viernes, 2 de julio de 2010

Sahadeva - Shvashva - The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms






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10.Sahadeva - Shvashva






Sahadeva: (sáns. hindú). The youngest of the five Pandu princes, twin son of Madri, the second wife of Pandu, and mythologically son of the Ashvins, or more specifically of the Ashvin Dashra. He was learned in the science of astronomy, which he had studied under Drona, and he was well acquainted with the management of cattle. (See Mahabharata.) He had a son named Suhotra by his wife Vijaya.



Sahaja: (sáns. hindú). (saha "together with" + ja "born") 1. The natural, original or innate. 2. One who has followed spiritual principles eagerly and constantly becomes realized and natural since no more effort is to be made and all good qualities follow him or her naturally.



Sahajihva: (sáns. hindú). Having congenital tongue. Shiva's 965th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Saharsha: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + harsha "joy") Happy or rejoicing.



Sahasrabahu: (sáns. hindú). Thousandarmed. Shiva's 757 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sahasraksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Thousandeyed. . 3. Shiva's 14th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sahasramurdha: (sáns. hindú). Thousandheaded. Shiva's 744 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sahasrapad: (sáns. hindú). Thousandfooted. Shiva's 15 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sahasrarci: (sáns. hindú). Having thousand rays. Shiva's 966th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sahityadarpana: (sáns. hindú). "The mirror of composition". A celebrated work on poetry and rhetoric by Vishvanatha Kavi Raja, written about the fifteenth century.



Saindhavas: (sáns. hindú). The people of Sindhu or Sindh, of the country between the Indus and the Jhilam.



Sakala: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + kala "parts") 1. Complete. 2. Shiva's 169 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A name of Lalita. 4. When translated as "with attributes,". Shiva's 842nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sakaladhara: (sáns. hindú). Support of all. Shiva's 846th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sakalagamaparaga: (sáns. hindú). Master of all Agamas. Shiva's 530th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sakhibhavas: (sáns. hindú). A movement that arose during the sixteenth century CE in and around Brindaban in North India that placed Radha in a goddess status.



These devotees concentrate on becoming friends or servants of Radha. They dress in women's clothing and express their devotion to Radha by serving her in every way.



Sakta: (sáns. hindú). 1. A worshipper of the Shaktis. 2. Attacked. Shiva's 869th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sama: (sáns. hindú). 1. The same (in all). 2. Vishnu's 109th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 166 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samageya: (sáns. hindú). Worthy of being sung about with Saman mantras. Shiva's 855th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samamnaya: (sáns. hindú). Traditional repetition. Shiva's 732nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samanjasa: (sáns. hindú). Proper. Shiva's 1010th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samanyadeva: (sáns. hindú). Common lord, i.e. to Devas and to Asuras. Shiva's 88th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samarasa: (sáns. hindú). (sama "same, equal" + rasa "bliss, sentiment") 1. Having equal bliss. 2. Lalita's 222nd name as listed in the Brahmandapurana.



Samartha: (sáns. hindú). Competent. Shiva's 605 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samata: (sáns. hindú). (sama "same, equal" + ta "nominalizing suffix") Sameness or equanimity (of mind).



Samaveda: (sáns. hindú). The third Veda. See Veda.



Samavidhana Brahmana: (sáns. hindú). The third Brahmana of the Samaveda.



Samayacharika Sutras: (sáns. hindú). Rules for the usage and practices of everyday life. See Sutras.



Samayukta: (sáns. hindú). Endowed with good qualities. Shiva's 188th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samba: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + amba "mother") Attended by the Divine Mother, a name of Shiva as always attended by his consort, Parvati, who stands for Selfknowledge and whom the Lord never forgets.



Sambashiva: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + amba "mother" + Shiva "a name of God") Shiva attended by the Divine Mother.



Sambhavi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The consort of Shambhava (i.e. Shiva). A name of Parvati. See Shambhava. 2. Name of a mudra in which the gaze is fixed between the eyebrows.



Sambhavya: (sáns. hindú). One worthy of being honored. Shiva's 136th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samharini: (sáns. hindú). She who destroys. An epithet of Devi. The 268th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



That portion of a Veda which comprises the hymns. See Veda.



Sammana: (sáns. hindú). One of great honor. Shiva's 384 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sampadin: (sáns. hindú). The divinely wealthy.



Sampat: (sáns. hindú). (Divine) Wealth.



Sampati: (sáns. hindú). A mythical bird who appears in the Ramayana as son of Vishnu's bird Garuda, and brother of Jatayus. According to another account he was son of Aruna and Shyeni. He was an ally of Rama.



Sampradayas: (sáns. hindú). Movements, religious and/or political, that have a restricted membership.



Samraj: (sáns. hindú). 1. The supreme ruler or the resplendent. 2. In the spiritual context, it refers to the Self as being supreme and all light.



Samrat: (sáns. hindú). Emperor. Shiva's 561 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samsaracakrabhrit: (sáns. hindú). One who holds the wheel of mundane existence. Shiva's 459th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samsarasarathi: (sáns. hindú). Charioteer of the worldly existence. Shiva's 1045th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samudra: (sáns. hindú). The ocean.



Samvarana: (sáns. hindú). Son of Riksha, fourth in descent from Ikshvaku, and father of Kuru. According to the Mahabharata he was driven from Hastinapura by the Panchalas, and forced to take refuge among the thickets of the Indus. When the sage Vasishtha joined his people and became the Raja's family priest, they recovered their country under Kuru.



Samvarta: (sáns. hindú). writer of a Dharmashastra or code of law bearing his name.



Samvat: (sáns. hindú). Year. The era of Vikramaditya, dating from 57 BCE.



Samvatsara: (sáns. hindú). Year. Shiva's 308th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samvatsarakara: (sáns. hindú). Cause of the year. Shiva's 312th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samvrita: (sáns. hindú). One who is surrounded. Shiva's 1082nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Samyama: (sáns. hindú). (sam "complete" + yama "restraint") Perfect restraint or concentration.



Samyamin: (sáns. hindú). The selfrestrained.



Samyogin: (sáns. hindú). Having union. Shiva's 944 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sanaka: (sáns. hindú). 1. The ancient. 2. The name of a Rishi, one of the four sons of Brahma; Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana, and Sanatkumara (or SanatSujata) who was the most prominent of them. They are also called by the patronymic Vaidhatra. These sons, known as the Kumaras, were born from Brahma's mind. They took on a life of renunciation from their very youth. Seeking the Truth they went to Shiva who took the form of Dakshinamurti. the Guru, teaching the nondual Truth through JnanaMudra and silence. See Kumara.



Sananda: (sáns. hindú). See Sanaka.



Sanandana: (sáns. hindú). (sa "with" + nandana "bliss, joy") I. The blissful. 2. One of the four Kumaras. See Sanaka.



Sanatana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The eternal or everlasting. 2. A name of Brahma. 3. A name of Vishnu. 4. Shiva's 141st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sanatana: (sáns. hindú). See Sanaka.



Sanatani: (sáns. hindú). 1. The eternal or everlasting. A name of the consorts of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.



Sanatkumara: (sáns. hindú). See Sanaka.



Sanatkumarapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.



Sandhata: (sáns. hindú). 1. The connecter or regulator. 2. Vishnu's 201st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A name of Shiva.



Sandhya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Twilight, literally "juncture." There are three such junctures at dawn, noon, and dusk for performing one's prayers. 2. Sandhya is personified as the daughter of Brahma and wife of Shiva. In the Shivapurana it is related that after Brahma had attempted to do violence to his daughter, she changed herself into a deer. Brahma then changed himself into the form of a stag and pursued her through the sky. Shiva saw this, and shot an arrow which cut off the head of the stag. Brahma then changed back to his own form and paid homage to Shiva. The arrow remain in the sky in the sixth lunar mansion, called Ardra, and the stag's head remains in the fifth mansion, Mrigashiras.



Sandhyabala: (sáns. hindú). Strong in twilight. Rakshasas and other demons, supposed to be most powerful at twilight.



Sandipani: (sáns. hindú). A masteratarms who gave instruction to Balarama and Krishna.



Sandracottus: (sáns. hindú). See Candragupta.



Sangahina: (sáns. hindú). (sanga "attachment" + hina "devoid of") 1. Devoid of attachment. 2. Lalita's 238th name as listed in the Brahmandapurana.



Sangita: (sáns. hindú). Divine music.



Sangitaratnakara: (sáns. hindú). A work on singing, dancing, and pantomime, written by Sharngi Deva.



Sanhita: (sáns. hindú). See Samhita.



Sanhitopanishad: (sáns. hindú). The eighth Brahmana of the Samaveda.



Sanjaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The charioteer of Dhritarashtra. He was minister also, and went as ambassador to the Pandavas before the great war broke out. He is represented as reciting the Bhagavad Gita to Dhritarashtra. His patronymic is Gavalgani, son of Gavalgana. 2. a king of Ujjayini and father of Vasavadatta.



Sanjivana: (sáns. hindú). Enlivening. Shiva's 878 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sanjna: (sáns. hindú). Conscience. According to the Puranas, she was daughter of Vishvakarma and wife of the sun. She had three children by him, the Manu Vaivasvata, Yama, and Yami (goddess of the Yamuna river). "Unable to endure the fervors of her lord, Sanjna gave him Chaya (shade) as his handmaid, and retreated to the forests to practice devout exercises." The sun beheld her engaged in austerities in the form of a mare, and he approached her as a horse. Hence sprang the two Ashvins and Revanta. Surya then took Sanjna back to his own dwelling, but his radiance was still so overpowering that her father, Vishvakarma, placed the sun upon his lathe, and cut away an eighth part of his brilliancy. She is also called Dyumayi, "the brilliant," and Mahavirya, "the very powerful."



Sankarshana: (sáns. hindú). A name of Balarama.



Sankataharana: (sáns. hindú). (sankata "difficulties" + harana "remover") 1. The remover of difficulties. 2. A name of Vishnu.



Sankhayana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Name of a writer who was the author of the Sankhayana Brahmana of the Rigveda, and of certain Shrautasutras also called by his name. 2. He is the oldest known writer on the Ars Erotica, and is author of the work called Sankhayana Kamasutra.



Sankhya: (sáns. hindú). A school of philosophy. See Darshana.



Sankhyadarshana: (sáns. hindú). Kapila's aphorisms on the Sankhya philosophy.



Sankhyakarika: (sáns. hindú). A work on the Sankhya philosophy, written by Ishvara Krishna SankhyapraVacana-A textbook of the Sankhya philosophy, said to have been written by Kapila himself.



Sankhyasara: (sáns. hindú). A work on the Sankhya philosophy by Vijnana Bhikshu.



Sannyasi: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman in the fourth and last stage of his religious life. (See Brahman.) In the present day the term has a wider meaning, and is applied to various kinds of religious mendicants who wander about and subsist upon alms, most of them in a filthy condition and with very scanty clothing. They are generally devotees of Shiva.



Santoshan: (sáns. hindú). 1. Contentment, which is the second of the five Niyamas listed in the Yogasutras. 2. The son of Dharma and Tushti.



Santoshini: (sáns. hindú). 1. Endowed with contentment. 2. Delighting in contentment.



Saptadhacara: (sáns. hindú). One whose rites are of seven types (?). Shiva's 525th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Saptalokadhrik: (sáns. hindú). One who holds the seven worlds. Shiva's 554th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Saptarshi: (sáns. hindú). The seven great Rishis. See Rishi.



Saptashati: (sáns. hindú). A poem of 700 verses on the triumphs of Durga. It is also called Devimahatmya.



Saptasindhava: (sáns. hindú). The seven rivers. The term frequently occurs in the Vedas, and has been widely used and somewhat differently applied. According to Virgil's Eneid (ix. 30), the term was apparently known to the Romans in the days of Augustus.They appear in Zend as the Haptaheando and the early Muhammadan travellers have translated the term. But their Saba' Sin, (seven rivers) according to Biruni, applies to the rivers which flow northwards from the mountains of the Hindu Koh, and "uniting near Turmuz, form the river of Balkh (the Oxus)." The hymn in which the names of the rivers have been given has the following description: "Each set of seven (streams) has followed a threefold course. The Sindhu surpasses the other rivers in impetuosity. . . .



