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The Manurishi Foundation - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Hindu Terms
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3.Bhagavatapurana - Citavanna
Bhagavatapurana: (sáns. hindú). The Purana "in which ample details of duty are described, and which opens with (an extract from) the Gayatri; that in which the death of the Asura Vritra is told, and in which the mortals and immortals of the Sarasvata Kalpa, with the events that then happened to them in the world, are related, that is celebrated as the Bhagavata, and consists of 18,000 verses." Such is the Hindu description of this work. "The Bhagavata," says Wilson, "is a work of great celebrity in India, and exercises a more direct and powerful influence upon the opinions and feelings of the people than perhaps any other of the Purana. It is placed fifth in all the lists, but the Padma ranks it as the eighteenth, as the extracted substance of all the rest. According to the usual specification, it consists of 18,000 shlokas, distributed amongst 332 chapters, divided into twelve skandhas or books. It is named Bhagavata from its being dedicated to the glorification of Bhagavata or Vishnu." The most popular and characteristic part of this Purana is the tenth book which narrates in detail the history of Krishna, and has been translated into perhaps all the vernacular languages of India.
It is in the opinion of many learned Hindus that this Purana is the composition of the grammarian Vopadeva, who lived about seven or eight centuries ago at the court of Hemadri, Raja of Devagiri (Deogurh or Daulatabad).
Bhagavati: (sáns. hindú). (bhaga "fortune" + vati "having") 1. The fortunate. 2. A name of Lakshmi. 3. A name of Parvati. 4. A name of Sarasvati. 5. A name of the Bhagavad Gita. 6. The follower or worshipper of the fortunate. 7. The consort of the fortunate. 8. One who advocates the dualistic doctrine of "CaturVyaha" (i.e. that the soul has been created by God and is thus an individual self different from the universal One).
Bhagavatpriya: (sáns. hindú). (bhagavat "fortunate" + priya "beloved") 1. The beloved of the fortunate. 2. Parvati. 3. Lakshmi.
Bhagin: (sáns. hindú). The fortunate or glorious.
Bhagiratha: (sáns. hindú). Having a glorious chariot. 2. The name of a Rajarshi, king and wise man, who was the son of King Dilipa and ancestor of Rama. He accomplished a great austerity for the descent of Ganges on earth in order to purify the Sagaras, his 60,000 departed ancestors. He was the great-great-great-grandson of Sagara. See the Ramayana for the full story.
Bhagirathi: (sáns. hindú). The Ganges. The name is derived from Bhagiratha, a descendant of Sagara, whose austerities induced Shiva to allow the sacred river to descend to the earth for the purpose of bathing the ashes of Sagara's sons, who had been consumed by the wrath of the sage Kapila. Bhagiratha named the river Sagara, and after leading it over the earth to the sea, he conducted it to Patala, where the ashes of his ancestors were bathed with its waters and purified. 2. The daughter or follower of Bhagiratha. 3. The name of one of the three main streams Ganges.
Bhairava: (sáns. hindú). "The terrible." Names of Shiva and his wife Devi. The Bhairavas are eight inferior forms or manifestations of Shiva, all of them of a terrible character: 1) Asitanga, black limbed; 2) Sanhara, destruction; 3) Ruru, a dog; 4) Kala, black; 5) Krodha, anger; 6) Tamrachuda, red crested; 7) Chandrachuda, moon crested; 8) Maha, great. Other names are met with as variants: Kapala, Rudra, Bhishana, Unmatta, etc. In these forms Shiva often rides upon a dog, wherefore he is called "Shvashva," that is, "whose horse is a dog."
Bhairavi: (sáns. hindú). The terrible one. An epithet of Devi. The 276th name in the Lalita Sahasranama. 2. A Mahavidya. Bhairavi is described as having a reddish complexion and wears a mala (garland) of severed heads. Her breasts are smeared with blood and with two of her hands she is holding a rosary and a book; with the other two she is giving the mudras of fearlessness and the giving of boons. She is also known as Tripura Bhairavi. In the Kalikapurana Tripura Bhairavi is described as reeling from intoxication and standing on a corpse. 3. The consort of the frightful.
Bhajana: (sáns. hindú). The worshipping. 2. The sharing or partaking (with God).
Bhajan: (sáns. hindú). A form of worship of God or of an avatara, characterized by the use of music and singing.
Bhajeratha: (sáns. hindú). A proper name.
Bhakta: (sáns. hindú). An adherent of the yogic path who aspires to God-realization through love and surrender to God (Bhakti Yoga).
Bhaktakayastha: (sáns. hindú). One who is stationed in the body of the devotees. Shiva's 1017th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhaktan: (sáns. hindú). The devoted. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna speaks of four kinds of devotees in chapter VII and then in chapter XII reduce the four to two kinds: the worshippers of Ishvara or God with form and the worshippers of the nondual and formless Brahman. 2. The "partaken (in God)."
Bhakti: (sáns. hindú). The later popular Hinduism as distinguished from the priestly Vedic Hinduism of the Aryans. Whereas the Vedic emphasis was on sacrificial rituals and transcendental knowledge, Bhakti Hinduism centers around devotion to personal deities and includes a variety of popular and nonVedic practices. Images (murtis) and image worship, home Shrines and temples, poet-saints and holy men, devotional songs and dances, religious dramas, festivals, and pilgrimage are all interwoven with elements of Vedic thought and practice in the fabric of Bhakti Hinduism. Most of the characteristic features of Hinduism from the early centuries CE onward are associated with the synchronization of popular and priestly religion. Bhakti actually means the Love of God, surrender to the guru and to the individual's chosen deity (ishtadeva). In Hinduism there are various types and levels of bhakti: gurubhakti, surrender to the guru; vaidhibhakti, a preparatory stage during which all instructions (vidhi) from one's guru for the practice of bhakti are followed; ragabhakti, a state in which the bhakta thinks only of God.
Everything reminds one of God and is related to God; parabhakti, the supreme love of God, wherein nothing exists save God and the consciousness of unity with God; premabhakti, ecstatic love of God; mahabhava, intense, ecstatic love of God. These last three are different designations for the same state.
Bhaktidayaka: (sáns. hindú). (bhakti "devotion" + dayaka "giving") The giver of devotion.
Bhaktigamya: (sáns. hindú). Comprehensible through devotion. Shiva's 289 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhakti Marga: (sáns. hindú). The path to knowledge and realization through the worship of a personal god.
Bhakti Shastras: (sáns. hindú). All texts that have to do with the worship and veneration of God.
Bhakti Sutra: (sáns. hindú). A work composed by Narada on the love and worship of God. The work contains eighty-four sutras; these aphorisms, some of which are famous, do not discuss worldly love, whether of one's neighbor or sexual love, but rather discuss the path of bhaki as the simplest path for the present age. Like the divine minne of medieval Christianity, love of God as demonstrated by Narada is the sole fulfillment of life and its chief goal.
The individual sutras are extremely concise and in most editions are supplemented by the commentary of a spiritual teacher, since they are otherwise difficult to comprehend.
Bhakti Yoga: (sáns. hindú). The path of love and surrender, one of the four primary yogic paths to union with God. After developing an intense love for the many aspects of God in a personal form-often in the form of some divine incarnation-the ego of the worshiper merges with the chosen ideal, the ishtadeva. Bhakti Yoga is the natural path to knowledge of God. Here the bhakta has no need to suppress his feelings; rather, one intensifies them and directs them toward God. The majority of believers from the various world-traditions are fundamentally adherents of this path. Bhakti Yoga distinguishes between five different devotional attitudes, or bhavas, toward God. The stages of Bhakti Yoga are 1) bhakti, veneration; 2) bhava, mature love, an ecstatic state; 3) prema, a state in which the devotee completely forgets the world as well as his own body; 4) mahabhava, the supreme manifestation of divine love. Radha, Krishna's playmate, is considered its embodiment. Only avataras and ishvarakotis can attain a state beyond bhava.
Bhalanas: (sáns. hindú). A non Aryan tribe.
Bhallataka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Semicarpus anacardium, commonly known as the marking nut.
Bhamati: (sáns. hindú). A gloss on Sankara's commentary upon the Brahma Sutras by Vachaspati Mishra.
Bhanta: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Chenopodium album.
Bhanu: (sáns. hindú). The luminous or shining. 1. Vishnu's 284th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 2. Sun. Shiva's 521st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A name of Surya, the Sun-God.
Bhanumati: (sáns. hindú). (bhanu "luminous" + mati "possessing") 1. The holder or possessor of luminosity. 2. Daughter of Bhanu, a Yadava chief, who was abducted from her home in Dvaraka, during the absence of her father, by the demon Nikumbha.
Bharadvaja: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi to whom many Vedic hymns are attributed. He was the son of Brihaspati and father of Drona, the preceptor of the Pandavas. The Taittiriya Brahmana says that "he lived through three lives" (probably meaning a life of great length), and that "he became immortal and ascended to the heavenly world, to union with the sun." He is represented in the Mahabharata as living at Hardvar; in the Ramayana he received Rama and Sita in his hermitage at Prayaga, which was then and afterwards much celebrated.
According to some of the Puranas and the Harivansha, he became, by gift or adoption, the son of King Bharata, and a story is told about his birth to account for his name. It appears that his mother, the wife of Utathya, was pregnant by her husband and by Brihaspati. Dirghatamas, the son by her husband, kicked his half-brother out of the womb before his time, then Brihaspati said to his mother, "Bharadvajam," that is "Cherish this child of two fathers." 2. Drona. 3. Any descendant of Bharadvaja or follower of his teaching. 4. The name of a grammarian and author of Sutras.
Bharadvaj Rishi: (sáns. hindú). In the Yajurveda this is not the name of a Rishi but means "ear."
Bharanyu: (sáns. hindú). The supporter, master or protector. 2. A name of fire. 3. a name of the sun. 4. A name of the moon.
Bharata: (sáns. hindú). The Suporter. 2. A hero and king from whom the warlike people called Bharatas, frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, were descended. The name is mixed up with that of Vishvamitra. Bharata's sons were called Vishvamitras and Vishvamitra's sons were called Bharatas. 3. An ancient king of the first Manvantara. He was devoted to Vishnu, and abdicated his throne that he could continually be in meditation upon him. While at his hermitage, he went to bathe in the river, and there saw a pregnant doe frightened by a lion. Her fawn, which was brought forth suddenly, fell into the water, and the sage rescued it. He raised the animal, and becoming excessively fond of it, his meditation was interrupted. "In the course of time he died, watched by the deer with tears in its eyes, like a son mourning for his father; and he himself, as he expired, cast his eyes upon the deer and thought of nothing else, being wholly occupied with one idea.".
For this misapplied devotion he was born again as a deer with the faculty of recollecting his former life. In this form he lived an austere retired life, and having atoned for his former error, was born again as a Brahmin.
But his person was ungainly, and he appeared to be a crazy idiot. He discharged servile offices, and was a palanquin bearer; but he had true wisdom, and discoursed deeply upon philosophy and the power of Vishnu.
Finally he obtained exemption from future birth. Dowson adds, "this legend is 'a sectarial graft upon a Pauranik stem.'" 4. Son of Dasharatha by his wife Kaikeyi, and half-brother of Ramachandra. He was educated by his mother's father, Ashvapati, king of Kekaya, and married Mandavi, a cousin of Sita. His mother, through maternal fondness and the demonic logic and persuasion of a servant, brought about the exile of Rama, and endeavored to secure her own son's succession to the throne, but Bharata refused to supplant his elder brother. On the death of his father Bharata performed the funeral rites, and went after Rama, with a complete army, to bring him back to Ayodhya and place him on the throne. He found Rama at Chitrakuta, and there was a generous contention between them as to which should reign.
Rama refused to return until the period of his exile was completed, and Bharata declined to be king; but he returned to Ayodhya as Rama's representative, and setting up a pair of Rama's shoes as a mark of his authority, Bharata ruled the country in his brother's name, "He destroyed thirty millions of terrible gandharvas," and made himself master of their country. 5. A prince of the Puru branch of the Lunar race. Bharat was son of Dushyanta and Shakuntala. Ninth in descent from him came Kuru, and fourteenth from Kuru came Shantanu. This king had a son named Vichitravirya, who died childless, leaving two widows. Krishna Dvaipayana was a natural brother to Vichitravirya. Under the law he raised up seed to is brother from the widow, whose sons were Dhritarashtra and Pandu, between whose descendants, the Kauravas and Pandavas, the great war of the Mahabharata was fought. Through their decent from Bharata, these princes, but more especially the Pandavas, were called Bharatas. 6. The author of the NatyaShastra, treatise on music, dance and singing. 7. A name borne by several others of less note than the above. 8. A title of Agni.
Bharata Natyam: (sáns. hindú). (bhrit "to hold, maintain + nat "to act, dance") The "Drama of Bharata" A religious dance form of South India, accompanied by voice, drum, instrumental music, and a chanter, and including both pure dance and interpretative dance based on devotional, philosophical, and love songs.
