miércoles, 7 de julio de 2010

Sravana - Tungaprastha - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy (A - Asvamedha)

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | E | F | G | H1 | H2 | I | J1 | J2 | K1 | K2 | L | M1 | M2 | O | P1 | P2 | R1 | R2 | S1 | S2 | S3 | T1 | T2 |

  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H1 - H - Harischandra
  • H2 - Harisrava - Hz
  • I
  • J1 - J - Jrimbhika
  • J2 - Jyestha
  • K1 - K - Kratusthaba
  • K2 - Krauncha - Kz
  • L
  • M1 - M - Margashirsha
  • M2 - Maricha - Mz
  • O
  • P1 - P - Pandu
  • P2 - Pandu o Prana - Py
  • R1 - R - Raivata
  • R2 - Raja - Ry
  • S1 - S - Sampati
  • S2 - Samrat - Sravaka
  • S3 - Sravana - Syu
  • T1 - T - Tungaprastha


Sravana: (sáns. hindú). l, The lunar month which nearly corresponds with July; 2, A lunar mansion in Mrigavithi in the southern Avashthana.

Sravasta: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Yuvanciswa, who built the city of Sravasti, in Kosala or Oude; a city of some sanctity in the estimation of the Buddhists.

Sri: (sáns. hindú). A name of Lakshmi, q. v.

" In the Vishnu, Garuda, Linga, and Padma Purâòas, Sri is said to have been born the daughter of the divine sage Bhrigu, the son of Marichi, who sprang from the mind of Brahma, and to have obtained Vishnu for her husband. But she is more generally considered to be the female energy of that god, and therefore to be exempt from birth. *Sri is inseparable from Vishnu, for wherever Vishnu is there also is Sri; he is the sun and she its splendour; he is the moon and she its radiance; Govinda is the ocean and Kamala the tide; he is the day and she the night: all that is masculine is Vishnu, and all that is feminine is Sri.'"*

Srideva: (sáns. hindú). One of the daughters of Devaka, married to Vasudeva.

Sridhara Swami: (sáns. hindú). A commentator in the Bhagavata and in the Vishnu Purâòa.

Srijavana: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Dyutimat.

* Col. Vans Kennedy. A. and H, M.

Sringa: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi, the story of whose life is related in the Râmâyaòa. lie passed the earlier years of his life in the hermitage of his father, in the jungle, and had consequently never seen the face of a woman. He was enticed from his father's hermitage by damsels sent from the Raja of Auga: on his arrival there he caused rain to fall in abundance; and was married to Santa the daughter of the Raja; and was subsequently engaged to perform the Aswamedha of Maharaja Dasaratha. - (Rishyasringa.)

Sringavera: (sáns. hindú). The modem Sungroor, the frontier town between Kosala and the Bhil country. When Rama was going into exile, he and Sita halted there, and were hospitably received by Guha, the Raja of the Bhils.

Sringi: (sáns. hindú). A range of mountains to the north of Meru.

Srinjaya: (sáns. hindú). l, The fourth king of Vaisdli, son of Dhumaraswa; 2, A son of Sura, and brother of Vasudeva; 3, The son of Kalanara; 4, A king of Magadha, son of Haryaswa.

Srinjayas: (sáns. hindú). A people from the north-west, among the warriors of the Mahabharata.

Srisaila: (sáns. hindú). A mountain near the Krishna.

Sritala: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven regions of Patala, according to the enumeration in the Vayu.

Sruta: (sáns. hindú). 1, (Sacred tradition) A son of Dharma by Medha; 2, The son of Bhagiratha; 3, A son of Krishna by Kalindi.

Srutadeva: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Sura, and wife of Vriddhasarman, king of Karusha - the parents of the fierce Asura Dantavaktra.

Srutakarman: (sáns. hindú). One of the Pandavas, the son of Sahadeva, the youngest of the Pandava princes.

Srutakirtti: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Sura, married to Dhrishtaketu, Raja of Kaikeya.

Srutakirtti: (sáns. hindú). One of the Pandavas the son of Arjuna.

Smtanjaya: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Magadha, the son of Senajit.

Srutasena: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Parikshit.

Srutasoma: (sáns. hindú). The son of the Pandava prince Bhima.

Srutasuras: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Sura, who was married to Damaghosha, king of Chedi.

Smtavat: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Magadha, the son of Somapi.

In some lists called Srutasuras, and said to have reigned 67 years.

Srutayus: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the kings of Ayodhya, the son of Bhanumitra, a descendant of Kusa; 2, A king of Mithila, son of Arishtanemi; 3, The youngest son of Pururavas.

Sruti: (sáns. hindú). (From the Sanscrit sru, hear, hence, literally, the hearing, or that which is heard) is, in Sanscrit Literature, the technical term for all those works which are considered to"have been revealed by a deity. It applies, therefore, properly speaking, only to the Mantra and Brahmana portion of the Vedas; but at a later period, it is applied likewise, if not especially, to the Upanishads. It means Revelation, a"s distinguished from Smriti, Tradition. " The distinction" says Max Müller, " between Sruti, (revelation), and Smriti, (tradition) is a point of vital importance for the whole Brahmanic system, and will be found significant in a historical point of view." " The distinction between Sruti and Smriti, revelation and tradition, had been established by the Brahmans previous to the rise of Buddhism, or, at all events, previous to the time when the Sutra style began to be adopted in Indian literature.

There existed, previous to the Sutra period, a body of literary works propagated by oral tradition, which formed the basis of all later writings on sacred subjects, and which by the Brahmans was believed to be of divine origin. The idea expressed by the word sru, to hear, i. e., to receive by inspiration, is known in the Brahmanas."-- . S. Z., 107.

Sruti: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Atri, married to the Prajapati Kardama.

Stambha: (sáns. hindú). l, A phonetic variety of the same dhatu or root as Skambha, (q. v.); 2, One of the seven Rishis of the second Manwantara.

Sthaleyu Sthandileyu: (sáns. hindú). Two of the ten sons of Raudraswa, king of Mithila.

Stoma and Stuti: (sáns. hindú). Hymns and prayers, created from the eastern and other mouths of Brahma.

Subahu: (sáns. hindú). A king of Mathura, the son of Satrughua.

Subala: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in the island of Lanka, on which Hanuman alighted when he " took a gigantic spring, and by his prodigious strength leaped over the wide ocean," as described in the Ra,mayaria.

Subhadra: (sáns. hindú). The sister of Krishna, Arjuna fell in love with her, and with the consent of Krishna eloped with her, but afterwards returned to Dwaraka where they were formally married with great splendour. She was easily reconciled to Draupadi and became the mother of Arjuna's son Abhimanyu, (q. v.)

Subhasa: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Sudhanwau.

Subhlimi: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ugrasena.

Suchandra: (sáns. hindú). A king of Vaisali, son of Hemchandra.

Sucharu: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Krishna by his wife Rukmini.

Suchchaya: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Slishti, a son of Dhruva.

Suchi: (sáns. hindú). 1, One of the sous of the Agni named Abhimani, the eldest born of Brahma: Suchi was one of the three fires; the genealogy is different in the Bhagavata; 2, The son of Satadyumna, king of Mithila; 3, One of the sons of Andhaka; 4, The son of Vipra, king of Magadha; 5 The Indra of the fourteenth Manwantara.

Suchi: (sáns. hindú). The parent of water-fowl; daughter of Kasyapa by his wife Tamra, Suchiravas - One of the twelve Prajapatis.

Sudarsana: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the family of Ikshvaku, and sovereign of Ayodhya.

Sudasa: (sáns. hindú). The son of Sarvakama, a descendant of Sagara; 2, A king of Magadha, the son of Chyavana.

Suddbodana: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the family of Ikshvaku who, from his connection with Sakya, the author or reviver of Buddhism, is ascertained to have lived in the seventh century before Christ.

Sudeshna: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Krishna by Rukmini.

Sudeva: (sáns. hindú). 1, A son of Chunchu; 2, A son of Devaka, of the Yadava race.

Sudhaman: (sáns. hindú). A Lokapala, regent of the east quarter, the son of Vir.ijas and Gauri.

Sudhamas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities of the third and tenth Manwantaras.

Sudhamans: (sáns. hindú). A class of thirty-three gods in the thirteenth Manwantara.

Sudhanush: (sáns. hindú). A son of the patriarch Kuru who gave his name to the holy district Kurukshetra.

Sudhanwan: (sáns. hindú). l, A king of Mithila, the son of Saswata; 2, A king of Magadha, the son of Satyadhrita.

Sudharman: (sáns. hindú). The hall of Indra, which was given by Krishna to Ugrasena, for the assemblage of the race of Yadu: it was conveyed by Vayu to the Yadavas, the chiefs of whom thenceforth possessed this celestial court, emblazoned with jewels, and defended hy the arms of Govinda. After the death of Krishna the Sudharman palace returned to heaven along with the Parijata tree.

Sudharmas: (sáns. hindú). A class of divinities of the ninth Manwantara; the class consisted of twelve, Sudhis - A class of twenty-seven deities belonging to the fourth Manwantara.

Sudhriti: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the solar dynasty, the son of Rajgavarddhana.

Sudra dynasty: (sáns. hindú). This was founded by Chandragupta in the first half of the fourth century b. c. The dynasty lasted one hundred and thirty-seven years. Chandragupta is the same person as Sandracottus, who, according to Justin, had seized the throne of India after the prefects of Alexander had been murdered. " Seleucus found him as sovereign of India when, after the taking of Babylon, and the conquest of the Bactrians, he passed on into India.

