domingo, 4 de julio de 2010

Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms (A - Apara Vidya) - The Manurishi Foundation

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The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms

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Dictionary Index Site Index Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionary The Manurishi Foundation Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms Use your browsers "Find" function (Ctrl F) to go to the article of your choice. To find a primary article, put a dash (-) behind your word. Example: "Lakshmi-" Note: You may have to set your browser's find function to find "Up" on your first search.

Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms - The Manurishi Foundation

Abha: (sáns. hindú). (a "entirely" + bha "brilliant") 1. The luminous. 2. Brilliance.

Abhanga: (sáns. hindú). 1. With one curve. 2. A posture or body position (asana) in which the both feet are touching the ground but the weight is supported on one leg, In this position the knees are stretched and the hip is pushed out on the side opposite the one which supports the body weight. This position usually indicates that the god or goddess is in deep thought. There is also a dvibhanga (with two curves, i.e., hips and shoulders) and a tribhanga (with three curves, i.e., neck, shoulders, and hips). The latter two represent a beneficent mood. There is also an atibhanga which is the tribhanga with very sharp curves. The atibhanga indicates violent movements and, at times, actual violence. This posture is sometimes used to indicate Shiva in a destructive aspect.

Abhasvaras: (sáns. hindú). A class of deities, sixty-four in number. Very little is known about them.

Abhati: (sáns. hindú). (a "entirely" + bhati "beam") The light.

Abhava: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + bhava "existence") Nonexistence or absence.

Abhaya: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + bhaya "fear") 1. One who gives fearlessness. 2. Shiva's 504th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Abhayan: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + bhaya "fear") 1. The fearless. 2. One who does not produce fear in others.

Abheda Bodha Vakya: (sáns. hindú). (abheda "identity" + bodha "waking" + vakya "sentence, utterance") A sentence that is believed to awaken the supreme intelligence or ultimate truth.

Abhidhana: (sáns. hindú). A dictionary or vocabulary. There are many such works; however, one of the oldest of them is the Abhidhana ratna-mala of Halayudha-Bhatta (ca. 7 th century CE), and one of the best is the Abhidhana Cintamani of Hema-candra, a Jaina writer of the 13th century.

Abhijnana Shakuntalam: (sáns. hindú). A drama by Kalidasa entitled "Recognition of Shakuntala." See Shakuntala.

Abhimana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Pride. 2. Arrogance. 3. Self-seeking. 4. An ego that has identified itself with the body and believes itself to be a separate individual from the rest of the universe.

Abhimani: (sáns. hindú). 1. Agni, Brahma's oldest son. Brahma fathered three sons by his wife Svaha; Pavaka, Pavamana, and Shuchi. They had forty-five sons, who, with the original son of Brahma and his three descendants, constitute the forty-nine fires. 2. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for amorous games.

Abhimaniki: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for infatuation.

Abhimanyu: (sáns. hindú). Arjuna's son by his wife Su-bhadra, and known by the metronymic Saubhadra. He killed Lakshmana, the son of Duryodhana, on the second day of the great battle of the Mahabharata, but on the thirteenth day he himself died fighting heroically against terrible odds. According to tradition he was very handsome. His wife was Uttara, daughter of the Raja of Virata. His son, Parikshit, succeeded to the throne of Hastinapura.

Abhimukti: (sáns. hindú). Release from reincarnation. The cycle or birth and death continues only as long as desires are present. However, the desire to end desire is itself prohibitive in the attainment of Abhimukti.

Abhinivesha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Tendency. 2. Attraction; 3. Obsessive love of life, 4. Strong obsessive pursuit of a goal or an object.

Abhiplava: (sáns. hindú). A kind of Soma ceremony.

Abhira: (sáns. hindú). A cowherd who, according to Manu, is the offspring of a Brahmin by a woman of the Ambashtha or medical tribe, and are a people located in the north of India along the Indus. There has been a good deal of misunderstanding about this people. Hindu writers have described them as living in the north and in the west, the location varying according to the locality of the writer, and translators have mixed them up with a neighboring people, the Shudras, sometimes called Shuras, with whom they are generally associated, and have called them Surabhiras. Their modern representatives are believed to be the Ahira and perhaps there is something more than identity of locality in their association with the Shudras. It has been suggested that the country or city of the Abhiras is the Ophir of the Bible.

Abhirama: (sáns. hindú). 1. Charming. 2. Shiva's 447 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Abhirama: (sáns. hindú). Mani- A drama in seven acts on the history of Rama, written by Subdara Mishra in 1599 CE.

Abhiruci: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for affection.

Abhishekha: (sáns. hindú). The central ritual in the Vedic royal consecration ceremony. The ritual is to have auspicious water poured over the king to bestow authority and to invigorate him.

Abhivadya: (sáns. hindú). 1. One worthy of being saluted and honored. 2. Shiva's 256th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Abhivarta: (sáns. hindú). A hymn or offering for success.

Abhiyoga: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for meeting or devotion.

Abhu: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + bhu "to be, exist") 1. The unborn. 2. Vishnu's 437th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A name of Shiva.

Abhyamudra: (sáns. hindú). A hand position that is made with the hand raised with the palm facing outward. This mudra is used to indicate blessing, protection, and reassurance.

Abhyasa: (sáns. hindú). 1. Repetition, repeated activity, practice. 2. The practice of spiritual disciplines.

Abhyavartin Kayamana: (sáns. hindú). The name of a king in the Rigveda.

Abvniya Fire: (sáns. hindú). Fire established in the east.

Acala: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + cala "moving") 1. The immovable. 2. Mother Earth. 3. Shiva's 298 th and 657th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Acalacala: (sáns. hindú). 1. Unmoving like a mountain. 2. Shiva's 242 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Acalan: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + cala "moving") 1. The immovable. 2. Vishnu's 745th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Mountain.

Acancala: (sáns. hindú). 1. One who is not fickle. 2. Shiva's 571st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Accarila: (sáns. hindú). A term found in the Kama Sutra. The definition of accarila is uncertain.

Acamana: (sáns. hindú). 1. Purification of the mouth. 2. A puja (Hindu ceremony) when the worshiper symbolically cleanses not only what enters the mouth but also what leaves it, that is, one's speech. This is done by sipping and spitting out water. 3. Letting water trickle from the palm.

Acara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Rule 2. Custom. 3. Usage. 4. The rules of practice of castes, orders, or religion. There are many books of rules which have this word for the first member of their titles, as Acara-candrika, "moonlight of customs," on the customs of the Shudras; Acaradarsa, "looking-glass of customs;" Acara-dipa, "lamp of customs," etc. 5. Spiritual teacher or guide. 6. This title was given to Drona, the teacher of the Pandavas.

Acarya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Teacher. 2. Master. An Acarya is a spiritual master who not only has mastered the philosophical systems but also has realized the truths they contain. 3. A title of Drona, the teacher of the Pandavas. 4. The term is attached to the names of many great holy men.

Achavaka: (sáns. hindú). One of seven priests who officiate at a sacrifice. The other six are Hota, Maitra Varuna, Brahman Achansi, Pota, Neshtha and Agnidhra.

Acintya Shakti: (sáns. hindú). The imponderable, divine force held in a mantra. Believed to be incomprehensible by reason.

Acintya: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + cintya "thinkable") 1. The unthinkable. 2. Vishnu's 832nd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3.. Shiva's 783rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Acyuta: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + cyuta "lapsed, fallen") 1. Unfallen, 2. It has been variously interpreted as "he who does not perish with created things," in the Mahabharata as "he who is not distinct from final emancipation," and in the Skandapurana "he who never declines (or varies) from his proper nature." 3. The imperishable or unlapsing. 4. Vishnu's 100th and 318th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 5. A name of Krishna.

Adambha: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + dambha "deceit") 1. One devoid of haughtiness. 2. Shiva's 822nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. The second of twenty means to knowledge listed in the Bhagavad Gita.

Adarakhamirca: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra, for the Zingiber officinalis, commonly known as ginger.

Adarsha: (sáns. hindú). (a "besides, also" + darsha "seeing") 1. Mirror. 2. Image. 2. Copy. 3. The ideal.

Adbhuta Brahmana: (sáns. hindú). The Brahmana of miracles. A Brahmana of the Samaveda that deals with divinations, marvels, etc.

Adesha: (sáns. hindú). To direct something; to give an order; or to instruct. It is primarily the guru who gives directions for following the spiritual path and for overcoming difficulties along the way. The Natha sect uses this word as a greeting.

Adhara: (sáns. hindú). 1. A container. 2. The form of the manifestation of consciousness, the psychophysiological instrument of the body and mind, which consists of the five sheaths (kosha) that contain absolute consciousness (Atman). 3. The lower lip. 4. Lower. Shiva's 712th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 5. Support. Shiva's 845th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Adharma: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + dharma "righteousness") 1. Unrighteousness 2. Vice. 3. A condition that arises through ignorance; personified as a son of Brahma, and called "the destroyer of all beings." (In Hinduism the concept of "good versus evil" are exchanged for a concept of knowledge (vidya) versus ignorance (avidya).) The characteristics of adharma are idleness (tamas) and greed (rajas).

Adharmashatru: (sáns. hindú). 1. Enemy of sin. 2. Shiva's 607th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Adhavaniya: (sáns. hindú). One of the three large Soma receptacles; the other two being the dronakalasha and the putabhrit.

Adhiatmika: (sáns. hindú). Something that is spiritual; one of the triple miseries: Spiritual, Adhiatmika; Physical, Adhibhautika; Elemental (Astral), Adhidaivika.

Adhibhautika: (sáns. hindú). Something that is material and/or physical. One of the triple miseries: Spiritual, Adhiatmika; Physical, Adhibhautika; Elemental (Astral), Adhidaivika.

Adhibute-See Adhidaiva.

Adhidaiva: (sáns. hindú). In the Bhagavad Gita Arjuna asked Krishna, "Who is Brahman? Who is Atman? And What is Karma?" to explain these terms to him, Krishna replied that the ground of all created things (adhibuta) is mutable nature, whereas the ground of the divine elements (adhidaiva) is the cosmic soul.

Adhidaivata: (sáns. hindú). See Adhidevata.

Adhidaivika: (sáns. hindú). Something that is elemental (astral). One of the triple miseries: Spiritual, Adhiatmika; Physical, Adhibhautika; Elemental (Astral), Adhidaivika.

Adhidevata: (sáns. hindú). 1. A divinity whom one calls on for protection. 2. The presiding deity.

Adhiguna: (sáns. hindú). (adhi "superior" + guna "virtue") Highly virtuous.

Adhimatra: (sáns. hindú). 1. The imponderable. 2. God. 3. The Absolute (brahman).

Adhiratha: (sáns. hindú). A charioteer. The foster-father of Karna, some sources claim he was king of Anga, and others claim he was the charioteer of King Dhritarashtra. It is possible that he was both.

Adhishthanam: (sáns. hindú). 1. The basic support. 2. Shiva's 397th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Adhokshaja: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Vishnu. 2. Shiva's 911th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Adhoratamaithuna: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for sodomy.

Adhrigu: (sáns. hindú). 1. A Rishi. 2. A prince (in the Rigveda).

Adhrita: (sáns. hindú). 1. One who is not held. 2. Shiva's 996 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Adhvara: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda, a primary essential sacrificial ceremony such as the Agnishtoma.

Adhvaryu: (sáns. hindú). One of the four classes of priests in the Vedas. The other three classes being Hotri, Udgatri, and Brahman. The duties of the Adhvaryu is to measure the ground for the sacrifice, building the altar, arranging the vessels, obtaining wood and water for the sacrifice, to light the fire, to procure the animal and offer it. The priest must repeat the hymns of the Yajurveda while he is performing the foregoing duties.

