


Indraloka - the planet of Indra in the celestial planets (svarga); a place of great opulence and heavenly pleasure.

Indrapuré - the capital city of Indra in svarga, the celestial planets.


Jähnavé - a name for the Gaìgä, which reveals her connection with

Jahnu Rñi. Jahnu Rñi was sitting by the Gaìgä chanting his gäyatrémantra, when his äcamana cup fell into the river and was swept away

by the current. Out of anger, Jahnu Rñi opened his mouth and

drank all the water in one gulp. King Bhagératha, who had endeavored

with great difficulty to bring the Gaìgä to earth to deliver his

deceased relatives, was overwhelmed with anxiety and worshiped

the sage for several days. Jahnu Rñi then released the Gaìgä from

his body. Because of this incident, the Gaìgä is known as Jähnavé, the daughter of Jahnu.

Jahnudvépa - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa. This place embodies

the devotional practice of vandanam, offering prayers and

obeisances. It is non-different from Bhadravana in Vraja. Jahnu Rñi

performed penances and meditation here and obtained darçana of

Çré Gauräìga (see also Jähnavé and Jahnu-nagara).

Jahnu-nagara - the place where the sage, Jahnu Rñi, performed meditation

and swallowed the Gaìgä River. This area is also known as

Jahnudvépa and Jän-nagara.

Jambüdvépa - the innermost of seven concentric islands which form

the divisions of Bhü-maëòala. Jambüdvépa is itself divided into nine varñas, or tracts of land, the most famous of which is Bhäratavarña (India). According to some opinions, this roughly corresponds

to Asia (Gauòéya-Vaiñëava-Abhidhäna).

Janaloka - a planet situated above Maharloka. It is obtained by the naiñöhika brahmacäris, those who accept a life-long vow of celibacy

(unlike the upakurväëa brahmacäris who enter the gåhastha-äçrama

after completing their studies). At the time of the partial devastation

of the universe, occurring at the end of Brahmä’s day, the three worlds, Bhü, Bhuva, and Svarga, are consumed by flames. Although

Maharloka, the planet immediately above Svarga, is not destroyed,

the residents of Maharloka are afflicted by the heat which is raging

below, and thus they go to Janaloka. The residents of Janaloka are not troubled by the flames which destroy the lower planets at the time of partial annihilation, yet they do experience unease when

witnessing the devastation that takes place on the planets beneath



Kälnä - see Ambikä-Kälnä.

Käïcana-pallé - also known as Käïcrä-pärä. This is the place where Çré Väsudeva datta Öhäkura and Kavi Karëapüra (the son of

Çivänanda Sena) used to live. The parents of Çivänanda Sena’s

wife are also from this village. It is located on the east side of the Gaìgä, approximately parallel to Saptagräma.

Käçé - ‘the city of light’; another name for Väräëasé. This ancient city is located on the bank of the Gaìgä between Delhi (710 km)

and Calcutta (680 km). Käçé is 125 km downstream from Allahabad.

It is a famous place of pilgrimage, especially for the devotees of Lord

Çiva. Käçé is celebrated as a place of learning and is a center of

Sanskrit scholarship, and particularly of advaita-vedänta and

mäyäväda philosophy.

Khola-bhäìga-òäìgä - the place where the Chänd Käzé’s men broke a mådaìga and prohibited the performance of saìkértana.

Koladvépa - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa. Much of Koladvépa is situated on the west bank of the Gaìgä, but a small portion is

located on the east bank. This place embodies the devotional practice of päda-sevanam, serving the Lord’s lotus feet. It is also known

as Kuliyä Pähärpura. Koladvépa is so named because Kåñëa’s boar

incarnation, Çré Varähadeva (also known as Koladeva), manifested

here to a brähmaëa who was worshiping Him.