Seleucus however did not conquer Sandracottus, but after concluding a league with him, marched on to make war against Antigonus.

Sudraka: (sáns. hindú). The first Andhra prince, who reigned seventy-three years at Magadha.

Sudras: (sáns. hindú). The lowest of the four castes, said in the Vishnu Purâòa to have been produced from the feet of Brahma; but in another part of the same work the distinctions are ascribed to voluntary election, to accident, or to positive institutions; their duties are said to be to wait on the three upper castes; and by that means to earn their subsistence; they may also engage in trade and mechanical labour.

Sudyumna: (sáns. hindú). See Ila; who was transformed into a man named Sudyumna; at a subsequent period he was again transformed to a woman, in the vicinity of the hermitage of Budha, who saw and espoused her, and had by her a son named Pururavas. After his birth the Rishis prayed to Vishnu, and through his favour Ila once more became Sudyumna. In consequence of his having been formerly a female, Sudyumna was excluded from any share in his paternal dominions j but his father, at the suggestion of Vasishtha, bestowed upon him the city of Pratishthana, and he gave it to Pururavas. V. P.

Sugandhi: (sáns. hindú). One of the bond maids of Vasudeva.

Sugriva: (sáns. hindú). The monkey chieftain in the Rishya-mukha mountain, who received Rama and Lakshmana when they were trying to discover Sita, and showed her ornaments, which she had purposely dropped in her flight, to Rama. He then related the story of his grievances against his brother Bali, and solicited Rama's aid, Rama had afforded evidence of his superhuman strength and skill

" Then high Sugriva's spirit rose.

Assured of conquest o'er his foes.

With his new champion by his side, To vast Kishkindhya's cave he hied.

Then summoned by his awful shout, King Bali came in fury out.

First comforted his trembling wife.

Then sought Sugriva in the strife.

One shaft from Rama's deadly bow.

The monarch in the dust laid low.

Then Rama bade Sugriva reign In place of royal Bali slain." - Griffiths.

When Bali was dying he acknowledged his fault, and asked his brother's forgiveness, commendiDg his son Anga and his wife Tara to Sugriva's care. The latter, when reinstated on the throne at Kishkindhya invited Rama and Lakshmana to live with him there.

This invitation Rama was unable to accept on account of his vow; but after the rainy season, Sugriva summoned his armies to assist Rima in conquering the Rakshasas and recovering Sita. He marshalled his troops in four great divisions. The first he sent north under Vinata. The second, south, under various generals, especially Hanuraan, and Jambavat. The third, west, under Sushena. The fourth, east, under Satabali.

When Hanuman returned with tidings that Sita was a prisoner in Lanka, Sugriva set forth at the head of his army to aid in effecting her deliverance. Sugriva was wounded by Ravana, and afterwards suffered greatly from the wounds inflicted by the magical weapons of Indrajit, the brave son of Ravaria. Sugriva was restored by the medicinal herbs brought by Hanuman from Kailasa.

After the death of Ravana, Sugriva accompanied Rama and Lakshmana on their return to Ayodhya on the self-moving car Pushpaka.

Sugrivi: (sáns. hindú). One of the " six illustrious daughters" of Kasyapa, who became the parent of horses, camels, and asses.

Suhma: (sáns. hindú). A son of Bali, who gave his name to his descendants and the country they inhabited. Of Suhma it may be remarked that it is specified in the Siddhanta Kaumudi as an example of Panini's rule, by which Nagara, compounded with names of countries in the east becomes N%ara, as Sauhmandgara produced, &c., in a city of Suhma. Wilson's Notes to V. P.

Suhmas: (sáns. hindú). The Suhmas and Prasahmas were found in the east by Bhima; and Suhma is elsewhere said to be situated east of Bengal, towards the sea, the king and the people being Mlechchhas, that is, not Hindus; it would correspond therefore with Tiperah and Arracau.

Suhotra: (sáns. hindú). Three of this name are mentioned in the Vishnu Purâòa, and in all the best authorities; 1, Suhotra, great grandson of Amavasa, father of Jahnu, (q. v.) and ancestor of Visvamitra and the Kausikas; 2, Suhotra, son of Kshattravriddha, grandson of Ayus and progenitor of the Kasi kings; 3, Suhotra, the son of Vrihatkshatra, grandson of Vitatha, and parent of Hastin. The Brahma Purâòa in some degree, and the Hari Vansa in a still greater, have made most extraordinary confusion in the instance of this name. - Wilson s Notes to V. P. Another Suhotra is mentioned as the son of Sudhanush, and another as the son of Sahadeva, both in the same line of Hastin.

Sujati: (sáns. hindú). A Yadava prince, the son of Vitihotra. The Sujatas form a tribe in Central India at the present day.

Sujyeshta: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, the son of Agnimitra.

Suka: (sáns. hindú). One of the ministers of Ravana, who, having assumed the form of a monkey, was sent by his master, with another minister, Sarana, to go and spy out the army of Rama, and bring him word as to the names and characters of his chief heroes and counsellors. They were seized and carried into the presence of Rama, who ordered them to return and tell all they had seen to Ravana; he also threatened to follow himself and reduce Lanka to a heap of ashes. When Ravana heard the message, he exclaimed, * Not though all the world came out to fight against me, will I ever restore Sita to Rama ?' When Suka counselled a different course, he was dismissed from the service, and went to the jungle where he passed the remainder of his life as a devotee.

Sukala: (sáns. hindú). The wife of a Vaisya, who, having gone on a pilgrimage, left her in great affliction, and her female friends came to console her; Sukala continuing to mourn for her absent lord, Kamadeva and Indra attempted to seduce her but were foiled, and she remained faithful to her husband, who returned from pilgrimage and received blessings from heaven in recompense of the virtues of his wife. This story is said in the Padma Purâòas to have been recited by Vishnu to king Vena, in illustration of the truth that a wife may be considered as a Tirtha. - Wilson' s Works, III, 35.

Sukalins: (sáns. hindú). Sons of Vasishtha, and Pitris of Sudras. The Matsya specifies them as amongst the incorporeal Pitris.

Sukanya: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of the Raja Saryati, who was married to the sage Chyavana; (q. v.)

Sukara: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas; the swine hell, for the murderer of a brahman, the stealer of gold, and drinker of wine.

Sukarman: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Sama-veda: he and his father Sumantri, studied the same Sanhita under Jaimini.

Sukarmans, Sukarmas: (sáns. hindú). Two classes of deities of the thirteenth and twelfth Manwantaras respectively.

Suketu: (sáns. hindú). 1, One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Nandwarddhana; 2, One of the Kasi princes, the son of Sunitha.

Sukha: (sáns. hindú). Enjoyment; the son of Dharma, by one of the daughters of Daksha, Siddhi, Perfection.

Suki: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Tamra and wife of Kasyapa, who gave birth to parrots, owls, and crows.

Sukra: (sáns. hindú). l , The son of Bhava; 2, One of the seven sages of the third Manwantara, sons of Vasishtha; 3, One of the sons of Havirdhana; 4, The planet Venus, (or her regent) whose vast car is drawn by earth-born horses, is equipped with a protecting fender and a floor, armed with arrows, and decorated by a banner; 5, The name of a month occurring in the Vedas, belonging to a system now obsolete.

Sukra: (sáns. hindú). The priest and preceptor of the Daityas. In days of old when the Daityas and Devatas were at war, Sukra was the priest and preceptor of the Daityas, and Vrihaspati, the priest of the Devatas, and Kanju, the son of Vrihaspati, became a pupil in the house of Sukra. He passed his time very pleasantly with Devayani, the daughter of Sukra; they were constantly together singing, conversing, &c., until Devayani began to feel a deep love for her father's pupil. The Daityas were angry that their priest Sukra should teach the son of the priest of their enemy: and one day when Kanju was taking his tutor's cows to pasture, the Daityas carried him off. Sukra compelled them, at the request of Devayani, to restore him. When Kanju had finished his studies and was about to return to his father's house, Devayani suggested that he should demand her of her father in marriage: but Kanju refused saying he regarded her as his sister. (See Devatani.) The daughter of the Raja of the Daityas pushed Devayana into a well, at which Sukra's anger was excited, and he threatened to forsake the Daityas. The Raja was alarmed; he and his council humbled themselves to Sukra, and made his daughter servant to Devayani. The aid of Sukra was implored by Ravana before he took the field against Rama. Sukra taught him certain mantras, and directed him to offer sacrifice in a secret place, and repeat the mantras, whereupon certain weapons would come out of the fire, and render him invincible; but Sukra warned him that he must observe a strict silence throughout, or the sacrifice would be devoid of all power. Ravana arranged accordingly; but Rama, hearing what his enemy was about to do, sent Angada and Hanuman with an army of monkeys to obstruct the sacrifice, which they succeeded in doing.

Sukriti: (sáns. hindú). The son of Prithu, a descendant of Hastin.

Sukshatra: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, the son of Niramitra.

Suktimat: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven chains of mountains in Bharata; the east and north portions of the Vindhya range.

Suktimati: (sáns. hindú). A river in Cuttack.

Sukumara: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Dharmaketu, a descendant of Alarka.

Sulapani: (sáns. hindú). The sovereign of the Bhutas, or evil spirits; appointed when the various provinces of creation were assigned to different beings.

Sulomadhi: (sáns. hindú). The name, according to the Bhagavata, of the last Andhra prince.