Adhyaropa: (sáns. hindú). 1. False covering, a facade. 2. A misperception of reality. Shankara gives the example of a rope that in the darkness is believed to be a snake. This error, which results from ignorance (avidya), is unremittingly alluded to in Advaita Vedanta. The second chapter of Sadananda's Vedantasara is devoted to this topic.

Adhyasa: (sáns. hindú). Misperception. Shankara claims in his commentary of the Brahma Sutras that adhyasa is thinking that which is not; a superimposition. See also vikshepa.

Adhyatman: (sáns. hindú). (adhi "superior" + atman "Self") The Supreme Self. The supreme Spirit, the soul of the universe.

Adhyatma Ramayana: (sáns. hindú). A very popular work that is considered to be a part of the Brahmandapurana. The poem contains 4,200 double verses and combines Tantric doctrines with the morality of the Ramayana.

Adhyatma Yoga: (sáns. hindú). (adhyatma "the supreme Atman, the supreme Self") 1. A yogic discipline that overcomes identification with the body and mind and produces the knowledge that the Self (Atman) is absolute consciousness and identical with brahman. 2. A philosophical school in the tradition of Shankara.

Adhyatmayoganilaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having his abode in spiritual yoga. 2. Shiva's 200th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Adhyatmika: (sáns. hindú). The path leading toward knowledge of the Self; also, the inner experience of an individual on the journey from mortality to immortality.

Adhyatmik: (sáns. hindú). Something that is spiritual. One of the triple miseries: Spiritual, Adhiatmika; Physical, Adhibhautika; Elemental (Astral); Adhidaivika.

Adi: (sáns. hindú). The first or primeval.

Adideva: (sáns. hindú). (adi "primeval" + deva "god") 1. The primeval God. 2 Vishnu's 334th and 490th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Adikavi: (sáns. hindú). (adi "first" + kavi "poet"). 1. The first poet. 2. Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana.

Adinatha: (sáns. hindú). (adi "primeval" + natha "master") 1. The primeval master. 2. A name of Shiva.

Adipurana: (sáns. hindú). The first Purana, a title generally given to the Brahmapurana.

Adipurusha: (sáns. hindú). (adi "primeval" + purusha "soul") The Primeval Presiding Male or Embodied Spirit.

Adiraja: (sáns. hindú). (adi "first" + raja "king") 1. The first king. 2. A name of Manu, the son of Surya, the Sun-God.

Aditi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The boundless. 2. Spouse of Rishi Kasyapa. 3. The 21st of the 108 names of the Lakshmi. 4. Infinity; the boundless heaven as compared with the finite earth; or, according to Max Müller, "the visible infinite, visible by the naked eye; the endless expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky." In the Rigveda Aditi is frequently implored "for blessings on children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness." Aditi is called Devamatri, "mother of the gods," and is represented as being the mother of Daksha and the daughter of Daksha. On this statement Yaska remarks in the Nirukta: "How can this be possible? They may have had the same origin; or, according to the nature of the gods, they may have been born from each other, have derived their substance from one another." "Eight sons were born from the body of Aditi; She approached the gods with seven but cast away the eighth, Marttanda (the sun)." These seven were the Adityas. In the Yajurveda Aditi is addressed as "Supporter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, sovereign of this world, wife of Vishnu;" but in the Mahabharata and Ramayana, as well as in the Puranas, Vishnu is called the son of Aditi. In the Vishnupurana she is said to be the daughter of Daksha and wife of Kashyapa, by whom she was mother of Vishnu, in his dwarf incarnation (that is why he is sometimes called Aditya), and also of Indra, and she is called "the mother of the gods" and "the mother of the world" Indra acknowledged her as mother, and Vishnu, after receiving the adoration of Aditi, addressed her in these words: "Mother, goddess, please show favor toward me and grant me your blessing." According to the Matsyapurana a pair of earrings was produced at the churning of the ocean, which Indra gave to Aditi, and several of the Puranas tell a story of these earrings being stolen and carried off to the city of Pragjyotisha by the Asura king Naraka. Krishna recovered the earrings for her. Devaki, the mother of Krishna, is represented as being a new birth or manifestation of Aditi. 5. Inviolable. 6. One of the eleven qualities a woman (wife) should possess. The other ten are: Ida, Praiseworthy; Ratna. Delightful; Havya, Worshipful; Kamya, Lovable; Candra, Pleasure-giving; Jyoti, Well known for good behavior; Sarasvati, Full of knowledge; Mahi, Adorable; Vishruti, Knower of the Vedas; Aghanya, worthy of respect (veneration). 7. A female spirit from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, that serves an inauspicious function and is described as being fierce and a threat to young children and pregnant women. For further details see Vinata.

Aditya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The son of Aditi (i.e. the Sun). 2. Vishnu's 40th and 563rd names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. In the Vedas, Aditya is identical at times with Savitri or Surya. As the source of light, warmth, and growth, the sun god is universally revered. To those of deeper vision, Aditya is the symbol of the light of enlightenment, described in the Upanishads as "brighter than a thousand suns." 4. Aditya may refer to an analogy of the one sun being reflected a many in several waterpots with the one Self being reflected as many in various bodies. 5. Sun. 6. Shiva's 583rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 7. In the early Vedic times the Adityas were six, or more frequently seven, celestial deities, of whom Varuna was chief, consequently he was the Aditya. They were sons of Aditi who had eight sons, but she approached the gods with seven, having cast away the eighth, Marttanda (the sun). In after-times the number was increased to twelve, as representing the sun in the twelve months of the year. Aditya is one of the names of the sun. Muir quoted the following from Roth. "There (in the highest heaven) dwell and reign those gods who bear in common the name of Adityas. We must, however if we Would discover their earliest character, abandon the conceptions which in a later age, and even in that of the heroic poems, were entertained regarding these deities. According to this conception they were twelve sun-gods, bearing evident reference to the twelve months. But for the most ancient period we must hold fast the primary signification of their name. They are the inviolable, imperishable, eternal beings. Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the element which sustains or is sustained by them . . . The eternal and inviolable element in which the Adityas dwell, and which forms their essence, is the celestial light. The Adityas, the gods of this light, do not therefore by any means coincide with any of the forms in which light is manifested in the universe. They are neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, but the eternal sustainers of this luminous life, which exists, as it were, behind all these phenomena." The names of the six Adityas are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuna, Daksha, and Ansha. Daksha is frequently excluded, and Indra, Savitri (the sun) and Dhatri are added. Those of the twelve Adityas are variously given, but many of them are names of the sun.

Aditya Brahmacari: (sáns. hindú). One who observes the vow of celibacy for forty-eight years.

Adityapurana: (sáns. hindú). One of the eighteen Upa-puranas.

Adityavarna: (sáns. hindú). Light of the color of the sun, perceived in a spiritual vision. A fact of spiritual experience.

Adrija: (sáns. hindú). (adri "mountain" + ja "born") 1. The mountain-born. 2. A name of Parvati

Adripati: (sáns. hindú). (adri "mountain" + pati "lord") The Lord of the mountains; i.e., Himavan or Himalaya.

Adriraja: (sáns. hindú). (adri "mountain" + raja "king") 1. The king of mountains; i.e., Himavan or Himalaya.

Adrirajalaya: (sáns. hindú). One who has his residence on the king of mountains. Shiva's 293rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Advaita: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + dvaita "dual") A state that can be ascribed only to God. It is not accessible to reason, for the ego-bound mind in the waking condition cannot step out of the duality of the subject-object relationship. The concept of nonduality has acquired meaning in the West through the latest discoveries of quantum physics. The type of Vedanta which denies the reality of difference, holding that the only reality is the one distinctionless Brahman. It is the most widely known of the Hindu philosophical systems. So prominent is the philosophy that it is sometimes taken to be the only Vedanta, or even the only kind of Indian philosophy. Advaita is to be contrasted with other Vedantic systems through its unique hypothesis of a projective ignorance (avidya or maya) which causes the world of manifold distinctions to appear to us in accordance with our karmic residues. It emphasizes the path of knowledge rather than action or devotion as the key to liberation. The chief exponents of the Advaita philosophy were Gaudapada and Shankaracarya.

Advaitananda: (sáns. hindú). The ecstasy of knowing the Absolute; therefore, absolute ecstasy.

Advaita Vedanta: (sáns. hindú). One of the three systems of thought in Vedanta; its most important exponent is Shankara. Advaita Vedanta teaches that the manifest creation, the soul, and God are identical. Just as particle physicists have discovered that matter consists of continually moving fields of energy, so the sages (Rishis) of Vedanta recognized that reality consists of energy in the form of consciousness (cit) and that human begins perceive a gross universe by means of gross senses, because of identification with the ego-limited body. That which is real and unchanging is superimposed in the mind (vikshepa) by the notion of an ever-changing manifest world of names and shapes (namarupa). Shankara's best-known example is the piece of rope that in the dark is mistaken for a snake. Anxiety, repugnance, heart palpitations are induced by a snake that was never born and never will die, but that exists only in one's mind. Once the rope is recognized under light as a rope, it cannot turn back into a snake. The initial error involves not only ignorance of what is, but also the superimposition (vikshepa) of a notion that has nothing to do with what is. Advaita teaches that we in our ignorance continually superimpose the idea "snake" (the manifest world) on the "rope" (brahman). In a Sanskrit verse, Shankara says: "May this one sentence proclaim the essence of a thousand books: Brahman alone is real, the world is appearance, the individual soul is nothing but brahman."

Adya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The first or primeval (Goddess). 2. Mother Earth. 3. A name of Durga.

Adya Shakti: (sáns. hindú). 1. The primal power, the original energy; 2. The supreme, divine consciousness or divine omnipotence, which permeates all worlds; 3. An epithet for the Divine Mother (Shakti).

Agama: (sáns. hindú). 1. Source of the Teaching. 2. A term referring generally to scripture; 3. A Tantra or other work having to do with the mystical worship of Shiva and his Shakti; 4. An oral or written demonstration. Generally, in the religions of India, a tradition's sacred scripture or body of teachings, handed down by an unbroken line of teachers. In Jainism it is, together with the term Siddhanta ("established teachings"), the most general designation for the canonical texts, while in Buddhism it is employed most distinctively for those portions of the Sanskrit canon (preserved in Chinese translation) that correspond to the Pali nikayas. Within Hindu religion it designates, primarily a class of post-Vedic sectarian Sanskrit scriptures, basically ritualistic in character and believed to have been revealed by one of the personal deities, Vishnu, Shiva, or the goddess. While the terms Tantra and Samhita are often used synonymously with Agama, in some contexts it is convenient to employ them to distinguish the three major Hindu streams of Agamic or Tantric religion. Thus Agama can be used for Shaiva texts devoted to Shiva and forming the scriptural basis for such traditions as Shaiva Siddhanta, the Lingayats, and Kashmir Shaivism; Samhita for Vaishnava ones dedicated to Vishnu, such as the Pancaratra works utilized by the Sri Vaisnavas and others; and Tantra for the Shakta texts governing the worship of the Goddess or Shakti. These sectarian scriptures and traditions become increasingly influential throughout the first millennium CE, with the earliest extant Agamas generally being placed in the fifth century, although some would date them several centuries later. In the general historical development of the Hindu religion, the Agamas as a class of scriptures follow upon the classes of Shruti (the eternal Vedic revelation) and Smriti (Vedic traditional literature of human authorship). They continue the emphasis on Bhakti or popular devotional worship of personal deities found in such Smriti texts as the Puranas. Seen as new revelations for the present age or Kali Yuga, they are held equal in authority to the Shruti or Veda, both being based upon the faultless consciousness of the Godhead. Their rise coincides with the growth in importance of temples housing divine images, and the Agamas are essentially the ritual texts that govern the worship (puja) and other devotional practices (sadhana) associated with these temples and centering on the realization of the various gods and goddesses enshrined in them. While differing in many details, the Agamas represent a definite genre (style) of literature. Theoretically, an Agama should have four sections dealing respectively with (1.) Knowledge (vidya) of the Godhead and its relation to the manifest universe; (2.) Meditative discipline (yoga) or techniques for concentrating on divine images or forms, especially by means of mantras or sacred formulas; (3.) Action (kriya) such as the building of temples and the making and consecrating of images; and (4.) Conduct (carya) or rules for daily worship and festivals, social behavior, etc. While most of the Agamas do not in fact conform to this pattern, they are united by their practical concern with the external ritual worship of divine images in temples and home temples and the techniques for internal "mental worship" and realization of the divine forms.