Bharata Natyam, like other major dance forms of India, traces many of its elements to the Natya Shastra (ca. 100 BCE-CE 100), a comprehensive work on dramaturgy by the legendary sage Bharata Muni. It assumed its present form sometime in the seventeenth century, although it underwent a significant reformation at the hands of a famous quartet of musician-composer-choreographer brothers around the turn of the nineteenth century. Its traditional patronage came from the temples and courts of South India, and its almost exclusively female performers from hereditary castes of court and temple dancers. The accompanying music falls within the classical Karnatic (South Indian) system. The usual Bharata Natyam performance is solo and divided into six sections of varying length. The chanter guides the pure dance sections by reciting rhythmic syllables to which the drum beats and the steps of the dancer must correspond exactly.
The interpretative sections use a complex technique of hand gestures (mudras) combined with highly stylized facial expressions and dance movements to interpret sung texts from the Gita Govinda, the Puranas, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata.
Bharatavarsha: (sáns. hindú). India, as having been the kingdom of Bharata. It is divided into nine Khandas or parts: Indradvipa, Kasherumat, Tamravanu, Gabhastimat, Nagadvipa, Saumya, Gandharva, Varuna.
Bharati: (sáns. hindú). The comprehensive word that brings all forth from its divine source; the breadth of wisdom and the magnitude of the consciousness of truth. 2. A Vedic goddess that is identified with the sacrificial cult of the Rigveda and usually grouped with Sarasvati. She usually invoked to take a seat on the sacred grass prior to the ritual. 3. Speech filled with Vedic lore. 4. One of the ten orders of Sannyasins traced back to Shankara. 5. ShankaraBharati, meaning the "Speech of Shankara," is a Vedantic work by Shankara, also called the "Vivekacudamani."
Bharat Mata: (sáns. hindú). Mother India. A modern cult in which all Indians are called sons or children of India. All Indians are expected to protect their mother regardless of any hardships or barriers they may encounter. In Benares, which is considered the spiritual capital of Hinduism, a temple is dedicated to Bharat Maha. In the place where one would normally find an image of a goddess, there is a large colored relief map of the Indian subcontinent.
Bharga: (sáns. hindú). The effulgent, effulgence. In the Gayatri Mantra of the Rigveda the bharga, or effulgence, of the sun is viewed as God's effulgence and meditated upon within. 2. A name of Shiva.
Bhargava: (sáns. hindú). A descendant of Bhrigu, as Chyavana, Saunaka, Jamadagni, but more especially used for the latter and Parashurama, Vishnu's sixth incarnation. 2. A name of Shiva.
Bhargavi: (sáns. hindú). 1. A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Cynodon dactilon, commonly known as couch grass. 2. Descendant of Bhrigu. 3. A name of Lakshmi. 4. A name of Parvati. 5. Knowledge of the Self in a manner that it was received by Bhrigu from his father Varuna. See the Taittiriya Upanishad.
Bhargavi Varuni Vidya: (sáns. hindú). The knowledge of Bhrigu (Bhargavi Varuni: from Bhrigu, the son of Varuna) that all matter is brahman but that one experiences brahman as the material universe through identification with one's material, mortal body. If through enlightenment such identification ceases, one realizes that the entire universe, in truth, is brahman.
Bharta: (sáns. hindú). The supporter or sustainer. 2. Vishnu's 34th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Husband.
Bhartri: (sáns. hindú). The supporter or sustainer. 2. God as Mother.
Bhartrihari: (sáns. hindú). (bhartri "supporter" + hari "remover") 1. The supporter and remover. 2. A celebrated poet and grammarian, who is said to have been the brother of Vikramaditya. He wrote three Shatakas or centuries of verses, called: l) Sringarashataka, on amatory matters; 2) Nitishataka, on polity and ethics; 3) Vairagyashataka, on religious austerity. These maxims are said to have been written when he had taken to a religious life after a licentious youth. He was also author of a grammatical work of high repute called Vakyapadiya, and the poem called "Bhattikavya" is by some attributed to him. The moral verses were translated into French as early as 1670. In the later part of the 19 th century a certain Professor Tawney translated the erotic verses into English.
Bharu: (sáns. hindú). The Lord or Master. 2. A name of Vishnu. 3. A name of Shiva.
Bharya: (sáns. hindú). A special term used in the Kama Sutra for wife.
Bhasa: (sáns. hindú). One of the earliest of the known Sanskrit dramatists, Bhasa probably wrote during the fourth century CE or earlier. Before the rediscovery and subsequent publication in 1912 of thirteen plays attributed to him, including the beautiful Svapnavasavadatta little was known of Bhasa's work.
Bhashapariccheda: (sáns. hindú). An exposition of the Nyaya philosophy.
Bhaskara: (sáns. hindú). (bhas "light" + kara "doer") 1. The light-maker. 2. A name of Surya, the Sun-God. 3. An Indian philosopher who lived around 900 CE, one of the main commentators on the VedantaSutra. His work is entitled Bhaskarabhashya. In it he represents the BhedabhedaVada, the teaching that identity lies at the basis of all differences (DvaitadvaitaVedanta); on many points he agrees with the views of Nimbarka. He believes that full union with brahman is possible only after the death of the body.
Bhaskaracarya: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated mathematician and astronomer, who as born early in the eleventh century CE, He was author of the Bijaganita on arithmetic, the Lilavati on algebra and the Siddhanta Shiromani on astronomy. It has been claimed for Bhaskara that he "was fully acquainted with the principle of the Differential Calculus." In 1859, a Dr. Spottswood, in a highly prejudiced article published in the Journal of the Royal Astronomy Society observed: "It must; admitted that the penetration shown by Bhaskara in his analysis is in the highest degree remarkable; that the formula which he establishes; and his method of establishing it, bear more than a mere resemblance-they bear a strong analogy-to the corresponding process in modern astronomy; and that the majority of scientific persons will learn with surprise the existence of a method in the writings of so distant a period and so distant a region."
Bhaskari: (sáns. hindú). (bhas "light" + kara "doer") 1. The light-maker. 2. The 77th of Lakshmi's 108 names.
Bhasmapriya: (sáns. hindú). One fond of Bhasman. Shiva's 183rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhasmashayin: (sáns. hindú). One lying on Bhasman. Shiva's 184th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhasmashuddhikara: (sáns. hindú). One who purifies through Bhasman. Shiva's 207th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhasmoddhulitavigraha: (sáns. hindú). One who has smeared his body with Bhasman. Shiva's 182nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhasu: (sáns. hindú). The shining (i.e. the sun).
Bhatakataiya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Solanum indicum, commonly known as the eggplant.
Bhatarsi Deota: (sáns. hindú). A deity that is married to Dharni Deota, the chief deity village of the central provinces. He is the god of the hunt. He is related to Shiva, the archer, lord of wild beast and the jungle.
Bhattacarya: (sáns. hindú). See Kumarila Bhatta.
Bhattikavya: (sáns. hindú). A poem on the actions of Rama by Bhatti. It is of a very artificial character, and is designed to illustrate the laws of grammar and the figures of poetry and rhetoric.
Bhauma: (sáns. hindú). Son of Bhumi (the earth). A matronymic of the Daitya Naraka.
Bhautikaprapanca: (sáns. hindú). The source of the world of physical-forms.
Bhautya: (sáns. hindú). The fourteenth Manu.
Bhava: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic deity often mentioned in connection with Sarva (Sharva) the destroyer. 2. Shiva's 1st, 168th, and 581st names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama 3. The omnipresent God. 4. God in his aspect of creator. 5. The existent. 6. Pure existence. 7. Emotion, ecstasy; designation for any of five various devotional attitudes that a bhakta may adopt in relation to his chosen deity (ishtadeva): 1) shanta, a serene, peaceful mood wherein one feels close to God without having developed a particular relationship to him; 2) dasya, the attitude of servant to master or child to parent or guardian; 3) sakhya, the attitude of one friend to another; 4) vatsalya, the attitude of parent to child (e.g., that of Mary and Joseph toward Jesus); 5) madhura. the attitude of a wife or beloved toward her husband or lover. Bhava is also the designation for the second stage of Bhakti Yoga.
Bhavabhuti: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated dramatist, the author of three of the best extant Sanskrit dramas, the Mahavira Charita, Uttara Rama Charita, and Malati Madhava. He was also known as Srikantha, or "throat of eloquence." He was a Brahmin, and was a native either of Beder or Berar, but Ujjayini or its neighborhood would seem, from his vivid descriptions of the scenery (at which he was excellent), to have been the place of his residence. The eighth century is the period at which he flourished.
Bhavabhuti: (sáns. hindú). An early eighth-century writer who wrote the drama Malatimadhava.
Bhavamukha: (sáns. hindú). A sublime state of spiritual experience wherein the seeker's consciousness hovers at the borderline between absolute and relative consciousness. With equal ease, the seeker can meditate on brahman without qualities and participate in the activities of the world of appearances, which is viewed thereby as a manifestation of the Absolute. In technical terms, the seeker's consciousness moves between the ajnachakra and the sahasrarachakra.
Bhavani: (sáns. hindú). . The existent. 2. Pure existence. 3. Goddess of the living world. 4. A name of Parvati.
Bhava Pratyaya: (sáns. hindú). Complete control over the material world by means of which a high samadhi state is attained.
Bhavaprita: (sáns. hindú). (bhava "existent" + prita "beloved") 1. The beloved of the exister (i.e. Shiva). 2. A name of Parvati.
Bhavasagara: (sáns. hindú). "Ocean of becoming"; the world of change. The creation is in a state of constant flux and knows no rest. The true goal of human life is to surmount this unstable condition and to realize truth and inner peace.
Bhava Samadhi: (sáns. hindú). An ecstatic state attained through worship and love of God.
In this state, the devotee retains a trace of the ego in order to enjoy God and his divine play. Ramakrishna described this as "tasting sugar rather than becoming sugar."
Bhavashini: (sáns. hindú). (bhava "existent" + ashini "consumer") 1. The destroyer of worldly life or of repeated births. 2. A name of Kali, whose destroying is represented by her garland of skulls.
Bhavatarini: (sáns. hindú). (bhava "birth + tarini "savior") 1. "Redeemer of the universe"; a name for the Divine. 2. The Goddess of the transient world. 3. The savior of rebirth. 4. A name for a scripture, (e.g. the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita).
Bhavatman: (sáns. hindú). The soul of the world. Shiva's 428th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhavayavya: (sáns. hindú). A liberal prince.
Bhavesha: (sáns. hindú). (bhava "worldly life, existence, birth" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of the world. 2. A name of Shiva, since the entire world of diversity and transmigration appears through His illusive power.
Bhavishyapurana: (sáns. hindú). A Purana. "This Purana, as its name implies, should be a book of prophecies foretelling what will be." The copies discovered contain about 7000 stanzas. The work is far from agreeing with the declared character of a Purana and is principally a manual of rites and ceremonies.
Its deity is Shiva. There is another work, containing about 7000 verses, called the Bhavishyottarapurana, a name which would imply, as Wilson claimed, that "it was a continuation or supplement of the former," and its contents are of a similar character.
Bhavishyottarapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Bhavishyapurana.
Bhavodbhava: (sáns. hindú). Source of origin of the world. Shiva's 371st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhavya: (sáns. hindú). . Auspiciousness. 2. A name of Durga.
Bhayamana: (sáns. hindú). The name of a man in the Vedas.
Bhayapaha: (sáns. hindú). (bhaya "fear" + apaha "removing, destroying") 1. The dispeller of fear. 2. Vishnu's 935th name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. A name of Shiva.
Bheda: (sáns. hindú). A nonAryan King.
Bhedabheda Vada: (sáns. hindú). Synonymous with DvaitadvaitaVedanta.
Bhedanashini: (sáns. hindú). (bheda "difference" + nashini "destroyer") 1. The destroyer of difference (i.e. between soul and God). 2. The reconciler.
Bhela: (sáns. hindú). An ancient sage who wrote about medicine.
Bheri Nada: (sáns. hindú). The inner reverberation of the spoken syllable OM or some other sound upon which one meditates.
Bhikshu: (sáns. hindú). A mendicant. 2. A name of Shiva. 3. The Brahmin in the fourth and last stage of his religious life. See Brahmin. 4. Any mendicant, especially when used in its Pali form, Bhikkhu, a Buddhist mendicant.
Bhikshuki: (sáns. hindú). A mendicant.
Bhikshuni: (sáns. hindú). A mendicant.
Bhilava: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Aeglo marmelos, commonly known as the Bengal quince.