Slimalya: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine Nandas, kings of Magadha.

Sumanas: (sáns. hindú). l. The son of Ura and grandson of the Manu Chakshusha; 2, The son of Haryaswa.

Sumanasas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities of the twelfth Manwantara.

Sumantra: (sáns. hindú). The chief counsellor of Mahardja Dasaratha, who made known the ancient prophecy that the Aswamedha was to be performed by the Rishi Sringa. He pacified the infant Rima with a mirror. He was sent by Vasishtha to summon the Maharaja to the installation of Rama; but Kaikeyi desired him to bring Rama into their presence, and on his arrival she informed him of a previous promise of the Maharaju's, and stated that he was to go into exile. Sumantra reproached her but to no purpose; he then drove Rama and Sita out of Ayodhya in the royal chariot, and on his return to the palace delivered Rama's parting message to Dasaratha.

Sumantu: (sáns. hindú). l, A teacher of the Atharva-veda, who had studied under the learned Yyasa. He was the son of Jaimini; 2, A prince, the son of Jahnu.

Sumati: (sáns. hindú). l, The fifth Tirthankara, or Jain saint of the present era; 2, A son of Bharata, a most virtuous prince; he resigned the kingdom for the life of an ascetic, and died at the holy place Salagrama; he is said in the Vishnu Purâòa to have been afterwards born again as a Brahman in a distinguished family of ascetics; 3, A son of Janamejaya, king of Vaisali; 4, The son of Suparswa, king of Hastin; 5, The son of Dridhasena, king of Magadha; 6, A teacher of the Purâòas.

Sumati: (sáns. hindú). l, A daughter of the sage Kratu, married to Yajnavama, the founder of a Gotra; 2, A daughter of Vinata, and wife of Sagara, who gave birth to sixty thousand sons, who were all destroyed by the sage Kapila. - (Sagara.)

Sumedhasas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities of the fifth Manwantara.

Sumitra: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the sons of Vrishni; 2, The last of the descendants of Ikshvaku.

Sumitra: (sáns. hindú). One of the wives of Maharaja Dasaratha, and mother of Lakshmana and Satrughna.

Sun: (sáns. hindú). The Vishnu Purâòa contains a long description of the sun's chariot, and horses, his diurnal course, his northern and southern declinations, the way in which his destruction is daily attempted by the Mandehas, (q. v.) It also shows that the sun is the cause of rain by evaporation. A mystical account is furnished of the functions of the sun: his wives and children are enumerated. Then it is stated that to diminish his intensity, Visvakarman placed the luminary on his lathe, and ground off some of his effulgence, in this way reducing it an eighth.

The sun is represented as the son of Aditi, a daughter of Daksha; and as the father of Vaivaswata, the founder of the Solar dynasty.

He is said to have revealed the white Yajush to Yajnawalkya, and to have given the Syamantaka gem to Satrajit. At the end of the world he is to dilate into seven suns, and set the universe on fire.

Sunahotra: (sáns. hindú). A great Muni, the son of Bharadvaja. See a passage quoted in A. S. L. for " a strange and startling mixture of legendary and historical matter," connected with the family of this Muni.

Sunahsephas: (sáns. hindú). The story of Sunahsepha is told by different authorities, with several variations. As the author of various Suktas in the Rich, he is called the son of Ajigarta. The Râmâyaòa makes him the middle son of the sage Richika, sold to Ambarisha, king of Ayodhya by his parents, to be a victim in a human sacrifice offered by that prince. He is set at liberty by Visvimitra; but it is not added that he was adopted. The Bhagavata concurs in the adoption, but makes Sunahsepha the son of Visvimitra's sister, by Ajigarta, of the line of Bhrigu, and states his being purchased, as a victim, for the sacrifice of Harischandra.

The Vayu makes him a son of Richika, but alludes to his being the victim at Harischandra's sacrifice. According to the Râmâyaòa, Visvamitra called upon his sons to take the place of Sunahsepha, and, on their refusing, degraded them to the condition of Chanddlas. The Bhagavata says, that fifty only of the hundred sons of Visvamitra were expelled their tribe, for refusing to acknowledge Sunahsepha or Devarata, as their elder brother. The others consented; and the Bhagavata expresses this: -

*' They said to the elder, profoundly versed in the Mantras, " We are your followers :" The Râmâyaòa also observes, that Sunahsepha, when bound, praised Indra with Richas, or hymns of the Rig Veda, The origin of the story, therefore, - whatever may be its correct version, - must be referred to the Vedas; and it, evidently, alludes to some innovation in the ritual, adopted by a part only of the Kausika families of Brahmans."

Sunaka: (sáns. hindú). A king of Kasi, the son of Ghritsamada.

Sunakshatra: (sáns. hindú). The son of Marudeva, of the family of Ikshvaku.

Sunanda: (sáns. hindú). A servant of Vishnu, who was seut bjthat deity to convey king Bharata, after resigning his crown to his son, to Vaikuntha. On the way Bharata asked him to describe the regions which they traversed, and Sunanda accordingly told him the situation and extent of the different Lokas or spheres above the earth.

Sunanda: (sáns. hindú). The sister of the Raja of Chedi, who received Damayanti as a companion.

Sunaman: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Ugrasena.

Sunaya: (sáns. hindú). l, A king of Mithila, the son of Rita; 2, The son of Pariplava, of the race of Puru.

Sunda: (sáns. hindú). One of the Daityas, the son of Nisunda, and father of Maricha and Taraka.

Sundara: (sáns. hindú). One of the thirty Andhrabhritya kings, the son of Pravilasena.

Sungas: (sáns. hindú). A dynasty of ten kings who ruled in Magadha for a hundred and twelve years.

Sunika: (sáns. hindú). The prime minister of Ripunjaya, king of Magadha who having killed his sovereign placed his son Pradyota upon the throne.

Sunita: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Magadha, the son of Suvala.

Sunitha: (sáns. hindú). 1, A king of Kasi, the son of Santali and grandson of the celebrated Alarka: 2, The son of Sushena, of the race of Puru.

Sunitha: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Mrityu, who was married to Anga, and became the mother of Vena, who was inaugurated by the Rishis as monarch of the earth.

Sunrita: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Uttanapada, son of Dhruva.

Sunyabandhu: (sáns. hindú). A son of Trinavinda, by the celestial nymph Alambusha.

Suparna: (sáns. hindú). A name of Garuda, the king of the feathered tribes.

Suparswa: (sáns. hindú). A mountain in Jambudwipa, forming the northern buttress of Mount Meru.

Suparswa: (sáns. hindú). l, A king of Mithila, the son of Srutayus; 2, A king of Hastiuapura, the son of Dridhauemi.

Suprattha: (sáns. hindú). A king of the country south of Meru, the son of Bhanuratha, descendant of Ikshvaku.

Sura: (sáns. hindú). 1, The eldest son of Karttavlrya, the Yadava prince; 2, The son of Devamidhusha who was married to Marishti, and became the father of Vasudeva; 3, A son of Vidurathu, also a Yadava.

Surabhi: (sáns. hindú). The name of the cow produced from the churning of the ocean, the fountain of milk and curds, worshipped by the divinities, and beheld by them with minds disturbed and eyes glistening with delight. V. P. It is termed the cow of plenty, able to grant every wish; 2, 4 daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa.

Slirasa: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to Kasyapa; 2, The name of a river not identified.

Surasena: (sáns. hindú). l, The son of Satrughna, who, with his brother Subahu, reigned at Mathura, after the ascent of their father to heaven; 2, One of the sous of Karttavirya.

Surasenas: (sáns. hindú). The inhabitants of Mathura, the Suraseni of Arrian.

Suratha: (sáns. hindú). i, The son of Jahnu, descendant of Kuru; 2, The son of Kundaka, of the line of Ikshvdku.

Sureswara: (sáns. hindú). One of the eleven Rudras according to some of the lists. There is a great variety in the appellations of the Rudras, arising from the writers applying to them indifferent names of the common prototype, or synonyms of Rudra or Äiva, selected at will from his thousand and eight names according to the Linga Purâòa.

Surochish: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven sons of the sage Vasishtha, according to the enumeration in the Bhagavata.

Surpa-nakha: (sáns. hindú). The sister of Ravana, who admired the beauty of Rama, and used various efforts to induce him to marry her.

Rama jestingly advised her to marry his younger brother Lakshraana. She threatened to devour Sita, and rushing on her in a phrensy of passion, Lakshmana had to interfere, and with his scemitar cut off the ears and nose of Surpa-nakha. She then fled to her brother Khara, who vowed vengeance for the treatment she had received: but he and his army of Kakshasas all perished in the attempt, being slain by Rama. Surpa-nakha then went to Ravana, and urged him to carry off Sita.

Surupas: (sáns. hindú). A class of divinities of the fourth Manwantara.

Surya: (sáns. hindú). The Sun. The mythical ancestor of the Rajas of Kosala. This deity seems, *' under different names to have always held a high place amongst the primitive gods of every nation, by virtue of its prominence in the heavens and the extent to which its influence is felt upon earth. Its daily course and its annual course, its welcome rising in the morning, and its glorious setting in the evening, must all have excited the keenest curiosity amongst a child-like and inquisitive people; and at the same time, the imagination was left to account for the existence of phenomena which in a non-scientific age, are altogether beyond human ken.