Agamikarma: (sáns. hindú). Future karma, which arises through one's present actions and desires and must work itself out according to the law of causality. A further distinction is made between prarabdha karma (karma already initiated and now playing itself out) and sancita karma (previously accumulated karma that has yet to be played out). The particular significance of agami karma lies in the fact that one can influence one's own future through present actions and desires.

Agasti: (sáns. hindú). See Agastya.

Agastya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The mountain-thrower. 2. Shiva's 637 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A Rishi, the reputed author of several hymns in the Rigveda, and a very celebrated personage in Hindu story. He and Vasishtha are said in the Rigveda to be the offspring of Mitra and Varuna, whose seed fell from them at the sight of Urvashi; and the commentator Sayana adds that Agastya was born in a water-jar as "a fish of great lustre," whence he was called Kalashi-suta, Kumbha-sambhava, and Ghatodbhava. From his parentage he was called Maitra-varuni and Aurvashiya; and as he was very small when he was born, not more than a span in length, he was called Mana. Though he is thus associated in his birth with Vasishtha, he is evidently later in date, and he is not one of the Prajapatis. His name, Agastya, is derived by a forced etymology from a fable which represents him as having commanded the Vindhya mountains to prostrate themselves before him, through which they lost their primeval altitude; or rather, perhaps, the fable has been invented to account for his name. This miracle has obtained for him the epithet Vindhya-kutsa; and he acquired another name, Pitabdhi, or Samudra-chuluka, "Ocean drinker," from another fable, According to which he drank up the ocean because it had offended him, and because he wished to help the gods in their wars with the Daityas when the latter had hidden themselves in the waters. He was afterwards made regent of the star Canopus, which bears his name. The Puranas represent him as being the son of Pulastya, the sage from whom the Rakshasas sprang. He was one of the narrators of the Brahmapurana and also a writer on medicine. The Mahabharata relates a legend respecting the creation of his wife. It says that Agastya saw his ancestors suspended by their heels in a pit, and was told by them that they could be rescued only by his begetting a son. Thereupon he formed a girl out of the most graceful parts of different animals and passed her secretly into the palace of the king of Vidarbha. There the child grew up as a daughter of the king, and was demanded in marriage by Agastya Much against his will the king was constrained to consent, and she became the wife of that sage. She was named Lopamudra, because the animals had been subjected to loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive beauties; as the eyes of the deer, etc. She was also called Kaushitaki and Vara-prada. The same poem also tells a story exhibiting his superhuman power, by which he turned King Nahusha into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his proper form. See Nahusha. It is in the Ramayana that Agastya makes the most distinguished figure. He dwelt in a hermitage on Mount Kanjura, situated in a most beautiful country to the south of the Vindhya mountains, and was chief of the hermits of the south. He kept the Rakshasa who infested the south under control, so that the country was "only gazed upon and not possessed by them." The Ramayana has a story which narrates how Agastya killed the two cannibal demons, Vatapi and Ilvala. The demons would invite Brahmin sages for dinner, and Vatapi would become a ram whom Ilvala would cook and feed to the Brahmins. After the dinner, Ilvala would call his brother, who would resume his demon form and burst out of the Brahmin's belly. Agastya was also invited by the brothers and was fed the ram's meat, but, unlike the other Brahmins, he was strong enough to digest it. He then killed Ilvala as well, thus making the southern part of India safe for Brahmins. (See Vatapati.) Rama in his exile wandered to the hermitage of Agastya with Sita and Lakshmana. The sage received him with the greatest kindness, and became his friend, adviser, and protector. He gave him the Bow of Vishnu; and when Rama was restored to his kingdom, the sage accompanied him to Ayodhya. The name of Agastya holds a great place also in Tamil literature, and he is "venerated in the south as the first teacher of science and literature to the primitive Draividian tribes;" so says Caldwell, who thinks "we shall not greatly err in placing the era of Agastya in the seventh, or at least in the sixth century B.C." Wilson also had previously testified to the same effect: "The traditions of the south of India ascribe to Agastya a principal share in the formation of the Tamil language and literature, and the general tenor of the legends relating to him denotes his having been instrumental in the introduction of the Hindu religion and literature into the Peninsula." He taught Rama the famous "Hymn to the Sun," Aditya Hridaya Stotra, before Ravana was killed.

Aghanya: (sáns. hindú). Worthy of respect (veneration). One of the eleven qualities a woman (wife) should possess. The other ten are: Ida, Praiseworthy; Ratna, Delightful; Havya, Worshipful; Kamya, Lovable; Candra, Pleasure-giving; Jyoti, Well known for good behavior; Aditi, Inviolable; Sarasvati, Full of knowledge; Mahi, Adorable; Vishruti, Knower of the Vedas.

Aghashva: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda, the name or epithet of Pedu who was a royal Rishi that was protected by the Ashvins.

Aghasura: (sáns. hindú). (agha "misdeed, impurity" + a "not" + sura "god") An Asura who was Kansha's general. He assumed the form of a vast serpent, and Krishna's companions, the cowherds, entered its mouth, mistaking it for a mountain cavern and Krishna had to rescued them.

Aghasva: (sáns. hindú). A snake that attacks by hurling itself on its opponent.

Aghoti: (sáns. hindú). A yogi. See sadhus.

Agnayi: (sáns. hindú). An early Vedic goddess who was the consort of Agni. She is seldom alluded to in the Veda and is not of any significant importance.

Agneya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Agni, a name of Karttikeya or Mars; also an appellation of the Muni Agastya and others.

Agneyapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Agnipurana.

Agneyastra: (sáns. hindú). Weapon of fire. This weapon was given by Bharadvaja to Agnivesha, the son of Agni, and by him to Drona. A similar weapon was, according to the Vishnupurana, given by the sage Aurva to his pupil King Sagara, and with it he conquered the tribes of barbarians who had invaded his patrimonial possessions.

Agni: (sáns. hindú). 1. He is the inner "heat" (tapas) generated by yogic austerities. He is often depicted using a goat (the sacrificial animal) as his mount or with a goat's head with flames behind it. Agni is believed by many to be the mediator between gods and mortals; he is the embodiment of the sacrifice; the divine priest who understands the ways of both heaven and earth. Agni appears in three phases-in heaven as the sun, in mid-air as lightning, on earth as ordinary fire. Agni is one of the chief deities of the Vedas, and great numbers of the hymns are addressed to him, more than to any other god. He is one of the three great deities-Agni, Vayu (Indra), and Surya-who respectively preside over earth, air, and sky, and are all equal in dignity. "He is considered as the mediator between men and gods, as protector of men and their homes, and as witness of their actions; hence his invocation at all solemn occasions, at the marriage ceremony, etc. Fire has ceased to be an object of worship, but is held in honor for the part it performs in sacrifices Agni is represented as having seven tongues, each of which has a distinct name, for licking up the butter used in sacrifices. He is guardian of the southeast quarter, being one of the eight lokapalas, and his region is called Purajyotis. In a celebrated hymn of the Rigveda attributed to Vasishtha, Indra and other gods are called upon to destroy the Kravyads (the flesh-eaters), or Rakshas enemies of the gods. Agni himself is also a Kravyad, and as such he takes on an entirely different character. He is represented under a form as hideous as the beings he is invoked to devour. He sharpens his two iron tusks, puts his enemies into his mouth and swallows them. He heats the edges of his shafts and sends them into the hearts of the Rakshas "He appears in the progress of mythological personification as a son of Angiras, as a king of the Pitris or Manes, as a Marut, as a grandson of Sandila, as one of the seven sages or Rishis, during the reign of Tamasa the fourth Manu," and as a star. In the Mahabharata, Agni is represented as having exhausted his vigor by devouring too many oblations, and desiring to consume the whole Khandava forest as a means of regaining his strength. He was prevented by Indra, but having obtained the assistance of Krishna and Arjuna, he battled Indra and accomplished his object. In the Vishnupurana he is called Abhimani, and the oldest son of Brahma. His wife was Svaha; by her he had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and Suci, and these had forty-five sons; altogether forty-nine persons, identical with the forty-nine fires, which the Vayupurana endeavors to discriminate. Agni is described in the Hari-vansha as clothed in black, having smoke for his standard and head-piece, and carrying a flaming javelin. He has four hands, and rides in a chariot drawn by red horses, and the seven winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied by a ram, and sometimes he is represented riding it. The representations of him vary. The names and epithets of Agni are many-Vahni, Anala, Pavaka, Vaishvanara, son of Vishvanara, the sun; Abjahasta, "lotus in hand;".

Dhumaketu, "whose sign is smoke;" Hutasha or Hutabhuj, "devourer of offerings;" Shuci or Shukra, "the bright;" Rohitasva, "having red horses;" cagaratha, "ram-rider;" Jatavedas; Saptajihva, "seven-tongued;" Tomaradhara, "javelin-bearer." 2. In the symbols of Hinduism Agni (fire) is indicated with a torch. It is a symbol of destruction, which is a symbol of the creation of new life. The torch is seen particularly with Shiva, Durga, Kali, and Agni.

Agnicayana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The preparation of the sacred hearth. 2. A ritual intended to insure the success of crops.

Agnida: (sáns. hindú). Bestower of fire. Shiva's 326 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Agni Dagdhas: (sáns. hindú). Pitris or Manes who when alive kept up the household flame and presented oblations with fire. Those who did not do so were called An-agni dagdhas.

Agnidhra: (sáns. hindú). The priest who kindles fire. One of seven priests who officiate at the sacrifice. The other six are Hota, Maitra Varuna, Brahman Achansi, Pota, Neshtha and Achavaka.

Agnihotra: (sáns. hindú). 1. A daily ritual of a morning and evening milk oblation to Agni; 2. The essence of the ritual, understood beyond the mere enactment of the rite, which in reality serves to prepare and sustain the practice of contemplation. The Agnihotra is of two kinds: nitya, which is performed at dawn daily with milk, oil and sour gruel; and the other, kamya i.e., optional. which is meant to obtain a desired object.

Agni Jatavedas: (sáns. hindú). The fire of the forces of consciousness, described as the "knower of all births." It is the absolute consciousness which as mental fire gives energy to the intellect and enables it to observe the comings and goings of maya.

Agnimantha: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Premna spinata.

Agnimaruta: (sáns. hindú). A ceremony in which Agni is worshipped first and then the Maruts.

Agnipranayana: (sáns. hindú). The ceremony of carrying the sacrificial fire to the altar used for animal and Soma sacrifices.

Agnipurana: (sáns. hindú). A Purana that derives its name from its having been communicated originally by Agni, the deity of fire, to the Muni Vasishtha, for the purpose of instructing him in the twofold knowledge of Brahma. Its contents are variously specified as "sixteen thousand, fifteen thousand, and fourteen thousand stanzas." The work is devoted to the glorification of Shiva, but its contents are of a very varied and cyclopedic character. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, cosmical descriptions, and chapters on the duties of kings and the art of war, which appear to have been extracted from some older work, a chapter on law from the textbook of Yajnavalkya, some chapters on medicine from the Sushruta, and some treatises on rhetoric, the metrical structure of verse, and grammar according to the rules of Pingala and Panini.

Agnis: (sáns. hindú). Agni in various forms.

Agnishvattas: (sáns. hindú). Pitris or Manes of the gods, who when living upon the earth did not maintain their domestic fires or offer burnt sacrifices. According to some authorities they were descendants of Marichi. They are also identifies with the seasons. See Pitris.