Receive favourably this my hymn, 0 Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Shutudri, Parushni; hear, O Marudvridha, with the Asikni and Vitasta, and thou, Arjikiya, with the Sushoma. Unite first in thy course with the Trishtama, the Susartu, the Rasa, and the Sveti; thou meetest with the Gomati, and the Krumu with the Kubha and the Mehatnu." According to this, the "seven rivers" are: 1. Ganga (Ganges); 2. Yamuna (Jumna); 3. Sarasvati (Sarsuti); 4. Shutudri (Satlej); 5. Parushni; 6. Marudvridha; 7. Ajikiya (the Vipasha, Hyphasis Byas). Dowson quotes Wilson as stating, "the Parushni is identified with the Iravati" (Hydraotes, Ravi), but in this hymn it is the Marudvridha which would seem to be the Iravati, because it is said to unite with the Asikni (Akesines, Chandrabhaga, Chinab) and the Vitasta (Hydaspes or Jhilam). This would leave the Parushni unsettled.



The other names, with the exception of the Gomati (Gumti), are not identified. Sushoma has been said to be the Sindhu, but in this hymn the Sindhu is clearly distinct. In the Mahabharata the seven rivers are named in one place Vasvokasara, Nalini, Pavani, Ganga, Sita, Sindhu, and Jambunadi; and in another, Ganga, Yamuna, Plakshaga, Rathastha, Saryu (Sarju), Gomati, and Gandaki (Gandak). In the Ramayana and the Puranas the seven rivers are the seven streams into which the Ganges divided after falling from the brow of Shiva, the Nalini, Hladini, and Pavani going east, the Chakshu, Sita, and Sindhu to the west, while the Ganges proper, the Bhagirathi, flowed to the south. The term is also used for the seven great oceans of the world, and for the country of the seven rivers.



Saptavadhri: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic Rishi. In a hymn he says, "Ashvins, by your devices sunder the wickerwork for the liberation of the terrified, imploring Rishi Saptavadhri." Concerning this the following old story is told. Saptavadhri had seven brothers who determined to prevent his having coitus with his wife. So they shut him up every night in a large basket which they locked and sealed, and in the morning they let him out. He prayed to the Ashvins, who enabled him to get out of his cage during the night and to return to it at daybreak.



Sara: (sáns. hindú). Essence. Shiva's 458th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarada Devi: (sáns. hindú). The name of the wife of Ramakrishna, who is generally referred to as the Holy Mother.



Sarala: (sáns. hindú). The honest or sincere.



Sarama: (sáns. hindú). 1. The fleeting one. 2. The mother of dogs. 3. In the Rigveda the dog of Indra and mother of the two dogs named after their mother, Sarameyas, who each had four eyes, and were the watchdogs of Yama. Sarama is said to have pursued and recovered the cows stolen by the Panis, a myth which has been supposed to mean that Sarama is the same as Ushas, the dawn, and that the cows represent the rays of the sun carried away by night. 4. The wife of Vibhishana, who attended upon Sita, and showed her great kindness when she was in captivity with Ravana. 5. In the Bhagavatapurana, Sarama is one of the daughters of Daksha, and the mother of wild animals. 6. A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. For further details see Vinata.



Sarameyas: (sáns. hindú). The two children of Sarama, Indra's watchdog; they were the watchdogs of Yama, and each had four eyes. They have been compared with the Greek Hermes.



Sarani: (sáns. hindú). (Spiritual) Path.



Saranyu: (sáns. hindú). Quick, speedy, nimble. A daughter of Tvashtri. She has been identified with the Greek Erinnys. According to Dowson, the beginning of this myth is in a hymn of the Rigveda, which says: "1. Tvashtri makes a wedding for his daughter. (Hearing) this, the whole world assembles. The mother of Yama, the wedded wife of the great Vivasvat (the sun) disappeared. 2. They concealed the immortal (bride) from mortals. Making (another) of like appearance, they gave her to Vivasvat. Saranyu bore the two Ashvins, and when she had done so she deserted the two twins." In the Nirukta the story is expanded as follows: "Saranyu the daughter of Tvashtri, bore twins to Vivasvat, the son of Aditi. She then substituted for herself another female of similar appearance, and fled in the form of a mare. Vivasvat in like manner assumed the shape of a horse and followed her. From their copulation sprang two Ashvins, while Manu was the offspring of Savarna (or the female of like appearance)."



The Brihaddevata has another version of the same story: "Tvashtri had twin children, (a daughter) Saranyu and (a son) Trishiras. He gave Saranyu in marriage to Vivasvat, to whom she bore Yama and Yami, who also were twins. Creating a female like herself without her husband's knowledge, and making the twins over in charge to her, Saranyu took the form of a mare and departed. Vivasvat, in ignorance, copulated with the female who then bore Manu, a royal Rishi, who resembled his father in glory; but discovering that the real Saranyu, Tvashtri's daughter, had gone away, Vivasvat followed her quickly, taking the shape of a horse of the same species as she. Recognizing him in that form, she approached him with a desire for copulation, which he gratified. In their haste his semen fell on the ground, and she, being desirous of offspring, smelled it. From this act sprang the two Kumaras (youths), Nasatya and Dasra, who were lauded as Ashvins (sprung from a horse). (Quotes are from Müir's text.) See the Puranic version under Sanjna.



Sarasamplava: (sáns. hindú). Of flooded essence. Shiva's 385th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarasvata: (sáns. hindú). 1. In the Mahabharata the Rishi Sarasvata is represented as being the son of the personified river Sarasvati. In a time of great drought he was fed with fish by his mother, and so was enabled to keep up his knowledge of the Vedas, while other Brahmans were reduced to such straits for the means of subsistence that study was neglected and the Vedas were lost. When the drought was over, the Brahmans flocked to him for instruction, and 60,000 acquired a knowledge of the Vedas from him. "This legend," claims Wilson, "appears to indicate the revival, or, more probably, the introduction of the Hindu ritual by the race of Brahmans, or the people called Sarasvata," who dwelt near the Sarasvati river. Sarasvati Brahmans still dwell in the Panjab, and are met with in many other parts. 2. The country about the Sarasvati river. 3. A great national division of the Brahman caste.



Sarasvati: (sáns. hindú). (saras "flowing" + vati "having") 1. In the Vedas, Sarasvati is primarily a river, but is celebrated in the hymns both as a river and a deity. The Sarasvati river was one boundary of Brahmavartta, the home of the early Aryans, and was to them, in all likelihood, a sacred river, as the Ganges has long been to their descendants. As a river goddess, Sarasvati is lauded for the fertilizing and purifying powers of her waters, and as the bestower of fertility, fatness, and wealth. Her position as Vac, the goddess of speech, finds no mention in the Rigveda, but is recognized by the Brahmanas and the Mahabharata. Müir endeavored to account for her acquisition of this character. He says, "When once the river had acquired a divine character, it was quite natural that she should be regarded as the patroness of the ceremonies which were celebrated on the margin of her holy waters, and that her direction and blessing should be invoked as essential to their proper performance and success.



The connection into which she was thus brought with sacred rites may have led to the further step of imagining her to have an influence on the composition of the hymns which formed so important a part of the proceedings, and of identifying her with Vac, the goddess of speech." In later times Sarasvati is the wife of Brahma, the goddess of speech and learning, inventress of the Sanskrit language and Devanagari letters, and patroness of the arts and sciences.



Wilson describes her as follows. "She is represented as of a white color, without any superfluity of limbs, and not unfrequently of a graceful figure, wearing a slender crescent on her brow and sitting on a lotus."



Wilson also stated that "the Vaishnavas of Bengal have a popular legend that she was the wife of Vishnu, as were also Lakshmi and Ganga. The ladies disagreed; Sarasvati, like the other prototype of learned ladies, Minerva, being quarrelsome, and Vishnu finding that one wife was as much as he could manage, transferred Sarasvati to Brahma and Ganga to Shiva, and contented himself with Lakshmi alone. (See Vac) Other names of Sarasvati are Bharati, Brahmi, Putkari, Sharada, Vagishvari. The river is now called Sarsuti. It falls from the Himalayas and is lost in the sands of the desert. In ancient times it flowed on to the sea. A passage in the Rigveda (Max Müller), Veda, 45. says of it, "She who goes on pure from the mountains as far as the sea."



According to the Mahabharata it was dried up by the curse of the sage Utathya. See Saptasindhava. 2. She is identified with dusk, which is the last of the three Sandhyas, with the holy River Sarasvati, which flows underground and joins the Ganges and Yamuna at Allahabad, and with the Sushumna Nadi within the subtle body of individuals, which is well known as the Moksha Dvara, the door of liberation, for departing souls. 3. The name of one among the ten Sannyasa orders traced back to Shankaracarya. All Sannyasin disciples of Swami Shivananda Saraswati and their renunciate disciples belong to this order.



Sarasvati Kanthabharana: (sáns. hindú). A treatise on poetical and rhetorical composition generally ascribed to Bhoja Raja.



Sarayu: (sáns. hindú). The Sarju river or Gogra.



Sarmishtha: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Vrishaparvan the Danava, second wife of Yayati and mother of Puru. See Devayani.



Sarva: (sáns. hindú). 1. Identical with all. Shiva's 152nd and 1066 th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. Vishnu's 25 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A Vedic deity; the detroyer. Afterwards a name of Shiva and of one of the Rudras. See Rudra.



Sarvabandhavimocana: (sáns. hindú). One who releases others from all bondages. Shiva's 416th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvabhutamaheshvara: (sáns. hindú). Great lord of all living beings. Shiva's 824th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvacara: (sáns. hindú). One having all conducts. Shiva's 1058 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvadarshana: (sáns. hindú). Viewing everyone. Shiva's 315th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvadarshana Sangraha: (sáns. hindú). A work by Madhavacarya which gives an account of the Darshanas or schools of philosophy, both orthodox and heretical.



Sarvadevadi: (sáns. hindú). The cause of all Devas. Shiva's 25th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvadevamaya: (sáns. hindú). Identical with all Devas. Shiva's 782nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvadevottamottama: (sáns. hindú). The greatest among the entire groups of Devas. Shiva's 792nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvadhara: (sáns. hindú). She who is the support of all. An epithet of Devi. The 659th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Sarvadi: (sáns. hindú). Cause of all. Shiva's 325 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvadrik: (sáns. hindú). Having vision everywhere. Shiva's 1047th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvaga: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + ga "go") 1. Allgoing, allpervading, allreaching, omnipresent. 2. She who is omnipresent. An epithet of Devi. The 702nd name in the Lalita Sahasranama. 3. Vishnu's 123rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Sarvagata: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + gata "having gone") 1. Having pervaded all, having reached everywhere. 2. A name of Lalita.



Sarvagati: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + gati "goal") The goal of all.



Sarvagocara: (sáns. hindú). Perceptible to everyone. Shiva's 154th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvahari: (sáns. hindú). The destroyer of all. Shiva's 365th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvajna: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + jna "knowing") 1. The allknowing, omniscient. 2. The witness of all states. 3. Vishnu's 453rd and 815 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama 3. A name of Lalita. 4. Shiva's 24th, 153 rd, and 1115th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvakamada: (sáns. hindú). The bestower of all cherished desires. Shiva's 376 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvakarman: (sáns. hindú). One engaged in all rites. Shiva's 297th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvalokabhrit: (sáns. hindú). One who supports all the worlds. Shiva's 760th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvalokaprajapati: (sáns. hindú). The lord of the subject of all the worlds. Shiva's 270th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvalokeshi: (sáns. hindú). She who is ruler of all worlds. An epithet of Devi. The 758th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Sarvamata: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + mata "mother") 1. The Mother of all. 2. Lalita's 139th name as listed in the Brahmandapurana.



Sarvamatri: (sáns. hindú). Mother of all. A name of Radha.



Sarvamayi: (sáns. hindú). (sarva all" + mayi "consisting of") 1. She whose form is all. An epithet of Devi. The 203rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama. 2. A name referring to any major manifestation of the Divine Mother.



Sarvamohini: (sáns. hindú). She who bewilders all. An epithet of Devi. The 703rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Sarvani: (sáns. hindú). 1. The All. 2. The consort of the All (i.e. of Shiva). 3. A name of Parvati.



Sarvapadivinivarini: (sáns. hindú). She who removes all misfortune. An epithet of Devi. The 913th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Sarvapapahara: (sáns. hindú). Dispeller of all sins. Shiva's 330th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvapranayasamvadin: (sáns. hindú). One who converses lovingly with everyone. Shiva's 57th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvarituparivartaka: (sáns. hindú). One who changes (revolves) in all the seasons. Shiva's 964th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvarni: (sáns. hindú). The eighth Manu. The name is used either alone or in combination for all the succeeding Manus to the fourteenth and last. See Manu.



Sarvarupa: (sáns. hindú). Having all forms. Shiva's 738th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvasaha: (sáns. hindú). Enduring everything. Shiva's 993 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvasara: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Upanishad.