Thus it seems extremely probable that one of the earliest efforts of poetical genius was to personify the sun as the deity of light, travelling through the blue ether in a golden chariot which all men might see, drawn however by steeds which were invisible to the outward eye, but which were easily assumed to be white, resplendent, and beautiful beyond expression. In the Vedas the attributes of this deity are frequently the same as those of Agni, especially that of originating and diffusing light; but still the sun stands forward as a deity altogether distinct from Fire, when described as journeying "through the firmament in an upward and downward course, and especially in his character of measuring days and nights. This god is apparently addressed under a variety of names - but in the Epics he is chiefly known by the name of Surya, and was regarded as the great ancestor of the solar race who appear in the Râmâyaòa." - Wheeler.

1, By lustrous heralds led on high,
The omniscient Sun ascends the sky,
His glory drawing every eye.
2. All-seeing Sun, the stars so bright.
Which gleamed throughout the sombre night,
Now scared, like thieves, slink fast away,
Quenched by the splendour of thy ray.
3. Thy beams to men thy presence shew;
Like blazing fires they seem to glow.
4. Conspicuous, rapid, source of light,
Thou makest all the welkin bright.
5. In sight of gods, and mortal eyes.
In sight of heaven thou scal'st the skies.
6. Bright god, thou scann'st with searching ken
The doings all of busy men.
7. Thou stridest o'er the sky; thy rays
Create, and measure out, our days;
Thine eye all living things surveys.
8. 9. Seven lucid mares thy chariot bear,
Self-yoked athwart the fields of air,
Bright Surya, god with flaming hair.
10. That glow above the darkness we
Beholding, upward soar to thee.
For there among the gods thy light
Supreme is seen, divinely bright. - 0. S. T., V. 160.

Susandhi: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Prasusruta, a descendant of Kusa.

Susanti: (sáns. hindú). 1, The son of Santi, king of Hastinapura; 2, The Indra of the third Manwantara.

Susarman: (sáns. hindú). One of the four kings of Magadha of the Kanwa dynasty.

Susarman: (sáns. hindú). The Raja of Trigarta. He proposed to the Kauravas to invade the kingdom of Virata. After the plan of the campaign had been decided on, he challenged the Raja Virata to single combat, defeated and captured him. Susarmas was afterwards taken prisoner himself by Bhima. In the great war he and his four brothers challenged Arjuna to battle in the first day of Drona's command. The five brothers were vanquished by Arjuna; on the following day Susarman sent a second challenge to Arjuna to fight in the southern quarter of the plain; Arjuna accepted the challenge, and it was during his absence on this occasion that his son, the young and heroic Abhimanyu was slain.

Sushena: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the sons of Vasudeva, who was killed by Kansa; 2, The son of Vrishninoat, of the race of Puru; 3, One of the sons of Krishna by his wife Rukmini; 4, A distinguished physician in the Râmâyaòa, who restored the dead monkeys to life by herbs brought from the Himalaya mountains.

Sushna: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vrittra, the demon who personifies drought, and is also called Ahi.

" The lightnings then began to flash, The direful thunderbolts to crash, By Indra proudly hurled.

The gods themselves with awe were stilled And stood aghast; and terror filled
The universal world.

Now bound by Sushna's spell no more, The clouds discharge their liquid store; And long by torrid sunbeams baked.

The plains by copious showers are slaked; The rivers swell and sea-wards sweep
Their turbid torrents broad and deep.

The peasant views with deep delight, And thankful heart, the auspicious sight, His leafless fields so sere and sad.

Will soon with waving crops be clad.

And mother earth now brown and bare, A robe of brilliant green will wear." - O.S. T., Vol. V,p. 135.

Sushumna: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven principal rays of the sun; that which supplies heat to the moon.

Susravas: (sáns. hindú). One of the Prajapatis, according to the enumeration in the Vayu Purâòa.

Susnita: (sáns. hindú). 1, A king of Mithila, the son of Subhasa; 2, A teacher of medical science, the reputed author of a celebrated work in Sanskrit still extant.

Susti: (sáns. hindú). A goddess, who is propitiated with offerings when children are troublesome. When the infant Rama cried for the moon and could not be quieted, it was said the goddess Susti was uupropitious.

Sustima: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, the son of king Dharma.

Suta: (sáns. hindú). A generic term for chroniclers and bards. The bard and herald of the Hindus, being attached to the state of all men of rank to chaunt their praises, celebrate their actions, and commemorate their ancestry. Also the name of a celebrated pupil of Vyasa, from whom he learned many historical and legendary traditions. It was to Suta that the great Muni communicated the Purâòas. Suta had himself six scholars who acquired distinction.

Sutala: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven divisions of Patala, that with a stony soil, but embellished with magnificent palaces.

Sutanu.: (sáns. hindú). One of the five daughters of Ugrasena.

Sutapas: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven pure sages according to the enumeration in the Vishnu Purâòa, sons of the great sage Vaishtha.

Sutapas: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities of the eighth Manwantara.

Sutara: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Swaphalka.

Sutikshana: (sáns. hindú). An ascetic who figures in the Râmâyaòa, as of extraordinary merit on account of his austerities. When Rama and Sita visited him in his hermitage in the forest they found him covered with mud, and his head covered with matted hair; his body reduced to bones and skin. He was absorbed in profound forgetfulness of all things earthly; but when Rama paid his respects the sage at once embraced him, and bestowed his blessings on him.

Sutra: (sáns. hindú). " (From the Sanscrit siva to sew, literally, therefore, a thread or string) is, in Sanscrit Literature, the technical name of aphoristic rules, and of works consisting of such rules. The importance of the term will be understood from the fact, that the groundworks of the whole ritual, grammatical, metrical, and philosophical literature of India are written in such aphorisms, which therefore constitute one of the peculiarities of Hindu authorship. The object of the Sutras is extreme brevity; and, especially in the oldest works of this class, this brevity is carried to such an excess, that even the most experienced would find it extremely difficult, and sometimes impossible, to understand these aphorisms without the aid of commentaries, which, however, are fortunately never wanting, wherever a work is written in this style. Though there is no positive evidence as to the cause or causes which gave rise to this peculiarity of Hindu composition, the method of teaching in ancient India - an account of which is afforded in some of the oldest works - renders it highly probable that these Sutras were intended as memorial sentences which the pupil had to learn by heart, in order better to retain the fuller oral explanation which his teacher appended to them. But it is likewise probable that this method of instruction itself originated in the scarcity or awkwardness of the writing material used, and in the necessity, therefore, of economising this material as much as possible; for that wi'iting was known and practised at the remotest period of Hindu antiquity, is now placed beyond a doubt, though a startling theory was propounded, some years ago, to the effect that writing was unknown in India, even at the time of the great grammarian Panini. The manner, however, in which up to this day, the Hindus are in the habit of keeping the leaves of their books together, seems to throw some light on the name given to this aphoristic literature. The leaves - generally narrow, and even at the present time often beiug dried palm leaves, on which the words are either written with ink or scratched with a style - are piled up, and, according to the length of the leaves, pierced in one or two places, when, through the hole or holes, one or two long strings are passed to keep them together. The name of Sutra was probably, therefore, applied to works, not because they represent a thread or string of rules, but on account of the manner in which these works were rendered fit for practical use; just as in German a volume is called Band, from its being * bound.* That a habit deeply rooted outlives necessity, is probat))y also shewn by these Sutra works; for while the oldest works of this class may be called Sutras by necessity, there are others which convey the suspicion that they merely imitated the Sutra style after the necessity had passed away, more especially as they do not adhere to the original brevity of the oldest Sutras; and the Sutras of the Buddhists, conspicuous for their prolixity, could scarcely lay claim to the term, if compared with the Sutra of the Brahmanical literature." - GOLDSTUCKER.

The Sutra period of Sanscrit literature is fixed by Max MUller at from 600 to 200, b. c, the characteristic of the period is that the Brahmanical writers used very curt and dry sentences, or Sutras, for expressing their thoughts. Numerous Sutra works by different authors are still extant, among which the Vyakarna Sutras of Panini, and the Vedanta Sutras of Vyasa, occupy a prominent place.

Suttee: (sáns. hindú). " (An English corruption from the Sanscrit satiy a virtuous wife) means the practice which prevailed in India, of a wife burning herself on the funeral pile, either with the body of her husband, or separately, if he died at a distance.

The practice of Suttee is based by the orthodox Hindus on the injunctions of their Sastras, or sacred books, and there can be no doubt that various passages in their Purâòas (q. v.,) and codes of law countenance the belief which they entertain of its meritoriousness and efficacy. Thus, the Brahma-Purâòa says: * No other way is known for a virtuous woman after the death of her husband; the separate cremation of her husband would be lost (to all religious intents). If her lord die in another country, let the faithful wife place his sandals on her breast, and, pure, enter the fire. The faithful widow is pronounced no suicide by the recited text of the Rig Veda.' Or the code of Vyasa: * Learn the power of that widow who, learning that her husband has deceased, and been burned in another region, speedily casts herself into the fire,' "&c.

Or the code of Angiras: ' That woman, who, on the death of her husband, ascends the same burning pile with him, is exalted to heaven, as equal in virtue to Arundhati (the wife of Vasishtha).