Agni Soma: (sáns. hindú). The two gods, Agni and Soma, as a dual deity. There are other dual deities but the most prominent are Indra Varuna, Indra Vayu, Indra Agni, Indra Brihaspati, Indra Soma, Mitra Varuna, Indra Pushan, Indra Vishnu, Dyaus Prithivi and Soma Rudra.

Agni Vaishvanara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Agni as he relates to humankind. 2. The universal divine consciousness in which all worlds, people, and gods are held.

Agnivesha: (sáns. hindú). A sage, the son of Agni, and an early writer on medicine.

Agnivesi: (sáns. hindú). Satri, the son of Agnivesha.

Agrani: (sáns. hindú). The leader. Shiva's 893rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Agrayana: (sáns. hindú). A certain Soma libation.

Agru: (sáns. hindú). A name of a woman in the Rigveda whose son was hidden in an ant-hill and rescued by Indra. Indra also restored his sight and mended his broken bones.

Aguru: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for aloes.

Ahah: (sáns. hindú). Day. Shiva's 307th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ahalya: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + halya "ugly") 1. The unugly. 2. Beauty personified. 3. The wife of the Rishi Gautama, and a very beautiful woman. In the Ramayana it is stated that she was the first woman made by Brahma, and that he gave her to Gautama. She was seduced by Indra, who had to suffer for his adultery. One version of the Ramayana represents her as knowing the god and being flattered by his non-superior attitude; but another version states that the god assumed the form of her husband, and deceived her. Another story is that Indra secured the help of the moon, who assumed the form of a cock and crowed at midnight. This roused Gautama to his morning's devotions and when Gautama was gone, Indra went in and took his place. Gautama expelled Ahalya from his hermitage, and deprived her of her prerogative of being the most beautiful woman in the world, or, according to another statement, he rendered her invisible. She was restored to her natural state by Rama and reconciled to her husband. This seduction is explained mythically by Kumarila Bhatta as Indra (the sun's) carrying away the shades of night-the name Ahalya, by a strained etymology, being made to signify "night."

Aham Ajnah: (sáns. hindú). "I am the unknown.".

Aham Brahman Asmi: (sáns. hindú). "I am brahman." One of the mahavakyas, the great precepts of the Vedas. It proclaims the absolute identity of the Self with brahman. Aham is the true "I" (Atman) of every human being and must be distinguished from ahamkara (I-consciousness).

Ahamkara: (sáns. hindú). 1. Ego or I-consciousness, a part of the antahkarana, the inner organ, which gives rise to all mental processes. Ahamkara is the motivator of thought that creates the notion that one is a unique entity separate from everything else. This subject-object duality gives rise to the illusory view whereby we see in brahman, the One without a second, the manifest world of multiple forms (maya). All perceptions, feelings, desires, and acts of will are naturally and automatically related to ahamkara. 2. Shiva's 705th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ahampratyaya: (sáns. hindú). A modification in the mind that results in I-consciousness. It consists in the belief (pratyaya) that one is the body and mind, so that the mind employs the absolute consciousness to create thought projections, all of which are associated with "I" (aham).

Ahankar: (sáns. hindú). Egotism.

Aharpati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the day. Shiva's 473rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Aharyaraga: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for affection born of habit.

Ahavaniya: (sáns. hindú). The eastern sacrificial fire.

Ahi: (sáns. hindú). A serpent. A name of Vritra, the Vedic demon of drought: but Ahi and Vritra are sometimes distinct, and mean, most probably, differently formed clouds.

Ahibudhnya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The dragon of the deep. 2. Regent of the sea of air.

Ahichatra: (sáns. hindú). A city mentioned in the Mahabharata as lying north of the Ganges, and as being the capital of Northern Pancala It is apparently the Adisadra of Ptolemy, and its remains are visible near Ramnagar.

Ahi Kshetra: (sáns. hindú). See Ahichatra.

Ahimayasah: (sáns. hindú). Being as wise as serpents.

Ahimsa: (sáns. hindú). (a "non" + himsa "violence, injury") 1. Abstinence from injury of any living creature through thought, word, or deed; one of the five virtues on the first step (yama) of Raja Yoga, as stipulated in the Yoga Sutra of Patañjali; together these form the "Great Vow" (Mahavrata).

Ahishuva: (sáns. hindú). A demon of the air.

Ahura: (sáns. hindú). Iranian equivalent of Asura.

Ahuti: (sáns. hindú). An oblation.

Aikya: (sáns. hindú). Unity or Oneness.

Aila: (sáns. hindú). A name for Pururavas, son of Ila, who was the daughter of Manu.

Aindravayava: (sáns. hindú). A libation to Indra and Vayu.

Aindri: (sáns. hindú). 1. "Son of Indra." An appellation of Arjuna. 2. She who belongs to the powerful (Indra). 3. The power (Goddess). 4. A name of Saci or Indrani, spouse of Indra. 5. A Matrika. The shakti of Indra who was made manifest to aid Devi in a battle against the demons Shumbha and Nishumbha. For further details see Brahmani. In the Varahapurana Aindri is attributed with the emotion of jealousy.

Airavata: (sáns. hindú). 1.A fine elephant. 2. An elephant produced at the churning of the ocean, and appropriated by the god Indra. The derivation of this name is referred to the word "Iravat," signifying "produced from water." He is guardian of one of the points of the compass.

Aishvara: (sáns. hindú). 1. That person who belongs to Ishvara, the Lord. 2. The Lordly; sovereign.

Aishvara Yoga: (sáns. hindú). the divine unity of which the Bhagavad Gita speaks, in which the Divine is one with all existence but as Ishvara transcends all existence. Aishvara is the adjective form of Ishvara.

Aishvarya: (sáns. hindú). Sovereignty, majesty, wealth, supremacy. One of the six characteristics of Ishvara, the personal God.

Aitareya: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Brahmana, an Aranyaka, and a Upanishad of the Rigveda. The Aitareya Aranyaka consists of five books, each of which is called Aranyaka. Weber stated that, "The second and third books form a separate Upanishad, and a still further subdivision here takes place, inasmuch as the four last sections of the second book, which are particuIarly consonant with the doctrines of the Vedanta system, pass as the Aitareyopanishad."

Aitreya: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Rishi Atri.

Aiyai: (sáns. hindú). A goddess depicted in the Tamil epic Shilappadiharam as being worshipped by hunters and adorned with snakes, the teeth from tigers, a leopard skin, and is armed with a bow. Aiyai is offered blood sacrifices and especially likes the blood that flows from the severed heads of her devotees.

Aiyanar: (sáns. hindú). A Tamil word which is the name of a tutelary village deity popular in South India. Unlike the typical goddess who protects South Indian villages he receives only pure, vegetarian offerings. His connection with Brahmanical Hinduism is seen in the myth which regards him as the offspring of Mohini and Shiva. At the churning of the ocean, Vishnu appeared as Mohini, the Enchantress, and Shiva was enraptured with her voluptuous beauty and they joined in coitus.

Aja: (sáns. hindú). (a "non" + ja "born") 1. Vishnu's 95th, 204th and 521st names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 2. An epithet applied to many of the gods. 3. A prince of the Solar race, sometimes said to be the son of Raghu, at others the grandson of Raghu through his son Dilipa. Indumati, daughter of Raja of Vidarbha, chose him as her husband at her svayamvara. As a result of this union, Aja was the father of Dasharatha and grandfather of Rama. The Raghuvansa relates how on his way to the svayamvara Aja was annoyed by a wild elephant and ordered it to be shot. When the elephant was mortally wounded, a beautiful figure issued from it, which declared itself a gandharva who had been transformed into a mad elephant for deriding a holy man. The gandharva was delivered, as it had been foretold to him, by Aja, and he gave the prince some arrows which enabled him to excel in the contest at the svayamvara. When Dasharatha grew up, Aja ascended to Indra's heaven. 3. Maya, the veiling power of God. 4. Unborn. Shiva's 316th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Aja Ekapad: (sáns. hindú). In the Rigveda, the "Unborn one footed," the Sun.

Ajagava: (sáns. hindú). The primitive bow of Shiva, which fell from heaven at the birth of Prithu.

Ajamila: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman of Kanauj, who married a slave.

Ajamil: (sáns. hindú). The name of a devotee mentioned in the Bhagavatapurana. Ajamil attained liberation through chanting the Lord's name.

Ajamoda: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Priminella involucrata.

Ajanma: (sáns. hindú). Unborn.

Ajapa Mantra: (sáns. hindú). The involuntary repetition of a mantra, a sacred formula. According to the view of Hatha Yoga, every creature unconsciously utters a prayer along with the sound of its inward and outward breath, in the form, respectively, of SO'HAM, "He am I," and HAMSA, "I am He."

Ajara: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + jara "wearing out") The undecaying; the forever youthful.

Ajata-shatru: (sáns. hindú). One whose enemy is unborn. 1. A king of Kashi, mentioned in the Upanishads, who was very learned, and, although a Kshatriya, instructed the Brahman Gargyabalaki. 2. Shiva's 134 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A name of Yudhishthira. 4. A king of Mathura who reigned in the time of Buddha.

Ajaya-pala: (sáns. hindú). Author of a Sanskrit vocabulary.

Ajaya: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + jaya "conquered") 1. The unconquered. 2. Truth.

Ajigartta: (sáns. hindú). A Brahman Rishi who sold his son Shunahshephas to be a sacrifice. The story is told in the Aitareya Brahmana and in a condensed form is as follows: A king named Harish-candra, worshipped Varuna in order to obtain a son. Becoming rather impatient, the king promised Varuna that he would sacrifice his first-born to him. Later a son was born to the king and was named Rohita. The king delayed the sacrifice until Rohita grew up and then Rohita is informed of the commitment. Rohita was distraught and refused to be a sacrifice and spent several years in the forest away from home. There, after a long wait, he met Ajigartta, a Rishi in great distress, and persuaded the Rishi to part with his second son, Shunahshephas, to be offered as a substitute to Varuna. Shunahshephas was about to be sacrificed when, by the advice of Vishvamitra, one of the officiating priests, he appealed to the Gods and was liberated. Several hymns of the Rigveda are attributed to Shunahshephas.

Ajita: (sáns. hindú). Unconquered. A title given to Vishnu, Shiva, and many others. There were classes of gods bearing this name in several Manvantaras.

Ajivikas: (sáns. hindú). A sect of wandering ascetics that emerged about the same time as Buddhism. Their most famous saint was Maskarin Goshala who believed that the sole force in the universe was fate (niyati). He postulated that all attempts made by an individual to attain moksha were useless because everything, even their attempts, were predestined.

Ajna Cakra: (sáns. hindú). One of the seven mystical circles or diagrams described by the Tantras. See Cakras.

Ajnadhara: (sáns. hindú). Support of behests. Shiva's 439th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Ajnana: (sáns. hindú). Ignorance. 1. The term refers neither to a lack of knowledge at the empirical level nor to a lack of facts regarding the manifest world, but to the condition in which one takes oneself to be a mortal body and does not know that one, as the Self, is absolute consciousness (brahman). The consequences of ajnana are the same as those of avidya. The opposite of ignorance is jnana. 2. According to Non-dualistic Vedanta philosophy, ajnana is responsible for the perception of multiplicity in the relative world, and also the cause of man's bondage and suffering.

Ajnanadhvantadipika: (sáns. hindú). She who is the lamp that dispels the darkness of ignorance. An epithet of Devi. Devi's 993rd name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Ajneya: (sáns. hindú). The unknowable.

Ajshringhi: (sáns. hindú). An herb which acts as an antidote for poison.

Aka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Terminalia bellerica. One of the myrobalans.

Akalpita: (sáns. hindú). A non-artificial and permanent siddhi derived from svatantrya (self-reliance) as opposed from using an artificial means such as drugs, magic, etc. See siddhis.

