miércoles, 7 de julio de 2010

Yoga - Yuyutsu - Dictionary Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy (A - Asvamedha)

Contenido - Contents

Full text of "Supplement to a Classical dictionary of India: illustrative of the mythology, philosophy, literature, antiquities, arts, manners, customs &c. of the Hindus"

PREFACE | A1 | A2 | B1 | B2 | C | D1 | D2 | E | F | G | H1 | H2 | I | J1 | J2 | K1 | K2 | L | M1 | M2 | O | P1 | P2 | R1 | R2 | S1 | S2 | S3 | T1 | T2 | U | V1 | V2 | Y1 | Y2


A | B | C | E | D | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y


A | B | C | E | D | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y


  • A1 - A - Arundhati
  • A2 - Arvarivat - Az
  • B1 - B - Bhoja Raja
  • B2 - Bhraja - Bz
  • C
  • D1 - D - Danda
  • D2 - Dandaka - Dyutimat
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H1 - H - Harischandra
  • H2 - Harisrava - Hz
  • I
  • J1 - J - Jrimbhika
  • J2 - Jyestha
  • K1 - K - Kratusthaba
  • K2 - Krauncha - Kz
  • L
  • M1 - M - Margashirsha
  • M2 - Maricha - Mz
  • O
  • P1 - P - Pandu
  • P2 - Pandu o Prana - Py
  • R1 - R - Raivata
  • R2 - Raja - Ry
  • S1 - S - Sampati
  • S2 - Samrat - Sravaka
  • S3 - Sravana - Syu
  • T1 - T - Tungaprastha
  • T2 - Tuni - Tyu
  • U
  • V1 - V - Vedas
  • V2 - Vedasiras - Vyu
  • Y1 - Y - Yedillian
  • Y2 - Yoga - Yuyutsu y Apendices


Yoga: (sáns. hindú). Union, junction; in a spiritual sense it denotes union of separated with universal soul; and with some latitude of expression it comes to signify the means by which such union is effected.

In the Bhagavat Gita it is variously applied, but ordinarily denotes the performance of religious ceremouies as a duty, and not for interested purposes. The word has accordingly been rendered * devotion' by Wilkins (and by Mr. J. C. Thomson) and * devotio' by Schlegel, in their translations of the Gita. In the Vishnu Purâòa it is used in a less general sense, and signifies reunion with spirit, through the exercises necessary to perfect abstraction as they are taught and practised by the followers of Patanjali.

Yoganidra: (sáns. hindú). Personified delusion: the great illusory energy of Vishnu, by whom, as utter ignorance, the whole world is beguiled.

Yoganidra is the sleep of devotion or abstraction, the active principle of illusion, personified, and also termed Maya and Mahamaya, also Avidya or ignorance. In the Markandeya Purâòa she appears as Devi or Durga, the Sakti or bride of Äiva; but in the Vishnu Purâòa as Vaishnavi, or the Sakti of Vishnu.

Yogasiddha: (sáns. hindú). The lovely and virtuous daughter of Vachaspati who pervades the whole world without being devoted to it, was the wife of Prabhasa, the eighth of the Vasus, and bore to him the patriarch Visvakarma, the architect and mechanist of the gods.

Yogi-Yogin: (sáns. hindú). A devotee seeking the attainment of Yoga; he has to pass through four principal stages:

1. - He learns the rules of Yoga.
2. - He acquires perfect knowledge.
3. - He employs this knowledge practically and overcomes the material influence of the primary elements.
4. - He destroys all consciousness of personality and individuality, {ahunkard); and the soul thus becomes free from matter.

Thus by the prescribed methods, he has attained the state termed Yoga, the union of the living with the supreme soul; the identity of the living with the supreme spirit; of the Jivatma, with Brahma; the identity of the contemplator with the object contemplated.

Yudamushti: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the Yadava chief Ugrasena.

Yudhajit: (sáns. hindú). 1, A prince, the son of Asvapati, raja of Kekaya, and uncle of Bharata.

Then Bharat for the road prepared.
And with Satrughna forth he fared.
First to his sire he bade adieu,
Brave Râma, and his mothers too.
Lord Yudhajit with joyful pride
Went forth, the brothers by his side,
And reached the city where he dwelt:
And mighty joy his father felt.

2, A prince, the second son of Vrishni, raja of Mrittikavati.

Yudhishthira: (sáns. hindú). The eldest of the Paudu princes. " The characters of the five brothers in the Mahabharata are drawn with an individuality which is very unusual in Oriental poetry.