Bhima: (sáns. hindú). . The terrible. The second of the five Pandu Princes and a mythical son of Vayu, "the god of the wind." He was a man of vast size, and had great strength. He was wrathful in temper, and given to abuse, a brave warrior, but a fierce and cruel foe, coarse in taste and manners, and a great eater, so that he was called Vrikodara, "wolf's belly." Half of the food of the family was allotted to him, and the other half sufficed for his four brothers and their mother. The weapon he generally used was a club, which suited his gigantic strength, and he had been trained in the use of it by Drona and Balarama. His great strength excited the envy of his cousin Duryodhana, who poisoned him and threw his body into the Ganges; but it sank to the realm of the serpents, where it was restored to health and vigor, and Bhima returned to Hastinapura. At the passage of arms at Hastinapura, he and Duryodhana engaged each other with clubs; but the mimic combat soon turned into a fierce personal conflict, which Drona had to put an end to by force. It was at this same meeting that he reviled Karna, and heaped contempt upon him, increasing and converting into bitter hatred the enmity which Karna had previously entertained against the Pandavas. When he and his brothers were in exile, and an attempt was made, at the instigation of Duryodhana, to burn them in their house, it was he who barricaded the house of Purochana, the director of the plot, and burnt him as he had intended to burn them. Soon after this he met the Asura Hidimba, whom he killed, and then married his sister Hidhimbi. He also slew another Asura named Vaka, whom he seized by the legs and tore asunder; afterwards he killed his brother, Kirmira, and other Asuras. This brought the Asuras to submission, aud they began to refrain from molesting humankind. After the Pandu princes were established at Indraprastha, Bhima fought in single combat with Jarasandha, king of Magadha, who had refused to recognize their supremacy. As "son of the wind," Bhima was brother of Hanuman, and was able to fly with great speed. By this power of flight, and with the help of Hanuman, he made his way to Kubera's heaven, high up in the Himalayas. When Jayadratha failed in his attempt to carry off Draupadi, he was pursued by Arjuna and Bhima. The latter overtook him, dragged him by the hair from his chariot to the ground and kicked him until he became senseless. Arjuna interceded and Bhima refrained from killing him; but he cut off all his hair except five locks, and compelled him to acknowledge publicly that he was the slave of the Pandavas. Bhima refused to listen to his brother's plea for Jayadratha's release, but at Draupadi's intercession he let him go free. In the second exile of the Pandavas, they went to the Raja of Virita, whose service they entered. Bhima, holding a ladle in one hand and a sword in the other, undertook the duties of cook; but he soon exhibited his prowess by fighting with and killing a famous wrestler named Jimuta.
Draupadi had entered into the service of the queen as a waiting-maid, and attracted the admiration of the king's brother-in-law, Kichaka. When she rejected his advances, he insulted and brutally assaulted her. Her husbands did not seem disposed to avenge her, so she appealed to Bhima, as she was wont when she sought revenge. Draupadi made an assignation with Kichaka, which Bhima kept, and after a sharp struggle with the disappointed suiter, he broke his bones to atoms, and made his body into a large ball of flesh, so that no one could tell how he had been killed or who had killed him.
Draupadi was judged to have had a share in his death, and was condemned to be burnt alive; but Bhima drew his hair over his face, so that no one could recognize him, and, tearing up a large tree for a club, he rushed to the rescue. He was taken for a mighty Gandharva, the crowd fled, and Draupadi was released. Kichaka had been the general of the forces of Virata and the mainstay of the king. After his death, Susarman, king of Trigartta, aided and abetted by the Kauravas and others, determined to attack Virata. The Raja of Virata was defeated and made prisoner, but Bhima pursued Susarman and overcame him, rescued the prisoner, and made the conqueror captive. In the great battle between the Kauravas and Pandavas, Bhima took a very prominent part. On the first day he fought against Bhishma; on the second he slew the two sons of the Raja of Magadha and after them their father, killing him and his elephant with a single blow. In the fight between the fourteenth and fifteenth day of the battle, Bhima fought with Drona until the rising of the sun; but that redoubted warrior fell by the hand of Dhrishtadyumna. who continued the combat until noonday. On the seventeenth day he killed Duhshasana, and drank his blood, as he had long before vowed to do, in retaliation of the insults Duhshasana had given to Draupadi. On the eighteenth and last day of the battle Duryodhana fled and hid himself in a lake. When he was discovered, he would not come out until he had received a promise that he should not have to fight with more than one man at a time. Even then he delayed until he was irritated by the abuse and the taunts of the Pandavas. Bhima and Duryodhana fought as usual with clubs.
The battle was long and furious; the parties were equally matched, and Bhima was getting the worst of it, when he struck an unfair blow which smashed Duryodhana's thigh, and brought him to the ground. Thus he fulfilled his word and avenged Draupadi. In his fury Bhima kicked his prostrate foe on the head, and acted so brutally that his brother Yudhishthira struck him in the face with his fist, and directed Arjuna to take him away. Balarama was greatly incensed at the foul play to which Bhima had resorted, and would have attacked the Pandavas had he not been persuaded not to by Krishna. He declared that Bhima should thenceforward be called Jihmayodhin, "the unfair fighter." After the conclusion of the war, the old king, Dhritarashtra, asked that Bhima might be brought to him.
Krishna, who knew the blind old man's sorrow for his son, whom Bhima had killed, and suspecting his intention, placed before him an iron statue, which Dhritarashtra crushed in his embrace. Dhritarashtra never forgave Bhima, and he returned the ill feeling with insults, which ended in the old king's retiring into the forest. Bhima's last public feat was the slaughter of the horse in the sacrifice which followed Yudhishthira's accession to the throne. Apart from his mythological attributes, the character of Bhima is natural and distinct. A man of burly form, prodigious strength, and great animal courage, with coarse tactics, a gluttonous appetite, and an irascible temper; jovial and joking when in good humor, but abusive, truculent, and brutal when his passions were roused. His repartees were forcible though coarse, and he held his own even against Krishna when the latter made personal remarks upon him. By his Asura wife Hidimbi he had a son named Ghatotkacha; and by his wife Balandhara princess of Kashi, he also had a son named Sarvatraga or Sarvaga. Other appellations of Bhima are Bhimasena, Bahusalin, "the large-armed," Jarasandhajit, "vanquisher of Jarasandha." 2. A name of Durga. 3. Vishnu's 357th and 948th names in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 4. A name of Rudra or one of his personifications. See Rudra. 5. The name of the father of Damayanti. 6. Shiva's 522 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhimaparakrama: (sáns. hindú). One whose exploit is terrible. Shiva's 523rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhimasena: (sáns. hindú). See Bhima.
Bhishma: (sáns. hindú). The terrible. Son of King Shantanu by the holy river Ganga, and therefore called Shantanava, Gangeya, and Nadija, meaning "the river-born." When King Shantanu was very old he desired to marry a young and beautiful wife. His son Shantanava or Bhishma found a suitable young woman, but her parents objected to the marriage because Bhishma was heir to the throne, and if she bore sons they could not succeed. To gratify his father's desires, he made a vow to the girl's parents that he would never accept the throne, nor marry a wife, nor become the father of children. Shantanu then married the woman, whose name was Satyavati, and she bore him two sons. At the death of his father, Bhishma placed the older son upon the throne, but he was headstrong and was soon killed in battle. The other son, named Vichitraviryya, then succeeded, and Bhishma acted as his protector and adviser. By force of arms Bhishma obtained two daughters of the king of Kasi and married them to Vichitraviryya, and when that prince died young and childless, Bhishma acted as guardian of his widows. By Bhishma's arrangement, Krishna Dvaipayana, who was born of Satyavati before her marriage, raised up seed to his half-brother. The two children were Pandu and Dhritarashtra. Bhishma raised them and acted as regent of Hastinapura for them. He also directed the training of their respective children, the Pandavas and Kauravas. When the split took place between the rival families, Bhishma counselled moderation and peace. When the war began he took the side of the Kauravas, the sons of Dhritarashtra, and he was made commander-in-chief of their army. He laid down some rules for initiating the horrors of war, and he stipulated that he should not be called upon to fight against Arjuna. Goaded by the reproaches of Duryodhana, he attacked Arjuna on the tenth day of the battle. He was unfairly wounded by Shikhandin, and was pierced with innumerable arrows from the hands of Arjuna, so that there was not a space of two fingers' breadth left unwounded in his whole body. When he fell from his chariot he was upheld from the ground by the arrows and lay as on a couch of darts. He was mortally wounded, but he had obtained the power of fixing the time of his death, so he survived fifty-eight days, and delivered several long didactic discourses. Throughout his life, Bhishma exhibited a self-denial, devotion, and fidelity which remained unsullied to the last. He is also known by the appellation Tarpanechchhu, and as Talaketu, meaning "palm banner."
Bhishmaka: (sáns. hindú). . An appellation of Shiva. 2. King of Vidarbha, father of Rukmin and of Rukmini, the chief wife of Krishna.
Bhoga: (sáns. hindú). Enjoyment of sense objects, sensory pleasure such as worldly or bodily pleasure. 2. Food that is offered to a divinity.
Bhogavati: (sáns. hindú). The voluptuous. The subterranean capital of the Nagas in the Nagaloka portion of Patala. Another name is Putkari.
Bhogyoni: (sáns. hindú). The passive life of beasts and birds, whereas the active life of sentient beings is Karma Yoni.
Bhojaprabandha: (sáns. hindú). A collection of literary anecdotes relating to King Bhoja of Dhar, written by Ballala.
Bhoja: (sáns. hindú). . A name borne by many Kings. Most conspicuous among them was Bhoja or Bhojadeva, king of Dhar, who is said to have been a great patron of literature, and probably died before 1082 CE. 2. A prince of the Yadava race who reigned at Mrittikavati on the Parnasa river in Milva; he is called also Mahabhoja. 3. A tribe living in the Vindhya mountains. 4. a country; the modern Bhojpur, Bhagalpur, etc.
Bhojanam: (sáns. hindú). Diet. Shiva's 343rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhojaraja: (sáns. hindú). (bhoja "bountiful" + raja "king") 1. The bountiful king. 2. a king in the Mahabharata. 3. The name of a scholar that wrote a commentary on the Yoga Sutras.
Bhojas: (sáns. hindú). Bounteous Ones. According to Wilson as quoted by Griffith, the Bhojas are said to be the Kshatriya descendants of King Sudas, and the diversified Angirases Medhatithi and the rest of the race of the Angiras.
Bhoktri: (sáns. hindú). The enjoyer. Shiva's 344th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bholanatha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva.
Bhraja: (sáns. hindú). A guard of Soma.
Bhrajishnu: (sáns. hindú). Shining. Shiva's 342 nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhranta: (sáns. hindú). Confused, deluded, uncertain, dubious; error; a term referring to the unspiritual person's inability to discriminate (viveka). Such a person cannot perceive the line between reality and unreality, between the permanent and the transient. In Shankara's terms, such people inevitably see a snake when only a rope is present The consequences of such ignorance are fear and grief.
Bhrantidarshana: (sáns. hindú). An understanding or vision that arises on a false basis and therefore is illusory.
Bhrantinashana: (sáns. hindú). Destroyer of wrong notions. Shiva's 971st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhrigu: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic sage. He is one of the Prajapatis and great Rishis, and is regarded as the founder of the race of the Bhrigus or Bhargavas, in which was born Jamadagni and Parasurama. Manu calls him son, and says that he confides to him his Institutes. According to the Mahabharata he officiated at Daksha's celebrated sacrifice, and had his beard pulled out by Shiva. The same authority also tells the following story: It is related of Bhrigu that he rescued the sage Agastya from the tyranny of King Nahugha, who had obtained superhuman power. Bhrigu crept into Agastya's hair to avoid the potent glance of Nahusha, and when that tyrant attached Agastya to his chariot and kicked him on the head to make him move, Bhrigu cursed Nahusha and he was turned into a serpent. Bhrigu, on Nahusha's supplication, limited the duration of his curse. In the Padmapurana it is related that the Rishis, assembled at a sacrifice, disputed as to which deity was best entitled to the homage of a Brahmin. Being unable to agree, they resolved to send Bhrigu to test the characters of the various gods, and he accordingly went. He could not obtain access to Shiva because that deity was engaged with his wife; "finding him, therefore, to consist of the property of darkness, Bhrigu sentenced him to take the form of the Linga, and pronounced that he should have no offerings presented to him, nor receive the worship of the pious and respectable. His next visit was to Brahma, whom he beheld surrounded by sages, and so much inflated with his own importance as to treat Bhrigu with great inattention, betraying his being made up of foulness. The Muni therefore excluded him from the worship of the Brahmans. Repairing next to Vishnu he found the deity asleep, and, indignant at his seeming sloth, Bhrigu stamped upon his breast with his left foot and awoke him; instead of being offended, Vishnu gently pressed the Brahman's foot and expressed himself honored and made happy by its contact; and Bhrigu, highly pleased by his humility, and satisfied of his being impersonated goodness, proclaimed Vishnu as the only being to be worshipped by men or gods, in which decision the Munis, upon Bhrigu's report, concurred." 2. One who can perform yajna. 3. The name of a Maharshi who the son of Varuna the Water-God and Night-God and also the seer for part of the Rigveda. 4. The title of the third and last part of the Taittiriya Upanishad.
Bhrigus (sáns. hindú). Roasters, consumers. The Bhrigus are a class of beings who belonged to the middle or serial class of gods." They are connected with Agni, and are spoken of as producers and nourishers of fire, as well as makers of chariots. They are associated with the Angirasas, the Atharvans, Ribhus, etc.
Bhringa: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Cinnamomum zeylanicum, commonly known as cinnamon.