She who follows her husband (to another world) shall dwell in a region of joy for so many years as there arc hairs on the human body, or 35 millions. As a serpent-catcher forcibly draws a snake from his hole, thus drawing her lord (from a region of torment), she enjoys delight together with him. The woman who follows her husband to the pile expiates the sins of three generations on the paternal and naaternal side of that family to which she was given as a virgin... No other effectual duty is known for virtuous women, at any time after the death of their lords, except casting themselves into the same fire. As long as a woman (in her successive transmigrations) shall decline burning herself, like a faithful wife on the same fire with her deceased lord, so long shall she be not exempted from springing again to life in the body of some female animal. When their lords have departed at the fated time of attaining heaven, no other way but entering the same fire is known for women whose virtuous conduct and whose thoughts have been devoted to their husbands, and who fear the dangers of separation.' But however emphatically these and similar passages recommend a wife to burn herself together with her deceased husband, it should, in the first place, be observed, that Manu, who, among legislators of ancient India, occupies the foremost rank, contains no words which enjoin, or even would seem to countenance, this cruel practice; and, secondly, that no injunction of any religious work is admitted by the orthodox Hindus as authoritative, unless it can shew that it is taken from, or based on, the revealed books, the Vedas. An attempt has of late years been made by Raja Radhakant Deb, to shew that, in a text belonging to a particular school of the Black Yajurveda, there is really a passage which would justify the practice of suttee; but in the controversy which ensued on this subject between him and the late Professor H. H. Wilson, it clearly transpired that the text cited by the learned Raja is of any thing but indubitable canonicity; moreover, that there is a verse in the Rig Veda which, if properly read, would enjoin a widow not to burn herself, but, after having attended the funeral ceremonies of her husband, to return to her home, and to fulfil her domestic duties; and it seems, at the same time, that merely from a misreading of a single word of this verse from the Rig Veda, that interpretation arose which ultimately led to a belief and an injunction so disastrous in their results. That an immense number of widows have fallen victims to this erroneous interpretation of the oldest Vedic text, is but too true. Some thirty years ago, however, the East India Company took energetic measures to suppress a practice which it was perfectly justified in looking upon as revolting to all human feelings, and which it would have likewise been entitled to consider as contrary to the spirit of the Vedic religion. This practice may now be said to have been successfully stopped; for though, from habit and superstition, even now-a-days cases of suttee occur, they are extremely rare; and all reports agree that the enlightened natives everywhere, except, perhaps, in certain native states, support the action of government to repress this evil of bygone times. - Chambers' Encyclopcedia.

Suvala: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, the son of Sumati.

Suvama: (sáns. hindú). The beautiful river; identified by Wilford with the Ram-ganga.

Suvarchala: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Rudra, the Rudra who was the first of the eight manifestations.

Suvarna: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Antariksha, of the family of Ikshvaku.

Suvarnaroman: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Mithila, the son of Maharoman.

Suvibhu: (sáns. hindú). One of the Kasya princes, the sixth in descent from Alarka, raja of Benares.

Suvira: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the sons of Sivi; 2, One of the Kaurava princes, the son of Kshemya.

Suvrata: (sáns. hindú). A king of Magadha, whose reign is said to have lasted 60 years: he was the son of Raja Kshemya.

Suyasas: (sáns. hindú). One of the kings of Magadha, son of the Buddhist king Asokavarddhana, (q. v.)

Suyodhana: (sáns. hindú). A name sometimes given (euphemistically) to Duryodhana, the eldest of the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra, and who as the representative of the others is painted in the darkest colours, and embodies all their bad qualities. Many Hindus regard him as the visible type of Vice, or the evil principle in human nature, for ever doing battle with Virtue, or the good and divine principle, symbolised by the five sons of Pandu. At Duryodhana's birth various evil omens of the usual hackneyed description occurred; jackalls yelled, donkeys brayed, virhirlwinds blew, and the sky seemed on fire. Dhritarashtra alai'med, called his ministers together, who recommended him to abandon the child, but could not persuade him to do so.*

Swabhavas: (sáns. hindú). The characteristics, or inherent properties, of the Gunas (or qualities) by which they act, as soothing, terrifying, stupifying, &c.

Swabhojana: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas; that for the punishment of the religious student who sleeps in the day; and for those who though mature, have to be instructed in sacred literature by their children.

Swadha: (sáns. hindú). l, Oblation: one of the daughters of Daksha, and wife of the Pitris; 2, One of the wives of Angiras; 3, The wife of one of the eleven Rudras.

Swaha: (sáns. hindú). l , Offering: one of the daughters of Daksha, who was married to Agni; 2, The wife of the Rudra Pasupati.

Swahi: (sáns. hindú). One of the Kroshtri princes, son of Vrijinivat, and grandson of Yadu.

Swamabhak: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven suns, into which the seven solar rays dilate at the end of the day of Brahma

Swaphalka: (sáns. hindú). A sage of great sanctity; wherever he dwelt, there famine, plague, dearth, and other visitations were unknown; wherever rain was wanted his presence secured the blessing. He was married to the daughter of Kasircija, named Gandini, (q. v.), whose remarkable birth has already been related. Gandini, as long as she lived, gave a cow to the brahmans every day. Akrura was their son; and his birth therefore proceeded from a combination of uncommon excellence. V. P., 432. * Williams' Indian Epic Poetry.

Swaraj: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven principal solar rays, that which supplies heat to the planet Saturn.

Swarat: (sáns. hindú). Brahma, the Creator.

Swarbhanu: (sáns. hindú). 1, A renowned Danava, son of Kasyapa; 2, One of equal celebrity, the son of Viprachitti.

Swarga: (sáns. hindú). l , The son of Rudra Bhima; 2, Paradise, on Mount Meru, the seat of the righteous, and where the wicked do not arrive even after a hundred births.

Swar-loka: (sáns. hindú). The planetary sphere, extending from the sun to Dhruva, explained in the Purâòas to be heaven, Swarnaprastha - One of the eight minor Dwipas, situated beyond the sea, and inhabited by Mlecchas, but who worship Hindu divinities.

Swarochisha: (sáns. hindú). The Manu of the second Manwantara; so named from the splendour of his appearance when born. He was the son of the nymph Varuthini by the Gandharba Kali. The seven Rishis of the period were the Manu's sons.

Swarupas: (sáns. hindú). Forms of things: the distinctions of biped, quadruped, bi-ute, bird, fish, and the like.

Swastyatreyas: (sáns. hindú). A race of brahmans, celebrated for their sanctity; a branch of the lunar race.

Swati: (sáns. hindú). A lunar mansion in Govithi, in the Central Avashthana.

Swayambhoja : (sáns. hindú). A Yadava chief, the son of Pratikshatra.

Swayambhu: (sáns. hindú). l, Brahma; a synonym of Mahat, so termed from its being ungenerated; 2, the Vyasa of the first Dwapara.

Swayambhuva: (sáns. hindú). The Manu, born of and one with Brahma; Brahma converted himself into two persons, the first male, or the Manu Swayambhuva, and the first woman or Satarupa.

Swayamvara: (sáns. hindú). Self-choice. The public choice of a husband.

The most popular of all the forms of marriage which prevailed amongst the Vedic Aryans. The Swayamvara, says Mr. Wheeler, was evidently an institution of the Kshatriyas, resembling in a remarkable degree the tournaments of the age of chivalry.

The man who gained the day became the husband of the damsel.

The Mahabharata contains a long narrative of the Sway am vara of Draupadi. The Swayamvara emphatically belongs to the old Vedic period, and is distinctly recognised in the hymns of the Rig Veda. The institution is an exaggerated expression of the age of chivalry. - Wheeler.

" The Swayamvara, the free, or self-election of a husband, was a not uncommon practice amongst the Hindus, and forms the subject of frequent description both in ancient and modern poetry:

the Princes being assembled in a public place with appropriate ceremonies, the Princess performed the tour of the circle, and signified her preference by throwing a garland of flowers upon the neck of the successful competitor; the marriage rite was subsequently performed as usual. It may be easily supposed that the prcfereiiccj was not always the suggestion of the moment, and grew out of previous acquaintance: thus Damayanti adopted this mode of choosing Nala in concert with her lover; Taravati chose Chaudrasekara by the guidance of lier nurse; and the Princess of Kauoj invited Pritha Rai to her Swayamvara. The consequences may also be easily conjectured, and mortified vanity, or disappointed expectation must often have engendered personal hostility:

the result may not unfrequently have been long and widely felt; and though neither the Swayamvaras of Draupadi or Damayanti may have been attended with any remarkable events, the choice of the Princess of Kanoj was less innoxious: for the animosity which it excited between her father and her lord, laid India bare to Mohammedan aggression, and paved the way for European ascendancy." - fVilsoti's Works, III, 324.

Sweta: (sáns. hindú). 1, A serpent king, one of the progeny of Kadru; 2, A range of mountains north of Meru.

Sweta-dwipa: (sáns. hindú). The white or silver island, the abode of Vishnu. Colonel Wilford bestowed great pains on the verification of these fictitious Dwipa?, which he imagined to represent actual divisions of the globe. The white or silver island, or island of the moon, wsis the island of great BritaiD, according to him. Still, says Wilson, his essays on these subjects, contain much curious and interesting matter.

Syadvadis: (sáns. hindú). " Assertors of probabilities, or of what may be ;" a designation of the Jainas.

Syala: (sáns. hindú). A Yd-dava chief, who publicly offended Gargya, the Brahman, and led the latter to adopt a course of austerities to obtain a son who should be a terror to the tribe of Yadu. See Kalayavana.

Syama: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of Sura.

Syama (Syama): (sáns. hindú). The black goddess; one of the names of Parvati.