They each have their distinguishing traits, which are often painted with much discrimination and even delicacy of touch in the lighter shades; and yet there evidently runs a family likeness through them all. To the European reader, Arjuna, the third brother is the most interesting, and approaches the nearest to our ideal of chivalry; many of his exploits remind us of Arthur's knights, or Charlemagne's paladins; and it is he who wins Draupadi as his wife in a tournament, where her father had offered her hand as the conqueror's prize. With the Hindus, however, Yudhishthira, the eldest, is the favourite; his cold passionless heroism is with them the beau ideal of humanity; and he moves through the poem in a calm majesty of self-possession, as if far above all the weaknesses of innn, while the sorrows and joys which chequer his life

"Viennent tonjours glisser sur son etre insensible,
Commes de gouttes deau sur un marbre poli.'*1

Yudhishthira, as we have already seen, (Pandavas) was taught the use of the spear by Drona, but became more distinguished by wisdom and goodness than for military exploits.

His uncle the Maharaja Dhritarashtra decided that Yudhishthira had the best right to succeed him, and he was installed as Yuvaraja. This excited the jealousy of his cousin Duryodhana, who expostulated with the old Maharaja until he agreed to divide the kingdom between them, when Yudhishthira and his brethren took leave of the Maharaja, and of all their kinsmen, and departed with their mother Kunti to the city of Varanavati. Before their departure they were cautioned by their uncle Vidura to beware of fire; and soon after their arrival they discovered a wicked plot that had been devised by Duryodhana and his friends for their destruction. A trusty retainer of Duryodhana's, named Purochana, had been sent on to prepare a handsome house in the city of Varanavati for the sons of Pandu: and Purochana had built the walls of the house with lac or resin, mingled wi(h hemp; so that some night when the Pandavas were asleep, the doors might be fastened in the outside and the house set on fire, and all within it be consumed in the flames. Accordingly Purochana heartily welcomed the Pandavas; and after having conducted them to the college of devotees, he led them to the house prepared for their reception, and set before them a collation of fruit, &c. Shortly after a man came from their uncle saying, " Vidura has sent me to dig an underground passage from your house, to deliver you from it, should it be set on fire." When the passage was completed Bhima resolved that Purochana should fall into the snare he had laid for them. One day Kunti invited all the poor people of the city and gave them a feast; among her guests were a Bhil woman and her five sons, who according to the practice of their tribe drank a large quantity of strong liquor, and then lay down and slept heavily. The same night a violent wind arose, and Bhima stole out through the passage, and strongly barricaded the house of Purochaa and set it on fire; and the flames speedily destroyed the building and reached the house of the Panda vas; then Bhima conducted his mother and brethren through the passage underground and hurried them away into the jungle. Next morning the people of the city saw that both houses were destroyed by fire, and believed that all the inmates had perished; for they discovered the blackened remains ofPurochana and his servants, and also those of the Bhil woman and her five sons, whom they took to be those of Kunti and the Pandavas. The tidings now reached the city of Hastiuapur, and the Kauravas greatly rejoiced at the supposed death of their enemies the Pandavas; but Bhishma, Drona, and Dritarashtra were affected even unto tears.

The Pandavas having escaped into the jungle met with many adventures there. Once when the party, overcome with fatigue were all asleep except Bhima, who stood by to guard them, an Asura named Hidimba attacked him, but after a severe fight, Bhima slew the cannibal. The sister of the Asura then set up a terrible cry, but afterwards followed Bhima and his party. She was ultimately married to him. They all afterwards dwelt in the city of Ekachakra, (q. v.). The next event of importance was the marriage of the five brothers to Draupadi, the beautiful daughter of Drupada, the Raja of Panchala. At her Swayamvara the Kauravas and many distinguished Rajas assembled; but all failed to bend the bow, when Arjuna disguised as a brahman, accomplished the feat, and shot the arrow In the eye of the golden fish, having first gone through the whirling Chakra below the fish. Draupadi then threw the garland round Arjuna's neck and accompanied him to the house of his mother. Afterwards by the advice of the sage Vyasa she was married to all the five brothers. They then returned to Hastinapur on the invitation of Bhishma, and were given the sovereignty of Khandava-prastha, as their half of the Raj.