Akama: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + kama "desire") The desireless.

Akampita: (sáns. hindú). Unshaken. Shiva's 981st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Akarta: (sáns. hindú). (a "non" + karta "doer") 1. The nondoer. 2. Purusha.

Akasha: (sáns. hindú). (a "entirely" + kasa "visible") 1. Clear space, sky, ether. 2. The transparent. 3. The all-pervasive, space. In Hinduism it is the ether, the finest of the five elements; ether is said to fill and permeate the entire universe and to be the particular vehicle of life and sound. The four other elements are vayu (air), agni (fire), ap (water), prithivi (earth). 4. In drama it is a voice from the heavens.

Akaya: (sáns. hindú). Having no body. Shiva's 1016 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Akhanda: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + khanda "break") The indivisible. One who cannot be divided; a name for Brahman, the Absolute, who is void of all bhedas or differences, such as Sajatiya, Vijatiya and Sragata.

Akhandadandayamana: (sáns. hindú). An invisible rod. This term is used by Yogatrayananda in his "Kala tattva," Shivaratri (Night of Shiva), but must come from an ancient work on Sankhya.

Akhandala: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer, a name of Indra.

Akhilandeshvari: (sáns. hindú). (akhila "whole" + anda "egg" + ishvari "supreme goddess") In South India, Akhilandeshvari is considered the Goddess of the whole egg-universe and this is a name of the Absolute as worshipped there. She is the supreme Goddess (Ishvari) of the whole (akhila) egg (anda) of the universe, which is believed to be the egg of the Creator Brahma.

Akhilatman: (sáns. hindú). (akhila "whole" + atman "true Self") The whole, partless Self.

Akilbisha: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + kilbisha "sin") The one without sin.

Aklishta: (sáns. hindú). ( a "non" + klishta "afflicted") 1. The unafflicted. 2. A person who is free from the five kleshas (obstacles): ignorance, ego, affinity or attraction, repulsion, and clinging to life.

Akopa: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + kopa "anger") 1. One who does not anger. 2. One of Dasharatha's ministers.

Akrodha: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + krodha "anger") One who does not anger; freedom from resentment, a state that is attained through controlling one's thoughts and realization that the ego alone produces the former conditions.

Akrura: (sáns. hindú). (a "non" + krura "cruel") 1. A person who is not cruel. 2. Vishnu's 915th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. The name of Krishna's paternal uncle and the holder of the Syamantaka gem. Akrura was son of Shvaphalka and Gandini. Akrura was the person who took Krishna and Rama to Mathura when Rama broke the great bow of Shiva.

Aksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The oldest son of Ravana, slain by Hanuman. 2. A name of Garuda. 3. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Terminalia bellerica. One of the myrobalans.

Akshamala: (sáns. hindú). 1. A name of Arundhati. 2. Prayer beads. The akshamala is a symbol of the eternal cycle of life. The beads may be made of different materials, depending on the intended use of the beads. The akshamala is a special attribute of Brahma and Sarasvati. See Japamala.

Akshara: (sáns. hindú). (a "non" + kshara "transitory") 1. The permanent or indestructible. 2. Vishnu's 17th and 481 st names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. The primordial sound of the universe, "OM." 4. An epithet for brahman. 5. Speech, (Vac). 6. Shiva's 887th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Aksharapurusha: (sáns. hindú). The motionless soul, the uninvolved. The Self that detaches itself from the movements and modifications taking place in prakriti (Nature) and merely witnesses its process.

Akshayaguna: (sáns. hindú). One of inexhaustible good qualities. Shiva's 837th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Akshayan: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + kshaya "depreciation") 1. The undecaying or everlasting. 2. Shiva's 608 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Akshudra: (sáns. hindú). One who is not insignificant. Shiva's 1103rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Akuli: (sáns. hindú). An Asura priest. See Kilatakuli.

Akupara: (sáns. hindú). A tortoise or turtle. The tortoise on which the earth rests.

Akuti: (sáns. hindú). (a "entirely" + kuti "intention") 1. Intention or wish. 2. Daughter of Manu Svayambhuva and Shata-rupa, whom he gave to the patriarch Ruci. Akuti and Ruci produced twins, Yajna and Dakshina, who married and had twelve sons, the deities called Yamas.

Alabdha Bhumikatva: (sáns. hindú). The inability to practice in a consistent and steadfast manner; having no solid ground under one's feet, the sense that one cannot attain reality.

Alabu: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for pumpkin.

Alaka: (sáns. hindú). The capital of Kubera and the abode of the Gandharvas on Mount Meru. It is also called Vasu-dhara, Vasu-sthali, and Prabha.

Alaka: (sáns. hindú). nanda-One of the four branches of the river Ganga, which flows south to the country of Bharata. This is said by the Vaishnavas to be the terrestrial Ganga which Shiva received upon his head.

Alakta: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for yellow arsenic.

Alambana: (sáns. hindú). Support or aid for the practice of concentration, involving quiet, controlled breathing and the maintenance of a bodily condition that does not interfere with concentration.

Alambukhanda: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for cucumber.

Alambusha: (sáns. hindú). A great Rakshasa who was defeated by Satyaki in the great war of the Mahabharata, and finally killed by Ghatotkaca. He is said to be a son of Rishyasringa.

Alamkarishnu: (sáns. hindú). One who is desirous of adorning. Shiva's 656th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Alamoda: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra meaning happiness from an external object.

Alayudha: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa killed after a fierce combat by Ghatotkaca in the war of the Mahabharata.

Alayya: (sáns. hindú). A name in the Rigveda that may be a substitute for Indra.

Alguru: (sáns. hindú). special term used in the Kama Sutra for the aloes.

Alidha: (sáns. hindú). A standing posture in which the two feet are firmly planted on the ground and the left leg is slightly stretched to the back and the right leg is placed in front with a bent knee. This is an archer's position and is characteristic of gods, especially Shiva, in their role of destroyer of the three cities. At times this position is called the alidham. The reverse of this position, i.e., when the left knee is to the front and bent, is called pratyalidham. The pratyalidham is expressive of rage. The Rudrasamhita (56) tells a story of the Daitya Bana achieving the position of Shiva's Gana by visiting him in his temple and doing the Tandava dance. Among the poses of the dance was the Alidha, Pratyalidha, and the Sthanaka. The Sthanaka is a particular attitude or mood of the body while dancing.

Alingana: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for embrace or caress.

Aloka: (sáns. hindú). Light. Shiva's 135th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Alu: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for sweet potatoes.

Aluka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for sweet potatoes.

Alvar: (sáns. hindú). A Tamil (South Indian) word that is a name that means approximately "He who is master of the world through surrender to God"; the alvars are saints of the Vaishnava tradition of South India who parallel the Shaivite Nayanars. Nammalvar (date unknown) was perhaps the most well known of these, and was the author of Tiruvittam, or "Sacred Words," which praise Vishnu and his avatars, notably Krishna, the cowherd god, and the cowherds. The following excerpt was translated by Hooper and found in his Hymns of the Alvars.

Longing for Krishna

Be gracious, of all the heavenly ones, Born in all births to save all lives, and hear Thy servant's plea. Grant, not again may I Such nature win as this-my body foul, Long may she love, this girl with luring looks, Who loves the feet that heavenly ones adore, The feet of Kannan, dark as rainy clouds:

Her red eyes all abrim with tears of grief, Like darting Kayal fish in a deep pool. Will't stay or come again, my lonely heart Which has pursued the bird flame-angry, driven By the Lord of tulasi, arm'd with fatal wheel, Whom gods adore!-The piping cowherds' girl, Bhudevi, Sri, his shadows, it perceives!

Wind that art tulasi-poisoned, blowing thoughts Of him who drain'd the traitress demon's breast, Oh, shame to come and with trembling me,-

Me, whom his bird ere now of her one heart

Has reft! No heart for tulasi remains.

Hot in this village now doth blow the breeze

Whose nature coolness is. Hath he, this once, The rain-cloud hued, his sceptre turned aside

To steal the love-glow from my lady, lorn

For tulasi, with wide eyes raining tears?

Is this the sky in which the strong dark bulls

Pawing the ground till Earth shakes, sweat and fight?

Is this the cool fair time that takes the form

Of Vishnu, and sounds his harshness who

Is gone? Sinful, I know not what I see.

Ah, who can leave her, like a creeper hung.

With glorious flowers, like unto Vishnu's heaven?

Are these but eyes? Nay, lotus, lilies red, Wide petals, lined in black, and all abrim

With pearls of white-wide, like a shy deer's eyes.

Oh rare the vision of today! Thou maid

That givest bliss like Kannan's heaven, I say

"He that seeks wealth must needs go far"-and lo!

Thy fish-like eyes, large as a hand, with pearls

Ashine, and gold, a ransom for the world!

Love's glow is paling, and instead, a dark

And sickly yellow spreading,-and the night

Becomes an age! This is the matchless wealth

My good heart gave me when it yearned and sought

Keen discus-wielding Kannan's tulasi cool!


Amala: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + mala "impurity") 1. The immaculate. 2. Free from defects. 3. A name of Lakshmi.

Amalaka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Emblican officinalis, commonly known as the myrobalan (hogplum, Java plum).

Amalan: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + mala "impurity") 1. The impeccable. 2. Free from impurities.

Amalaratna: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + mala "impurity") + ratna "jewel") 1. The impeccable jewel. 2. Crystal.

Amalatasa: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Rumex vesicarnus.

Amaleshvari: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + mala "impurity") + ishvari "supreme goddess") The supreme Goddess.

Amanaska: (sáns. hindú). A word meaning "absent-minded" in Kalidasa's drama "Shakuntala."

Amanaska: (sáns. hindú). A word meaning "absent-minded" in Kalidasa's drama "Shakuntala."

Amansta: (sáns. hindú). A word used by Gaudapada in his Karika on Mandukya Upanishad. It is the state in which one is free from thoughts, desires, and cravings. It never occurs in the waking or dreaming condition, but only in deep sleep, unconsciousness, or samadhi, and is spiritually fruitful in samadhi alone.

Amarabharta: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + bharta "supporter") The supporter of immortals, i.e., Indra.

Amaradhipa: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + adhipa "ruler, lord") The supreme protector of the immortals (Gods). Shiva's 881st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amaradri: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + adri "mountain") The mountain of the immortals (Gods); a name of Mount Meru.

Amaraja: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + ja "born") Born of the immortals (Gods).

Amara-kantaka: (sáns. hindú). Peak of the Immortals. A place of pilgrimage in the table-land cast of the Vindhyas.

Amara: (sáns. hindú). kosha-This title may be read in two ways-the immortal vocabulary, or the vocabulary of Amara or Amara Simha. The oldest vocabulary hitherto known, and one of the most celebrated vocabularies of the classical Sanskrit. The vocabulary begins with the word Amara (thus, Amara-kosha), and is considered by some to be the most important dictionary of classical Sanskrit. The dictionary is attributed to Amara Simha, a Buddhist who lived sometime between the sixth and eighth centuries CE. No particular consideration is given in the work to Buddhist terminology. The Amara-kosha, whose entries are arranged by subject matter, was primarily created for the use of poets; however, in general it also represents a rich compendium of cultural information. Numerous commentaries exist as well as a supplement, the Tri-kanda Shesha.

Amaran: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying") 1. The undying (immortal). 2. A general name for all the Gods.

Amaraprabhu: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + prabhu "lord") 1. The Lord of the immortals (Gods). 2. Vishnu's 50 th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Amarapurusha: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + purusha "self") The immortal Self, the soul.

Amararaja: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + raja "king") The king of the immortals (Gods); a name of Indra.

Amararatna: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + ratna "jewel") 1. The jewel of the immortals (Gods). 2. Crystal.

Amarasarit: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + sarit "river") The river of the immortals (Gods); a name of the Ganges River.