Sarvasattvavalambana: (sáns. hindú). One who supports all animals. Shiva's 1116th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvasha: (sáns. hindú). One giving happiness unto all. Shiva's 813th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvashambhu: (sáns. hindú). Benefactor of all. Shiva's 9th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvashasana: (sáns. hindú). Chastiser of everyone. Shiva's 455th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvashastrabhritamvara: (sáns. hindú). The most excellent one among all warriors. Shiva's 889th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvashastraprabhanjana: (sáns. hindú). One who breaks all weapons. Shiva's 746th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvashastravasini: (sáns. hindú). Who dwells in all books. An epithet of Sarasvati.



Sarvata: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + ta "nominalizing sufflx") The wholeness or totality.



Sarvatmika: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + atmika "self") 1. The Self of all. 2. The allAtmic, that which is nothing but the Self. 3. A name of Lalita.



Sarvavasa: (sáns. hindú). Abode of all. Shiva's 349 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvavasi: (sáns. hindú). Having everything as his residence. Shiva's 934th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvavidya: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + vidya "knowledge") 1. Having allknowledge, omniscience. 2. A name of the Divine Mother.



Sarvavidyasvarupini: (sáns. hindú). Whose for is all the sciences. An epithet of Sarasvati.



Sarvayudhavisharada: (sáns. hindú). Expert in the use of all weapons. Shiva's 199th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarvesha: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + isha "lord') 1. The Lord of all. 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. Shiva's 758th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarveshi: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + ishi "sovereign goddess") 1. The sovereign Goddess of all. 2. A name of Lalita.



Sarveshvara: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord of all. 2. Vishnu's 96th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 317 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sarveshvari: (sáns. hindú). (sarva "all" + ishvari "sovereign goddess") 1. The sovereign Goddess of all. 2. A name of the Divine Mother in any of Her major manifestations.



Satakshi: (sáns. hindú). She who has one hundred eyes. An epithet of Devi.



Satamgati: (sáns. hindú). Goal of the good. Shiva's 935th and 1068th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sati: (sáns. hindú). 1. The existent. 2. The good or faithful. 3. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Rudra, i.e., Shiva. The Vishnupurana states that she "abandoned her body in consequence of the anger of Daksha. She then became the daughter of Himavat and Mena; and the divine Bhava again married Uma, who was identical with his [Shiva's] former spouse." The authorities generally agree that she died or killed herself in consequence of the quarrel between her husband and father; and the Kasi Khanda, a modern work, represents that she entered the fire and became a Sati. See Pithasthana. 4. The 68th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 5. A name given to women who burn themselves in the funeral pyre of their husbands. 6. The Indian subcontinent.



Satkriti: (sáns. hindú). Having good actions. Shiva's 868th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satparayana: (sáns. hindú). Having the good one as the greatest resort. Shiva's 876th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satpati: (sáns. hindú). (sat "good, genuine, existent" + pati "lord") 1. The good Lord. 2. The Lord of the good ones. 3. A name of Indra.



Satrajit: (sáns. hindú). 1. Son of Nighna. In return for praise rendered to the sun he beheld the luminary in his proper form, and received from him the wonderful Syamantaka gem. He lost the gem, but it was recovered and restored to him by Krishna In return he presented Krishna with his daughter Satyabhama to wife. There had been many suitors for this lady's hand, and one of them, named Shatadhanvan, in revenge for her loss, killed Satrajit and carried off the gem, but he was afterwards killed by Krishna. 2. Conqueror of enemies. Shiva's 236th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satta: (sáns. hindú). (sat "good, genuine, existent" + ta "nominalizing suffix") Pure Being or Existence. Vishnu's 701st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Sattva: (sáns. hindú). (sat "good, genuine, existent" + twa "nominalizing suffix") 1. Purity or goodness. 2. The quality of nature that is characterized by purity and tranquility. 3. The name of a son of Dhritarashtra.



Sattvavan: (sáns. hindú). (sattva "goodness, purity" + van "having") 1. Endowing with sattva (i.e. goodness, purity and tranquility). 2. A name of Vishnu.



Sattvika: (sáns. hindú). 1. He who is sattvic (i.e. endowed with purity, goodness, and tranquility). 2. A name of Vishnu.



Sattviki: (sáns. hindú). She who is sattvic (i.e. endowed with purity, goodness, and tranquility).



Satya: (sáns. hindú). True, truth. truthful. Shiva's 329 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satyabhama: (sáns. hindú). (satya "true, truth" + bhama "beaming") 1. Beaming with truth. 2. Daughter of Satrajita and one of the four chief wives of Krishna. She had ten sons, Bhanu, Subhanu, Svarbhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanumat, Chandrabbanu, Brihadbhanu, Atibhanu, Sribhanu, and Pratibhanu. Krishna took her with him to Indra's heaven, and she induced him to bring away the Parijata tree.



Satyadhriti: (sáns. hindú). Son of Sharadvat and grandson of the sage Gautama. According to the Vishnupurana he was father by the nymph Urvashi of Kripa and Kripi.



Satyajit: (sáns. hindú). (satya "true, truth" + jit "winner") 1. The truthwinner. 2. The name of a son of Krishna.



Satyajnananandarupa: (sáns. hindú). She whose for is truth, wisdom, and bliss. An epithet of Devi. The 791st name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Satyaki: (sáns. hindú). A kinsman of Krishna's who fought on the side of the Pandavas, and was Krishna's charioteer. He assasinated Kritavarma in a drinking bout at Dvaraka, and was himself cut down by the friends of his victim. He is also called Daruka and Yuyudhana; and Shaineya from his father, Shini.



Satyakirtistambhakritagama: (sáns. hindú). One who is well learned and who has established truthful renown. Shiva's 980th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satyaloka: (sáns. hindú). See Loka.



Satyam: (sáns. hindú). 1. The true, truth. 2. Vishnu's 106th, 212th and 869 th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Satyaparakrama: (sáns. hindú). Of truthful exploit. Shiva's 651st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satyarupa: (sáns. hindú). (satya "true, truth" + rupa "form, image") 1. The form or nature of truth. 2. Lalita's 233rd name as listed in the Brahmandapurana.



Satyavan: (sáns. hindú). (satya "truth" + van "having") 1. The truthful. See the Yogasatras. 2. The name of Savitri's husband. 3. Shiva's 979th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satyavati: (sáns. hindú). (satya "truth" + vati "having") 1. The truthful. 2. Daughter of Uparicara, king of Chedi, by an Apsara named Adrika, who was condemned to live on earth in the form of a fish. She was mother of Vyasa by the Rishi Parashara, and she was also wife of King Shantanu, mother of Vichitravirya and Chitrangada, and grandmother of the Kauravas and Pandavas, the rivals in the great war. The sage Parashara met her as she was crossing the river Yamuna when she was yet a girl. They joined in coitus and the offspring of their illicit intercourse was brought forth on an island (dvipa) in that river, and was therefore called Dvaipayana. (See Vyasa).



She was also called , Gandhavati, and Kalangani; and as her mother lived in the form of a fish, she is called Dasanandini, Daseyi, Jhajhodari, and Matsyodari, meaning "fishborn." 3. A daughter of King Gadhi, wife of the Brahman Richika, mother of Jamadagni and grandmother of Parashurama. She was of the Kushika race, and is said to have been transformed into the Kaushiki river. See Richika and Visvamitra.



Satyavrata: (sáns. hindú). 1. Name of the seventh Manu. See Manu. 2. A king of the Solar race, descended from Ikshvaku. He was father of Harishcandra and is also named Vedhas and Trishanku. According to the Ramayana he was a pious king, and was desirous of performing a sacrifice in virtue of which he might ascend bodily to heaven. Vasishtha, his priest, declined to perform it, declaring it impossible. He then applied to Vasishtha's sons, and they condemned him to become a Candala for his presumption. In his distress and degradation he applied to Vishvamitra, who promised to raise him in that form to heaven. Vishvamitra's intended sacrifice strongly resisted by the sons of Vasishtha, but he reduced them to ashes, and condemned them to be born again as outcasts for seven hundred births. The wrathful sage bore down all other opposition, and Trishanku ascended to heaven. Here his entry was opposed by Indra and the gods, but Vishvamitra in a fury declared that he would create "another Indra, or the world would have no Indra at all."



The gods were obliged to yield, and it was agreed that Trishanku, an immortal, should hang with his head downwards, and shine among some stars newly called into being by Vishvamitra. The Vishnupurana gives a more simple version. While Satyavrata was a Candala, and the famine was raging, he supported Vishvamitra's family by hanging deer flesh on a tree on the banks of the Ganges, so that they might obtain food without the degradation of receiving it from a Candala: for this charity Vishvamitra raised him to heaven. The story is differently told in the Harivansha. Satyavrata or Trishanku, when a prince, attempted to carry off the wife of a citizen, in consequence of which his father drove him from home, nor did Vasishtha, the family priest, endeavor to soften the father's decision. The period of his exile was a time of famine, and he greatly succored the wife and family of Vishvamitra, who were in deep distress while the sage was absent far away.



He completed his twelve years' exile and penance, and being hungry one day, and having no flesh to eat, he killed Vaishtha's wondrous cow, the Kamadhenu, and ate thereof himself, and gave some to the sons of Vishvamitra. In his rage Vasishtha gave him the name Trishanku, as being guilty of three great sins. Vishvamitra was gratified by the assistance which Satyavrata had rendered to his family; "he installed him in his father's kingdom, . . . and, in spite of the resistance of the gods and of Vasishtha, exalted the king alive to heaven."



Satyavrata: (sáns. hindú). One of truthful rites. Shiva's 1020th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Satyayauvana: (sáns. hindú). A certain Vidyadhara.



Saubha: (sáns. hindú). A magical city, apparently first mentioned in the Yajurveda. An aerial city belonging to Harishcandra and according to popular belief still visible occasionally. It is called also Khapura, Pratimargaka, and Tranga.



In the Mahabharata an aerial or self-supporting city belonging to the Daityas, on the shore of the ocean, protected by the Shalva king.



Saubhaga: (sáns. hindú). Fortunate. Shiva's 151 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Saubhari: (sáns. hindú). A devout sage, who, when he was old and emaciated, was inspired with desire of offspring. He went to King Mandhatri, and demanded one of his fifty daughters. Afraid to refuse, and yet unwilling to bestow a daughter upon such a suitor, the king temporized, and endeavored to evade the request. It was at length settled that, if any one of the daughters should accept him for a bridegroom, the king would consent to the marriage.



Saubhari was conducted to the presence of the girls; but on his way he assumed a fair and handsome form, so that all the girls were captivated, and contended with each other as to who should become his wife. It ended by his marrying them all and taking them home. He caused Vishvakarma to build for each a separate palace, furnished in the most luxurious manner, and surrounded with exquisite gardens, where they lived a most happy life, each one of them having her husband always present with her, and believing that he was devoted to her and her only. By his wives he had a hundred and fifty sons; but as he found his hopes and desires for them to daily increase and expand, he resolved to devote himself wholly and solely to penance and the worship of Vishnu. Accordingly, he abandoned his children and retired with his wives to the forest. See Vishnupurana.



Saudasa: (sáns. hindú). Son of King Sudas. Their descendants are all Saudasas. See Kalmashapada.



Saunanda: (sáns. hindú). A club shaped like a pestle, which was one of the weapons of Balarama.



Saurapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.



Saurashtras: (sáns. hindú). The people of Surashtra.



Sauti: (sáns. hindú). Name of the sage who repeated the Mahabharata to the Rishis in the Naimisha forest.



Sauviras: (sáns. hindú). A people connected with the Saindhavas or people of Sindh, and probably inhabitants of the western and southern parts of the Panjab. Some authorities claim that Sauvira was the plain country.



Savarna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Wife of the sun. "The female of like appearance," whom Saranyu, wife of Vivasvat, substituted for herself when she fled. (See Saranyu.) Manu was the offspring of Savarna. This is the version given in the Nirukta. In the Vishnupurana, Savarna is daughter of the ocean, wife of Prachinabarhis, and mother of the ten Prachetasas. 2. An alternate spelling of Savarni. 3. The name of the next (eighth) Manu, whose mother will be Suvarna, the present (seventh) Manu being named Vaivasvata or the son of the SunGod, Vivasvan.



Savita: (sáns. hindú). 1. The impeller, begetter. 2. A name of the SunGod. Brahmacaris meditate upon Savita as Ishvara at dawn, noon and dusk while repeating the Gayatri Mantra, also called the Savitri. Savita thus becomes the impeller of their intellect. 3. A name of Vishnu. 4. Shiva's 486th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Savitra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The son of Savita (i.e. of the SunGod). 2. A name of Karna. 3. The name of various gods.