When the Pan'davas were settled in this new country, they built at first at Indra-prastha, cleared the jungle of Khandava, and drove out the Scythian tribe known as the Nagas. When they had thus established a supremacy over every bordering enemy, and proved to the satisfaction of their new subjects that they could protect cattle and harvests, they invited all their kinsmen and neiglibours to a Rajasuya, and in the presence of all the people solemnly inaugurated their elder brother Yudhishthira as Raja of Khandaprastha. The ceremonies performed at the sacrifice were these: a number of priests marked out the spot, and strewed the place with the sacred kusa grass, kindled the sacrificial fire and chanted the Vedic hymns. The so-called Rajas who attended, were probably a rude company of half-naked warriors who feasted boisterously beneath the shade of trees.*2

The Rajasuya excited the jealous anger of Dnryodhana, who arranged for his cousin's visit to a great gambling match at Hastinapur. Yudhishthira reluctantly consented to go from a sense of obligation to obey the Maharaja, and accept a challenge Through the fraudulent contrivances of Duryodhana he lost the whole of the Raj; staked his brothers as slaves and lost them; lost himself; then Draupadi; then went into exile.

After thirteen years of exile in which they had many adventures, negotiations were opened for the return of the Pandavas. These all-failing, preparations were made for the great war which forms the chief event in the Mahabharata, q. v. See also Pandavas, &c.

The closing scene of the Mahabharata, describing the last days of Yudhishthira, is considered the very finest specimen of the heroic poetry of India. " We know of no episode even in the Homeric poems, which can surpass its mournful grandeur, or raise a more solemn dirge over the desolation of the fallen heart of man ! Yudhishthira has won the throne, and his enemies are all fallen; and an inferior poet would have concluded the story with a pa^au upon his happiness. But the Hindu bard had a far deeper insight into man's nature, and his genius would not content itself with any such commonplace catastrophe; he knew well that the human soul was born for the infinite, and that no finite line could fathom the depths of its longings ! It was no idle fiction in Grecian mythology, that Ulysses after his return to Ithaca, wandered forth again with his hungry heart into the world.

"For all experience is an arch, where thro'
Gleams that untraversed land, whose margin fades,
For ever and for ever as we move.'

" And Ulysses had found that the Ithaca, which had lured him on through ten years of war, and ten more of wandering, changed, upon his arrival, into a bleak barren rock, and his restless soul stretched out her hands once more towards the untrodden beyond.

Just in the same way, and with the same deep significance, Yudhishthira learns, after his victory, that the throne for which he had suffered so much leaves him unsatisfied and hungry as before.

The friends of his youth are fallen, and the excitement of contest is over; and he learns in sorrow that kings are but men, and that the Fall has overshadowed the throne as much as the poorest cottage ! In gloomy disappointment Yudhishthira resigns his crown, and he and his brothers and Draupadi set out in a forlorn journey to Mount Meru, where Indra's heaven lies amongst the wilds of the Himalayas,*3 there to find that rest which seemed denied to their search upon earth. We present a literal prose version of their pilgrimage and with it close our extracts.


Having heard Yudhishthira's resolve, and seen the destruction of Krishna,
The five brothers set forth, and Draupadi, and the seventh was a dog that followed them, Yudhishthira himself was the last that quitted Hastinapura;
And all the citizens and the court followed them on their way.
But none felt able to say unto him ' return ;'
And at length they all went back unto the city,
Then the high-souled sons of Pandu, and far-famed Draupadi,
Pursued their way, fasting, and with their faces turned towards the east,
Resolved upon separation from earth, and longing for release from its laws;
They roamed onward over many regions, and to many a river and sea.
Yudhishthira went before, and Bhima followed next behind him.
And Arjuna came after him, and then the twin sons of Madri,
And sixth, after them, came Draupadi, with her fair face and lotus eyes.
And last of all followed the dog, as they wandered on till they came to the ocean.

? Notes 3: This is in fact a precise counterpart to the legend of Ulysses, as Tennyson describes it in his poem, - the most epicean fragment since Milton's days.

For my purpose holds '
"To sail unto the West until I die.
It may be that the gulfs will wash us down,
It may be we shall reach the blessed isles;
And see the great Achilles whom we knew.' "

But Arjuna left not hold of his heavenly bow.
Lured by the splendour of its gems, nor of those two heavenly arrows;
And suddenly they saw Agni*4 standing like a mountain before them.
Standing in gigantic form and stopping up their path;
And thus to them spoke the god,-' sons of Pandu, do you know me not ?'
Yudhislithira, mighty hero, knowest thou not my voice ?
I am Agni, who gave that bow unto Arjuna;
Let him leave it here and go, for none other is worthy to bear it;
For Arjuna's sake I stole that bow of Varuòa, the ocean god.
Let Gandhiva, that best of bows, be given back to ocean again I'
Then the brothers all besought Arjuna to obey,
And he flung the bow into the sea, and he flung those immortal arrows;
And lo ! as they fell into the sea, Agni vanished before them.
And once more the sons of Pandu set forth, with their faces turned to the south.
And then by the upper shore of the briny sea,
They turned toward the south-west, and went on their way;
And as they journeyed onwards, and came unto the west.
There they beheld the old city of Krishna, now washed over by the ocean tide.
Again they turned to the north, and still they went on in their way.
Circumambulating round the continent to find separation from earth.