Bhrumadhya Dhrishti (sáns. hindú). (bhru "eyebrow" + madhya "in the middle" + drishti "to see") An exercise in concentration in which the attention is directed to a spot between the eyebrows.
Bhu: (sáns. hindú). 1. The earth. See Prithivi. See Vyahriti. 2. Shiva's 506th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhudeva: (sáns. hindú). (bhu "earth" + deva "god") 1. God of the earth, or God on earth. 2. Shiva's 147th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. 3. A Brahmana (i.e. knower of the Absolute). 4. a great man.
Bhudevi: (sáns. hindú). (bhu "earth" + devi "goddess") 1. The Goddess of the Earth. 2. a name of Lakshmi. 3. Goddess on earth (i.e. a virtuous woman).
Bhudhara: (sáns. hindú). (bhu "earth" + dhara "bearer") 1. The earth-bearer. 2. A name of Krishna (He lifted Govardhana Mount with one finger). 3. A name of Shiva. 4. A name of Vishnu's serpent, Shesha. who supports the fourteen worlds.
Bhudhatri: (sáns. hindú). (bhu "earth" + dhatri "supporter") 1. The earth-supporter. 2. a name of Shakti.
Bhuh: (sáns. hindú). See Bhu.
Bhujyu: (sáns. hindú). A protegé of the Ashvins.
Bhukti: (sáns. hindú). Sensual enjoyment.
Bhuktida: (sáns. hindú). (bhukti "fruition" + da "giver") 1. The dispenser of the results of one's actions. 2. The aspect of God that gives all beings the results of their karma.
Bhuman: (sáns. hindú). "Abundance, supreme being"; the highest goal of human life, absolute consciousness (brahman), with which the individual, as the atman (but not as the limited jiva), is identical.
Bhuman Vidya: (sáns. hindú). Knowledge of the infinite Self that contains everything and by its immortal character banishes darkness and care, disease and death.
Bhumarupa: (sáns. hindú). She whose form is all existing things. An epithet of Devi. The 666th name in the Lalita Sahasranama.
Bhumi: (sáns. hindú). See Bhu.
Bhupati: (sáns. hindú). (bhu "earth" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord, master or protector of the earth. 2. A title used for various gods and kings.
Bhur: (sáns. hindú). A vyahriti, the first word of the Gayatri. From this word, which was spoken by Prajapati at the dawn of creation, the earth (bhu) was created.
Bhurishravas: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the Balhikas and an ally of the Kauravas, who was killed in the great battle of the Mahabharata.
Bhurloka: (sáns. hindú). The material world; the body and its material requirements constitute the earthly world for human beings. See Loka.
Bhushana: (sáns. hindú). Ornament. Shiva's 1014 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhushaya: (sáns. hindú). Lying on the ground. Shiva's 1011th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhuta: (sáns. hindú). . Ghost, imp, goblin. Malignant spirits which haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate dead bodies, and delude and devour human beings.
According to the Vishnupurana they are "fierce beings and eaters of flesh," who were created by the Creator when he was incensed. In the Vayupurana their mother is said to have been Krodha, "anger." The Bhutas are attendants of Shiva, and he is held to be their king. 2. Creature; in general, everything that has become. 3. The five elements of the material world (prakriti).
Bhutabhavana: (sáns. hindú). Creator of living beings. Shiva's 263rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutabhavyabhavannatha: (sáns. hindú). One who is the lord of the past, present and future. Shiva's 969th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutacarin: (sáns. hindú). Moving among the living beings. Shiva's 357th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutalaya: (sáns. hindú). Abode of the living beings. Shiva's 940th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutamsha: (sáns. hindú). A Rishi.
Bhutanampati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of spirits.
Bhutanatha: (sáns. hindú). (bhuta "being" + natha "lord") 1. The Lord of beings. 2. A name of Shiva.
Bhutapati: (sáns. hindú). (bhuta "being" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord of beings. 2. Lord of the goblins. Shiva's 115th and 941 st names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutasarathi: (sáns. hindú). Having a goblin as his charioteer. Shiva's 175th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhuta Siddhi: (sáns. hindú). Mastery over the elements and thus over prakriti. As prakriti manifests itself in the three gunas, these must be brought under control.
Bhutatman: (sáns. hindú). (bhuta "past" + atman "Self"). The self-recalling self that knows what it truly is.
Bhutavahana: (sáns. hindú). Having goblins for his vehicle. Shiva's 174 th and 1015th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutesha: (sáns. hindú). (bhuta "being" + isha "lord") A name applied to Vishnu, Brahma, and Krishna; as "lord of the Bhutas or ghosts," it is also applied to Shiva.
Bhuteshvara: (sáns. hindú). (bhuta "being" + ishvara "lord") The Lord or ruler of beings.
Bhuti: (sáns. hindú). . Prosperity. 2. A name of Lakshmi. Shiva's 1013th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutibhushana: (sáns. hindú). Having sacred ashes as ornament. Shiva's 533rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutida: (sáns. hindú). Bestower of prosperity. Shiva's 942nd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhutikrit: (sáns. hindú). One who causes prosperity. Shiva's 1012th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhuva: (sáns. hindú). A vyahriti (see vyahritis) i.e., the second word of the Gayatri.
Out of this word spoken by Prajapati, the atmosphere came into being. 1. The space that is between the earth and heaven; the atmosphere.
Bhuva Lakshmi: (sáns. hindú). Fortune of the earth. Shiva's 507th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhuvanadhara: (sáns. hindú). (bhuvana "world" + dhara "bearer") 1. The world-bearer. 2. a name of Ganesha.
Bhuvanamata: (sáns. hindú). (bhuvana "world" + mata "mother") 1. The Mother of the world or worlds. 2. A name of Durga. 3. A name of various other forms of the Divine Mother.
Bhuvanapati: (sáns. hindú). (bhuvana "world" + pati "lord") The Lord, master or protector of the worlds.
Bhuvaneshvara: (sáns. hindú). (bhuvana "world" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Lord of the worlds. 2. An epithet for Shiva. 3. A city in Orissa (present-day Bhubanesvar), the site of many beautiful temples dedicated to Shiva. The largest and best known of these is the Lingavaj temple, described by Babu Rajendra Lala in his great work on Orissa. In former times, the region around Bhuvaneshvara was a forest named EkamraKanana that is said to have been a favorite hunting ground of Shiva containing several temples. It was formerly called Ekamrakanana.
Bhuvaneshvara: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the worlds. Shiva's 943rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bhuvaneshvari: (sáns. hindú). (bhuvana "world" + vari "sovereign goddess") 1. The sovereign Goddess of the worlds. 2. The 108th of Lakshmi's 108 names. 3. A Mahavidya.
Bhuvaneshvari is said to nourish the three worlds. She has has four hands, large breasts that ooze milk, and has a bright, light complexion. She smiles in a pleasant manner and holds a noose, an elephant goad, and a piece of fruit.
Bhuvar: (sáns. hindú). See Vyahriti.
Bhuvarloka: (sáns. hindú). The world of multifarious appearances, in which sensations, feeling, passions, and attractions exist as the result of desires. In this vital, nervous plane, located above our material earth, the gods associate with human beings. It is a vast and confusing region whose paths are many and difficult.
Bhuvpati: (sáns. hindú). Lord of the atmosphere
Bibhishana: (sáns. hindú). See Vibhishana.
Bija: (sáns. hindú). Energy, seed, root power; the potential behind every material manifestation; particularly important in a bija mantra (seed syllable), which is given by a guru. In the letters of a bija mantra the nature of a particular aspect of the supreme reality is concentrated in the form of a symbolic sound. Such symbolic sounds, based on the experience of a spiritually accomplished person, have mystical, divine powers if they are received from a suitable, authentic guru. Every student of a guru receives such a mantra upon initiation.
Bijadhyaksha: (sáns. hindú). Presiding deity of the seeds. Shiva's 817th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bijakarta: (sáns. hindú). The maker of the seeds. Shiva's 818th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bijavahana: (sáns. hindú). One who carries seeds. Shiva's 693rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bijesha: (sáns. hindú). The lord of the seeds. Shiva's 769th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Bilva: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Bhilava.
Bimba: (sáns. hindú). 1. The original One. 2. Disc of the moon or sun. 3. Mirror, reflection. 4. 0bject compared.
Bimbadhara: (sáns. hindú). (bimba "disc of the moon" + dhara "bearer") The bearer of the crescent moon; a name of Shiva.
Bindu: (sáns. hindú). 1. Particle, dot, spot. 2. A symbol for the universe in its unmanifest form. Because the metamorphosis of the unmanifest into the manifest world (i.e., the creation of something from nothing) is difficult to comprehend, the dot serves as an example of a starting point from which all lines and forms may emerge. 3. The dot on the word "OM," representing the causal state or causal body, as well as the state of deep sleep. 4. The central dot of yantra. 5. In Tantra, the term refers to the male semen, out of which new forms and new life emerge.
Bindusara: (sáns. hindú). The son and successor of Chandragupta.
Bodhi: (sáns. hindú). . The wise or enlightening. 2. The possessor of knowledge.
Bodhidharma: (sáns. hindú). (bodhi "wisdom" + dharma "spiritual path/duty") 1. One whose spiritual path, or dharma, consists of wisdom. 2. The name of a Buddhist.
Bodhin: (sáns. hindú). . The wise or enlightening. 2. The possessor of knowledge.
Bodhisattva: (sáns. hindú). (bodhi "wisdom" + sattva "essence") 1. The essence of wisdom 2. One whose mind is enlightened. 3. A Buddhist saint who, out of compassion, continually reincarnates to help others reach enlightenment. 4. Avalokiteshvara is perhaps the most well-known of present day bodhisattvas.
Bola: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the gum of the Commiphora tree, commonly known as myrrh.
Brahm: (sáns. hindú). Name of a medicine.
Brahma: (sáns. hindú). 1. In the neuter gender, the supreme soul of the universe, self-existent, absolute, and eternal, from which all things emanate, and to which all return. This divine essence is incorporeal, immaterial, invisible, unborn, uncreated, without beginning and without end, infinite, and inappreciable by the sense until the film of mortal blindness is removed. It is all-pervading and infinite in its manifestations, in all nature, animate and inanimate, in the highest god and in the meanest creature. This supreme soul receives no worship, but it is the object of that abstract meditation which Hindu sages practice in order to obtain absorption into it. It is sometimes called Kalahansa. There is a passage in the Shatapatha Brahmana which represents Brahma, in the neuter form, as the active creator. 2. In the masculine gender, the first member of the Hindu trinity; the supreme spirit manifested as the active creator of the universe. He sprang from the mundane egg deposited by the supreme first cause, and is the Prajapati, or lord and father of all creatures, and in the first place of the Rishis or Prajapatis. When Brahma has created the world it remains unaltered for one of his days, a period of 2,160,000,000 years. The world and all that it contains is then consumed by fire, but the sages, gods, and elements survive. When he awakes he again restores creation, and this process is repeated until his existence of a hundred years is brought to a close, a period which it requires fifteen figures to express. When this period is ended he himself expires along with all the gods and sages, as well as the whole universe. Everything is returned to their respective elements. His name is invoked in religious services at Pushkara near Ajmer. This is the only place where he receives worship.
Brahma is said to be of a red color. He has four heads; originally he had five, but one was burned off by the fire of Shiva's central eye because he had spoken disrespectfully. Hence he is called Chaturanana or Chaturmukha, that is, "four-faced" and Ashtakarna which means "eight-eared." He has four arms; and in his hands he holds his scepter, or a spoon, or a string of beads, or his bow Parivita, or a water jug, and the Veda. His consort is Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, also-called Brahmi. His vehicle is a swan or goose, from which he is called Hansavahana. His residence is called Brahmavrinda. The name "Brahma" is not found in the Vedas and Brahmanas, in which the active creator is known as Hiranyagarbha, Prajapati, etc; but there is a curious passage in the Satapatha Brahmana which says: "He (Brahma, neuter) created the gods. Having created the gods, he placed them in these worlds: in this world Agni, Vayu in the atmosphere, and Surya in the sky." Two points connected with Brahma are remarkable. As the father of men he performs the work of procreation by incestuous intercourse with his own daughter, variously named Vak or Sarasvati (speech), Sandhya (twilight), Satarupa (the hundred-formed), etc. Secondly, that the powers as creator have been more or less stripped from Brahma and attributed to the gods Vishnu and Shiva, while Brahma has been thrown into the shade. In the Aitareya Brahmana it is said that Prajapati was in the form of a buck and his daughter was Rohit, a deer. According to the Shatapatha Brahmana and Manu, the supreme soul, the self-existent lord, created the waters and deposited in them a seed, which became a golden egg, in which he himself was born as Brahma, the progenitor of all the worlds. As the waters (nara) were "the place of his movement, he (Brahma) was called Narayana." Here the name Narayana is referred distinctly to Brahma, but it later became the name of Vishnu. The account of the Ramayana is that "all was water only, in which the earth was formed. Thence arose Brahma, the self-existent, with the deities. He then, becoming a boar raised up the earth and created the whole world with the saints, his sons. Brahma, eternal and perpetually undecaying, sprang from the ether; from him was descended Marichi; the son of Marichi was Kashyapa. From Kashyapa sprang Vivasvat, and Manu is declared to have been Vivasvat's son." A later recension of this poem alters this passage so as to make Brahma a mere manifestation of Vishnu.