Savitri: (sáns. hindú). With a long terminal i: 1. The consort of Savita (i.e. of the SunGod); a name for the Gayatri Mantra, which addresses Ishvara as the SunGod "Savita," and is thus called "Savitri," "The sacred verse relating to Savita." The Gayatri Mantra of the Rigveda is thus personified as Savitri and is identified with the midday Sandhya or noon prayer. Manu also says that for a boy leaving his parents during Brahmacarya, the spiritual master becomes his father and Savitri (the Gayatri Mantra) his mother. 2. A name of Shatarupa, the daughter and wife of Brahma, who is sometimes regarded as a personification of the holy verse. 3. A daughter of King Ashvapati, and lover of Satyavan, whom she insisted on marrying although she was warned by a seer that he had only one year to live.



When the fatal day arrived, Satyavan went out to cut wood, and she followed him. There he fell dying to the earth, and she, as she supported him, saw a figure, who told her that he was Yama, king of the dead; and that he had come for her husband's spirit. Yama carried off the spirit towards the shades, but Savitri followed him. Her devotion pleased Yama, and he offered her any boon except the life of her husband. She extorted three such boons from Yama but still she followed him, and he was finally constrained to restore her husband to life. With a short terminal i: 1. Generator. 2. A name used in the Vedas for the sun. Many hymns are addressed to him, and he is sometimes distinguished from that deity. 3. One of the Adityas.



Savyasachin: (sáns. hindú). Who pulls a bow with either hand. A title of Arjuna.



Sayana: (sáns. hindú). Sayanacarya, the celebrated commentator on the Rigveda. Wilson stated that "He was brother of Madhavacarya, the prime minister of Vira Bukka Raya, Raja of Vijayanagara, in the fourteenth century, a generous patron of Hindu literature. Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important works are attributed to them; not only scholia on the Sanhitas and Brahmana of the Vedas, but original works on grammar and law; the fact, no doubt, being that they availed themselves of those means which their situation and influence secured them, and employed the most learned Brahmans they could attract to Vijayanagara upon the works which bear their name, and to which they also contributed their own labour and learning; their works were, therefore, compiled under peculiar advantages, and are deservedly held in the highest estimation."



Senapati: (sáns. hindú). (sena "army" + pati "lord") 1. The lord of an army. 2. A name of Karttikeya.



Seneshvara: (sáns. hindú). (sena "army" + ishvara "lord") 1. The lord of an army. 2. A name of Karttikeya.



Seni: (sáns. hindú). One who has armies. Shiva's 545th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Setu: (sáns. hindú). 1. Bridge. 2. Shiva's 827th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Setubhanda: (sáns. hindú). Rama's bridge. The line of rocks between the continent and Lanka called in maps "Adam's bridge." It is also known as Samudraru. There is a poem called Setubhanda or Setukavya on the subject of the building of the bridge by Rama's allies.



Sevaka: (sáns. hindú). The servant of God.



Sevan: (sáns. hindú). The embodiment of service.



Sevika: (sáns. hindú). The servant of God.



Shabalashvas: (sáns. hindú). Sons of Daksha, one thousand in number, brought forth after the loss of the Haryashvas. Like their predecessors, they were dissuaded by Narada from begetting offspring, and "scattered themselves through the regions" never to return.



Shabaras: (sáns. hindú). A forest dwelling tribe featured in the Kadambari by Banabhatta and in the Gaudavaho by Vakpati. These primitives worshipped various aspects of Kali or Durga and offered blood and/or human sacrifices to her. See Vindhyavasini. See also Candi.



Shabari: (sáns. hindú). The name of a great woman ascetic whose story is told in the third book of the Ramayana, chapter 74. She is said to have attained the heavenly fruit of her austerity by offering fruits to Rama who blessed her with a visit at her Ashram. She is a manifestation of Durga.



Shabdabrahman: (sáns. hindú). Ultimate reality in the form of sound.



Shabda Brahman: (sáns. hindú). Verbal brahman. Shiva's 1067th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shabdavasini: (sáns. hindú). She who dwells in sound. An epithet of Sarasvati.



Shaci: (sáns. hindú). 1. The powerful or helpful. 2. A name of Indra's consort.



Shadashraya: (sáns. hindú). Having the support of the six. Shiva's 593rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shaddarshana: (sáns. hindú). See Darshana.



Shadvimshat: (sáns. hindú). The twenty-sixth principle. Shiva's 553rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shadvinsha: (sáns. hindú). Twentysixth. One of the Brahmanas of the Samaveda. It is called "the twentysixth" because it is added to the Praudha Brahmana, which has twentyfive sections.



Shaibya: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Harishcandra; wife of Jyamagha; wife of Shatadhanu. (See individual entries.)



Shaila: (sáns. hindú). Mountain. Shiva's 717th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shailasuta: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of the mountain peaks. A name of Parvati.



Shaivapurana: (sáns. hindú). Same as Shivapurana.



Shaiva Siddhanta: (sáns. hindú). A Tamil Shaivite school of thought and devotion.



Shaka: (sáns. hindú). An era commencing 78 CE and called the era of Shalivahana. Some authorities suppose its epoch to be connected with the defeat of the Shakas by Shalivahana.



Shakala: (sáns. hindú). The city of the Bahikas or Madras, in the Panjab. It has been identified with the Sagala of Ptolemy on the Hyphasis (Byas), southwest of Lahore. Some authorities claim it is the Sangala of Alexander.



Shakalya: (sáns. hindú). 1. An old grammarian and expositor of the Vedas who lived before the time of Yaska. He is said to have divided a Samhita of the Veda into five, and to have taught these portions to as many disciples. He was also called Vedamitra and Devamitra. 2. Shiva's 1108 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shakambhari: (sáns. hindú). (shakam "herb" + bhari "nourishing, bearing") She who bestows vegetables. An epithet of Devi.



Shakapuni: (sáns. hindú). An author who arranged a part of the Rigveda and appended a glossary. He lived before the time of Yaska.



Shakapurni: (sáns. hindú). See Shakapuni.



Shakas: (sáns. hindú). A northern people, usually associated with the Yavanas. Wilson says, "These people, the Sakai and Sacæ of classical writers, the IndoScythians of Ptolemy, extended, about the commencement of our era, along the West of India, from the Hindu Koh to the mouths of the Indus." They were probably Turk or Tatar tribes, and were among those recorded as conquered by King Sagara, who compelled them to shave the upper half of their heads. They seem to have been encountered and kept back by King Vikramaditya of Ujjayini, who was called Shakari, "foe of the Shakas."



Shakatayana: (sáns. hindú). An ancient grammarian anterior to Yaska and Panini.



Shakha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Branch, sect. The Shakhas of the Vedas are the different recensions of the same text as taught and handed down traditionally by different schools and teachers, showing some slight variations, the effect of longcontinued oral tradition. See Veda. 2. Shiva's 160th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shakini: (sáns. hindú). 1. The powerful. 2. The name of a goddess identified with the Vishuddha Cakra.



Shakinis: (sáns. hindú). female demons attendant on Durga.



Shakra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The strong or powerful. 2. A name of Indra. 3. Shiva's 700th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shakrani: (sáns. hindú). Wife of Indra. See Indrani.



Shakrapramathin: (sáns. hindú). Subjugator of Shakra. Shiva's 666th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shakraprastha: (sáns. hindú). Same as Indraprastha.



Shakrari: (sáns. hindú). (shakra "a name of Indra" + ari "enemy") The enemy of Shakra (i.e. of Indra); a name of Krishna who made the cowherds of Vraja stop their worship of Indra. Indra then angrily flooded their country, but Krishna lifted Govardhana Mount on His one finger for seven days to protect all. Thereafter Indra sumitted to Him. Krishna is also well known as having taken possession of Indra's celestial tree called Parijata.



Shakta: (sáns. hindú). 1. A devotee or worshipper of Shakti. 2. The able or capable.



Shakti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Divine force or power, which is said to be threefold: IcchaShakti (willpower), JnanaShakti (knowledgepower), and KriyaShakti (actionpower).



Shakti is also one of the six components in a mantra that is given to a disciple by the Guru at the time of initiation. 2. God's power personified as His consort and manifested as Sarasvati, Lakshmi, Parvati, and other goddesses. 3. The fourth Guru in the traditional line of Gurus traced back to Narayana, or God Himself. He appeared after Brahma and Vasishtha, the Rishi. He was the oldest of Vasishtha's 100 sons and the seer of a part of the Rigveda. He was also the father of the sage Parashara and the grandfather of Vyasa who came next in the line of Gurus. 4. According to Tantric philosophy, the wife or the female energy of a deity, but especially of Shiva. See Devi and Tantra. 5. Shaktri is also called Shakti. See Shaktri.



Shaktidayaka: (sáns. hindú). (shakti "power" + dayaka "giver") The giver of power.



Shaktirupini: (sáns. hindú). Whose form is shakti or power. An epithet of Sarasvati.



Shaktri: (sáns. hindú). A priest and eldest son of Vasishtha. King Kalmashapada struck him with a whip, and he cursed the king to become possessed by a maneating Rakshasa. He himself became the first victim of the monster he had evoked.


(Sometimes called Shakti.)



Shakuni: (sáns. hindú). Brother of Queen Gandhari, and so uncle of the Kaurava princes. He was a skilful gambler and a cheat, so he was selected to be the opponent of Yudhishthira in the match in which that prince was induced to stake and lose his all. He also was known by the patronymic Saubala, from Subala, his father.



Shakuntala: (sáns. hindú). She who is protected by Shakunta birds; the name of the mother of Bharata, sovereign of all India. Once upon a time, Vishvamitra was engaged in great austerity and the gods wanted to stop him unless he surpass them. They sent the nymph Menaka who charmed him away from his practices. She gave birth to a girl whom she left in a forest while Vishvamitra returned to his austerities. The girl was protected by Shakunta birds until she was found by the sage Kanva who called her Shakuntala and reared her as his daughter. While in the sage's hermitage, King Dushyanta saw her and took her as his wife. Her story is told in the Mahabharata and the Padmapurana and is the subject of Kalidasa's drama, "AbhijnanaShakuntalam," the "Recognition of Shakuntala."



She was mother of Bharata, the head of a long race of kings, who has given his name to India (Bharatavarsha), and the wars of whose descendant are sung in the Mahabharata. The story of the loves of Dushyanta and Shakuntala is that while she was living in the hermitage of Kanva she was seen in the forest by King Dushyanta, who fell in love with her. He induced her to contract with him a Gandharva marriage, that is, a simple declaration of mutual acceptance. On leaving her to return to his city, he gave her a ring as a pledge of his love.



When the nymph went back to the hermitage, she was so engrossed with thoughts of her husband that she heeded not the approach of the sage Durvasas, who had come to visit Kanva, so that badtempered saint cursed her to be forgotten by her beloved. He afterwards relented, and promised that the curse should be removed as soon as Dushyanta should see the ring. Shakuntala, finding herself with child, set off to her husband; but on her way she bathed in a sacred pool, and there lost the ring. On reaching the palace, the king did not recognize her and would not own her, so she was taken by her mother to the forest, where she gave birth to Bharata. Then it happened that a fisherman caught a large fish and in it found a ring which he carried to Dushyanta. The king recognized his own ring, and he soon afterwards accepted Shakuntala and her son Bharata.



Kalidasa's drama of Shakuntala was the first translation made from Sanskrit into English. It excited great curiosity and gained much admiration when it appeared. There are several recensions of the text extant.



Shakyamuni: (sáns. hindú). (shakya "descendent from the Shakas" + muni "sage") 1. The sage descendent of the Shaka tribe. 2. Name of Buddha.



Shalagrama: (sáns. hindú). A stone held sacred and worshipped by the Vaishnavas because its spirals are supposed to contain or to be typical of Vishnu. It is an ammonite found in the river Gandak, and is valued more or less highly according to the number of its spirals and perforations.



Shalivahana: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated king of the south of India, who was the enemy of Vikramaditya, and whose era, the Shaka, dates from CE 78. His capital was Pratishthana on the Godavari. He was killed in battle at Karur.



Shalva: (sáns. hindú). A name of a country in the west of India, or Rajasthan; also the name of its king.



Shalya: (sáns. hindú). King of the Madras, and brother of Madri, second wife of Pandu. In the great war he left the side of the Pandavas and went over to the Kauravas. He acted as charioteer of Karna in the great battle. At the death of Karna he succeeded him as general, and commanded the army on the last day the battle, when he was slain by Yudhishthira.



Shama: (sáns. hindú). 1. Quiet, tranquil. In a Vedantic context this virtue comes after Viveka and Vairagya and is the first of the "sixfold wealth" or "ShatSampatti." 2. The name of a son of Dharma and husband of Prapti.