Madhyadvépa - one of the nine divisions of Navadvépa situated on

the east side of the Bhägérathé. It is bordered by Koladvépa on the west side and by Godrumadvépa on the north and east sides. It was

here that in Satya-yuga, the seven åñis (Bhrgu, Maréci, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasiñöha) worshiped Gauräìga with

austerities and prayers on the order of their father, Brahmä. Being

pleased with their prayers, Çré Gauräìga appeared before the åñis

at mid-day (madhyähna). This place is thus known as Madhyadvépa.

Madhyadvépa embodies the devotional activity of smaraëam, remembering

çré-hari-näma, His form, qualities, and pastimes.

Maharloka - a planet situated above Svargaloka. This place is obtained

by upakurväëa brahmacäris, students of the Vedas who honor

their teacher with a gift after completing their studies and before becoming gåhasthas. The maharñis (great sages) who are progenitors

of the universe reside on this planet. One obtains this planet by performing sacrifices, undergoing the yoga discipline and other

similar practices which are far superior to the pious activities by

which one becomes eligible for Svargaloka. When there is a partial devastation of the universe at the end of Brahmä’s day, the three worlds, Bhü, Bhuva, and Svarga, are destroyed, but the higher

planets beginning from Maharloka remain intact.

Mäyäpura-dhäma - the appearance place of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu, situated in Antardvépa within the greater region of

Navadvépa. Mäyäpura is located on the east bank of the Gaìgä.

Navadvépa forms an eight-petaled lotus. In the whorl of this lotus

lies Antardvépa, at the very center of which is Mäyäpura. The actual appearance place of Çré Caitanya is situated within

Mäyäpura and is known as Yogapéöha, the seat of the Lord’s eternal transcendental pastimes.

Mithilä - the ancient state ruled by King Janaka, the father of

Sitä. This state extended from Campäraëya to the Gaëòaké river.

It is now part of Nepal and includes the present city of Janakapura, the birthplace of Sitä. Janakapura is said to be the site of Çré Räma and Sitä’s wedding.

Modadrumadvépa - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa.

Modadrumadvépa is situated on the west side of the Bhägérathé to the north of Jahnudvépa. This place is also known as Mämgäché

and as Mahäpäöa. Näräyaëé (the mother of Çré Våndävana däsa Öhäkura), Çré Väsudeva datta, and Çré Säraìga Muräri used to live here. Çré Våndävana däsa Öhäkura, the writer of Caitanyabhägavata, took birth in Modadrumadvépa.

In Satya-yuga, Çré Räma along with Sitä and Lakñmaëa came here during Their exile. Çré Rämacandra built a hut here underneath

a large banyan tree and they lived happily for some time.

This place is therefore known as Modadrumadvépa, the place where Çré Räma lived with great delight under a banyan tree (moda means

happiness or delight and druma means a tree). Çré Räma disclosed

to Sitä that in Kali-yuga He would appear in Navadvépa with a splendid golden complexion as the son of Çacé Mätä and that she would appear as His wife, Çré Viñëupriyä. This place embodies the devotional practice of däsyam, becoming a servant of the Lord.


Nadéyä - a large district which encompasses the nine islands of


Nandagräma - the village of Nanda Mahäräja, the father of Çré

Kåñëa. It is situated about sixty kilometers northwest of Mathurä.

Nanda Mahäräja and his community lived there before Kåñëa’s

appearance. Prior to Kåñëa’s appearance, they moved to Gokula.

When Kåsëa was seven years old, the family moved back to this

place and built their house on top of a large hill known as

Nandéçvara-parvata (Lord Çivajé, the Lord of Nandé, in the form

of this hill). Kåñëa lived there from the age of seven until He was


Nandana-känana - Indra’s heavenly garden of paradise.