Instead of "Brahma, the self-existent with the deities," it substitutes for the last three words, "the imperishable Vishnu." The Vishnupurana says that the " divine Brahma called Narayana created all beings," that Prajapati "had formerly, at the commencement of the (previous) kalpas, taken the shape of a fish, a tortoise, etc, (so now), entering the body of a boar, the lord of creatures entered the water." But this "lord of creatures" is clearly shown to be Vishnu, and these three forms, the fish, the tortoise, and the boar, are now counted among the Avataras of Vishnu. This attribution of the form of a boar to Brahma (Prajapati) had been before made by the Shatapatha Brahmana, which also says, "Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created offspring." The Lingapurana is quite exceptional among the later works in ascribing the boar form to Brahma. The Mahabharata represents Brahma as springing from the navel of Vishnu or from a lotus which grew thereout; hence he is called Nabhija, "navel-born"; Kanja, "the lotus"; Sarojin, "having a lotus"; Abjaja, Abjayoni, and Kanjaja, "lotus-born." This is, of course, the view taken by the Vaishnavas. The same statement appears in the Ramayana, although it gives Brahma a more prominent place than usual. It represents Brahma as informing Rama of his divinity, and of his calling him to heaven in "the glory of Vishnu." He bestowed boons on Rama while Rama was on earth, and he extended his favors also to Ravana and other Rakshasas who were descendants of his son Pulastya. In the Puranas also he appears as a patron of the enemies of the gods, and it was by his favour that the Daitya King Bali obtained that almost universal dominion which required the incarnation of Vishnu as the dwarf to repress. He is further represented in the Ramayana as the creator of the beautiful Ahalya, whom he gave as wife to the sage Gautama. Brahma, being thus inferior to Vishnu, is represented as giving homage and praise to Vishnu himself and to his form Krishna, but the Vaishnava authorities make him superior to Rudra, who, they say, sprang from his forehead. The Saiva authorities make Mahadeva or Rudra to be the creator of Brahma, and represent Brahma as worshipping the Linga and as acting as the charioteer of Rudra. Brahma was the father of Daksha, who is said to have sprung from his thumb, and he was present at the sacrifice of that patriarch, which was rudely disturbed by Rudra. Then he had to humbly submit and appease the offended god. The four Kumaras, the chief of whom was called Sanatkumara or by the patronymic Vaidhatra, were later creations or sons of Brahma. Brahma is also called Vidhi, Vedhas, Druhina, and Shrashtri, "creator"; Dhatri and Vidhatri, "sustainer"; Pitamaha, "the great father"; Lokesha "lord of the world"; Parameshta, "supreme in heaven"; Shanat, "the ancient"; Adikavi, "the first poet"; and Drughana, "the axe or mallet." 3. The Veda is sometimes called Brahma. 4. Vishnu's 663rd name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 5. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for a priestly marriage, arranged by parents. 6. Shiva's 921st and 946th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahmacari: (sáns. hindú). 1. A religious seeker who has submitted himself to spiritual disciplines and has taken the first monastic vows, 2. A young man on the first of the four stages of life according to the Vedas, that of brahmacharya.
Brahmacarin: (sáns. hindú). Religious student. Shiva's 799 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahmacaitanya: (sáns. hindú). Brahman-consciousness, also referred to as turiya. the fourth, supraconscious state, which is experienced only in samadhi and in which there is no longer any identification with the body and mind.
Brahmacariaditya: (sáns. hindú). One who observes celibacy for forty-eight years.
Brahmacariaditya: (sáns. hindú). one who observes celibacy for forty-eight years.
Brahmacarirudra: (sáns. hindú). one who observes celibacy for forty-four years.
Brahmacarivasu: (sáns. hindú). One who observes celibacy for twenty-four years.
Brahmacarya: (sáns. hindú). Continence, chastity. 2. Continence in thought, word, and deed, one of the five virtues of the first stage (yama) of Raja Yoga, as stipulated by the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali; together these five constitute the Great Vow (Mahavrata) that is undertaken for all eight steps. The other four virtues are ahimsa (harmlessness, noninjury of others), asteya (not stealing), satya (truthfulness), and aparigraha (noncovetousness, poverty). 3. An ordination ceremony at which a novice takes the first monastic vows; also, the attitude assumed by a brahmachari after taking such vows. 4. The first of the four stages (ashrama) into which a man's life is divided according to Vedic tradition. During this stage, the youth receives religious and worldly instruction from his parents and teachers. He develops his mental faculties and the virtues that lead to a spiritual life. When a young Hindu man of high caste reached the age of eight to twelve, he was initiated into the stage of the student through the rite of panayana (Twice Born). He was given over to his teacher (Acarya) for instruction in the sacred tradition for a period of years. He was to serve his teacher unquestioningly, remain chaste, and live a life of poverty.
Brahma Day: (sáns. hindú). A day that consists of one thousand MahaYuga or Manvantara, each being equal to 4,320,000,000 human years.
Brahmadhrik: (sáns. hindú). Holder of the brahman i.e., the Vedas. Shiva's 155 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98
Brahmadikas: (sáns. hindú). The Prajapatis.
Brahmagarbha: (sáns. hindú). Born of the womb of Brahman. Shiva's 611 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahma Gupta: (sáns. hindú). An astronomer who composed the Brahmagupta Siddhanta in 628 CE.
Brahmajnana: (sáns. hindú). The transcendent knowledge of brahman; its realization. "One who knows brahman, becomes brahman," proclaim the Upanishads, and the fourth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita states, "He who sees brahman in every action, shall attain brahman." The highest goal of human life according to Hinduism is the realization of brahman, thus brahmajnana is the summit of all knowledge. One who attains it is called a brahmajnani (lit. "a knower of brahman").
Brahmakara Vritti: (sáns. hindú). Devout thoughts concerning the knowledge of God and the experience of divine consciousness.
Brahmaloka: (sáns. hindú). A heaven or plane of existence where advanced spiritual aspirants go after death, there to dwell in the company of the divine.
Brahmamayi: (sáns. hindú). (brahma "absolute" + mayi "consisting of") A feminine name meaning "She who consists of the Absolute," or "The embodiment of the Absolute."
Brahmamuhurta: (sáns. hindú). Brahma's hour; the time of day that is most propitious for meditation; the hour at dawn or at dusk when night turns to day or day to night.
Brahmana: (sáns. hindú). Belonging to Brahmans. These are works composed by and for Brahmans. That part of the Veda which was intended for the use and guidance of Brahmans in the use of the hymns of the Mantra, and therefore of later production; but the Brahmana, equally with the Mantra, is held to be Shruti or revealed word. Excepting its claim to revelation, it is a Hindu Talmud.
The Brahmana collectively is made up of the different Brahmanas, which are ritualistic and liturgical writings in prose. They contain the details of the Vedic ceremonies, with long explanations of their origin and meaning; they give instructions as to the use of particular verses and meters; and they abound with curious legends, divine and human, in illustration. In them are found the oldest rituals we have, the oldest linguistic explanations, the oldest traditional narratives, and the oldest philosophical speculations. The Brahmanas contain striking thoughts, bold expressions, sound reasoning, and curious traditions. Each of the Samhitas or collection of hymns has its Brahmanas, and these generally maintain the essential character of the Veda to which they belong. Thus the Brahmanas of the Rigveda are especially devoted to the duties of the Hotri, who recite the richas or verses, those of the Yajurveda to the performance of the sacrifices by the Adhvaryu, and those of the Samaveda to the chanting by the Udgatri. The Rigveda has the Aitareya Brahmana, which is perhaps the oldest, and may date as far back as the seventh century BCE. This is sometimes called Ashvalayana, Kaushitaki or Shankhayana. The Taittiriya Samhita of the Yajurveda has the Taittiriya Brahmana and the Vajasaneyi Samhita has the Shatapatha Brahmana, one of the most important of all the Brahmanas. The Samaveda has eight Brahmanas, of which the best known are the Praudha or Panchavinsha, the Tandya, and the Shadvinsha. The Atharvaveda has only one, the Gopatha Brahmana. In their fullest extent the Brahmanas embrace also the treatises called Aranyakas and Upanishads.
Brahmanacchamsi: (sáns. hindú). 1. The Brahman's assistant, 2. One of the seven priests that participate in the sacrifice, the others being Hota, MaitraVaruna, Pota, Neshtha, Acchavaka, and Agnidhra. See Brahmaputra.
Brahmanadi: (sáns. hindú). A Tantric term for the channel of energy in the body through which the kundalini begins to rise.
Brahmanama: (sáns. hindú). A japa-practice, the repetition of the name of Brahma.
Brahmananda: (sáns. hindú). "The bliss of brahman." 2. According to the Vedantic view brahman is absolute consciousness and admits no opposites; hence it must be pure, unclouded bliss; 3. One of the two major disciples of Ramakrishna (1863 - 1922); the other was Swami Vivekananda.
Brahmanapriya: (sáns. hindú). One fond of brahmins. Shiva's 948 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahmanaspati: (sáns. hindú). 1. Brahma as one of the three great divinities of the trimurti. He becomes creator through the word, bringing everything into existence by his cry. He gives expression to all existence, all vital movement, and all conscious knowledge. 2. A Vedic equivalent of the name Brihaspati. 3. Lord of Prayer. 4. Master of the Vedas.
Brahmanavid: (sáns. hindú). Conversant with the Brahmana texts. Shiva's 535 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahman Bhavana: (sáns. hindú). Identification of one's self with the supreme reality, the absolute consciousness (chit).
Brahmanda: (sáns. hindú). "The egg of Brahma"; the universe, the manifest world.
Brahmandapurana: (sáns. hindú). Dowson, in his Classical Dictionary quotes, "That which has declared, in 12,200 verses, the magnificence of the egg of Brahma, and in which an account of the future kalpas is contained, is called the Brahmandapurana, and was revealed by Brahma." This Purana, like the Skanda, is "no longer procurable in a collective body," but is represented by a variety of Khandas and Mahatmyas professing to be derived from it. The Adhyatma Ramayana, a very popular work, is considered to be a part of this Purana.
Brahmangahrid: (sáns. hindú). One who took away a limb of Brahma. Shiva's 68th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahmani: (sáns. hindú). 1. Another name for Durga; 2. The consort of Brahma (i.e. Sarasvati, Goddess of sacred speech and learning, and of musical art). 3. The female form or the daughter of Brahma, also called Shatarupa. 4. a Matrika found in the third episode of the Devimahatmya. In this story the demons Shumbha and Nishumbha had usurped the gods and were confronted by Devi. As the demon armies approached Devi, the male gods (who are watching from the sides) created shaktis to help the goddess in her plight. Brahmani was made manifest from Brahma and held a rosary and a water pot. Maheshvari was made manifest from Shiva and held a trident while she sat on a bull wearing serpent bracelets and adorned with a crescent moon. Kaumari was made manifest from Karttikeya and was armed with a spear and mounted on a peacock, Vaishnavi was made manifest from Vishnu and was mounted on Garuda and held a conch, discus, mace, bow, and sword. Varaha, the boar avatara of Vishnu sent forth Varahi, his shakti in the form of a boar. Narasimha, the man-lion avatara of Vishnu sent forth Narasimhi, his shakti in the form of a she-lion and she threw the stars into disarray by the shaking of her mane. Indra's shakti was Aindri and she was seated on an elephant and held a thunderbolt. Along with Camunda (Kali), Devi, and the Shakti of Devi called Shivaduti, the demons were overthrown. There are several variations to the story. In the Varahapurana Brahmani is attributed with the emotion of pride.
Brahma Night: (sáns. hindú). A night that consists of one thousand MahaYuga or Manvantara, each being equal to 4,320,000,000 human years.
Brahmanirvana: (sáns. hindú). Dissolution and release in brahman, possible only in the state of nirvikalpasamadhi, in which even the last traces of duality are dissolved.
Brahmanism: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the West for orthodox Hinduism; 2. The worship of Brahma as the creator god. The notion of a creator god plays a much smaller role in India than it does in the West. In the Vedas, Brahma is rarely mentioned as creator. Rather, Prajapati is named lord of the creation, and Brahma is at times accorded equal status; both gods emerged from Hiranyagarbha. The Nasadasiya, the renowned creation hymn from the Rigveda (the oldest Veda), states that the gods appeared only after the creation (10.129.6). Not until the development of the trimurti, the Hindu trinity, which arose much later, is Brahma venerated as a creator god; even here he shares his position with Vishnu, the maintainer, and Shiva, the destroyer whereby each of the three takes a dominant role in turn, until Brahma ultimately declines in importance.
Brahman Satyam Jagat Mithya: (sáns. hindú). This famous utterance of the teaching of Advaita Vedanta proclaims that brahman alone is real and the world is illusory, a superimposition.