Shamba: (sáns. hindú). A son of Krishna by Jambavati, but the Lingapurana names Rukmini as his mother. He carried Draupadi off from her svayamvara, and was pursued by Duryodhana and his friends and made prisoner. Balarama undertook to obtain Shamba's release and thrust his plowshare under the rampart of Hastinapura and threatened it with ruin. As a result of Balarama's threat, the Kauravas gave up their prisoner, and Balarama took him to Dvaraka. Shamba lived a dissolute life in Dvaraka and scoffed at sacred things. The devotions of the three great sages, Vishvamitra, Durvasas, and Narada, excited the ridicule of Shamba and his boon companions. They dressed Shamba up to represent a woman with child and took him to the sages, inquiring whether he would give birth to a boy or a girl. The sage answered, "This is not a woman, but the son of Krishna, and he shall bring forth an iron club which shall destroy the whole race of Yadu, . . . and you and all your people shall perish by that club." Shamba, accordingly, brought forth an iron club which Ugrasena caused to be pounded and cast into the sea. These ashes produced rushes, and the rushes when gathered turned into clubs, or into reeds which were used as swords. One piece could not be crushed and this piece was subsequently found in the belly of a fish; and was used to tip an arrow. The arrow was used by the hunter Jaras, who unintentionally killed Krishna with it. Under the curse of Durvasas, Samba became a leper and retired to the Panjab, where by fasting, penance, and prayer he obtained the favor of Surya (the sun), and was cured of his leprosy. He built a temple to the sun on the banks of the Chandrabhaga (Chinab), where he introduced sunworship.



Shambapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.



Shambara: (sáns. hindú). 1. In the Vedas, a demon, also called a Dasyu, who fought against King Divodasa, but was defeated and had his many castles destroyed by Indra. He appears to be a mythical personification of drought, either identical, or of a kindred character, to Vritra. 2. In the Puranas, a Daitya who carried off Pradyumna and threw him into the sea, but was subsequently slain by him. (See Pradyumna.) He was also employed by Hiranyakashipu to destroy Prahlada. 3. Hunter. Shiva's 466th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shambhava: (sáns. hindú). (sham "happiness, bliss" + bhava "origin, source") 1. The Source of bliss; a name of Shiva, also known as Shambhu. 2. Devoted to Shambhu (i.e. Shiva). See Shambhu.



Shambhu: (sáns. hindú). (sham "happiness, bliss" + bhu "proceeding from source") 1. The source of happiness or bliss. 2. A famous name of Shiva. 3. Vishnu's 39th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. One of the Rudras.



Shambuka: (sáns. hindú). A Shudra, mentioned in the Raghuvansha, who performed religious austerities and penances improper for a man of his caste, and was consequently killed by Ramacandra.



Shami: (sáns. hindú). The Acacia Suma, the wood that is rubbed together to cause fire. So Agni, or fire, is called Shamigarbha, "having the Shami for its womb." It is sometimes personified and worshipped as a goddess, Shamidevi.



Shamyu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The benevolent. 2. The name of a son of Brihaspati.



Shanaishcara: (sáns. hindú). Slowmoving. A name of Shani or Saturn.



Shandilya: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Shandila. A particular sage who was connected with the Chandogya Upanishad; one who wrote a book of Sutras, one who wrote upon law, and one who was the author of the Bhagavata heresy: two or more of these may be one and the same person.



Shani: (sáns. hindú). 1. The planet Saturn. 2. The regent of that planet, represented as a black man in black garments. Shani was a son of the sun and Chhaya, but another statement is that he was the offspring of Balarama and Revati. He is also known as Ara, Kona, and Kroda (probably KronoV), and by the patronymic Shaura. His influence is evil, hence he is called Kruradris and Kruralochana, "the evileyed one." He is also Manda, "the slow"; Pangu, "the lame"; Sanaishchara, "slowmoving"; Saptarchi, "sevenrayed"; and Asita, "the dark." 3. Shiva's 285th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shankara: (sáns. hindú). (sham "happiness, bliss" + kara "maker") 1. The beneficent, the blissmaker, auspicious. 2. A name of Shiva in his creative character or as chief of the Rudras. Shiva's 19th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama.



See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. The name of the great Acarya (master), also known as Shankaracarya or Adi Shankara, who lived about 200 BCE. Considered a great incarnation of Shiva, he stands as the ideal Sannyasi or renunciate and jnanayogi. He was the disciple of Govindapada, who was himself the incarnation of Patanjali Maharshi. His example is one of good conduct, perfect knowledge, and the highest samadhi or enlightenment. The purpose of this incarnation of Shiva was to refute all wrong doctrines and to reestablish the original Vedic religion, especially that part known as Vedanta.



For this reason he wrote masterly commentaries on the major Upanishads, on Vyasa's Vedanta (or the Brahma) Sutras and on the Bhagavad Gita along with a number of works of his own, such as the Atma Bodha, Vivekacudamani and UpadeshaSahasri, and composed several poems to the various gods and goddesses.His four disciples were Padmapada, Hastamalaka, Trotaka and Sureshvara whom he placed as heads of the four monasteries or Mathas he founded at India's four quarters. He also set up the Sannyasa order, dividing it into ten branches, among which is the renowned "Sarasvati." Shankara, who comes as the tenth in the traditional line of BrahmavidyaGurus, is a JagadGuru or Universal Master, and Sarasvati herself recognized him as Sarvajna, an allknowing sage. When his mission was fulfilled, he disappeared in a Himalayan cave at Kedarnath, resuming his original nature as Shiva.



Shankaracarya: (sáns. hindú). (shankara + acharya). The great religious reformer and teacher of the Vedanta philosophy, who lived in the eighth or ninth century. He was a native of Kerala or Malabar, and lived a very erratic life, disputing with heretics and popularizing the Vedanta philosophy by his preaching and writings wherever he went. His travels extended as far as Kashmir, and he died at Kedaranath in the Himalayas at the early age of thirtytwo. His learning and sanctity were held in such high esteem and reverence that he was looked upon as an incarnation of Shiva, and was believed to have the power of working miracles.



The god Shiva was the special object of his worship, and he was the founder of the great sect of Smartava Brahmans, who are very numerous and powerful in the south. He established several monasteries for the teaching and preservation of his doctrines. Some of these still remain. The chief one is at Sringagiri or Sringiri, on the edge of the Western Ghauts in the Mysore, and it has the supreme control of the Smartava sect. The writings attributed to him are very numerous; chief among them are his Bhashyas or commentaries on the Sutras or aphorisms of Vyasa, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita some commentaries on the Upanishads, and the Anandalahari, a hymn in praise of Parvati, the consort of Shiva.



Shankaravijaya: (sáns. hindú). The triumph of Shankara. A biography of Shankaracharya relating his controversies with heretical sects and his refutation of their doctrines and superstitions. There is more than one work bearing this name.



Shankari: (sáns. hindú). (sham "happiness, bliss" + kari "maker") The beneficent; the consort of Shankara (i.e. of Shiva); a name of Parvati.



Shankha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The conch, which was produced along with other divine things during the churning of the milk ocean and which, in Vishnu's upper left hand, represents the principle of sattvic ego and the five Tanmatras or subtle elements. Its sound symbolizes the sacred syllable "OM." 2. Writer of a Dharmashastra or lawbook bearing his name. He is often coupled with Likhita, and the two seem to have worked together.



Shankhadhara: (sáns. hindú). (shankha "conch" + dhara "holder, bearer") The holder of the conch; a name of Vishnu, whose conch is named "Pancajanya."



Shankhapani: (sáns. hindú). (shankha "conch" + pani "hand") Having the conch in hand; a name of Vishnu, whose conch is named "Pancajanya."



Shankhavan: (sáns. hindú). (shankha "conch" + van "having") He who has the conch; a name of Vishnu, whose conch is named "Pancajanya."



Shankhin: (sáns. hindú). Possessor of the conch; a name of Vishnu, whose conch is named "Pancajanya."



Shanmukha: (sáns. hindú). (shat "six" + mukha "face, mouth") 1. The sixfaced. 2. A name of Shiva's son Kumara, also known as Skanda, Karttikeya, Guha, Subrahmanya, etc. This name comes from his having taken six mouths to suck the milk of the six Pleiades or Krittikas.



Shanta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The appeased or pacified (i.e. whose mind is calmed down by the practice of Shama). See Shama. 2. The 74th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 3.. Shiva's 334 th and 600th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 4. Daughter of Dasharatha, son of Aja, but adopted by Lomapada or Romapada, king of Anga. She was married to RishyaSringa.



Shantabhadra: (sáns. hindú). One who is calm and auspicious. Shiva's 1009th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shantanu: (sáns. hindú). (sham "auspicious" + tanu "form) 1. He who has an auspicious form. 2. The name of an ancient king of the Lunar race, son of Pratipa., who was the father of Bhishma, Citrangada and Vicitravirya, and in a way the grandfather of Dhritarashtra and Pandu. Regarding him it is said, "Every decrepit man whom he touches with his hands becomes young." (See Mahabharata.) He was called SatyaVac, "truthspeaker," and was remarkable for his "devotion and charity, modesty, constancy, and resolution."



Shantaraga: (sáns. hindú). One whose passion has subsided. Shiva's 482nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shanti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Peace. Peace is invoked at the beginning and conclusion of all Upanishadic readings. Each Upanishad has its own ShantiPatha (Peace invocation). The word Shanti is repeated three times at the end of Shanti Mantras to remove three kinds of pain (i.e. Adhyatmic or personal, Adhibhautic or external and Adhidaivic or atmospheric). 2. A PeaceGoddess personified as the daughter of Shraddha (Faith) and the friend of Karuna (Compassion). 3. Vishnu's 584th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Shantiparayana: (sáns. hindú). Interested in peace. Shiva's 1023rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shantishataka: (sáns. hindú). A century of verses on peace of mind. A poem written by Shihlana.



Sharabha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A fabulous animal whose form Shiva assumed and is represented as having eight legs and as dwelling in the Himalayas. It is called also Utpadaka and Kunjararati. 2. One of Rama's monkey allies. 3. Shiva's 393rd and 394 th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sharabhanga: (sáns. hindú). A hermit visited by Rama and Sita in the Dandaka forest. When he had seen Rama he declared that his desire had been granted, and that he would depart to the highest heaven. He prepared a fire and entered it. His body was consumed, but there came forth from the fire a beautiful youth, and in this form Sharabhanga departed to heaven.



Sharada: (sáns. hindú). The Autumnal; a name of Sarasvati as worshipped in Kashmir and evoking the mildness and modesty of autumn season.



Sharadatilaka: (sáns. hindú). 1. A mystic poem by Lakshmana. 2. A dramatic monologue by Shankara, not earlier than the twelfth century. 3. Name of a Tantra.



Sharadvat: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi said to be the father of Kripa. He is also called Gautama. See Kripa.



Sharanam: (sáns. hindú). One who is refuge of others. Shiva's 1065th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sharanya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The giver of refuge. 2. A name of Devi, the Divine Mother. 3. One worthy of being sought refuge under. Shiva's 759th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sharavanabhava: (sáns. hindú). (shara reeds + vana forest, thicket + bhava "born") He who is born in a thicket of reed; a name of Shiva's son Kumara who was born for the destruction of the demon Taraka and is also known as Karttikeya, Subrahmanya, Skanda, Guha, etc. In the creation of this divine child the divine seed of Shiva flowed first into the FireGod Agni, then into the Goddess Ganga who gave birth to Him in a thicket of reeds.



Sharmada: (sáns. hindú). (sharma "bliss, joy" + da "giver") The giver of bliss or joy.



Sharmini: (sáns. hindú). The blissful.



Sharnga: (sáns. hindú). The bow of Shiva.



Sharva: (sáns. hindú). 1. The destroyer or withdrawer. 2. The 19th of Shiva's 108 names. 3. Vishnu's 26 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. See Sarva.



Sharvani: (sáns. hindú). The consort of Sharva (i.e. of Shiva); a name of Parvati.



Sharvari: (sáns. hindú). A woman of low caste, who was very devout and looked for the coming of Rama until she had grown old. In reward of her piety a sage raised her from her low caste, and when she had seen Rama she burned herself on a funeral pyre. She ascended from the pyre, in a chariot, to Vishnu's heaven.



Sharvaripati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the night. Shiva's 1109th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sharvavahana: (sáns. hindú). Having all vehicles. Shiva's 995th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Sharyti: (sáns. hindú). The name of a son of Manu.



Shashada: (sáns. hindú). Hareeater. Name given to Vikukshi.



Shashi: (sáns. hindú). Harelike or rabbitlike; a name of the MoonGod referring to the marks on the moon which resemble a hare or rabbit.