Navadvépa - the village (or town) of Navadvépa. This is one village within the greater area of Navadvépa-maëòala (see below). In

this book both the village of Navadvépa and Navadvépa-maëòala have been referred to simply as Navadvépa. Therefore the reader

must apply discrimination according to context to understand

when the author is referring to the village and when he is referring

to the territory of Navadvépa. In Chapter Eleven the village of Navadvépa is called Präcéna (Old) Navadvépa. There it is said

that Präcéna Navadvépa was situated across the Gaìgä from the village of Kuliyä. Similarly in Chapter Seven it is said that Kuliyägräma was across the Gaìgä from Navadvépa. In Chapter Eleven it is said that Kuliyä was situated on the western bank of the Bhägérathé in the Koladvépa district of Navadvépa-maëòala. From

these descriptions it is clear that Präcéna Navadvépa was located

on the east bank of the Gaìgä and therefore corresponds to the present-day site of Çré Mäyäpura. Kuliyä-gräma, situated on the west bank of the Gaìgä, corresponds to the present town of

Navadvépa (see Kuliyä for further confirmation of this point).

Therefore, wherever the village of Navadvépa is mentioned in

this book, it refers to Präcéna Navadvépa and not to the present town of Navadvépa.

Navadvépa-maëòala - the sacred nine-island region about 130 kilometers

north of Calcutta, where Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu’s

early pastimes were manifest. Navadvépa consists of nine islands

which resemble an eight-petalled lotus flower. Antardvépa is at the center of this lotus. Each of the nine divisions of Navadvépa represents one of the nine primary aìgas of bhakti. These divisions

and their corresponding aìgas are as follows: (1) Antardvépa (ätma-nivedanam, surrendering one’s very self), (2) Sémantadvépa (çravaëam, hearing), (3) Godrumadvépa (kértanam, chanting), (4)

Madhyadvépa (smaraëam, remembering Çré Kåñëa’s transcendental names, form, qualities, and pastimes), (5) Koladvépa (pädasevanam, serving Çré Kåñëa’s feet), (6) Åtudvépa (arcanam, worshiping), (7) Jahnudvépa (vandanam, offering prayers and obeisances), (8) Modadrumadvépa (däsyam, becoming a servant), and

(9) Rudradvépa (sakhyam, becoming a friend).

Nåsiàhapallé - see Devapallé.


Präcéna Navadvépa - the old village of Navadvépa, located on the east bank of the Gaìgä. This corresponds to the present site of

Çré Mäyäpura (see Navadvépa for clarification).

Pürvasthalé - this is a place located in the western part of



Rädhä-kuëòa - ‘the pond of Çré Rädhä’, situated 26 km northwest of Mathurä. Considered to be the most sacred place of pilgrimage for all Gauòéya Vaiñëava, Rädhä-kuëòa is the direct embodiment of Çrématé Rädhikä. The most confidential pastimes of Rädhä and

Kåñëa take place here.

Åtudvépa - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa. Åtudvépa is situated

west of both the Gaìgä and Koladvépa, and south of

Jahnudvépa. This place embodies the devotional practice of

arcanam, worshiping Çré Kåñëa. The word åtu means season. The six seasons headed by spring manifest here in personified forms

and, on the pretext of conversing among themselves, they worship

Çré Gauräìga in order to broadcast His transcendental pastimes.

Åtudvépa corresponds to Çré Rädhä-kuëòa in Våndävana.

As Rädhä and Kåñëa go daily to Rädhä-kuëòa to enact Their midday

pastimes, Çré Gauräìga and His associates come to Åtudvépa daily to perform their noon pastimes.

Rudradvépa - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa. According to the 1916 map of Çrédhäma Navadvépa, Rudradvépa is divided in three by the Bhägérathé. This place embodies the devotional mood of

sakhya, friendship with Çré Kåñëa. It is so named because the eleven

Rudras (expansions of Lord Çiva) reside here. Çré Viñëusvämé, the äcärya of the Rudra sampradäya, visited this place, and both Lord

Çiva and Çré Gauräìga appeared before him. Çré Çiva gave Viñëusvämé

the benediction that he (Viñëusvämé) would propagate a pure sampradäya, which would be named after himself. Mahäprabhu

gave him the benediction that at the time of His own appearance as Çré Gauräìga, Viñëusvämé would take birth as Çré Vallabhäcärya.