Brahmanya: (sáns. hindú). The benefactor of (earthly) Brahman. 2. Vishnu's 661st name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. 3. Conducive to the attainment of Brahman. Shiva's 947th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brahmapura: (sáns. hindú). The city of Brahma. The heaven of Brahma, on the summit of Mount Meru, and enclosed by the river Ganga.
Brahmapurana: (sáns. hindú). In all the lists of the Puranas the Brahma stands first, for which reason it is sometimes entitled the Adi or "First" Purana. It was repeated by Brahma to Marichi, and is said to contain 10,000 stanzas, but the actual number is between 7,000 and 8,000. It is also called the Saurapurana, because it is, in great part, appropriated to the worship of Surya, the sun. In a summary manner, and in words which are common to it as well as several other Puranas, the early chapters give a description of the creation, an account of the Manvantaras, and the history of the Solar and Lunar dynasties up to the time of Krishna. A brief description of the universe succeeds; and then comes a number of chapters relating to the holiness of Orissa, with its temples and sacred groves, dedicated to the sun, to Shiva, and Jagannatha-especially the latter. These chapters are characteristic of this Purana, and show its main object to be the promotion of the worship of Krishna as Jagannatha. To these particulars succeeds a life of Krishna, which is word for word the same as that of the Vishnupurana; and the compilation terminates with a particular detail of the mode in which Yoga or contemplative devotion, the object of which is still Vishnu, is to be performed. There is little in this which corresponds with the definition of a Panchalakshanapurana, and the mention of the temples of Orissa, the date of the original construction of which is recorded, according to Dowson, shows that it could not have been compiled earlier than the thirteenth or fourteenth century. This Purana, according to Wilson, has a supplementary or concluding section called the Brahmottarapurana, which contains about 3,000 stanzas. This Purana bears the character of a Mahatmya or local legend, being intended to celebrate the sanctity of the Balaja river, conjectured to be the same as the Banas in Marvar. There is no clue to its date, but it is clearly modern with a few hints from older authorities.
Brahmaputra: (sáns. hindú). The Brahmin-priest's son, is said to be the same as the Brahmanacchamsi, one of the sixteen priests who recites the mantra that is not to be sung or chanted.
Brahmarandhra: (sáns. hindú). 1. "Brahman's crevice" in the crown of the head. It is through this crevice that the soul escapes after death. 2. The crown of the head. It is made accessible through certain yogic practices, so that the consciousness is able to ascend to higher planes. Symbol for the dematerialization of consciousness (kundalini).
Brahmarshidesha: (sáns. hindú). According to Manu, "Kurukshetra, the Matsyas, the Panchalas, and the Surasenas. This land, which comes to Brahmavartta, is the land of Brahmarshis."
Brahmarshis: (sáns. hindú). Rishis of the Brahmin caste, who were the founders of the gotras of Brahmans, and dwell in the sphere of Brahma. See Rishi.
Brahmarupa: (sáns. hindú). (brahma "absolute" + rupa "form") The embodiment of the Absolute.
Brahma Samadhi: (sáns. hindú). An illuminatory (samadhi) state of brahman-consciousness, supposed to be attained through japa, the correct and steadfast practice of repetition of a mantra. However, there is no causal relationship between the period of practice or number of practices and illumination, a state that lies beyond causality.
Brahmasavarni: (sáns. hindú). The tenth Manu. See Manu.
Brahmasthiti: (sáns. hindú). A firm stand in that which is divine, from stha: "to stand." The term refers to a firm foundation in God, by which any doubt regarding God's existence is dispelled. In one who has attained Brahmasthiti, faith in God as a "working hypothesis" has dissolved into the certainty that God is ever-present. The closing lines of the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita (2.72f.), in which Krishna describes those of constant wisdom, states: "Thus it is with the God-illumined. Never does such a one fall back into delusion. Even at the hour of death one lives in the light of truth. God and he are one" (2.72f.).
Brahma Sutra: (sáns. hindú). A collection of aphorisms and verses on the philosophy of Vedanta; also known as the VedantaSutra. The BrahmaSutra is a series of incomplete aphorisms attributed to Badarayana (ca, 200 BCE-CE 200) comprising the Sutras of Uttaramimamsa or Vedanta; more accurately called the Vedanta Sutras. Among the Sutras of the orthodox Darshanas, those of Badarayana or Vyasa (which are probably the most recent) stand out as esoteric to the point of being unintelligible. It has often been noted that they are meaningless unless interpolated and interpreted by an authoritative gloss and commentary (bhashya) from within the same tradition, the earliest of which is that of Shamkara, the eighth century scholiast and dogmatic theologian of Advaita Vedanta. His bhashya is also thought to incorporate the earliest extant (and "complete") text of the Sutras, and therefore every interpretation of the Brahma Sutras must take into account the fact that the earliest intelligible text is that interpolated by Shamkara. For example: the second Sutra (I.2) is "from which the origin of this," Shamkara interpolates thus: "[Brahman is that] from which the origin [i.e., the origin, subsistence and dissolution] of this (world proceed). It is worth noting that the other eminent commentator, Ramanuja, interpolates and interprets these Sutras quite differently. Therefore, since the Sutras are unintelligible without a commentary, their meaning must be restricted to the views of the commentator. Since the earliest extant commentary was written no earlier than five centuries after the Sutras, serious questions must be raised regarding the integrity of Shamkara's claim that he and Badarayana stand within a common tradition arising from the Upanishads. In fact, their only historical meaning and value is the fact that they became the authoritative Sutras of the Vedanta 500 to 800 years after their composition
Brahmatejas: (sáns. hindú). The power and majesty of brahman; the fire or burning embers of the divine.
Brahmaudana: (sáns. hindú). A ceremonial distribution of boiled rice to Brahmans.
Brahma Vaivarta Purana: (sáns. hindú). A Purana which is related by Savarni to Narada, and contains the account of the greatness of Krishna, with the occurrences of the Rathantarakalpa, where also the story of Brahmavaraha is repeatedly told. It contains 18,000 stanzas. Some authorities claim that the character of the work is decidedly sectarial, and the sect to which it belongs so distinctly marked-that of the worshippers of the juvenile Krishna and Radha, a form of belief that must be a production of a comparatively late date. Some authorities claim that it identifies Radha as a goddess and equal to or superior to Krishna.
Brahmavarcasi: (sáns. hindú). One who has the brahminical splendor. Shiva's 463rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98
Brahmavartta:(sáns. hindú). Manu (ii,17) states: "Between the two divine rivers, Sarasvati and Drishadvati, lies the tract of land which the sages have named Brahmavartta, because it was frequented by the gods." This region lies immediately westward of the Jumna (Yamuna).
Brahma Vastu: (sáns. hindú). The truth or reality of God. As long as it exists in the mind, it is not yet the ultimate truth, which is realized only in union with God (brahman), at which point it is beyond expression.
Brahmaveda: (sáns. hindú). A name given to the Atharvan or fourth Veda, the Veda of prayers and charms.
Brahmavid: (sáns. hindú). One who has seen and known God, an illuminated one, for whom God has become real; one who had the "visio Dei," as the Christian mystics put it.
Brahmavid Varishtha: (sáns. hindú). One who has attained supreme God-knowledge; the best of God-knowers.
Brahmavidya: (sáns. hindú). Knowledge of brahman; synonymous with Brahmajnana.
Brahma Yoga: (sáns. hindú). Union with divine immortality; with the All, with everything that is manifest and unmanifest.
Brahmayuga: (sáns. hindú). The age of Brahmans. The first or Kritayuga. See Yuga.
Brahmi: (sáns. hindú). The consort of Brahma (i.e. Sarasvati, the Goddess of sacred speech and learning, and of musical art). 2. That which pertains to Brahman, or the Absolute, as in the Bhagavad Gita II:72. 3. A name of Parvati. 4. A name for all of the Upanishads. 5. a term used in the Atharvaveda and Kama Sutra for the Hydrocotyle asiatica.
Brahmin: (sáns. hindú). The first of the four castes; the sacerdotal or priestly class, the members of which may be, but are not necessarily, priests. A Brahmin is the chief of all created beings; his per son is inviolate; he is entitled to all honor, and enjoys many rights and privileges. The Shatapatha Brahmana declares that "there are two kinds of gods; first the god, then those who are Brahmin and have learned the Veda and repeat it: they are human gods." The chief duty of a Brahmin is the study and teaching of the Vedas, and the performance of sacrifices and other religious ceremonies; but in modern times many Brahmans entirely neglect these duties, and they engage in most of the occupations of secular life. Under the law of Manu, the life of a Brahmin was divided into four ashramas or stages: 1) Brahmachari-The student, whose duty was to pass his days in humble and obedient attendance upon his spiritual preceptor in the study of the Vedas. 2) Grihastha-The householder; the married man living with his wife as head of a family engaged in the ordinary duties of a Brahmin, reading and teaching the Vedas, sacrificing and assisting in the sacrifice, bestowing alms and receiving alms. 3) Vanaptastha-The anchorite, or "dweller in the woods," who, having discharged his duties as a man of the world, has retired into he forest to devote himself to self-denial of food and raiment, to mortifications of various kinds, to religious meditation, and to the strict performance of all ceremonial duties. 4) Sannyashi-The religious mendicant, who, freed from all forms and observances, wanders about and subsists on alms, practicing or striving for that condition of mind which, heedless of the joys and pains, cares and troubles of the flesh, is intent only upon the deity and final absorption. The divisions and subdivisions of the Brahmin caste are almost innumerable. It must suffice here to notice the great division of north and south, the Pancha Gauda and the Pancha Dravida.
The five divisions of Gauda, or Bengal, are the Brahmans of: 1) Kanyakubja, Kanauj; 2) Sarasvata, the northwest, about the Sarasvati or Sarsuti river; 3) Gauda; 4) Mithila, North Bihar; 5) Utkala, Orissa. The Pancha Dravida are the Brahmans of: 1) Maharashtra, the Mahratta country; 2) Telinga, the Telugu country; 3) Dravida, the Tamil country; 4) Karnata, the Canarese country; 5) Gurjjara, Guzerat. 6. one of four principal priests, the other three being the Hotri, Adhvaryu, and the Udgatri; he was the most learned of them all and was master of the three Vedas; he was to supervise the sacrifice and to correct the mistakes.
Brahmopasana: (sáns. hindú). Worship of Brahma, or the divine (upasana).
Brahmottarapurana: (sáns. hindú). See Brahmapurana.
Braja: (sáns. hindú). See Vrindavana.
Bratas: (sáns. hindú). Fasting days. During the bratas unmarried girls fast and go to the temple to pray a promised number of days for an ability to be a good daughter, a good wife, a good mother, a good daughter-in-law and so on.
Bribu: (sáns. hindú). A liberal merchant
Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad: (sáns. hindú). (brihat "great" + aranyaka "of the forest") a Upanishad belonging to the White Yajurveda. Entitled "great" for its length and profundity. It is famous for the teaching on the Self that it contains as related by the sage Yajnavalkya to his wife, Maitreyi. The work teaches the absolute identity of atman and brahman. Shankara wrote a commentary on it. See Aranyaka and Yajnavalkya.
Brihad Devata: (sáns. hindú). An ancient work in shlokas by the sage Shaunaka, which enumerates and describes the deity or deities to which each hymn and verse of the Rigveda is addressed. It frequently recites legends in support of its attribution.
Brihaddiva: (sáns. hindú). 1. A goddess connected with Ila and Sarasvati-a Goddess of Speech. 2. A Rishi. 3. An ascetic.
Brihadgarbha: (sáns. hindú). Having a huge womb. Shiva's 612th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brihad Naradiya Purana: (sáns. hindú). See Niradapurana.
Brihadratha: (sáns. hindú). The tenth and last king of the Maurya dynasty, founded by Chandragupta.
Brihaduktha: (sáns. hindú). 1. The name of a Priest in the Vedas. 2. A Rishi.
Brihali: (sáns. hindú). A goddess from the Vanaparva of the Mahabharata, perhaps a Matrika, who was born from the child Karttikeya (with a host of others), when Indra struck him with his thunderbolt. The group of goddesses were adopted by Karttikeya as his mothers.
Brihaspati: (sáns. hindú). (brihas "speech" + pati "lord") 1. The Lord of the Vedic Word 2. The cloud God. 3. In the Rigveda the names Brihaspati and Brahmanaspati alternate, and are equivalent to each other. They are names of a deity in whom the action of the worshipper upon the gods is personified. He is the suppliant, the sacrificer, the priest, who intercedes with gods on behalf of men and protects humankind against the wicked. Hence he appears as the prototype of the priests and priestly order; and is also designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine community. He is called in one place the father of the god, and widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. He is also designated as the "shining" and "the gold colored, and "having the thunder for his voice." 4. In later times Brihaspati is a Rishi. He is also agent of the planet Jupiter, and his name is commonly used for the planet itself. In this character his car is called Nitighosha and is drawn by eight pale horses. He was son of the Rishi Angiras, and he bears the patronymic Angirasa. As preceptor of the gods he is called Animishacharya, Chakshas, Ijya, and Indrejya. His wife, Tara, was carried off by Soma, the moon, and this gave rise to a war called the Tarakamaya.