Then with their senses subdued, the heroes having reached the north, Beheld, with their heaven-desiring eyes, the lofty mountain Himavat,
And having crossed its height they beheld the sea of sand,
And next they saw rocky Meru, the king of mountains.
But while they were thus faring onwards, in eager search for separation,
Draupadi lost hold of her hope, and fell on the face of the earth;
And Bhima the mighty having beheld her fall.
Spoke to the king of justice,5 looking back to her as there she lay, '
No act of evil hath she done, that faultless daughter of a king.
Wherefore then, conqueror, hath she fallen thus low on the ground ?'
And thus to him answered Yudhishthira 'too great was her love for Arjuna,'
And the fruit thereof. Oh Bhlma, hath she gathered here this day.
Thus speaking, Bharata's glorious descendant, went onwards, not looking back.
Gathering up his soul in himself in his unstooping wisdom and justice.
Next the fair Sahadeva fell upon the face of the earth.
And Bhima, beholding him fall, thus spake to the king; '
Oh Yudhishthira, he the greatest, the least froward and wilful of us all,
He the son of fair Madri,- wherefore hath he fallen on the ground ?'
And him thus answered Yudhishthira, ' He esteemed none equal to himself.
This was his fault, and therefore hath the prince fallen this day.'
Thus speaking, he left Sahadeva, and went on;
Yudhishthira, king of justice, and his brothers, and the dog.
But when Nakula saw the fall of Draupadi and his brother.
The hero, full of love for his kindred, in his grief fell down like them to the earth.
And when Nakula, the fair-faced, had thus fallen like the others.
Once more, in his wonder, spoke Bhima unto the king :- *
What ! he the undeviating in virtue, ever true to his honour and faith,

Notes 1: Westminster Review, Vol. I, p. 53,
Notes 2: Wheeler, I, 167.)
Notes 4: The god of Fire from whom Arjuna had obtained the bow Gandhiva.
Notes 5: The usual title of Yudhishthira.

Unequalled for beauty in the world, hath he too fallen on the ground ?'
And him thus answered Yudhishthira) ' Ever was the thought in his heart,
There is none equal in beauty to me, and I am superior unto all !'
Therefore hath Nakula fallen; come Bhima, and follow my steps;
' Whatsoever each hath done, assuredly he eateth thereof.'
And when Arjuna beheld them thus fallen behind him,
He too, the great conqueror, fell, with his soul pierced through with sorrow:
And when he, the lion-hearted, was fallen, like Indra himself in majesty,
"When he, the invincible, was dead, once more Bhima spoke unto the king:
' No act of evil do I remember in all that Arjuna hath done;
Wherefore then is this change, and why hath he too fallen on the ground ?*
And him thus answered Yudhishthira, ' In one day I could destroy all my enemies.'
Such was Arjuna's boast, and he falls, for he fulfilled it not !
And he ever despised all warriors beside himself,
This he ought not to have done, and therefore hath he fallen to-day.
Thus speaking, the king went on, and then Bhima himself next fell to the earth.
And, as he fell, he cried with a loud voice unto Yudhishthira, '
Oh king of justice look back, I- I thy dear brother am fallen.
What is the cause of my fall. Oh tell it to me if thou knowest !'
Once more him answered Yudhishthira, ' When thou gazed'st on thy foe.
Thou hast cursed him with thy breath, therefore thou too fallest to-day !'
Thus having spoken, the mighty king, not looking back, went on, And still, as ever, behind him, went following that dog alone !


' Lo ! suddenly, with a sound that ran through heaven and earth
Indra came riding on his chariot, and he cried to the king ' ascend.'
Then indeed did the lord of justice look back to his fallen brothers.
And thus unto Indra he spoke with a sorrowful heart, '
Let my brothers who yonder lie fallen, go with me.
Not even into thy heaven would I enter if they were not there;
And yon fair-faced daughter of a king, Draupadi, the all-deserving;
Let her too enter with us ? Oh Indra, approve my prayer !