Samudragarh - a place in the southwestern side of Åtudvépa. It is

located on the southern-most border of Navadvépa-dhäma.

Dvärakä-puré and Gaìgä-sägara are directly present here. The great king and bhakta of Kåñëa, Samudra Sena, had his capital here. When Bhéma was touring east India on behalf of his brother, Yudhiñöhira, to collect tributes for the Räjasüya sacrifice, Samudra Sena opposed him, knowing that if he put Bhéma into difficulty, Çré Kåñëa would come to his rescue. Kåñëa did appear, not to Bhéma but before the King on the battlefield, first in His original form

and then as Çré Gauräìga. The ocean (samudra) also traveled to this place through the medium of the Gaìgä to have darçana of

Çré Gauräìga.

Çäntipura - the city where Advaita Äcärya, Çré Harña, and

Gopäläcärya lived. It is situated on the east side of the Gaìgä

about 20 kilometers south of Kåñëa-nagara, which is about 12 kilometers

due east of the present town of Navadvépa. Directly across

the Gaìgä from Çäntipura is Kalna. After taking sannyäsa, Çréman

Mahäprabhu went to the house of Advaita Äcärya in Çäntipura, after being misled by Nityänanda Prabhu into thinking that He had arrived in Våndävana.

Saptagräma - an ancient mercantile city about 50 km north of

Calcutta on what is now the bed of the Sarasvaté River.

Saptagräma is located west of the Gaìgä and south of Ambikä-

Kälnä. As the name suggests, this city encompasses seven settlements: Saptagräma (or, in the opinion of some, Çabdakärä), Vaàçaväöé, Çivapura, Väsudevapura, Kåñëapura (or, in the opinion

of some, Cändapura), Nityänandapura, and Çaìkha-nagara (or Baladaghäöé). The village of Triveëé is also included in

Saptagräma. Çré Uddhäraëa Datta Öhäkura lived here. His father, Çrékara Datta, was a wealthy gold merchant. Raghunätha däsa Gosvämé lived in Kåñëapura, Kalidäsa lived in Çaìkha-nagara, and Balaräma Äcärya and Yadunandana Äcärya lived in


Sarasvaté a sacred river which flows in several different branches.

It is said to mix with the Gaìgä and Yamunä at Prayäga. The Sarasvaté formerly flowed through the area known as Saptagräma to the south of the present town of Navadvépa, but it has now dried up (Gauòéya-Vaiñëava-Abhidhäna).

Sémantadvépa - one of the nine islands of Navadvépa. This place is also known as Simuliyä. It is situated east of the Bhägérathé and north of the Jalaìgé, and it is at the northern border of Navadvépa.

This place embodies the devotional practice of çravanam, hearing the glories of Çré Kåñëa’s names, forms, qualities, and pastimes. In Satya-yuga, Parvaté worshiped Çré Gauräìga here on the inspiration of her husband, Lord Çiva. When Gauräìga appeared before her, she took the dust from His feet and placed it on the part in her hair (sémanta). As a result, this place became known as Sémantadvépa.

Simuliyä - another name for Sémantadvépa, or a section of Sémantadvépa extending from Brähmaëa-puñkariëé to Bilvapuñkariëé.

This area is situated in the north of Navadvépa-maëòala on the east side of the Bhägérathé.

Çréväsa-aìgana - the courtyard of Çréväsa Öhäkura situated in Mäyäpura just next to the birth place of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu.

After Mahäprabhu received dékña from Çréla Éçvara Puré in Gayä, He returned to Navadvépa and began the saìkértana movement.

During this time He performed ecstatic kértana every night with

His intimate associates at Çréväsa-aìgana. Çréväsa-aìgana of

navadvépa-lélä is non-different from the räsa-sthalé of våndävana-lélä.

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