Shashvata: (sáns. hindú). 1. The permanent or perpetual. 2.Vishnu's 57th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 333 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shashvati: (sáns. hindú). 1. The permanent or perpetual. 2. A name of the EarthGoddess.



Shasta: (sáns. hindú). 1. The teacher. 2. Vishnu's 206 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Ruler. Shiva's 477 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shastra: (sáns. hindú). A rule, book, treatise. Any book of divine or recognized authority, but more especially the lawbooks.



Shastranetra: (sáns. hindú). Having the scripture as his eye. Shiva's 574th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shastri: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having a knowledge of the shastras or scriptures in general, and the Vedas in particular. 2. Ruler. Shiva's 879th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shatadhanu: (sáns. hindú). A king who had a virtuous and discreet wife named Shaibya. They were both worshippers of Vishnu. One day they met a heretic, with whom Shatadhanu conversed; but the wife "turned away from him and cast her eyes up to the sun." After a time Shatadhanu died and his wife ascended his funeral pyre. The wife was born again as a princess with a knowledge of her previous existence, but the husband was reincarnated in the form of a dog.



She recognized him in this form and placed the bridal garland on his neck. Then she reminded him of his previous existence and of the fault which had caused his degradation. He was greatly humiliated and died from a broken spirit. After that, he was born successively as a jackal, a wolf, a crow, and a peacock. In each form his wife recognized him, reminded him of his sin, and urged him to make efforts for restoration to his former dignity. At length "he was born as the son of a person of distinction," and Shaiba then elected him as her bridegroom; and having "again invested him with the character of her husband, they lived happily together." When he died she again followed him in death, and both "ascended beyond the sphere of Indra to the regions where all desires are for ever gratified." "This legend," says Wilson, "is peculiar to the Vishnupurana, although the doctrine it inculcates is to be found elsewhere.



Shatadhanvan: (sáns. hindú). Having a hundred bows. A Yadava and son of Hridika. He killed Satrajit, father of Satyabhama, the wife of Krishna, in his sleep, and was himself killed in revenge by Krishna, who struck off his head with his discus.



Shatadru: (sáns. hindú). Flowing in a hundred (channels). The name of the river Sutlej, the Zaradrus of Ptolemy, the Hesudrus of Pliny.



Shataghni: (sáns. hindú). Slaying hundreds. A missile weapon used by Krishna. It is described in the Mahabharata as a stone with iron spikes set around it, but many have supposed it to be a rocket or other fiery weapon.



Shatakratu: (sáns. hindú). The god of a hundred rites; Indra.



Shatapatha Brahmana: (sáns. hindú). Brahmana (Brahmanical exegesis) of the Hundred Paths. A celebrated Brahmana attached to the White Yajurveda, and ascribed to the Rishi Yajnavalkya. It is found in two Shakhas, the Madhyandina and the Kanva. This is the most complete and systematic as well as the most important of all the Brahmanas. Some scholars have placed the Brahmana in the tenth century BCE. It contains discussions on mantras and points of doctrine on sacrifice etc. The Shatapatha is reputed to contain the oldest speculative theology on brahman or the Absolute.



Shatarupa: (sáns. hindú). (shata "a hundred" + rupa "form") She who has a hundred forms. The name of the wife of the first Manu, Svayambhuva. In the BrihadAranyaka Upanishad it is revealed how the creator Viraj became as big as a man and a woman, and created men and other species. Since Shatarupa was born from him and was thus his daughter, she was afraid to copulate with him and tried to hide herself by taking various forms; but he himself took the corresponding masculine form each time and mated with her. She is thus called Shatarupa, she who has a hundred forms. She is also called Savitri. See Viraj and Brahma.



Shatatapa: (sáns. hindú). An old treatise on law.



Shatavahana: (sáns. hindú). A name by which Shalivahana is sometimes called.



Shatpura: (sáns. hindú). The sixfold city, or "the six cities." The Harivansha claims that Shatpura was granted by Brahma to the Asuras, and of which Nikumbha was king. Shatpura was taken by Krishna and given to a Brahman named Brahmadatta.



Shatrughna: (sáns. hindú). 1. Destroyer of enemies. Shiva's 1034th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. Twinbrother of Lakshmana and halfbrother of Rama, in whom an eighth part of the divinity of Vishnu was incarnate. His wife was Shrutakirtti cousin of Sita. He fought on the side of Rama and killed the Rakshasa chief Ravana. See Dasharatha and Rama.



Shatrutapana: (sáns. hindú). Scorcher of enemies. Shiva's 237th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shatyayana: (sáns. hindú). Name of a Brahmana.



Shaunaka: (sáns. hindú). sage, the son of Shunaka and grandson of Gritsamada. He was the author of the Brihaddevata, an Anukramani, and other works, and he was a teacher of the Atharvaveda. His pupil was Ashvalayana. There was also a family of the name. The works attributed to Saunaka are possibly the productions of more than one person.



Shauri: (sáns. hindú). 1. The grandson of Shura, who was the paternal grandfather of Krishna. 2. A name of Krishna.



Shesha: (sáns. hindú). The remainder. King of the serpent race or Nagas, and of the infernal regions called Patala. A serpent with a thousand heads which is the couch and canopy of Vishnu while he sleeps during the intervals of creation. Sometimes Shesha is represented as supporting the world, and sometimes as upholding the seven Patalas or hells. Whenever he yawns he causes earthquakes. At the end of each kalpa he vomits venomous fire which destroy all creation. When the gods churned the ocean they made use of Shesha as a great rope, which they twisted around the mountain Mandara, and ss used it as a churn. He is represented clothed in purple and wearing a white necklace, holding in one hand a plow and in the other a pestle. He is also known as Ananta and said to support the whole universe with its fourteen worlds. Ananta is called Shesha as he is the residue or remainder of the universe during cosmic dissolutions. Vishnu resting on Shesha's intertwined body in the milk ocean signifies the Self seated in the brain and knowable through a pure or sattvic mind. Patanjali Maharshi is an incarnation of Shesha.



His wife was named Anantashirsha. He is sometimes distinct from Vasuki but generally identified with him. In the Puranas he is said to be the son of Kashyapa and Kadro, and according to some authorities he was incarnate in Balarama. His hood is called Manidvipa, "the island of jewels," and his palace Manibhitti, "jewelwalled," or Manimandapa, "jewel palace."



Sheshanaga: (sáns. hindú). See Shesha.



Shibi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The name of a Rishi who was one of the seers of the Rigveda. 2. The name of a king whose story is told in the Mahabharata. He saved the FireGod Agni, who had been transformed into a dove, from Indra, who had been transformed into a hawk, by offering the hawk (Indra) a quantity of his own flesh equal in weight to the dove.



Shikhandi: (sáns. hindú). Having a tuft. Shiva's 1036th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shikhandini: (sáns. hindú). Shikhandini is said to have been the daughter of Raja Drupada, but according to another statement she was one of the two wives whom Bhishma obtained for his brother Vichitravirya. "She (the widow) perished in the jungle, but before her death she had been assured by Parashurama that she should become a man in a future birth, and cause the death of Bhishma, who had been the author of her misfortunes" Accordingly she was born again as Sikhandin, son of Drupada. Bhishma fell in battle pierced all over by the arrows of Arjuna, but according to this story the fatal shaft came from the hands of Sikhandin. See Amba.



Shikhisarathi: (sáns. hindú). Having fire as the charioteer. Shiva's 663rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shikhishriparvatapriya: (sáns. hindú). One fond of the mountain Shikhishri. Shiva's 795th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shiksha: (sáns. hindú). Phonetics; one of the Vedangas. The science which teaches the proper pronunciation and manner of reciting the Vedas. There are many treatises on this subject.



Shila: (sáns. hindú). The virtuous.



Shilappadiharam: (sáns. hindú). Tamil epic about a woman named Kannagi who was faithful to her husband in every way despite his lecherous and unfaithful behavior.



Shilpa: (sáns. hindú). Fine arts. Shiva's 1083rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shilpa Shastra: (sáns. hindú). The science of mechanics; it includes architecture. Any book or treatise on this science.



Shipivishta: (sáns. hindú). One who has penetrated the rays. Shiva's 441st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shipra: (sáns. hindú). The river on which the city of Ujjayini stands.



Shishiratmaka: (sáns. hindú). One of cool nature. Shiva's 688th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shishteshta: (sáns. hindú). One who is fond of the disciplined. Shiva's 392nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shishu: (sáns. hindú). nfant. Shiva's 559th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shishumara: (sáns. hindú). A porpoise. The planetary sphere, which, as explained by the Vishnupurana, has the shape of a porpoise, Vishnu being seated in its heart, and Dhruva or the pole star in its tail. "As Dhruva revolves, it causes the sun, moon, and other planets to turn round also; and the lunar asterisms follow in its circular path, for all the celestial luminaries are, in fact, bound to the polar star by aerial cords."



Shishupala: (sáns. hindú). Son of Damaghosha, king of Chedi, by Shrutadeva, sister of Vasudeva; he was therefore cousin of Krishna, but he was Krishna's implacable foe, because Krishna had carried off Rukmini, his intended wife.



He was slain by Krishna at the great sacrifice of Yudhishthira in punishment of scornful abuse. The Mahabharata states that Shishupala as born with three eyes and four arms. His parents were inclined to cast him out, but were warned by a voice not to do so, as his time was not come. It also foretold that his superfluous members should disappear when a certain person took the child into his lap, and that he would eventually die by the hands of that same person. Krishna placed the child on his knees and the extra eye and arms disappeared; Krishna also killed him. The Vishnupurana contributes an additional legend about him.




"Shishupala was in a former existence the unrighteous but valiant monarch of the Daityas, Hiranyakashipu, who was killed by the divine guardian of creation (in the manlion Avatara). He was next the tenheaded (sovereign Ravana), whose unequalled prowess, strength, and power were overcome by the lord of the three worlds (Rama). Having been killed by the deity in the form of Raghava, he had long enjoyed the reward of his virtues in exemption from an embodied state, but had now received birth once more as Shishupala, the son of Damaghosha, king of Chedi.



In this character he renewed with greater inveteracy than ever his hostile hatred towards Pundarikaksha (Vishnu), . . . and was in consequence slain by him. But from the circumstance of his thoughts being constantly engrossed by the supreme being, Shishupala was united with him after death, . . . for the lord bestows a heavenly and exalted station even upon those whom he slays in his displeasure." He was called Shunitha, "virtuous."



Shishupalabadha: (sáns. hindú). "The Death of Shishupala"; an epic poem by Magha, in twenty cantos.



Shitala: (sáns. hindú). village deity. Shitala is a North India goddess associated with smallpox. The disease is claimed to be her "grace." Unless there is a smallpox epidemic going on, Shitala is withdrawn and quiet.



Shiva: (sáns. hindú). 1. The auspicious or pure. 2. The name of the third aspect of God, called Rudra in the Vedas. His glory is mainly told in the Shivapurana. In the Kurmapurana a Gita treatise entitled "Ishvara Gita" embodies some of His teachings. His sacred symbol is the Lingam which expresses the Oneness of God and is especially worshipped during Shiva Ratri or the "Night of Shiva." In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad the Truth is referred to as Shiva and in the Mandukya Upanishad the true Self is referied to as Shivam. The name Shiva is unknown to the Vedas, but Rudra, another name of this deity, and almost equally common, occurs in the Vedas both in the singular and plural, and from these the great deity Shiva and his manifestation, the Rudras, have been developed. In the Rigveda the word Rudra is used for Agni, and the Maruts are called his sons. In other passages he is distinct from Agni. He is lauded as "the lord of songs, the lord of sacrifices, who heals remedies, is as brilliant as the sun, the best and most bountiful of god who grants prosperity and welfare to horses and sheep, men, women, and cows; the lord of nourishment, who drives away diseases, dispenses remedies, and removes sin; but, on the other hand he is the wielder of the thunderbolt, the bearer of bow and arrows, and mounted on his chariot is as terrible as a wild beast, destructive and fierce."



In the Yajurveda there is a long prayer called "Shatarudriya" which is addressed to him and appeals to him under a great variety of epithets. He is "auspicious, not terrible"; "the deliverer, the first divine physician"; he is "bluenecked and redcolored, who has a thousand eyes and bears a thousand quivers"; and in another hymn he is called "Tryambaka, the sweetscented increaser of prosperity"; "a medicine for kine and horses, a medicine for men, and a (source of) ease to rams and ewes." In the Atharvaveda he is still the protector of cattle, but his character is fiercer. He is "dark, black, destroying, terrible." He is the "fierce god," who is besought to betake himself elsewhere, "and not to assail mankind with consumption, poison, or celestial fire." The Brahmanas tell that when Rudra was born he wept, and his father, Prajapati, asked the reason, and on being told that he wept because he had not received a name, his father gave him the name of Rudra (from the root rud, "weep"). They also relate that at the request of the gods he pierced Prajapati because of his incestuous coitus with his daughter. In another place he is said to have applied to his father eight successive times for a name, and that he received in succession the names Bhava, Sarva, Pashupati, Ugradeva, Mahandeva, Rudra, Ishana, and Ashani. In the Upanishads his character is further developed.