Amara Sinha: (sáns. hindú). The author of the vocabulary called Amara-kosha. He was one of the nine gems of the court of Vikrama. (See Nava-ratna.) Some authorities are inclined to place him in the first century BCE, and still there are others that place him about the middle of the third century CE, and still others are inclined to a later date. See Amarakosha.

Amaravati: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + vati "abode") The capital of Indra's heaven, renowned for its greatness and splendor. it is situated somewhere in the vicinity of Meru. It is sometimes called Deva-pura, "city of the gods," and Pusha-bhasa, "sun-splendor."

Amaresha: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + isa "lord") The Lord of the immortals (Gods); name of Shiva.

Amareshvara: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mara "dying" + ishvara "lord") 1. Lord of the immortals. 2. A title of Vishnu, Shiva, and Indra. 3. Name of one of the twelve great lingas. 4. Shiva's 32 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amaru-sataka: (sáns. hindú). A poem consisting of a hundred stanzas written by a king named Amaru, but by some attributed to the philosopher Shankara, who assumed the dead form of that king for the purpose of conversing with his widow. The verses are of an erotic character but, like many others of the same kind, a religious or philosophical interpretation has been found for them.

Amba: (sáns. hindú). 1. The World Mother. 2. A general name for all the Goddesses. 3. A name of Durga. 4. The oldest daughter of a king of Kashi. She and her sisters Ambika and Ambalika were carried off by Bhishma to be the wives of Vicitravirya. Amba had been previously betrothed to a Raja of Shalva, and Bhishma sent her to him, but the Raja rejected her because she had been in another man's house. She retired to the forest and practiced penance seeking to obtain revenge of Bhishma. Shiva favored her, and promised her the desired vengeance in another birth. Then she ascended the pile and was born again as Shikhandin, who was responsible for the death of Bhishma.

Ambala: (sáns. hindú). The Mother.

Ambali: (sáns. hindú). The Mother.

Ambalika: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Mother. 2. The younger widow of Vicitra-virya and mother of Pandu by Vyasa. 3. See Mahabharata.

Ambarisha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The name of a Rajarshi, an ancestor of Dasharatha and the King of Ayodhya, twenty-eighth in descent from Ikshvaku. 2. An appellation of Shiva. 3. Name of one of the eighteen hells.

Ambashtha: (sáns. hindú). 1. A military people inhabiting a country of the same name in the middle of the Panjab; probably the 'Ambastai of Ptolemy. 2. The medical tribe in Manu.

Ambaya: (sáns. hindú). The Mother.

Ambhrina: (sáns. hindú). 1. The powerful. 2. The father of the Goddess of speech.

Ambika: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Mother. 2. A name of Parvati. 3. A sister of Rudra, but in later times identified with Uma. 4. Older widow of Vicitra-virya and mother of Dhritarashtra by Vyasa. See Mahabharata. 5. This is an epithet for several goddesses but especially for Durga. At one place Ambika is called Shiva's sister, in another his consort.

Ambikeya: (sáns. hindú). A metonym applicable to Ganesha, Skanda, and Dhritarashtra.

Ambupati: (sáns. hindú). (ambu "water" + pati "lord") Varuna, the Lord of the waters.

Ameyan: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + meya "measurable") One who is immeasurable.

Amita: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mita "measured") The unmeasured. Shiva's 366 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amitabha: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + mita "measured" + abha "luster, light") Having immeasurable luster.

Amiti: (sáns. hindú). (a "without" + miti "measure") Boundlessness.

Amma: (sáns. hindú). A Tamil name meaning "The Mother."

Amman: (sáns. hindú). 1. Mother. 2. Mistress. 3. Lady. 4. A name that is attached to the gramadevatas (village deities) in South India to indicate that the village belongs to the goddess. The village of Periyapalayam, a small village outside of Madras, has a deity named Periyapalayattamman which means "the mother of the village Periyapalayam.".

Ammavaru: (sáns. hindú). A goddess whose tradition is an attempt to explain the many diverse village goddesses. The myth goes that in the beginning there was the goddess Ammavaru. The goddess desired to create so she produced three eggs from which the three great gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, were born.

Ammavaru asked her sons to have coitus with her in order that the creation would continue. They all three declined saying it was improper for a son to join in coitus with his mother. Finally, one of the gods gave in to her request in exchange for her third eye which contained her primordial power.

As soon as she gave the eye to the god her power was taken and he in turn destroyed her. From her body the many shaktis were produced that were made manifest as village goddesses.

Amnaya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Sacred tradition. 2. The Vedas in the aggregate. 3. Shiva's 731st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amogha: (sáns. hindú). (a " without" + mogha "failure") 1. One who is unfailing. 2. Vishnu's 110th and 154th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 564th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amoghadandin: (sáns. hindú). One whose punishment is never futile. Shiva's 460 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amoghavikrama: (sáns. hindú). One whose exploit is never futile. Shiva's 542nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amrataka: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for Emblican officinalis, commonly known as the myrobalan (hogplum, Java plum).

Amravati: (sáns. hindú). South Indian city; in the second and third centuries an important center for Buddhist art in which the beginnings of the Mahayana were reflected. These artworks constituted the transition between early Buddhist art and the Gandhara style and exercised a great influence on the art of Southeast Asia above all on that of those areas known today as Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Thailand. The most important art monument in Amravati is a stupa in the eastern part of the city that, according to tradition, contains relics of the historical Buddha. The discovery of a pillar edict of Emperor Ashoka (third century BCE) permits the conclusion that the stupa was erected by Ashoka. Amravati was the center of the Mahasanghika school.

Pilgrims are said to have come there even from Pataliputra. The renowned Chinese pilgrim Hsuan-Tsang (seventh century) reports that in Amravati more than twenty flourishing monasteries existed.

Amrita: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + mrita "death") 1. The immortal. 2. Ambrosia, the nectar of immortality. 3. Vishnu's 119th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. The 35 th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 5. A god. 6. The water of life. 7. Shiva's 332 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 8. The term was known to the Vedas, and seems to have been applied to various things offered in sacrifice, but more especially to the Soma juice. It is also called Nirjara and Piyusha. In later times it was the water of life produced at the churning of the ocean by the gods and demons, the legend of which is told with some variations in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas. The gods, feeling their weakness, having been subdued by the demons, and being, according to one authority, under the ban of a holy sage, went to Vishnu praying to him for renewed vigor and the gift of immortality. He directed them to churn the ocean for the Amrita and other precious things which had been lost. The story as told in the Vishnupurana has been rendered by a certain Professor Williams into verse (quoted in Dowson's Classical Dictionary):

The gods addressed the mighty Vishnu thus "Conquered in battle by the evil demons, We fly to thee for succour, soul of all; Pity, and by thy might deliver us!"

Hari, the Lord, creator of the world, Thus by the gods implored? all graciously Replied-"Your strength Shall be restored, ye gods; Only accomplish what I now command.

Unite yourselves in peaceful combination

With these your foes; collect all plants and herbs

Of diverse kinds from every quarter; cast them

Into the sea of milk; take Mandara, The mountain, for a churning stick, and Vasuki, The serpent for a rope; together churn

The ocean to produce the beverage-

Source of all strength and immortality-

Then reckon on my aid; I will take care

Your foes shall share your toil, but not partake

In its reward, or drink th' immortal draught."

Thus by the god of gods advised the host

United in alliance with the demons.

Straightway they gathered various herbs and cast them

Into the waters, then they took the mountain

To serve as churning-staff, and next the snake

To serve as cord, and in the ocean's midst

Hari himself, present in tortoise-form, Became a pivot for the churning-staff.

Then did they churn the sea of milk; and first

Out of the waters rose the sacred Cow, God-worshipped Surabhi, eternal fountain

Of milk and offerings of butter; next, While holy Siddhas wondered at the sight, With eyes all rolling, Varuni uprose, Goddess of wine. Then from the whirlpool sprang

Fair Parijata, tree of Paradise, delight

Of heavenly maidens, with its fragrant blossoms

Perfuming the whole world. Th' Apsaras, Troop of celestial nymphs, matchless in grace

Perfect in loveliness, were next produced.

Then from the sea uprose the cool-rayed moon, Which Mahadeva seized; terrific poison

Next issued from the waters; this the snake-gods

Claimed as their own. Then, seated on a lotus, Beauty's bright goddess, peerless Sri arose

Out of the waves; and with her, robed in white

Came forth Dhanwantari, the gods' physician.

High in his hand he bore the cup of nectar-

Life-giving draught-longed for by gods and demons.

Then had the demons forcibly borne off

The cup, and drained the precious beverage.

Had not the mighty Vishnu interposed.

Bewildering them, he gave it to the gods;

Whereat, incensed, the demon troops assailed

The host of heaven, but they with strength renewed, Quaffing the draught, struck down their foes, who fell

Headlong through space to lowest depths of hell!"

In after-times, Vishnu's bird Garuda is said to have stolen the Amrita, but it was recovered by Indra. See also Purana.

Amritabandhu: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + mrita "death" + bandhu "friend") 1. The immortal friend. 2. Friend of immortality, referring to Indra's horse, Uccaishshravas, which was born along with the nectar of immortality at the churning of the ocean.

Amritamalini: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + mrita "death" + malini "garlanded") 1. Garlanded with immortality. 2. A name of Durga.

Amritamshu: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + mrita "death" (ambrosia)" + amshu "ray") 1. Having ambrosial rays. 2. A reference to the moon when it rose from the ocean during its churning.

Amritanga: (sáns. hindú). One of nectarine limbs. Shiva's 222nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amritapa: (sáns. hindú). Imbiber of nectar. Shiva's 130th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amritashana: (sáns. hindú). One whose diet is nectar. Shiva's 206th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amritattva: (sáns. hindú). Immortality, eternal life; attained not on the physical level but only through realization of the Self (Atman), which as absolute consciousness is identical with God (brahman).

Amritavapu: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + mrita "death" + vapu "form") 1. Having immortal form or body. 2. Vishnu's 814th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. One of nectarine body. Shiva's 223rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amritesha: (sáns. hindú). (a "without + mrita "death" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of the immortals (Gods). 2. The immortal Lord. 3. A name of Shiva.

Amrityu: (sáns. hindú). Having no death. Shiva's 1046th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Amsha: (sáns. hindú). The Distributor, one of the Adityas.

Amshu: (sáns. hindú). A friend or protegé of the Ashvins.

Amshula: (sáns. hindú). The radiant or beaming.

Amshumali: (sáns. hindú). (amshu "ray" + mali "garlanded") The sun.

Amshuman: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having radiance or rays such as the sun and the moon. 2. The grandson of Sagara, a great king mentioned in the Ramayana.

Amshumati: (sáns. hindú). 1. A mystical river of air. 2. Possessing radiance or rays.

Amula: (sáns. hindú). A species of lily.

Anabhidroha: (sáns. hindú). Absence of malice.

Anadhrishti: (sáns. hindú). A son of Ugrasena and general of the Yadavas.

Anadi: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + adi "beginning") 1. The one who had no beginning. 2. Vushnu's 941st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.

Anadimadhyanidhana: (sáns. hindú). One who has neither beginning nor middle nor end. Shiva's 82 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anadyanta: (sáns. hindú). Having neither a beginning nor an end. Shiva's 552nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anagha: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + agha "impurity") 1. The faultless. 2. The 32nd of Lakshmi's 108 names. 3. Vishnu's 146th and 831st names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. A name of Arjuna. 5. Sinless. 6. Shiva's 292nd and 844th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anahankarin: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + ahankarin "ego") 1. Detached from karma and karmic implications. 2. Egoless, selfless.

Anahata: (sáns. hindú). Unstruck sound. In Tantra the Anahata is the fourth cakra, at the level of the heart, where what Dante called La Vita Nuova, "The New Life," begins. This cakra is called Anahata for it is a place where the sound is heard "that is not made by any two things striking together."