Soma was aided by Ushana, Rudra, and all the Daityas and Danavas, while Indra and the gods took the part of Brihaspati "Earth, shaken to her center," appealed to Brahma, who interposed and restored Tara to her husband. She had a son which Brihaspati and Soma both claimed, but Tara, commanded by Brahma to tell the truth, declared Soma to be the father, and the child was named Budha. There is an extraordinary story in the Mataya and Bhagavata Puranas of the Rishis having milked the earth through Brihaspati. Brihaspati was father of Bharadvaja by Mamata, wife of Utathya (see Bharadvaja). An ancient code of law bears the name of Brihaspati, and he is also represented as being the Vyasa of the " fourth, Dvapara age." There was one Rishi called Brihaspati in the second Manvantara, and another who was founder of an heretical sect. Other epithets of Brihaspati are Jiva, "the living"; Didivis, "the bright"; Dhishana, "the intelligent"; and, for his eloquence, Gishpati, "lord of speech." 5. Preceptor of the gods. Shiva's 585 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brihat: (sáns. hindú). Great, important Shaman.
Brihati: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Solanum indicum; commonly known as the eggplant. 2. A Vedic meter of thirty-six syllables.
Brihatjyoti: (sáns. hindú). Having a large light. Shiva's 627th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Brihatkatha: (sáns. hindú). A large collection of tales, the original of the Kathasaritsagara.
Brihat Sama: (sáns. hindú). a hymn composed in Brihati meter.
Brihat Samhita: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated work on astronomy by Varaha Mihira.
Brindaban: (sáns. hindú). See Vrindavan.
Brindavan: (sáns. hindú). See Vrindavan.
Bringaraja: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Vedelia calendulucea, commonly known as the marigold.
Brisaya: (sáns. hindú). A fiend or savage enemy.
Bubhatsu: (sáns. hindú). "Loathing." An appellation of Arjuna.
Buddha: (sáns. hindú). The Awakened. 2. The title given to the founder of Buddhism who is Vishnu's ninth incarnation. 3. A special term used in the Kama Sutra for a woman over fifty years old. 4. Gotama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, Vishnu's ninth incarnation. See Avatara.
Buddhakshara: (sáns. hindú). One who has understood the syllable. Shiva's 381st name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Buddhehparatah: (sáns. hindú). Lying beyond reason; higher consciousness, intuition.
Without intuition, spiritual experiences are not possible, and such experiences are more important than logic and reason.
Buddhi: (sáns. hindú). Intelligence. 1. The discriminatory element in the antahkarana, that which categorizes all sensory impressions. In itself a lifeless instrument, buddhi draws upon the intelligence and consciousness of the atman and develops all human faculties, including intuition. 2. Shiva's 704th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Buddhindriya: (sáns. hindú). See Indriya.
Buddhishaktisvarupini: (sáns. hindú). She whose form is the power of the intellect. An epithet of Sarasvati.
Buddhi Yoga: (sáns. hindú). Self-knowledge, attained by the power of discrimination. In the Bhagavad Gita (2.49), the engagement of the buddhi as the intelligence and discriminatory faculty is referred to as buddhi yoga and is characterized as one of the most important prerequisites for the realization of God.
Budha: (sáns. hindú). Wise, intelligent. The planet Mercury, son of Soma, the moon, by Rohini, or by Tara, wife of Brihaspati (see Brihaspati). He married Ila, daughter of the Manu Vaivasvata and by her had a son, Pururavas. Budha was author of a hymn in the Rigveda (see Ila). From his parent he is called Saumya and Rauhineya. He is also called Praharshana, Rodhana, Tunga, and Shamanga, "black-bodied." The Intrigue of Soma with Tara was the cause of a great quarrel, in which the gods and the Asuras fought against each other.
Brahma compelled Soma to give up Tara, and when she returned to her husband she was pregnant. A son was born who was so beautiful that Brihaspati and Soma both claimed him. Tara, for a long time, refused to tell his paternity. Her refusal to reveal the true identity of the son's father so incurred the wrath that it nearly incurred the curse of her son. At length, upon the command of Brahma, she declared Soma to be the father, and he gave the boy the name Budha. This name is distinct from Buddha.
Caidya: (sáns. hindú). Son of Cedi.
Caitanya: (sáns. hindú). 1. Consciousness. 2. Pure Consciousness i.e., the Self. 3. Consciousness associated to sattvaguna.
Caitanya Candrodaya: (sáns. hindú). "The rise of the moon of Caitanya." A drama in ten acts by Kavikarnapura. Caitanya was a modern Vaishnava reformer, accounted an incarnation of Krishna.
Caitra: (sáns. hindú). ratha-The grove or forest of Kuvera on Mandara, one of the spurs of Meru; it is so called from its being cultivated by the gandharva Citraratha.
Cakava: (sáns. hindú). See Cakravaka.
Cakavi: (sáns. hindú). See Cakravaka.
Cakora: (sáns. hindú). A kind of partridge. A fabulous bird, supposed to live upon moonbeams.
Cakrabhrit: (sáns. hindú). (cakra "wheel, disc" + bhrit "bearer") 1. The discus-bearer. 2. A name of Vishnu referring to Him holding the discus "Sudarshana." The Sudarshana, Vishnu's discus. is symbolic of Him setting samsaracakra (the wheel of transmigration) in motion.
Cakravaka: (sáns. hindú). A bird (Anas casara) considered as a symbol of conjugal love and constancy.
Cakra-varti: (sáns. hindú). A universal emperor, described by the Vishnupurana as one who is born with the mark of Vishnu's discus visible in his hand; but the meaning is actually, "He who abides in or rules over an extensive territory called a Cakra."
Cakshusha: (sáns. hindú). The sixth Manu. See Manu.
Cakshushya: (sáns. hindú). Beneficent to the eyes. Shiva's 75th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Campa: (sáns. hindú). The capital city of the country of Anga. Traces of it still remain in the neighborhood of Bhagalpur. It as also called Malini, from its being surrounded with Campaka trees as with a garland (mala). It is said to have derived its name from Campa, son of Prithulaksha, a descendant of Yayati, through his fourth son, Anu. However, the abundant Campaka trees may assert their claim to its designation. 2. A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Michelia champaka.
Campakavali: (sáns. hindú). Frangipani, a perfume made from the red jasmine.
Campa-malini: (sáns. hindú). See Campa.
Campa-puri: (sáns. hindú). See Campa.
Campavati: (sáns. hindú). See Campa.
Camunda: (sáns. hindú). An emanation of Durga, sent forth from her forehead to encounter the demons Canda and Munda. She is described in the Markandeapurana: "From the forehead of Ambika (Durga), contracted with wrathful frowns, sprang swiftly forth a goddess of black and formidable aspect, armed with a scimitar and noose, bearing a ponderous mace, decorated with a garland of dead cor[p]ses, robed in the hide of an elephant, dry and withered and hideous, with yawning mouth, and lolling tongue, and bloodshot eyes, and filling the regions with her shouts." When she had killed the two demons, she took their heads to Durga, who told her that she should henceforth be known, by a contraction of their names-as Camunda. 2. A goddess often identified with Kali and featured in Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava, an early eighth-century drama. In this drama a devotee of Camunda captures a female named Malati whom she intends to sacrifice to the goddess. The drama depicts a macabre sight taking place at Camunda's temple which is located near a cremation ground. Camunda is described as being surrounded with goblins while dancing wildly with her mouth agape, wearing a mala (garland) of skulls, being covered with snakes and showering flames from her eyes.
While Camunda dances she makes the world tremble.
Canakya: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated Brahman, who took a leading part in the destruction of the Nandas, and in the elevation of Candragupta to their throne. He was a great master of finesse and artifice, and has been called the Machiavelli of India. A work upon morals and polity called Canakya Sutra is ascribed to him. He is the chief character in the drama called Mudrarakshasa, and is known also by the names Vishnugupta and Kautilya.
Canda: (sáns. hindú). The goddess Durga, especially in the form she assumed for the destruction of the Asura called Mahisha.
Candalika: (sáns. hindú). A name of Durga. 2. A name of Kali.
Candamari: (sáns. hindú). A goddess who is often identified with Kali and depicted in Somadeva's late eleventh or early twelfth-century writing Yashatilaka.
Somadeva describes Candamari as being adorned with corpses and using the oozing from their putrefaction as cosmetics. She sports in cremation grounds and bathes in rivers of blood or wine. Her drinking cups are human skulls. The devotees are described as fanatical and as gathering at her temple where they undergo self-torture and self-mutilation. They burn incense on their heads, offer their own blood and flesh to the sacrificial fire and even drink their own blood,
Candaparakrama: (sáns. hindú). Of fierce exploit. Shiva's 650th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Candava: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Santalum album, commonly known as sandalwood.
Candavega: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for passionate ardour.
Candi: (sáns. hindú). The fierce Goddess. 2.An epithet for Kali and Durga. 3. The title given the "Devimahatmya" of the Markandeyapurana. 4. Candi is also a goddess featured in the Kadambari, a seventh century drama by Banabhatta.
The worship of Candi takes place deep in the forest and includes blood offerings to the goddess. 5. See also Canda.
Candika: (sáns. hindú). The fierce Goddess. 2. A name of Durga.
Candila: (sáns. hindú). An epithet of Shiva, or Rudra.
Candimahatmya: (sáns. hindú). See Candipatha.
Candimukti: (sáns. hindú). Liberator of Candi. Shiva's 1039th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Candipat: (sáns. hindú). A poem of 700 verses, forming an episode of the Markandeyapurana.
It celebrates Durga's victories over the Asuras, and is read daily in the temples of that goddess. The work is also called Devimahatmya.
Candipatha: (sáns. hindú). See Candipat.
Candipati: (sáns. hindú). (Candi "fierce goddess" + pati "lord") The Lord of the fierce Goddess (i.e. Shiva).
Candra: (sáns. hindú). The moon, either as a planet or a deity. See Soma. 2. The 58th of the 108 names of Lakshmi. 3. Shiva's 283rd and 877th names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Candrabhaga: (sáns. hindú). The river Cenab.
Candrabhanu: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + bhanu "sun") 1. The moon and sun. 2. A name of a son of Krishna.
Candrabhuti: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + bhuti "power, well-being, fortune") 1. One whose luster is like the moon. 2. Silvery.
Candradeva: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + deva "god") The Moon-God.
Candragupta: (sáns. hindú). This name has been identified with the Sandracottus or Sandrocyptus mentioned by Arrian and the other classical historians of Alexander's campaign. Somewhat later on it is postulated that they entered into a treaty with Seleucus Nicator through the ambassador Megasthenes. The identification has been contested, but the many writers on Indian antiquities have claim it as an established fact, and have added confirmatory evidence from various sources, so that the identity leaves very little doubt. This identification is of the utmost importance to Indian chronology as it is one of the only links by which Indian history is connected with that of Greece, and nearly everything in Indian chronology depends upon the date of Candragupta as ascertained from that assigned to Sandracottus by the classical writers. His reign, as postulated by classical writers, is to have begun in 315 BCE, and as he reigned twenty-four years, his reign ended in 291 BCE. Candragupta is a prominent name in both Brahmanical and Buddhist writings, and his accession to the throne is the suject of the drama Mudrarakshasa. When Alexander was in India, he learned that a king named Xandrames reigned over the Prasii (Prachyas) at the city of Palibothra, situated at the convergence of the Ganges and another river called Erranaboas (the Sone). At this time, Sandracottus was young, but he waged war against Alexander's captains, and he raised bands of robbers, with whose help he succeeded in establishing freedom in India. Hindu and Buddhist writers are entirely silent as to Alexander's appearance in India, but they show that Candragupta overthrew the dynasty of the Nandas, which reigned over Magadha, and established freedom in India by the help of bands of robbers. He established himself at Pataliputra, the capital of the Nandas, which is identical with the Greek Palibothra, and this has been shown to be the modern Patna. That town does not now stand at the convergence of two rivers, but the rivers in the alluvial plains of Bengal frequently change their courses, and a change in the channel of the Sone as been established by direct geographical evidence. There is a difficulty about Xandrames. This is probably the Sanskrit Candramas which some consider to be only a shorter form of the name Candragupta, while others point out that the Greek references indicate that Xandrames was the predecessor of Sandracottus, rather than Sandracottus himself. The dynasty of the Nandas that reigned over Magadha are frequently spoken of as the "nine Nandas," probably meaning "nine descents"; but according to some authorities the last Nanda, named Mahapadma, and his eight sons, are intended. Mahapadma Nanda was the son of a Shudra, and so by law he was a Shudra himself. He was powerful and ambitious, cruel and avaricious. His people were disaffected; but his fall is represented as having been brought about by the Brahman Canakya.