Syamantaka Gem: (sáns. hindú). A jewel of great celebrity which insured its possessor, if a good man, safety, prosperity and happiness. It was presented by the Sun to Satrajit who wore it on his neck, and became thereby as brilliant as the sun himself. Satrajit, fearing that Krishna would ask him for the jewel, transferred it to his brother Prasena; and as Prasena's character was bad it caused his death; he being killed by a lion when hunting. The lion taking the jewel in his mouth was about to depart, when he was killed by Jambavat, the king of the bears, who carried off the gem to his cave and gave it to his son Sukumara to play with. Krishna was suspected of haviog murdered Prasena to get ' possession of the jewel. To clear himself Krishna tracked the jewel to the bear's cave, and after a conflict with Jambavat which lasted twenty-one days, recovered the jewel. Jambavat then recognised Krishna's divinity, and gave him his daughter Jambavati in marriage. The jewel was again restored to Satrajit, who was killed by Satadhanwan for the sake of it. Krishna resolved that Satadhanwan should relinquish the prize, pursued him, put him to death, but found not the jewel, as it had been given to Akrura to keep.

Balabhadra thought Krishna was deceiving him and quarrelled with his biothcr on account of it.

Akrura retained the precious jewel fifty-two years, and in consequence enjoyed immunity from all kinds of evil, the whole country partaking of the benefit. This led Krishna to conjecture that Akrura had the gem in his possession; and in a full assembly Akrura owned to it and offered it to Krishna; but it was decided that it should remain with Akrura, who wore it publicly ever after as a garland of light. V. P.

Syamayani: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the Yajur Veda, and chief of the northern class.

Syeni: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Kasyapa, and the parent of hawks.


Tadaikyam: (sáns. hindú). Union; perfect union; or identification of one with another, " The mind of man is the cause both of his bondage and his liberation; its addiction to the objects of sense is the means of his bondage; its separation from objects of sense is the means of his freedom. The sage who is capable of discriminative knowledge must therefore restrain his mind from all the objects of sense, and therewith meditate upon the Supreme Being, who is one with spirit, in order to attain liberation; for that supreme spirit attracts to itself him who meditates upon it, and who is of the same nature, as the loadstone attracts the iron by the virtue which is common to itself and its products. Yet the union that takes place is only that of contiguity, (Samyoga) not that of identification or unity, Tadaikyam. Vishnu Purâòa and note.

Taksha: (sáns. hindú). The son of Bharata; he was Raja of Gandhara, residing at Takshasila.

Tala: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas - that for the punishment of adultery, murder, &c"

Talajangha: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the Yadava race; the father of a hundred sons, who were called Talajanghas: they conquered Bahu, but were afterwards subdued by Sagara. They were a branch of the Haihayas.

Talaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the Andhra kings, the son of Hala.

Talatala: (sáns. hindú). The fourth of the seven regions of Patala: Maya reigns over Talatala, having been raised to that dignity after the destruction of his three cities by Äiva.

Tamas: (sáns. hindú). l, The quality of darkness, ignorance, inertia.

Ignorance is said to be five-fold; in this definition Tamas, or obscurity, is the first thing of which it consists; 2, One of the Narakas; 3, A Yidava prince, the son of Prithusravas.

Tamasa: (sáns. hindú). 1, A Manu, the son of Priyavrata; the Manu of the fourth Manwantara; 2, A river, the Touse. It was on the banks of this river that Rama halted the first night of his exile; when the Mahardja had been carried back to Ayodhya, and the people would keep with the chariot of Rama. They all spent the night on the banks of the river Tamasa, and at early morning Rama rose from his bed of leaves, and with Sita and Lakshmana left before the people awoke.

Tamisra: (sáns. hindú). Gloom: the fourth quality of Ignorance in the definition which makes it five-fold.

Tamra: (sáns. hindú). l, One of the daughters of Daksha, married to Kasyapa; 2, A river.

Tamrapakshi: (sáns. hindú). A son of Krishna by his wife Rohini.

Tamrapami: (sáns. hindú). A river in Tinnevelly, which rises at the southern extremity of the Western Ghauts.

Tamravarna: (sáns. hindú). One of the nine portions of the Varsha of Bharata.

Tamrayani: (sáns. hindú). A teacher of the white Yajush, and founder of a school.

Tandri: (sáns. hindú). Sloth; a form of Brahma.

Tanmatra: (sáns. hindú). The rudiment or type of an element; the characteristic property of an element.

Tansu: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Rantinaru, a descendant of Puru; called also Tansurodha.

Tantra: (sáns. hindú). A religious text book: the principal rites and formulae connected with the adoration of Frakriti or Sakti are derived from the works known by the collective term of Tantras, The followers of the Tantras profess to consider them as a fifth Veda, and attribute to them equal antiquity and superior authority.

"The Tantras are a class of books of which little is known in Europe, but which, until English education began in India, were the creed of a large proportion of Hindus. Old Pandits in Bengal will still maintain that the Tantric was the grandest religion of all, only it was beyond human nature to carry it out; for it is based on the idea that we should practice every kind of excess to the atmost, and yet carry a mind fixed on the Supreme Being in the midst of it all. He who worshipped God with purity of life was but a pds7iy a mere beast; while he who worshipped him in orgies of drunkenness and licentiousness was a vira, a hero. The Tantric rites were not long ago very prevalent in Bengal, and though, as western culture and the study of English spread, such ideas and rites retreat into obscurity, the Tantras were but the lowest step of that progressive degradation which we traced from the simple and elevated nature-worship of the Rig Veda."* The observances they prescribe have indeed, in Bengal, almost superseded the original ritual. The question of their date is involved in considerable obscurity. From the practices described in some of the Puriuas, particularly that of the Diksha, or rite of initiation, in the Agni Purâòa, from the specification of formulae comprising the mystic monosyllables of the Tantras in that and other similar compilations, and from the citation of some of them by name in different Pauranic works, we must conclude that some of the Tantras are prior to those authorities.

It may be inferred that the system originated at some period in the early centuries of Christianity, being founded in the previous worship of the female principle, and the practices of the Yoga with the MantraSf or mystical formulae of the Vedas. It is equally certain that the observances of the Tantras have been carried to more exceptionable extremes in comparatively modern times; and that many of the works themselves are of recent composition. They appear also to have been written chiefly in Bengal and the eastern districts, many of them being unknown in the west and south of India; and the rites they teach having failed to set aside the ceremonies of the Vedas, although they are not without an important influence upon the belief and the practices of the people.

The Tantras are too numerous to admit in this place of their specifications, but the principal are the Syama Rahasya, Budra, Ydmala, Mantra Mafiodadhi, Sarada Tilaka and Kalika Tantra; whilst the Kula Chudamani, Kularnava, and similar works, are the chief author ities of one portion of the Saktas; the sect being o Quarterly Review, July 1870 divided into two leading branches, the Dakshiuacharis and Vamacharis, or followers of the right-hand and left-hand ritual. Works ofH. H. Wilson, Vol., I, p. 250.

Tapa-loka: (sáns. hindú). The sphere or world of the seven Rishis.

Tapaniyas: (sáns. hindú). Brahmans of a branch of the Yajush.

Tapas, Tapasya: (sáns. hindú). The names of two of the mouths occurring in the Vedas, and belonging to a system now obsolete.

Tapaswin: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Manu Chakshusha.

Tapati: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of the Sun; the Tapti river.

Tapo-loka: (sáns. hindú). The sphere of penance, inhabited by the deities called Vaibhrajas, who are unconsumable by fire.

Taptakhumba: (sáns. hindú). One of the Narakas, that in which murder and incest are punished.

Taptaloka: (sáns. hindú). The redhot iron Naraka, for jailers, horse-dealers and deserters.

Tara: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Vrihaspati, the preceptor of the gods; she was carried off by Soma, who refused to give her up even at the command of Brahma. A fierce contest ensued, termed the Tarakamaya war. It was brought to a close by the interference of Brahma who compelled Soma to restore Tara to her husband.

Her son Budha was born shortly after. See Budha. Soma, Tara - The wife of Bali, the elder brother of Sugriva, She attempted to dissuade Bali from fighting with his brother, but was unable to do so, and Bali was killed. When she was grieving for her loss, Rama consoled her, and she was afterwards married to Sugriva, in conformity with the rude customs of a barbarous age.

Taraka: (sáns. hindú). 1, A Daitya of great prowess, the son of Hiranyaksha; 2j A Danava son of Kasyapa by Danu.

Taraka: (sáns. hindú). A female Rakshasi, the mother of Maricha. She lived in a dreadful jungle and ravaged the whole country round.

The sage Visvdmitra earnestly requested Rama to kill her. Rama promised to deprive her of her strength and power, but was unwilling to slay a woman. A terrific combat took place, and at the instigation of Visvamitrn, Kama at length killed the dreaded Rakshasi.

Tarapida: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Chandrdvaloka, one of the rajas of Ayodhya before the great war.

Tejas: (sáns. hindú). Light or fire, the element; said to be produced froni the rudiment of form or colour; while itself is the producer of that of taste. V. P.

Tigma: (sáns. hindú). A priuce, the son of Mridu, of the race of Pur u.

Tillotama: (sáns. hindú). A celestial nymph or Apsarasa, of the Laukika class.

Tillotama is described as having been originally a Brahman female, who in consequence of being born in the month of Magha, dwelt four thousand ages in Vaikuntha, and was then bom as the Apsaras Tillotama, for the purpose of causing the mutual destruction of Sunda and Upasunda, an incident taken from the Mahabharatu.- Wilson's Works, Vol III, p, 55.