Anahata Shabda: (sáns. hindú). Unstruck sound. A mystic sound, often referred to as the music of the spheres, which can be perceived during the practice of meditation at a certain stage of spiritual development. Occasionally the sacred syllable OM is also referred to as anahatashabda.

Anaka-dundubhi: (sáns. hindú). 1. Drums. 2. A name of Vasu-deva, who was so called because the drums of heaven resounded at his birth.

Anakula: (sáns. hindú). One who is not agitated. Shiva's 1098th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anala: (sáns. hindú). 1. An-ala "Unlimited." 2. Vushnu's 293rd and 711 names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Fire. Shiva's 468th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anamaya: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + amaya "disease") 1. Shiva's 858th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. The diseaseless. 3. The troubleless.

Ananda: (sáns. hindú). (a "entirely" + nanda "joyful") 1. The blissful. 2. Vishnu's 526th and 560 th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A name if Balarama. 4. Absolute joy. The term refers not to the enjoyment of sense objects, which are transient, but to the bliss of a state that lies beyond all duality, all pairs of opposites. Vedanta teaches that a state of consciousness that is free from thoughts and hence projects neither illness, old age, and death, nor anxiety, care, and suffering, is pure bliss. To define the abstract concept of brahman, Vedanta uses the formula Sat Cit Ananda, wherein "Ananda" is the unaffected absolute bliss that is experienced only in samadhi and is the equivalent of divine consciousness.

In the monastic orders of the Shankara tradition, every sannyasin is given a name ending in ananda, e.g., Vivekananda. 4. Shiva's 252nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anandabhairava: (sáns. hindú). (ananda "bliss" + bhairava "fearful") One who is blissful and fearful such as Shiva who is blissful to His devotees and fearful to those who do not understand Him.

Anandabhairavi: (sáns. hindú). (ananda "bliss" + bhairavi "fearful") One who is blissful and fearful such as Kali who is blissful to Her devotees and fearful to those who do not understand Her.

Ananda Giri: (sáns. hindú). A follower of Shankaracarya, and a teacher and expositor of his doctrines. He was the author of a Shankara-vijaya, and lived about the tenth century CE.

Ananda Lahari: (sáns. hindú). Wave of Bliss. A poem attributed to Shankaracarya. It is a hymn of praise addressed to Parvati, consort of Shiva, mixed with mystical doctrine. The Ananda Lahari forms the first part (42 verses) of the Saundarya Lahari "Wave of Beauty," which consists of 100 verses.

Anandam: (sáns. hindú). Bliss.

Anandamaya: (sáns. hindú). (ananda "bliss" + maya "consisting of") 1. Consisting of bliss. See Anandamaya Kosha. 2. In the female gender (terminating with an i), there is a twentieth century saint by this name, Anandamaya Kosha- (ananda "bliss" + maya "consisting of" + kosha "sheath")

The fifth or final "kosha," or sheath, of the soul in the state of deep sleep, where individual is very near to pure bliss, though ignorance preponderates. It is also called the "causal" sheath.

Anandamrita: (sáns. hindú). (ananda "bliss" + amrita "nectar") 1. The nectar of bliss. 2. Blissful and immortal.

Anandana: (sáns. hindú). The blissful.

Anandaprema: (sáns. hindú). (ananda "bliss" + prema "divine love") Pure bliss and love.

Ananda Purusha: (sáns. hindú). Term from the Upanishads stating that one's true Self is nothing other than bliss.

Anandi: (sáns. hindú). Beginningless. Shiva's 505 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anandini: (sáns. hindú). (a entirely + nandi "joyful") The blissful.

Anandita: (sáns. hindú). The delighted.

Ananga: (sáns. hindú). The bodiless. A name of Kama, god of love.

Ananta: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + anta "end") 1. The infinite or endless. 2. A name of Shesha the divine serpent. 3. Vishnu's 659th and 886 th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. A name of Parvati. 5. The term is also applied to other deities.

Anantadrishti: (sáns. hindú). One of infinite vision. Shiva's 251st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anapada: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + apada "misfortune") One who is always fortunate.

Anapayi: (sáns. hindú). Having no distress. Shiva's 886th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anaranya: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Ikshvaku and king of Ayodhya. According to the Ramayana, many kings submitted to Ravana without fighting, but when Anaranya was summoned to fight or submit, he preferred to fight. His army was overcome and he was thrown from his chariot. Ravana triumphed over his prostrate foe, who retorted that he had been beaten by fate, not by Ravana, and predicted the death of Ravana at the hands of Rama, a descendant of Anaranya.

Anargha Raghava: (sáns. hindú). A drama in seven acts by Murari Mishra possibly written in the thirteenth or fourteenth century CE. Raghava or Rama is the hero of the piece. It is also called, after its author, Murari Nataka.

Anarthanashana: (sáns. hindú). One who destroys miseries. Shiva's 606 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

An-arya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Unworthy, 2. Vile. 3. People who were not Aryans; barbarians of other races and religion.

Anashini: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + nashini "perishing") The imperishable.

Anasuya: (sáns. hindú). (an "without" + asuya "displeasure") 1. The wife of Rishi Atri and the mother Dattatreya. In the Ramayana she appears living with her husband in a hermitage in the forest south of citrakuta. She was very pious and given to austere devotion, through which she had obtained miraculous powers. When Sita visited her and her husband, he was very attentive and kind, and gave Sita an ointment which was to keep her beautiful forever.

She was mother of the petulant sage Durvasas. 2. A friend of Shakuntala. 3. Charity. 4. She who has transcended envy or jealousy. 5. The ideal spouse.

Anatma Vritti Nirodha: (sáns. hindú). The curbing of gross impulses; control over one's thoughts when they are in the form of anger, fear, greed, etc.

Anavas: (sáns. hindú). 1. One of the five Aryan tribes. The other four are: Turvas, Yadus, Drubyus, and Purus. 2. Descendants of the eponymous Chief Anu.

Anavasthi Tattva: (sáns. hindú). Lack of steadfastness in spiritual practice. Usually brought about by the notion that one has already reached the highest level of samadhi.

Ancila: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Mucuna pruriens.

Andaja: (sáns. hindú). Born out of an egg (catur yoni).

Andhaka: (sáns. hindú). 1. Gloom. 2. A demon, son of Kashyapa and Diti, with a thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and feet, and called Andhaka because he walked like a blind man, although he saw very well. He was slain by Shiva when he attempted to carry off the Parijata tree from Svarga. From this feat Shiva obtained the appellation Andhakaripu, "foe of Andhaka." 3. A grandson of Kroshtri and son of Yudhajit, of the Yadava race, who, together with his brother Vrishni, is the ancestor of the celebrated family of Andhakavrishnis 4. the name was borne by many others of less note. 4. Some sources claim that Andhaka was defeated by the Matrikas who were commanded by Shiva to defeat him.

Andhakari: (sáns. hindú). (andhaka "gloom" + ari "enemy") 1. The enemy of the demon Andhaka (Gloom). 2. Shiva's 833 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Andhra: (sáns. hindú). Name of a country and people in the south of India, the country of Telangana. It was the seat of a powerful dynasty, and the people were known to Pliny as gens Andarœ.

Andhra-bhritya: (sáns. hindú). A dynasty of kings that reigned in Magadha at the beginning of the Christian era. The name seems to indicate that its founder was a native of Andhra, now Telingana.

Anekadhrik: (sáns. hindú). Holder of many things. Shiva's 1007th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anekakotibrahmanandajanani: (sáns. hindú). She who creates innumerable universes. An epithet of Devi. The 620 th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.

Anga: (sáns. hindú). Limb, portion. 1. The eight limbs, or steps, of Raja Yoga; 2. One of the sacred texts of Jainism. The Angas belong to the canonical writings that were laid down in their final form in the fifth century CE and are written in Prakrit. Sanskrit terminology was later developed to defend Jainism against the orthodox schools of Hinduism. 3. The country of Bengal proper about Bhagalpur. Its capital was Champa, or Champapuri. (See Anu.)

4. A Supplement to the Vedas. See Vedanga.

Angada: (sáns. hindú). 1. Son of the king of Angadi, capital of a country near the Himalayas. 2. Son of Gada (brother of Krishna) by Vrihati. 3. Son of Bali the monkey king of Kishkindhya. He was protected by Rama and fought on his side against Ravana.

Angara: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for Saccarum spontaneum, commonly known as the vetiver.

Angas: (sáns. hindú). Six constituent parts of the Vedas. They are: sciences of pronunciation, rituals, grammar, etymology, astronomy, and prosody. Some opine that their study helps in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the Vedas..

Anghari: (sáns. hindú). One of the guardians of Soma..

Angiras: (sáns. hindú). 1.Shiva's 694th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. A Rishi to whom many hymns of the Rigveda are attributed. He was one of the seven Maharishis or great Rishis, and also one of the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of humankind. In later times Angiras was one of the inspired lawgivers, and also a writer on astronomy. As an astronomical personification he is Brihaspati, the regent of the planet Jupiter, or the planet itself. He was also called "the priest of the gods," and "the Lord of sacrifice." There is much ambiguity about the name. It comes from the same root as Agni (fire), and resembles that word in sound. This may be the reason why the name Angiras is used as an epithet or synonym of Agni. The name is also employed as an epithet for the father of Agni, and it is found more especially connected with the hymns addressed to Agni, Indra, and the luminous deities. According to one statement, Angiras was the son of Uru by Agneyi, the daughter of Agni, although, as above stated, the name is sometimes given to the father of Agni. Another account represents that Angiras was born from the mouth of Brahma. His wives were Smriti, '"memory," the daughter of Daksha; Shraddha, "faith," the daughter of Kardama; and Svadha "oblation," and Sati, "truth," two other daughters of Daksha. Angiras' daughters were the Ricas or Vaidik hymns, and his sons were the Manes called Havishmats. But he had other sons and daughters, and among the former were Utathya, Brihaspati, and Markandeya. According to the Bhagavatapurana "he begot sons possessing Brahmanical glory on the wife of Rathitara, a Kshatriya who was childless, and these persons were afterwards called descendants of Angira.".

Angirasas: (sáns. hindú). 1. Descendants of Angiras. In the classic Dictionary by Goldstücker: "They share in the nature of the legends attributed to Angiras. Angiras being the father of Agni, they are considered as descendants of Agni himself, who is also called the first of the Angirasas..

Like Angiras, they occur in hymns addressed to the luminous deities and, at a later period, they become for the most part personifications of light, of luminous bodies, of divisions of time, of celestial phenomena, and fires adapted to peculiar occasions, as the full and change of the moon, or to particular rites, as the Ashvamedha, Rajasuya, etc." In the Shatapatha Brahmana they and the Adityas are said to have descended from Prajapati and that "they strove together for the priority in ascending to heaven." Some descendants of Angiras by the Kshatriya wife of a childless king are mentioned in the Puranas as two tribes of Angirasas who were Brahmins as well as Kshatriyas. The hymns of the Atharvaveda are called Angirasas, and the descendants of Angiras were especially charged with the protection of sacrifices performed in accordance with the Atharvaveda. From this cause, or from their being associated with the descendants of Atharvan, they were called distinctively Atharvangirasas. 2. A class of Pitris.

Angur: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the grape..

Anila: (sáns. hindú). 1. The beginningless. 2. The unaffected. 3. The undissolved. 4. Vishnu's 234th and 812th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 5. The wind. 6. A name of Vayu, the God of Air.

Anilas: (sáns. hindú). A gana or class of deities, forty-nine in number, connected with Anila, the wind.

Animish: (sáns. hindú). "Who does not wink." A general epithet of all gods..

Anirdeshyavapuh: (sáns. hindú). One whose body cannot be specifically pointed out. Shiva's 363rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98..