Candragupta was then raised to the throne and founded the Mauryan dynasty, the third king of which was the great Ashoka, grandson of Candragupta. The Brahmans and Buddhist are at great variance a to the origin of the Maurya family. The drama Mudrarakshasa represents Candragupta as being related to Mahapadma Nanda, and a commentator on the Vishnupurana says that he was a son of Nanda by a woman of low caste named Mura, wherefore he and his descendants were called Mauryas. However, this explanation smacks of etymological invention, and is inconsistent with the representation that the low caste of Nanda was one cause of his deposition; for if it were true, the low-caste king would have been supplanted by one of still lower degree. On the other hand, the Buddhists contend that the Mauryas belonged to the same family as Buddha, who was of the royal family of the Shakyas.
The question of the identification of Sandracottus and Candragupta has been discussed at length by Max Müller in his History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature.
Candrahasa: (sáns. hindú). A prince of the south, who lost his parents soon after his birth, and fell into a state of destitution, but after going through a variety of adventures came to the throne.
Candraka: (sáns. hindú). Moonlight.
Candrakanta: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + kanta "lovely") 1. Lovely as the moon. 2. The daughter of Daksha and the wife of the Moon-God. 3. The moon-stone. A gem or stone supposed to be formed by the solidification of the rays of the moon. It is probably a crystal. It is supposed to emit a cooling influence.
It is also called Mani-caka.
Candrakanti: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + kanti "radiance") Moonlight.
Candra-ketu: (sáns. hindú). A son of Lakshmana. 2. A king of the city of Cakora. 3. a country near the Himalayas.
Candra-loka: (sáns. hindú). The plane of the moon. This is the plane to which a soul goes to enjoy the fruits of their meritorious deeds done with a selfish motive.
After their stay in this plane, the souls are reborn on earth.
Candra-malika: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + malika "garlanded") Garlanded by the moon.
Candra-mani: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + mani "gem") The moon-gem, moonstone.
Candra-mauli: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + mauli "head, top, diadem") The moon-crested; a name of Shiva.
Candra-mauli: (sáns. hindú). Having the moon on the head as an ornament. Shiva's 29th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Candramshu:(sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + amsru "ray") 1. Moonbeam. 2. Vishnu's 281st name as listed in the Vishnu Sahasranama.
Candra-mukha: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + mukha "face") 1. The moon-faced. 2. A name of Rama.
Candra-mukuta: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + mukuta "diadem, crest") The moon-crested; a name of Shiva.
Candran: (sáns. hindú). The shining (moon). 2. A name of the Moon-God. 3. The presiding deity of the mind. 4. The dwelling place of Pitris.
Candra-natha: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + natha "lord") The Lord or master of the moon; a name of Shiva.
Candra-pida: (sáns. hindú). Shiva's 28th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Candra-ratna: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + ratna "gem, pearl") The moon-pearl.
Candra-sara: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + ara "fluid") A mythical moon-lake.
Candra-shekhara: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + shekhara "crown, crest, diadem") The moon crested; a name of Shiva.
Candra-surya: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + Surya "sun, Sun-God") 1. The One whose splendor is like the moon and the sun. 2. The One whose eyes shine like the moon and the sun.
Candravadana: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + adana "mouth, face") 1. The moon-faced 2. a name of Rama.
Candra-vansha: (sáns. hindú). The Lunar race. The lineage or race which claims descent from the moon. It is divided into two great branches, the Yadavas and Pauravas, respectively descended from Yadu and Puru. Krishna belonged to the line of Yadu, and Dushyanta with the Kuru and Pandu princes to the line of Puru.
Candra-vimala: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + vimala "immaculate") Immaculate as the moon.
Candreshvara: (sáns. hindú). (candra "moon" + ishvara "lord") 1. The Moon-God. 2. The Lord of the moon (i.e. Shiva).
Candrika: (sáns. hindú). Moonlight.
Candrila: (sáns. hindú). A name of Shiva, or Rudra.
Canogyza: (sáns. hindú). See Kanyakubja.
Canura: (sáns. hindú). A wrestler in the service of Kansha, who was killed by Krishna.
Caracara: (sáns. hindú). The mobile and immobile being. Shiva's 739th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caraka: (sáns. hindú). The name of a physician and author of a treatise on Ayurvedic medicine who lived during the Vedic period. According to his own statement, he received the materials of his work from Agnivesha, to whom they were delivered by Atreya. A legend represents him as an incarnation of the serpent Shesha. The work was translated into Arabic before the end of the eighth century. 2. One of the chief schools of the Yajurveda. 3. The wanderer.
Caraka-brahmana: (sáns. hindú). A Brahmana of the Black Yajurveda.
Carana: (sáns. hindú). A Vedic school or society. It is explained by a commentator as "a number of men who are pledged to the reading of a certain Shakha of the Veda, and who have in this manner become one body."p style="margin-bottom: 0cm;" align="JUSTIFY">Caranas: (sáns. hindú). Panegyrists (a person who praises enthusiastically or extravagantly). The panegyrists of the gods.
Caranyu: (sáns. hindú). The name of an Apsara.
Carin: (sáns. hindú). The follower, disciple.
Carmanvati: (sáns. hindú). The river Cambal.
Carsha: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for a sex object.
Caru: (sáns. hindú). The lovely. 2. The beautiful. 3. Sons of Krishna and Rukmini.
Caru-datta: (sáns. hindú). The Brahman hero of the drama Mricchakati.
Carudhi: (sáns. hindú). Of charming intellect. Shiva's 723 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caruhasa: (sáns. hindú). (caru "beautiful" + hasa "smile") Having a beautiful smile.
Caruhasini: (sáns. hindú). "Sweet smiler." This epithet is used for Rukmini and for Lakshmana, and perhaps for other wives of Krishna.
Carujanaka: (sáns. hindú). Charming father. Shiva's 724th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caruman: (sáns. hindú). (caru "beautiful" + man "having") 1. The possessor of beauty. 2. The beautiful. 3. The name of a daughter of Krishna.
Caru-mati: (sáns. hindú). Daughter of Krishna and Rukmini.
Carurupa: (sáns. hindú). (caru "beautiful" + rupa "form") Having a beautiful form.
Carushila: (sáns. hindú). (caru "beautiful" + shila "character, good conduct") Having a beautiful character.
Carvaka: (sáns. hindú). A Rakshasa, and friend of Duryodhana, who disguised himself as a Brahman and reproached Yudhishthira for his crimes, when he entered Hastinapura in triumph after the great battle. The Brahmans discovered the imposture and reduced Carvaka to ashes with the fire of their eyes. 2. a skeptical philosopher who advocated materialistic doctrines. He probably lived before the composition of the Ramayana, and bay be the Carvaka of the Mahabharata. His followers are called by his name.
Carvi: (sáns. hindú). The lovely. 2. The beautiful.
Carya: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Piper chaba, commonly known as white pepper.
Cataka: (sáns. hindú). One who longs for God as the Cataka birds long for the rain-drops upon which they live.
Catura: (sáns. hindú). Clever. Shiva's 729th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caturangabaleshvari: (sáns. hindú). Ruler of armies. An epithet of Devi. The 691st name in the Lalita Sahasranama.
Caturapriya: (sáns. hindú). One fond of clever people. Shiva's 730th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caturbahu: (sáns. hindú). Four-armed. Shiva's 193 rd name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caturbhava: (sáns. hindú). The four types of emotions. Shiva's 728th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caturmukha: (sáns. hindú). Four-faced. Shiva's 192nd and 932nd names as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caturvarna: (sáns. hindú). The four castes. See Varna.
Caturveda: (sáns. hindú). The four Vedas. Shiva's 727th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Caturvyaha: (sáns. hindú). The dualistic doctrine that the soul has been created by God and is thus an individual self different from the universal One.
Catushpatha: (sáns. hindú). A brahmin. Shiva's 350 th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Cayamana: (sáns. hindú). Probably a man's name.
Cedi: (sáns. hindú). Name of a people and of their country, the Candail and Boglekhand.
The capital was Shuktimati, and among the kings of this country were Damaghosha and Shishupala. 2. The name of a prince.
Cedis: (sáns. hindú). A tribe.
Cekitana: (sáns. hindú). A son of Dhrishta-ketu, Raja of the Kekayas, and an ally of the Pandavas.
Cenab: (sáns. hindú). A river of the Punjab.
Cera: (sáns. hindú). A kingdom in the south of the peninsula, which was absorbed by its rival the Cola kingdom.
Chand: (sáns. hindú). Prosody.
Chandas: (sáns. hindú). Meter. One of the Vedangas. The oldest known work on the subject is the Chandahshastra, ascribed to Pingala, which may he as old as the second century BCE. The subject is one to which great attention has been given by the Hindus from the earliest times.
Chando: (sáns. hindú). See Chandas.
Chandoga: (sáns. hindú). A priest or chanter of the Samaveda.
Chandogya: (sáns. hindú). The name of a Upanishad of the Samaveda. The Chandogya Upanishad consists of eight out of ten chapters of the Chandogya Brahmana; the first two chapters are yet wanting. This work is particularly distinguished by its rich store of legends regarding the gradual development of Brahmanical theology.
Chaya: (sáns. hindú). Shade. A handmaid of the sun. Sanjna, wife of the sun, being unable to bear the fervor of her lord, put her handmaid Chaya in her place. The sun, believing Chaya to be his wife, had three children by her: Sani, the planet Saturn; the Manu Savarni; and a daughter, the Tapati river. As mother of Saturn, Chaya is known as Shaniprasu. The partiality which she showed for these children provoked Yama, the son of Sanjna, and he lifted his foot to kick her. She cursed him to have his leg affected with sores and worms. This made it clear that she was not Sanjna and mother of Yama.
So the sun went in search of Sanjna and brought her back. According to one Purana, Chaya was a daughter of Vishvakarma, and sister of Sanjna the wife of the sun.
Chinnamasta: (sáns. hindú). A Mahavidya. Chinnamasta stands in a cremation ground on top of Kama and Rati as they copulate. She has cut off her head with a sword that she holds in one of her hands. The other hand holds a platter upon which the severed head is sitting. Three streams of blood are spurting from her neck and one is being swallowed by her severed head and the other two are being swallowed by two female attendants.
Chinnasamshaya: (sáns. hindú). One whose doubts are cleared. Shiva's 179th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Chitraka: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Cita.
Chola: (sáns. hindú). A country and kingdom in the south of India. The country was called Cholamandala, and it is from that name that we now have the name Coromandel.
Churning of the Ocean: (sáns. hindú). See Amrita.
Cicinda: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Trichosantes anguina, commonly known as the snake gourd.
Cidambara: (sáns. hindú). (cit "knowledge" + ambara "garment") 1. The knowledge-clad. 2. a name of Shiva. 3. The name of a South Indian town where the Shiva performed His Tandava dance.
Cidambaresha: (sáns. hindú). (cidambara "knowledge-clad, name of a temple" + isha "lord") 1. The Lord of the Cidambaram temple. 2. The knowledge-clad Lord. 3. A name of Shiva.
Cidatman: (sáns. hindú). Consciousness of the atman, the Self. This consciousness (cit) is identical with brahman, or absolute consciousness.
Cidghana: (sáns. hindú). (cit "knowledge" + ghana "uninterrupted, whole") The pure or homogeneous consciousness (i.e. the non-dual Truth or Self, the Absolute which is devoid of break and difference).
Cinmaya: (sáns. hindú). (cit "knowledge" + maya "consisting of) 1. The embodiment of knowledge or consciousness. 2. Consisting of knowledge, consciousness. 3. One who has realized the Truth and thus become the very Truth.
Cintamani: (sáns. hindú). (cinta "thought" + mani "gem") 1. A jewel which is supposed to have the power of granting all desires. The philosopher's stone. It is said to have belonged to Brahma, who is himself called by this name. It is also called Divyaratna. 2. Parvati's 20th name (of 108), referring to Her giving knowledge to Her devotees.
Cirajivin: (sáns. hindú). "Long-lived." Gods or deified mortals who live for long periods of time.
Cirantana: (sáns. hindú). The ancient one. Shiva's 64th name as listed in the Shiva Sahasranama. See the Lingapurana Part II, Chapter 98.
Ciraunji: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Buchanania latifolia.
Cita: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Plumbago zeylanica.
Cit: (sáns. hindú). Absolute consciousness; an important concept in Vedanta, it is sharply distinct from Western ideas of consciousness. Whereas Westerners essentially live by Descartes' "I think, therefore I am," states that "I am also when I am not thinking," as in the "unconscious" states of fainting, deep sleep, or samadhi, also called turiya. By contrast, thinking consciousness is present only in the states of waking and dreaming.
According to Advaita Vedanta, to be an atheist is impossible, since whoever doubts the existence of God does not doubt that he doubts; yet in order to doubt one must use cit, consciousness-which is just what the atheist is trying to deny: for cit is identical with God or brahman. In the great play of the inner organ of mind (antahkarana), which projects the manifest world, a faint glow reflects the light of the cit, said to be "brighter than a thousand suns."
Citarana: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra. See Sariva.
Citavanna: (sáns. hindú). A term used in the Kama Sutra for the Hermidermus indicus.
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