He declares to the inquiring gods, "I alone was before (all things), and I exist and I shall be. No other transcends me. I am eternal and not eternal, discernible and undiscernible, I am Brahma and I am not Brahma." Again it is said, "He is the only Rudra, he is Ishana, he is divine, he is Maheshvara, he is Mahadeva." "There is only one Rudra, there is no place for a second. He rules this fourth world, controlling and productive; living beings abide with him, united with him. At the time of the end he annihilates all worlds, the protector." "He is without beginning, middle, or end; the one, the pervading, the spiritual and blessed, the wonderful, the consort of Uma, the supreme lord, the threeeyed, the bluethroated the tranquil. . . . He is Brahma, he is Shiva, he is Indra; he is undecaying, supreme, selfresplendent; he is Vishnu he is breath, he is the spirit, the supreme lord; he is all that hath been or that shall be, eternal. Knowing him, a man overpasses death. There is no other way to liberation." In the Ramayana Shiva is a great god, but the references to him have more of the idea of a personal god than of a supreme divinity. He is represented as fighting with Vishnu, and as receiving worship with Brahma, Vishnu, and Indra, but he acknowledges the divinity of Rama, and holds a less exalted position than Vishnu. The Mahabharata also gives Vishnu or Krishna the highest honor upon the whole.



But it has many passages in which Shiva occupies the supreme place, and receives the homage and worship of Vishnu and Krishna. "Mahadeva," it says, "is an allpervading god yet is nowhere seen; he is the creator and the lord of Brahma, Vishnu, and Indra, whom the gods, from Brahma to the Pishachas, worship." The rival claims of Shiva and Vishnu to supremacy are clearly displayed in this poem; and many of those powers and attributes are ascribed to them which were afterwards so widely developed in the Puranas. Attempts also are made to reconcile their conflicting claims by representing Shiva and Vishnu, Shiva and Krishna, to be one, or, as is expressed at a later time in the Harivansha, there is "no difference between Shiva who exists in the form of Vishnu, and Vishnu who exists in the form of Shiva." The Puranas distinctly assert the supremacy of their particular divinity, whether it be Shiva or whether it be Vishnu, and they have developed and amplified the myths and allusions of the older writings into numberless legends and stories for the glorification and honor of their favorite god.



The Rudra of the Vedas has developed, in the course of age, into the great and powerful god Shiva, the third deity of the Hindu trinity, and the supreme god of his votaries. He is shortly described as the destroying principle, but his powers and attributes are more numerous and much wider. Under the name of Rudra or Mahakala, he is the great destroying and dissolving power. But destruction in Hindu belief implies reproduction; so as Shiva or Shankara, "the auspicious," he is the reproductive power which is perpetually restoring that which has been dissolved, and hence he is regarded as Ishvara, the supreme lord, and Mahadeva, the great god. Under this character of restorer he is represented by his symbol the Linga or phallus, typical of reproduction; and it is under this form alone, or combined with the Yoni, or female organ, the representative of his Shakti, or female energy, that he is everywhere worshipped. Thirdly, he is the Mahayogi, the great ascetic, in whom is centered the highest perfection of austere penance and abstract meditation, by which the most unlimited powers are attained, marvels and miracles are worked, the highest spiritual knowledge is acquire, and union with the great spirit of the universe is eventually gained. In this character he is the naked ascetic Digambara, "clothed with the elements," or Dhurjati, "loaded with matted hair," and his body smeared with ashes.



His first or destructive character is sometimes intensified, and he becomes Bhairava, "the terrible destroyer," who takes a pleasure in destruction. He is also Bhuteshvara, the lord of ghosts and goblins. In these characters he haunts cemeteries and places of cremation, wearing serpents around his head and skulls for a necklace, attended by troops of imps and trampling on rebellious demons. He sometimes indulges in revelry, and, heated with drink, dances furiously with his wife Devi the dance called Tandava, while troops of drunken imps caper around them. Possessed of so many powers and attributes, he has a great number of names, and is represented under a variety of forms. One authority enumerates a thousand and eight names, but most of these are descriptive epithets, as Trilochana, "the three-eyed," Nilakantha, "the blue-throated," and Panchanana, "the fivefaced.' Shiva is a fair man with five faces and four arms.



He is commonly represented seated in profound thought, with a third eye in the middle of his forehead, contained in or surmounted by the moon's crescent; his matted locks are gathered up into a coil like a horn, which bears upon it a symbol of the river Ganges, which he caught as it fell from heaven; a necklace of skulls (mundamala), hangs round his neck, and serpents entwine his neck as a collar (nagakundala); his neck is blue from drinking the deadly poison which would have destroyed the world, and in his hand he holds a trishula or trident called Pinaka. His garment is the skin of a tiger. a deer, or an elephant, hence he is called Krittivasas; sometimes he is clothed in a skin and seated upon a tigerskin, and he holds a deer in his hand. He is generally accompanied by his bull Nandi. He also carries the bow Ajagava, a drum (damaru) in the shape of an hourglass, the Khatvanga or club with a skull at the end, or a cord (pasha) for binding refractory offenders. His Pramathas or attendants are numerous, and are imps and demons of various kinds. His third eye has been very destructive.



With it he reduced to ashes Kama, the god of love, for daring to inspire amorous thoughts of his consort Parvati while he was engaged in penance; and the gods and all created beings were destroyed by is glance at one of the periodical destructions of the universe. He is represented to have cut of one of the heads of Brahma for speaking disrespectfully, so that Brahma has only four heads instead of five. Shiva is the great object of worship at Benares under the name of Vishvesvara. His heaven is on Mount Kailasa. There are various legends respecting Shiva's garments and weapons. Williams wrote that "he once visited a forest in the form of a religious mendicant and the wives of the Rishis residing there fell in love with his great beauty, which the Rishis, perceiving, resented; in order, therefore, to overpower him, they first dug a pit, and by magical arts caused a tiger to rush out of it, which he slew, and taking his skin wore it as a garment; they next caused a deer to spring out upon him, which he took up in his left hand and ever after retained there.



They then produced a red-hot iron, but this too he took up and kept in his hand as a weapon. . . . The elephant's skin belonged to an Asura named Gaya, who acquired such power that he would have conquered the gods, and would have destroyed the Munis had they not fled to Benares and taken refuge in a temple of Shiva, who then destroyed the Asura, and, ripping up his body, stripped off the (elephant) hide, which he cast over his shoulders for a cloak." 3. Since Shiva and Vishnu are aspects of One God, Shiva occurs as Vishnu's 27th and 600th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. Good spirits. At Karttikeya's birth Indra struck him with his thunderbolt which causes The young god to give birth to a host of terrifying and ferocious goddesses. Among the goddesses are Kaki, Halima, Malini, Brihali, Arya, Patala, and Vaimitra. Karttikeya adopted them all as his mothers; however, he divided them into two categories: good (shiva) and bad (ashiva). 5. Shiva's 2nd and 163 rd names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. Shiva is the fourth state of the soul in which the other three states merge and, in their absorption, lose their identity. 6. In the feminine gender (having a long terminal a), the auspicious Goddess; a name of Parvati or Uma. 7. Also, in the feminine gender, Shiva is the 66 th of Lakshmi's 108 names.



Shivabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (shiva "a name of God" + bandhu "friend") 1. A friend of Shiva. 2. A name of Kuvera.



Shivadasa: (sáns. hindú). (shiva "a name of God" + dasa "servant") Servant of Shiva.



Shivaduti: (sáns. hindú). (shiva "a name of God" + duti "messenger") 1. Messenger of Shiva. 2. A name of Durga. 3. A Matrika. The shakti of Devi who was made manifest to aid Devi in a battle against the demons Shumbha and Nishumbha. For further details see Brahmani.



Shivaji: (sáns. hindú). seventeenthcentury Marathi military leader who is claimed to have received his sword from his family's deity, Bhavani (Parvati, Durga). The goddess then urged Shivaji to kill his enemy Afzalkhan.



Shivajnanarata: (sáns. hindú). One engaged in the knowledge of Shiva. Shiva's 793rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shivakari: (sáns. hindú). (shiva "auspiciousness, name of God" + kari "maker, bringer") 1. The bringer or maker of auspiciousness. A name of Annapurna. 2. The 67th of Lakshmi's 108 names.



Shivalaya: (sáns. hindú). bode of auspiciousness. Shiva's 442nd and 735th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shivani: (sáns. hindú). The consort of Shiva; a name of Parvati or Uma.



Shivapriya: (sáns. hindú). (shiva "a name of God" + priya "beloved") 1. Beloved of Shiva. 2. A name of Durga.



Shivapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Purana.



Shivaraja: (sáns. hindú). (shiva "a name of God" + raja "king") The name of King Shivaji.



Shivi: (sáns. hindú). Son of Ushinara, and king of the country also called Ushinara, near Gandhara. The great charity and devotion of Shivi are extolled in the Mahabharata by the sage Markandeya. Agni having assumed the form of a pigeon, was pursued by Indra in the shape of a falcon. The pigeon took refuge in the bosom of Shivi, and the falcon would accept nothing from Shivi instead of the pigeon but an equal weight of the king's own flesh. Shivi cut a piece of flesh from his right thigh and placed it in the balance, but the bird was the heavier. He cut again and again, and still the pigeon drew the scale, until the king placed his whole body in the balance. This outweighed the pigeon and the falcon flew away. On another occasion Vishnu went to Shivi in the form of a Brahman and demanded food, but would accept no food but Shivi's own son Vrihadgarbha whom he required Shivi to kill and cook. The king did so, and placed the food before the Brahman, who then told him to eat it himself. Shivi took up the head and prepared to eat. The Brahman then stayed his hand, commended his devotion, and restoring the son to life, vanished from sight.



Shmashananilaya: (sáns. hindú). One who has the cremation ground as his abode. Shiva's 110 th and 825th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shmashanastha: (sáns. hindú). Stationed in the cremation ground. Shiva's 112th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shobhana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beautiful. 2. In the Kena Upanishad, Uma Haimavati, being the embodiment of pure Knowledge, is depicted as BahuShobhamanam (of great beauty).



Shodashi: (sáns. hindú). A Mahavidya. Shodashi is a sixteen year old girl with a red complexion. She is shown astride Shiva with whom she is having coitus. The couple are on a pedestal made of the gods Vishnu, Brahma, Rudra, and Indra. In some lists of the Mahavidyas Shodashi is identified with Tripurasundari.



Shokanashana: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of grief. Shiva's 906th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shraddha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Faith, which is the fifth virtue of the Shatsampatti or the sixfold wealth. In a literal sense it is Dha, "steadiness" in Shrat, "Truth" or AstikyaBuddhi "conviction about existence (of the Self)," without which concentration on the Self is impossible. It is also rendered as confidence which implies free breathing (Vishvasana). In the Kaivalya Upanishad, the Creator Brahma says to Ashvalayana, "ShraddhaBhaktiDhyanaYogadAvaihi," "Know (the Absolute) by faith, devotion and the Yoga of meditation!" In the Chhandogya Upanishad Sanatkumara says to Narada, "When one has faith, then alone does one reflect. Without faith, one does not reflect. The faithful alone reflects. . . ." 2. Faith personified as a Goddess in the Rigveda. 3. The 5th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 4. Daughter of the sage Daksha, wife of the god Dharma, and reputed mother of Kamadeva, the god of love.



Shraddhadeva: (sáns. hindú). 1. Manu is called by this name in the Brahmanas. The initial a is long in the Mahabharata. 2. this name, with a long initial a, is commonly applied to Yama.



Shrauta: (sáns. hindú). Belonging to the Shruti. See Shruti and Sutra.



Shrautasutra: (sáns. hindú). See Sutra and Vedangas.



Shravasti: (sáns. hindú). n ancient city which seems to have stood near Faizabad in Oude.



Shri (Sri): (sáns. hindú). 1. Divine beauty, light, and wealth; a name of Lakshmi, which occurs as the 76 th of Her 108 names. Beauty or light means chiefly the light of knowledge, and wealth refers to the spiritual qualities giving rise to knowledge. 2. Illustrious, revered, when used as an honorific prefix to the names of gods, scriptures, and saints.