Timi: (sáns. hindú). A daughter of Daksha, who was married to Kasyapa, and became the mother of fishes.

Tirtha: (sáns. hindú). A holy shrine or sacred place; in the Padma Purâòa, persons are also considered as Tirthas, as a guru, a father, a wife, a son; and in illustration of this, Vishnu recited several stories to king Vena.

Tirthankara : (sáns. hindú). A Jain saint of the present era, of whom twenty-four are enumerated.

  • 1. Rishaba.
  • 2. Ajita.
  • 3. Sambhava
  • 4. Abhinandana
  • 5. Sumati
  • 6. Padmaprabhu
  • 7. Suparsva
  • 8. Chandraprabhu
  • 9. Pushpadhanta
  • 10. Sitala
  • 11. Sreyansa
  • 12. Vasu pujya
  • 13. Vimala
  • 14. Ananta
  • 15. Dharma
  • 16. Tanti
  • 17. Kunthu
  • 18. Ara
  • 19. Main
  • 20. Manisuvrata
  • 21. Nami
  • 22. Nemi
  • 23. Parsva
  • 24. Mahavira or Vardhamani
  • Colossal statues of these Tirthankaras are often placed in the court yards of the Jain temples. There is a remarkably fine one at Sravana Bella Gola, near Chenraipatam, in Mysore. Its height is seventy feet three inches. The Duke of Wellington who visited the place in 1801, was of opinion that the rock had been cut until nothing but the image remained.*

    Tiryaksrotas: (sáns. hindú). The name given to the animal creation at their first " manifestation," from their nutriment following a winding course. V. P.

    Titiksha: (sáns. hindú). Patience; a daughter of Daksha, married to Dharma; one of the allegorical unions.

    Titikshu: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son of Mahamanas, a descendant of Yayati.

    Tittiri: (sáns. hindú). A pupil of Yaska, and a teacher of the Taithriya Yajush.

    Transmigration: (sáns. hindú). " Or the passing from one place, state, or condition into another, means, in the theological acceptation of the term, the supposed transition of the soul after death into another substance or body than that which it occupied before. The belief in such a transition is one of the most important phases in the religions of mankind. It was common to the most uncivilised and the most civilised nations of the earth, it was the object of fantastical superstition, as well as that of philosophical speculation, and it is the property of both ancient and modern times. Its basis being the assumption that the human soul does not perish together with the body, it could belong to those nations only which had already conceived an idea of the immortality of the soul; but in proportion as such an idea is crude or developed, as it is founded merely on a vague fear of death, and a craving for material life, or on ethical grounds, and a supposed casual connection between this and a future life, the belief in transmigration assumes various forms, and influences more or less the actions of men.

    At the time when in India the dogma of transmigration became an integral pal't of the Brahmanic religion, the Hindus believed

    * Buchanan's Mysore, III, 410,

    that the human souls emanated from a Supreme Being, which, as it were, in a state of bewilderment or forgetfulness, allowed them to become separate existences, and to be born on earth. The soul, thus severed from the real source of its life, is bound to return to it, or to become merged again into that divine substance with which it was originally one; but as its nature becomes contaminated with sin through its earthly career, it must, so long as it remains in this world, endeavour to free itself from all guilt, and thus to become fit for its ultimate destiny. Religion teaches that this is done by the observance of religious rites, and a life in conformity with the precepts of the sacred books; philosophy, that the soul will be re-united with Brahman, if it understands the true nature of the divine essence whence it comes. So long, therefore, as the soul has not attained this condition of purity, it must be born again, after the dissolution of the body to which it was allied; and the degree of its impurity at one of these various deaths, determines the existence which it will assume in a subsequent life.

    Since there can be no proof of the soul's migrations, the detail in which these are described in the religious works of the Hindus, is merely fantastical, and interesting only so far as it affords a kind of standard by which, at various epochs, and by different writers, the moral merit or demerit of human actions was measured in India.

    Thus, Manu (in the 12th book of his Code of Laws) teaches: * The slayer of a Brahmaria- according to the degree of his guilt - is reborn as a dog, a boar, an ass, a camel, a bull, a goat, a sheep, a stag, a bird, a Chandala, or a Pukkasa. A Brahmana, who drinks spirituous liquor, will migrate into the bodies of a worm, an insect, a grasshopper, a fly feeding on ordure, or some mischievous animal. A twice-born who steals (the gold of a Brahmana,) will pass a thousand times into the bodies of S)3iders, snakes, and chameleons, of aquatic monsters, or of murderous blood-thirsty demons. He who violates the bed of his guru, will a hundred times migrate into the forms of grasses, of shrubs, and of creeping plants, of carnivorous animals and beasts with long teeth, or of cruel brutes. Those who inflict injury (on sentient bcingy,) become flcsh-eatcrs; nnd those who eat forbidden things, worms. Thieves become devoiirers of each other; and those who embrace women of the lowest castes, become ghosts If a man, through covetousuess, has stolen gems, pearl, or coral, or whatever belongs to the precious substances, he is reborn in the tribe of goldsmiths; if he has stolen grain, he becomes a rat; if kansya (a composition of zinc arid copper,) a hansa bird; if water, a diver; if honey, a gadfly; if milk, a crow; if juice (of the sugar-cane or the like,) a dog; if clarified butter, an ichneumon; if flesh, a vulture; if fat, a shag; if oil, a cockroach; if salt, a cricket; if curds, the crane, called Valaka ;' &c. A more general doctrine of the migration of souls is based by Hindu philosophers on the assumption of the three cosmic qualities of sattwa, i. e., purity or goodness; rajas, L e., troubleduess or passion; and tamaSf i. e., darkness or sin, with which the human soul may become endued. And on this doctrine, again, Manu and other writers build an elaborate theory of the various births to which the soul may become subject. Manu, for instance, teaches that ' souls endued with the quality of sattwa, attain the condition of deities; those having the quality of rajas, the condition of men; and those having the quality of tarn as, the condition of beasts.'

    Each of these conditions, he continues, is, according to the acts or knowledge of the soul, threefold: the lowest, the middle, and the highest. ' The lowest embodiment of the quality tamas is inanimate objects, worms, insects, fish, serpents, tortoises, tame and wild beasts; the middle state, to which the same quality leads, is (the state of) an elephant, a horse, a Sudra, a Mlechchha or barbarian, a lion, a tiger, and a boar: the highest, that of a public performer, a bird, a cheat, a demon called Rakshas, and a vampire-demon.

    The lowest condition to which the soul imbued with the quality rajas arrives is that of a cudgel-player, a boxer, a public dancer, a man who lives on the use of weapons, and one addicted to gambling and drinking; the middle condition, that of a king, a man of the Kshattriya or military caste, a house-priest of a king, and a man fond of learned controversy; the highest, that of a Gandharva or musician in Indra's heaven, a Guhyaka or Yaksha (two kinds of attendants on the god of richer,) or another attendant on another god, or an Apsaras or heavenly nymph in Indra's

    Leaven. The lowest state procured by the quality of sattwa is that of a Vanaprastha - or a hermit of the third order of life - a religious mendicant, a Brahmaria, or one of the demigods travelling about in palace-like cars, one of (the genii presiding over) the lunar mansions, or an offspring of Diti. The middle state, procured by the same quality, is that of a sacrificer, a Rishi (q. v.), a god of the lower heaven (a deity personating one of the) Vedas, (a deity presiding over one of) the luminaries or years, one of the manes or progenitors of mankind, and of the demigods called Sadhya. The highest condition to which the quality of sattwa leads is that of the god Brahma, that of a creator of the world (as Marichi, or another patriarch of the same rank,) that of the genius of Dharma (virtue or right,) of Mahat, or the intellectual principle of creation, and of Prakriti, or matter.*

    It is not necessary here to show that this detail regarding the migrations of the souls is more or less differently given by other authors at other periods of Hindu religion, according to the views which they entertained of right and wrong, of the value and rank of imaginary or created beings, and of the social conditions of men. For, since all orthodox Hindu writers agree in principle with Manu, the quotations alleged from his work suffice to illustrate the imaginary positiveness with which the doctrine of transmigration was propounded, and to establish the conclusion that this doctrine rested in India on ethical grounds.

    It has been already pointed out that the belief in the soul's life after the death of the body must precede the doctrine of transmigration. As such a belief, however, may be traced in some hymns of the Rig Veda, it has been supposed that this doctrine, too, is as old as this Veda. But apart from the uncertainty which still exists regarding not only the age, but even the relative age at which the different hymns of the Rig Veda were composed, and setting aside the fallacy which therefore attaches to speaking of this Veda as a contemporaneous whole, it is necessary to observe that the only passage which has been adduced in proof of this important discovery does not bear it out. It is the 32nd verse of the hymn I, 164, and according to the translation of Professor Wilson (Vol. II, pp. 137, 138,) runs as follows: o He who has made (this state of things) does not comprehend it; he who has beheld it, has it also verily hidden (from him); he, whilst yet enveloped in his mother's womb, is stihject to many births, and has entered upon evil.' But the word of the text, hahuprajah, rendered by Wilson, according to the commentator, * is subject to many births,' may, according to the same commentator, also mean, * has many offsprings,' or * has many children ;' and as the latter sense is the more literal and usual sense of the word, whereas the former is artificial, no conclusion whatever regarding the doctrine of transmigration can safely be founded on it.