Aniruddha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The unobstructed. Son of Pradyumna and grandson of Krishna. He married his cousin, Su-bhadra. A Daitya princess named Usha, daughter of Bana, fell in love with him, and had him brought by magical influence to her apartments in her fathers city of Sonitapura. Bana sent some guards to seize him, but the valiant youth, taking an iron club, slew his assailants.

Bana then brought his magic powers to bear and secured him. On discovering where Aniruddha had been carried, Krishna, Balarama, and Pradyumna went to rescue him. A great battle was fought; Bana was aided by Shiva and by Skanda, god of war, the former of whom was overcome by Krishna, and the latter was wounded by Garuda and Pradyumna. Bana was defeated, but his life was spared at the intercession of Shiva, and Aniruddha was carried home to Dvaraka with Usha as his wife. He is also called Jhashanka and Usha-pati.

He had a son named Vajra. 2. Vishnu's 185th and 638 th names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. It also refers to the fourth Vyuha or form, of the Lord. 4. A son of Krishna. 5. Shiva's 644th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anirvinna: (sáns. hindú). One who is not dejected. Shiva's 1028th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anisha: (sáns. hindú). 1. Having no Isha above him. Shiva's 787th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 2. No master.

One who is not free but bound by ignorance.

Anitya: (sáns. hindú). Impermanence. Nothing is permanent; all is in flux and passing away; the characteristic of maya, whose one consistent attribute is change.

Anivarita: (sáns. hindú). Unrestricted. Shiva's 491 st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anjali: (sáns. hindú). One of the postures of Hatha Yoga, whereby the hands are clasped with fingers pointing upward. If the position of this mudra is in front of the chest, it denotes worship. If the position is in front of the forehead, it usually indicates a greeting (Namaskara)..

Anjana: (sáns. hindú). 1. The elephant of the west or southwest quarter. 2. A serpent with many heads descended from Kadru. 3. The mother of Hanumat by Vayu, god of the wind. 4. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the Harwickia binata.

Anjaneya: (sáns. hindú). Hanuman, the son of Anjana.

Anjasi: (sáns. hindú). An unidentified river mentioned in the Rigveda.

Anjika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for the frangipani. The (genus) plumeria.

Ankusha: (sáns. hindú). An elephant goad or hook. In India this hook is used to give elephants commands. In the hands of a god, it is a sign of being able to distinguish spiritual motives and having the ability to steer them in the proper direction, The ankusha is an attribute that is characteristic of Skanda and Ganesha.

Anna: (sáns. hindú). Food. One of the sixteen kalas or parts in the life of a householder.

The other fifteen are: Pran, Breath; Shradha, Faith; Kham, Happiness; Vayu, Activity; Jyoti, Brilliance; Apa, Water; Prithvi, Forbearance; Indriya, Organ; Manas, Mind; Virya, Semen; Tapa, Penance; Mantra, Understanding; Icha, Ambition; Loka, Humankind; Nam, Anger. These sixteen qualities should be cultivated by the Grihasthi.

Annada: (sáns. hindú). (anna food" + da "giver") 1. An epithet of Devi. The 669th name in the Lalita Sahasranama. 2. The giver of food. 3. A name of Parvati or Annapurna.

Annadayini: (sáns. hindú). (anna food" + dayini "giver") The giver of food.

Annakuta: (sáns. hindú). Food mountain. A festival for Annapurna when a mountain of food is constructed in her temple.

Annam: (sáns. hindú). Food..

Annamaya Kosha: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sheaths which forms the various frames of the body enveloping the soul; also called the food sheath. It is the sheath best known and dearest to us (kosha). The other four sheaths are: Pran, Mana, Vigyan and Anand Koshas.

Annamaya Purusha: (sáns. hindú). In taking on the food sheath (annamayakosha), the atman, the Self, becomes materialized consciousness, or the physical person.

Annapati: (sáns. hindú). (anna "food + pati "lord") 1. The Lord of food. 2. A name of the sun. 3. A name of fire. 4. A name of Shiva.

Annapurna: (sáns. hindú). (anna "food" + purna "full") 1. A form of Durga, worshipped for her power of giving food; similar to the Roman Anna Perenna. 2. The nourishing fullness. 3. Filled with food. 4. A name of Parvati. 5. Epithet for the divine Mother. 6. Name of a Himalayan mountain range in Nepal.

Annastuti: (sáns. hindú). A hymn to Food, that is, to Soma.

Anshuman: (sáns. hindú). See Anshumat..

Anshumat: (sáns. hindú). Son of Asamanjas and grandson of Sagara. He brought back to earth the horse which had been carried off from Sagara's Ashvamedha sacrifice, and he discovered the remains of that king's sixty thousand sons, who had been killed by the fire of the wrath of Kapila..

Antahkarana: (sáns. hindú). Inner organ, inner instrument. That with which we think, feel, remember, and discriminate. It consists of manas, citta, buddhi, and ahamkara. A fine form of prakriti, the antahkarana is lifeless, but becomes active and effective because of the consciousness of the Atman that is reflected in it.

Antahpurika: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for gynoecium.

Antaka: (sáns. hindú). The Ender. A name of Yama, judge of the dead.

Antamukha: (sáns. hindú). Turned inward, observation of inner events. Similarities exist between this concept and the fifth stage of RajaYoga, pratyahara, the withdrawal of the senses from exterior objects. Both serve as preparation for concentration and meditation.

Antara Kumbhaka: (sáns. hindú). Suspension of breath following a full inhalation (pranayama); a term used in Hatha Yoga.

Antaranga Sadhana: (sáns. hindú). Inner spiritual exercises. The final three of Patañjali's eight steps of Yoga, namely, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi.

Antar Atman: (sáns. hindú). The inner Self, the divine spark; that which interprets all experience, develops spiritual knowledge, and in time attains God-realization..

Antarhitatman: (sáns. hindú). One whose Atman is hidden. Shiva's 277th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98..

Antariksha: (sáns. hindú). The atmosphere or firmament between heaven and earth, the sphere of the Gandharvas, Apsaras, and Yakshas.

Antarindriya: (sáns. hindú). See Antahkarana.

Antarjyoti: (sáns. hindú). (antar "inner" + jyoti "light") The inner light..

Antarvedi: (sáns. hindú). The Doab or country between the Ganges and the Jumna..

Antaryami: (sáns. hindú). (antar "inner" + yami "guide") Our real Self (Atman), which is identical with divine consciousness. The guide within us.

Antriksha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The middle space between heaven and earth. It is the middle of the three spheres or regions of life. 2. The heart.

Anu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The son of King Yayati by his wife Sarmishtha, a Daitya princess. He refused to exchange his youthful vigor for the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in consequence his father cursed him that his posterity should not possess dominion. Notwithstanding this, he had a long series of descendants, and among them were Anga, Banga, Kalinga, etal., who gave their names to the countries they lived in. 2. An atom or molecule. 3. Shiva's 894th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98..

Anubhava: (sáns. hindú). (anu "toward something" + bhava "becoming, real being")

Experience, direct perception, realization, certainty. The indirect knowledge of the divine that is obtained from sacred scripture, when realized through experience, leads to the certainty of direct knowledge and thereby to enlightenment. This entire process is summed up in the term anubhava.

Anubhavi Guru: (sáns. hindú). "The guru is eyewitness," The Realized Guru. The guru is the witness of the highest truth, because he has experienced and realized it..

Anujyotih: (sáns. hindú). Subsequent luminary. Shiva's 569 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98..

Anukramani: (sáns. hindú). An index or table of contents, particularly of a Veda. The Anukramanis of the Vedas follow the order of each Samhita, and assign a poet, a meter, and a deity to each hymn or prayer. There are several extant..

Anukramanika: (sáns. hindú). See Anukramani.

Anumati: (sáns. hindú). 1. The moon on its fifteenth day, when just short of its fullness. In this stage it is personified and worshipped as a goddess. 2. Divine Favor personified. 3. Consent..

Anushara: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa or other demon.

Anushthana: (sáns. hindú). The carrying out of religious practices and rites. Instructions for such practices are found in the portion of the Vedas known as the Karma Kanda.

Anushtup: (sáns. hindú). A meter that contains four Padas or quarter verses of eight syllables each..

Anuttama: (sáns. hindú). Excellent one; One who has no one to excel him. Shiva's 630th and 1060th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anuttara: (sáns. hindú). Having no successor. Shiva's 713th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Anuvatsar: (sáns. hindú). The fourth year in the Vedic cycle of five years..

Anuvinda: (sáns. hindú). A king of Ujjayini. See Vinda.

Anuvyavasaya: (sáns. hindú). A higher form of perception that arises from steadfast determined reflection of the Self (Atman); a direct perception of physical and psychic data that is not filtered through conceptual thought.

Anuyaja: (sáns. hindú). An after-sacrifice; the final sacrifice.

Anvadi: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for Emblican officinalis, commonly known as the myrobalan (hogplum, Java plum)..

Anvala: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for Emblican officinalis, commonly known as the myrobalan (hogplum, Java plum).

Anya: (sáns. hindú). 1. The inexhaustible. 2. The Other.

Anyadrish: (sáns. hindú). A name by which one of the Maruts is invoked.

Apa: (sáns. hindú). Water. One of the sixteen kalas or parts in the life of a householder.

The other fifteen are: Pran, Breath; Shradha, Faith; Kham, Happiness; Vayu, Activity; Jyoti, Brilliance; Anna, food; Prithvi, Forbearance; Indriya, Organ; Manas, Mind; Virya, Semen; Tapa, Penance; Mantra, Understanding; Icha. Ambition; Loka, Humankind; Nam, Anger, These sixteen qualities should be cultivated by the Grihasthi.

Apadravya: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for an artificial penis.

Apala: (sáns. hindú). A girl that was healed by Indra.

Apam: (sáns. hindú). Translated by Griffith as "waters" whereas it means action..

Apamarga: (sáns. hindú). A plant that is used for certain illnesses.

Apamnapat: (sáns. hindú). 1. Offspring of the Waters (of air), 2. The name of Agni as Lightening..

Apamnidhi: (sáns. hindú). Storehouse of waters. Shiva's 396th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98..

Apana: (sáns. hindú). One of the vital airs that moves down and exits through the anus. It is through the action of the apana that unassimilated foods and drinks go downward and are eventually ejected.

Aparajita: (sáns. hindú). (a "not" + parajita "conquered") 1. The unconquerable one. A name of a goddess, perhaps Durga. She is described in Somadeva's Yashastilaka as having stars for pearls in her hair, the sun and moon for her eyes, the heavenly rivers for her girdle, and Mount Meru as her body. 2. Vishnu's 716th and 862nd names as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Shiva's 992nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.

Aparanta: (sáns. hindú). 1. On the western border. 2. A country which is named in the Vishnupurana in association with countries in the north; and the Vayupurana reads the name as Aparita, which some authorities claim to be a northern nation. The Hari-vansha, however, mentions it as "a country conquered by Parashurama from the ocean," and upon this the 19th century translator Langlois, in Asiatic Researches observed: "Tradition records that Parashurama besought Varuna, god of the sea, to grant him a land which he might bestow upon the Brahmins in expiation of the blood of the Kshatriyas. Varuna withdrew his waves from the heights of Gokarna (near Mangalore) down to Cape Comorin." This agrees with the traditions concerning Parashuramu and Malabar, but it is not at all clear how a gift of territory to Brahmins could expiate the slaughter of the Kshatriyas by a Brahmin and in behalf of Brahmins.

Apara Prakriti: (sáns. hindú). The realm in which things becomes manifest. According to the Bhagavad Gita, earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intellect and ego together form Apara Prakriti..

Apara Vairagya: (sáns. hindú). The first stage of renunciation, whereby one attains purification, peace, and detachment.

Apara Vidya: (sáns. hindú). Lesser knowledge. Relative or indirect knowledge gained through the senses and intellect; knowledge of science, art, or literature, hence secondhand knowledge, as when one "knows" a city from maps and books without having actually walked through its streets. Its opposite is paravidya.

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