Shri Bhagavati: (sáns. hindú). See Bhagavatapurana.



Shri Dama Charitra: (sáns. hindú). modern drama in five acts by Sama Raja Dikshita, on the sudden elevation to affluence of Daman, a friend of Krishna.



Shridaman: (sáns. hindú). (shri "beautiful" + daman "garland") Having a beautiful garland; the name of a friend and devotee of Krishna.



Shridevi: (sáns. hindú). (shri "a name of Lakshmi" + devi "goddess") The Goddess Sri (i.e. Lakshmi). See Shri (Sri).



Shridhara: (sáns. hindú). (shri "a name of Lakshmi" + dhara "bearer") The bearer of Sri (i.e. of Lakshmi). Vishnu's 610th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Shri Dhara Swami: (sáns. hindú). uthor of several well known commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, etc.



Shri Harsha: (sáns. hindú). A great sceptical philosopher, and author of the poem called "Naishadha" or "Naishahiya." There were several kings of the name.



Shri Harsha Deva: (sáns. hindú). king who wrote the drama "Ratnavali."



Shrikantha: (sáns. hindú). (shri "beautiful" + kantha "throat") 1. The beautifulthroated. 2. The 16th of Shiva's 108 names, referring to the blue color on the Lords neck, after He drank a deadly poison to save the world. 3. Shiva's 86th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shrikara: (sáns. hindú). (shri "beauty, light" + kara "maker, doer") The maker or giver of wealth. Vishnu's 611 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Shrikari: (sáns. hindú). (shri "beauty, light, wealth" + kari "maker, doer") The maker or giver of wealth; a name of Lakshmi who is Herself called Sri. In Vedantic context it means Lakshmi, as symbolizing the light of Selfknowledge, gives Herself to the worshipper by revealing his/her true Self or Atman.



Shrila: (sáns. hindú). The fortunate or beautiful.



Shriman: (sáns. hindú). (shri "beauty, light, wealth" + man "having) 1. Having beauty and fortune; the beautiful. 2. The possessor of Sri (i.e. of Lakshmi). Vishnu's 22nd, 178th, 220th, and 613th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Illustrious, revered, when used as an honorific prefix to the names of gods, scriptures, and saints. 4. Shiva's 364th and 794th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shrimati: (sáns. hindú). (shri "beauty, light, wealth" + mati "having") 1. Having beauty and fortune; the beautiful. 2. A name of Radha.



Shringagiri: (sáns. hindú). hill on the edge of the Western Ghats in Mysore, where there is a math or monastic establishment of Brahmans, said to have been founded by Shankaracharya.



Shringararasasampurna: (sáns. hindú). She who is filled with the erotic sentiment. An epithet of Devi. The 376 th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Shringa Tilaka: (sáns. hindú). The mark of love. A work by Rudra Bhatta on the sentiments and emotions of lovers as exhibited in poetry and drama.



Shringavera: (sáns. hindú). The modern Sungroor, a town on the left bank of the Ganges and on the frontier of Kosala and the Bhil country. The country around was inhabited by Nishadas or wild tribes, and Guha, the friend of Rama, was their chief.



Shrinivasa: (sáns. hindú). (shri "a name of Lakshmi" + nivasa "abode") The abode of Sri (i.e. of Lakshmi). Vishnu's 183rd and 607th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Shripati: (sáns. hindú). (shri "a name of Lakshmi" + pati "lord") The Lord or consort of Sri (i.e. of Lakshmi). Vishnu's 603 rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.



Shri Rama: (sáns. hindú). The revered or fortunate Rama. See Rama.



Shri Shaila: (sáns. hindú). The mountain of Sri, the goddess of fortune. It is a holy place in the Dakhin, near the Krishna, and was formerly a place of great splendor. It retains its sanctity but has lost its grandeur. Also called Sri Parvata.



Shrivallabhashivarambha: (sáns. hindú). Lover of fortunes' auspicious venture. Shiva's 1008th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shrivasa: (sáns. hindú). (shri "a name of Lakshmi" + vasa "abode") 1. The abode of Sri (i.e. of Lakshmi). 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. The lotus, since Lakshmi is depicted seated on a lotus.



Shrivatsa: (sáns. hindú). (shri "a name of Lakshmi" + vatsa "dear") 1. Dear to Sri (i.e. to Lakshmi) 2. A name of Vishnu, especially of the curl of hair on His chest symbolizing Prakriti, the primordial matter.



Shrividya: (sáns. hindú). She who is great and auspicious knowledge. An epithet of Devi. The 585th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.



Shrutabodha: (sáns. hindú). work on meters attributed to Kalidasa.



Shrutakirtti: (sáns. hindú). Cousin of Sita and wife of Shatrughna.



Shrutarshi: (sáns. hindú). Rishi who did not receive the Shruti (revelation) direct, but obtained it secondhand from the Vedic Rishis.



Shruti: (sáns. hindú). 1. Hearing, revelation. A general name for the Vedas which were first heard by Brahma from the supreme Lord Narayana and which are distinguished from the "Smriti" scriptures of human authorship. The Mantras and Brahmanas of the Vedas are always included in the term, and the Upanishads are generally classed with them. 2. A daughter of Atri and the wife of Kardama. 3. In music, a quarter tone or microtone. See Veda.



Shrutiman: (sáns. hindú). Learned. Shiva's 1005 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shrutiprakasha: (sáns. hindú). One having the luster of learning. Shiva's 1004 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shrutisagara: (sáns. hindú). Ocean of learning. Shiva's 1027th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shubha: (sáns. hindú). The auspicious or beautiful. The 91 st of Lakshmi's 108 names.



Shubhakara: (sáns. hindú). (shubha "auspiciousness" + kara "making, causing") Causing auspiciousness, beneficent.



Shubhanga: (sáns. hindú). One having splendid limbs. Shiva's 203rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shubhangi: (sáns. hindú). Fairlimbed. An epithet of Rati, wife of Kama, and of Yakshi, wife of Kuvera.



Shubhra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The radiant or pure. 2. This name is used to describe the Purusha or Self in the Mundaka Upanishad, Aprano Hy'Amanah Shubhrah. . . ." "Beyond Prana and mind, pure. . . ." 3. The holy Ganges which is brightcolored and purifying. 4. Pure white; a name of Sarasvati who is depicted seated on a white lotus or mounted on a white swan, wrapped in white clothes, adorned with white flowers and jewels, holding a white rosaryThus all white and pure.



Shuci: (sáns. hindú). 1. The pure. 2. Vishnu's 155th and 251st names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. The 12th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 4. Shiva's 807th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shuciantar: (sáns. hindú). Pure within. Shiva's 56 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shucismita: (sáns. hindú). Of pure smiles. Shiva's 895 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shuddha: (sáns. hindú). Pure. Shiva's 909th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shuddha: (sáns. hindú). The purified.



Shuddhatma: (sáns. hindú). Puresouled. Shiva's 125 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shuddhavigraha: (sáns. hindú). One of pure physical form. Shiva's 210 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shuddhi: (sáns. hindú). Purity. 2. A name of Durga. 3. Shiva's 910th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shudeshna: (sáns. hindú). Goodlooking. 1. wife of the Raja of Virata, the patron of the disguised Pandavas, and mistress of Draupadi. 2. The wife of Balin.



Shudra: (sáns. hindú). The fourth or servile caste. See Varna.



Shudraka: (sáns. hindú). king who wrote the play called Mrichchhakati, "the toycart," in ten acts.



Shukasaptati: (sáns. hindú). The seventy (tales) of a parrot. This is the original of the Persian Tutinamah, from which the Hindustani Totakahani was translated.



Shukla: (sáns. hindú). White. Shiva's 599th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shukra: (sáns. hindú). The planet Venus and its regent. Suhkra was son of Bhrigu and priest of Bali and the Daityas (Daityaguru). He is also called the son of Kavi.



His wife's name was Shushuma or Shataparva. His daughter Devayani married Yayati of the Lunar race, and her husbands infidelity induced Shukra to curse him. Shukra is identified with Ushanas, and is author of a code of law. The Harivansha relates that he went to Shiva and asked for means of protecting the Asuras against the gods, and for obtaining his object he performed "a painful rite, imbibing the smoke of chaff with his head downwards for a thousand years." In his absence the gods attacked the Asuras and Vishnu killed his mother, for which deed Shukra cured him "to be born seven times in the world of men." Shukra restored his mother to life, and the gods being alarmed lest Shukra's penance should be accomplished, Indra sent his daughter Jayanti to lure him from it. She waited upon him and soothed him, but he accomplished his penance and afterwards married her. Shukra is known by his patronymic Bhargava, and also as Bhrigu. He is also Kavi or Kavya, "the poet." The planet is called Asphujit; Maghabhava, "son of Magha"; Shodasanshu, "having sixteen rays"; and Sveta, "the white."



Shuladhara: (sáns. hindú). Tridentbearing one. Shiva's 22nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shuli: (sáns. hindú). Having a trident. Shiva's 1038 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shunahshephas: (sáns. hindú). The legend of Shunahshephas, as told in the Aitareya Brahmana, is as follows: King Harishchandra, of the race of Ikshvaku, being childless, made a vow that if he obtained a son he would sacrifice him to Varuna. A son was born who received the name of Rohita, but the father postponed, under various pretexts, the fulfilment of his vow. When at length he resolved to perform the sacrifice, Rohita refused to be the victim, and went out into the forest, where he lived for six years. He then met a poor Brahman Rishi called Ajigartta, who had three sons and Rohita purchased from Ajigartta for a hundred cows, the second son, named Shunahshephas, to be the substitute for himself in the sacrifice. Varuna approved of the substitute, and the sacrifice was about to be peformed, the father receiving another hundred cows for binding his son to the sacrificial post, and a third hundred for agreeing to slaughter him.



Shunahshephas saved himself by reciting verses in honor of different deities, and was received into the family of Vishvamitra, who was one of the officiating priests. The Ramayana gives a different version of the legend. Ambarisha, king of Ayodhya, was performing a sacrifice when Indra carried off the victim The officiating priest reprsented that this loss could be atoned only by the sacrifice of a human victim. The king, after a long search, found a BrahmanRishi named Richika, who had two sons, and the younger Shunahshephas, was then sold by his own consent for a hundred thousand cows, ten millions of gold pieces, and heaps of jewels.



Shunahshephas met with his maternal uncle, Vishvamitra, who taught him two divine verses which he was to repeat when about to be sacrificed. As he was bound at the stake to be immolated, he celebrated the two gods Indra and Vishnu with the excellent verses, and Indra, being pleased, bestowed upon him long life. He was afterwards called Devarata, and is said to have become son of Vishvamitra. The Mahabharata and the Puranas show some few variations. A series of seven hymns in the Rigveda is attributed to Shunahshephas. See Vishnupurana, iv. 25; Wilson's Rigveda, i. 60.



Shura: (sáns. hindú). Hero. Shiva's 231 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.



Shurasenas: (sáns. hindú). Name of a people, the Suraseni of Arrian. Their capital was Mathura on the Yamuna, which Manu calls Shurasena.



Shurpanakha: (sáns. hindú). Having nails like winnowing - fans. Sister of Ravana. This Rakshasi admired the beauty of Rama, and fell in love with him. When she made advances to Rama he referred her to Lakshmana, and Lakshmana in like manner sent her back to Rama. Enraged at this double rejection, she "fell upon Sita, and Rama was obliged to interfere forcibly for the protection of his wife. He called out to Lakshmana to disfigure the violent Rakshasi, and Lakshmana cut off her nose and ears. She flew to her brothers for revenge and this brought on the war between Rama and Ravana. She told Ravana of the great beauty of Sita, and instigated his carrying her off, and finally she cursed him just before the engagement in which he was killed.



Shushna: (sáns. hindú). An Asura mentioned in the Rigveda as killed by Indra.



Shutudri: (sáns. hindú). The river Satlej. See Shatadru.



Shvaphalka: (sáns. hindú). Husband of Gandini and father of Akrura. He was a man of great sanctity of character, and where "he dwelt famine, plague, death, and other visitations were unknown." His presence once brought rain to the kingdom of Kashiraja during a drought.



Shvashva: (sáns. hindú). Whose horse is a dog. An epithet of Shiva. See Bhairava.



  1. A - Apara Vidya - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  2. Apariccedya - Bhagavata - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  3. Bhagavatapurana – Citavanna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  4. Citra - Dyutikara -Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  5. Edidhishupati - Jivbarhiyajna - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  6. Jñanam - Kurantika - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  7. Kurira - Nagaharadhrik - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  8. Nagakesara - Prajapala - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation
  9. Prajapati - Saha - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation



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