    The Buddhistic belief in transmigration is derived from that of the Brahmanic Hindus; it agrees with the latter in principle, though it differs from it in the imaginary detail inwhich it was worked out.

    Like the Brahmanic Hindus, the Buddhists believe that all souls have existed from the beginning; like them, they believe in the unreality and sinfulness of the world in the necessity of the soul's freeing itself from the bondage of this world, and in the causal connection between the actions of man in this, and his condition in a subsequent, life. Like the Brahmanic Hindus, they hold, therefore, that- sin is the cause of transmigration, and that by a total expiation of sin, the soul ceases to be reborn, and attains its final resting-place. But since this resting-place is to the Buddhists Nirvana (q. v.,) or Non-entity, whereas to Brahmanism it is Brahman, or the principle of Entity; since they reject the institution of caste, which is the social foundation of Brahmanic life; since they do not acknowledge the authority of the Vedas, and the codes based on it, and therefore consider as morally wrong much that the Brahmanic Sastras enjoin as morally right, the standard according to which the life of a Buddhist is regulated must differ in many respects from that which governs the conduct of a Brahmanic Hindu; and his ideas of reward, and punishment, therefore, as reflected by his ideas of the mode of transmigration, likewise differ from those of the Brahmanic believer. To enlarge here on this difference is not necessary, for, after the illustrations already afforded from Manu, it is easy to conceive that the detail of the Buddhistic doctrine of transmigration is as fanciful as that of the Brahmanic doctrine; that it is therefore partly devoid of interest, and partly intelligible only if taken in connection with the detail of Buddhistic religion and literature. Yet it is not superfluous to point out one great diflference which separates the notions of one class of Buddhists from those of the rest, as well as from those of the Brahmanic Hindus. According to the latter, and the great mass of Buddhists, it is always the same soul which ever from its first birth re-appears in its subsequent births, until it is finally liberated from transmigration. But among the southern Buddhists, another idea has also taken root. In their belief, the succession of existences of a being is also a succession of souls; and each such soul, though the result of its predecessor, is not identical with it. According to this view, the body dies, and with it the soul, too, is * extinguished,* leaving behind only the good and bad acts which it has performed during its life. The result of these acts now becomes the seed of of a new life, and the soul of this new life is therefore the necessary product of the soul of the former life. Thus all the succeeding souls have to labour at the solution of the same problem, which began when their first ancestor entered this world, but no succeeding birth is animated by the same soul. This dogma is illustrated in their works by various similes. One lamp, they say, for instance, is kindled at another; the light of the former is not identical with that of the latter, but nevertheless, without this, the other light could not have originated. Or, a tree produces fruit; from the fruit, another tree arises, and so on; the last tree is therefore not the same as the first, though the fruit is the necessary cause of the last." - Goldstucker.

    Trasadasyu: (sáns. hindú). " The Terrifier of thieves." 1, A name given in the Bhagavata to Mandhatri; 2, The son of Prukutsa.

    Trasarenu: (sáns. hindú). A measure of time, consisting of three Anus.

    Trayyaruna: (sáns. hindú). l, The Vyasa of the fifteenth Dwapara age; 2, A contributor to the Rig Veda, he was a prince, the son of Tridhanwan; 3, Another prince,the son of Urukshaya,a descendant of Bharata.

    Treta: (sáns. hindú). The Second Yuga or age, consisting of three thousand divine yeart.

    Tridhaman: (sáns. hindú). The Vyasa of the tenth Dwapara age.

    Tridhanwan: (sáns. hindú). An ancient Raja of the solar line, the son of Sumanas.

    Trijata: (sáns. hindú). One of the Rakshasi women, who, when her companions wished to torture and devour Sita, told them of a dream she had which betokened victory to Rama and destruction to Ravana; they then left Sita alone in the grove and returned to their own apartments.

    Trikuta: (sáns. hindú). A mountain ridge in the south of Meru.

    Trimadhu: (sáns. hindú). A class of Brahmans so denominated from the particular part of the Vedas they study and recite. Three Anuvakas of the Yajur Veda begin Madhuvata, &c.

    Trimurti: (sáns. hindú). " (From the Sanscrit tri, three, and murti form) is the name of the Hindu triad, or the gods Brahman (masculine,) Vishnu, and Äiva, when thought of as an inseparable unity, though three in form. The Padma-Purâòa, which, being a Pui-ana of the Vaishnava sect, assigns to Vishnu the highest rank in the Trimurti, defines its character in the following manner: *In the beginning of creation, the great Vishnu, desirous of creating the whole world, became threefold: creator, preserver, and destroyer. In order to create this world, the supreme spirit produced from the right side of his body himself as Brahman; then, in order to preserve the world, he produced from the left side of his body Vishnu; and in order to destroy the world, he produced from the middle of his body the eternal Äiva. Some worship Brahman, others Vishnu, others Äiva; but Vishnu, one, yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroys; therefore, let the pious make no difference between the three.' And the MalsyaPurâòa, where speaking of Mahat, or the intellectual principle of the Sinkhya philosophy, says that VMahat becomes distinctly known as three gods, through the influence of the three qualities, goodness, passion, and sin; being one person and three gods - viz., Brahman, Vishnu, and Äiva.' Apart, therefoVe, from sectarian belief, which makes its own god the highest, and gives him the attributes also of the other gods, Trimiirti implies the unity of the three principles of creation, preservation, and destruction. and as such belougs more to the philosophical than the popular belief. When represented, the Trimiirti is one body with three heads: in the middle, that of Brahman; at its right, that of Vishnu; and at its left, that of Äiva. The symbol of the Trimurti is the mystical syllable om, when (o being equivalent to a-{- u) a, means Brahman; u, Vishnu; and /w, Äiva." - Goldstucker.

    Trina: (sáns. hindú). A prince, the son Usinnara, descendant of Yayati.

    Trinachiketa: (sáns. hindú). A class of Brahmans so called from studying or reciting the Rathaka branch of the Yajur Veda, commencing with the term Trinachiketa.

    Tinavindu: (sáns. hindú). l, The Vyasa of the twenty-third Dwapara age; 2, A prince; the son of Budha, of whom the celestial nymph Alambusha became enamoured.

    Triprishtha: (sáns. hindú). Mahavira in one of his births was a Vasudeva, named Triprishtha,, from having three back bones: his uncle and foe in a former life, Visabhanandi, was born as his Protagonist or Prati vasudeva, named Asvagriva or Hayagriva, and was in the course of events destroyed by the Vasudeva, a palpable adaptation of the Pauranic legend of Vishnu and Hayagriva. Triprishtha having put his chamberlain cruelly to death was condemned to hell, and again born as a lion.

    Tripti: (sáns. hindú). One of the Siddhis, or eight perfections of man.

    Tripti is the second and means mental satisfaction, or freedom from sensual desire.

    Trisala: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Siddhartha, king of Pavana, and mother of the celebrated Tirthankara Mahavira.

    Trisanku: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the solar line, the son of Satyavrata.

    He was banished by his father for his bad conduct, and degraded t o the condition of a Chandala, or outcaste. But during a twelve years' famine be provided the flesh of deer for the nourishment of he wife and children of Visvamitra, suspending it on a tree on the Ganges, that he might not subject them to the indignity of receiving presents from an outcaste. On this account Visvamitra, being highly pleased with him, elevated him in his living body to heaven.

    Trishna: (sáns. hindú). " Greeditiess ;" one of the children of Mritya, * death/

    Trishtubh: (sáns. hindú). The name of the metre, created along with the Yajiir Veda, &c., from the southern mouth of Brahma.

    Trishyas: (sáns. hindú). The designation of Sudras in Krauncha Dwipa.

    Trisiras: (sáns. hindú). l, The son of Tvashtri, and sometimes called Visvarupa; he is twice mentioned in the Rig Veda under this name.

    He is said to have had three heads and six eyes, and three mouths; one of his mouths was the soma drinker, the second the wine drinker, and the third was destined for consuming other things.

    Indra hated this Visvarupa and cut off his three heads. - Muir, 0. S. r.. Vol. v., p. 228-232.

    2. One of the sons of the giant Ravana who was killed at the siege of Lanka.

    Trivrishan: (sáns. hindú). The Vyisa of the eleventh Dwapara age.

    Trivrit: (sáns. hindú). A collection of hymns created along with the Rig Veda form the eastern mouth of Brahma.

    Truti: (sáns. hindú). A measure of time, consisting of three Tresarenus. *

    Tryambaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the eleven Rudras.

    Tulasi plant: (sáns. hindú). A tree sacred to Krishna, said to have been produced at the churning of the ocean; but considered by Wilson to be a sectarial addition to the articles originally specified.

    Tulyata: (sáns. hindú). One of the Siddhis, the fourth, meaning similarity of life, form, and feature.

    Tumburu: (sáns. hindú). A Gandharba, who resides in the sun's car as one of its seven guardians in the month of Madha or Chaitra.

    Tunda: (sáns. hindú). A fierce demon mentioned in the PAdma Purâòa, which has a long narrative of the destruction of the demon by Nahusha the son of Ayus.

    Tundikeras: (sáns. hindú). One of the great divisions of the Haihaya tribe.

    Tunga: (sáns. hindú). The son of Atri, who having propitiated Narayana by penance, obtained a son equal to Indra; this son was Vena, who was made by the Rishis the first king of the earth. (Vena.)

    Tungaprastha: (sáns. hindú). A mountain to the east of Ramghur.

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