In heaven thou shalt find thy brothers, they are already there before thee.
There are they all with Draupadi; weep not then. Oh son of Bharata !
Thither are they entered, prince, having thrown away their mortal weeds.
But thou alone shalt enter, still wearing thy body of flesh.


Oh Indra and what of this dog ? It hath faithfully followed me through; Let it go with me into.heaven, for my soul is full of compassion.


Immortality and fellowship with me, and the height of joy and felicity.
All these hast thou reached to-day; leave then the dog behind thee.


The good may oft act an evil part, but never a part like this; Away then with that felicity, whose price is to abandon the faithful.


My heaven hath no place for dogs; they steal away our offerings on earth, Leave then thy dog behind thcc, nor think in thy heart that it is cruel.


To abandon the faithful and devoted is an endless crime, like the murder of a Brahman, Never therefore; come weal or woe, will I abandon yon faithful dog.
Yon poor creature, in fear and distress, hath trusted in my power to save it;
Not therefore, for even life itself, will I break my plighted word.


If a dog but beholds a sacrifice, men esteem it unholy and void; Forsake then the dog,
O hero, and heaven is thine own as a reward.
Already thou hast borne to forsake thy fondly -loved brothers and Draupadi,
"Why then forsakest thou not the dog ? wherefore now fails thy heart ?


Mortals, when they are dead, are dead to love or hate, so runs the world's belief,
I could not bring them back to life, but while they lived I never left them;
To oppress the suppliant, to kill a wife, to spoil a Brahman, and to betray one's friends.
These are the four great crimes; and to forsake a dependent, I count equal unto them.

Yudhishthira then enters heaven; but one more trial awaits him. He finds there Duiyodhana and the other sons of Dhritarashtra, but he looks in vain for his own brothers. He refuses to stay in the Swerga without them, and a messenger is sent to bring him where they are. He descends to the Indian hell and finds them there; and he proudly resolves to stay with them and share their sorrows, rather than dwell in heaven without them. But the whole scene was only a maya or illusion, to prove his virtue; the sorrows suddenly vanish, the surrounding hell changes into heaven where Yudhishthira and his brothers dwell with Indra in full content of heart for ever.

Thus closes the Mahabharata, the new mythic world, which a modern Columbus has opened."*
Yudhishthira is also called Dharmaraja, Dharmaputra and sometimes simply Raj an.

Notes: * Westminster Review, Vol. L, p, 61.

Yuga: (sáns. hindú). A cycle of five years. The years are called severally Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara, and Vatsara.

There are four kinds of mouths: 1, the Saura, or Solar-sidereal, consisting of the sun's passage through a sign of the zodiac; 2, the Saumya or Chandra or lunar month, comprehending thirty lunations or Tithis, and reckoned most usually from new moon to new moon, though sometimes from full moon to full moon; 3, the Savana, or solar month, containing thirty days of sunrise and sunset; and 4, the Nakshatra or lunar asterismal month, which is 'the moon's revolution through the twenty-eight lunar mansions.

The five years forming the Yuga differ only in denomination, being composed of the months just described, with such Malamasas or intercalary months, as may be necessary to complete the period, according to Vriddha Garga. The cycle comprehends therefore sixty solar-sidereal months of 1,800 days: sixty-one solar months or 1,830 days; sixty-two lunar months, or 1,860 lunations; and sixty-seven lunar-asterismal months, or 1,809 such days.

Yugas: (sáns. hindú). There are four Yugas or ages; the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and the Kali. To estimate the length of each it is necessary to remember that six months form an Ayana (the period of the sun's progress north or south of the ecliptic); and two Ayanas compose a year. The southern Ayana is a night, and the northern a day, of the gods. Twelve thousand divine years, each composed of three hundred and sixty such days, constitute the period of the four Yugas or ages. They are thus distributed: the Krita age has four thousand divine years; the Treta, three thousand; the Dwapara, two thousand; and the Kali age, one thousand. The period that precedes a Yuga is called a Sandhya, and it is of as many hundred years as there are thousands in the Yuga; and the period that follows a Yuga, termed the Sandhyasana, is of similar duration.

Thus Krita Yuga 4,000
Sandhya , 400
Sandhyasana i 400

- Treta Yuga 3,000
Sandhya 300
Sandhyasana 300

- Dwapara Yuga 2,000
Sandhya 200
Sandhyasana 200

Carried over... 10,800
Brought over... 10,800

- Kali Yuga 1,000
Sandhya.. 100
Sandhyasana 100

-See V. P. and Notes.

Yuvanaswa: (sáns. hindú). l, A prince, the son of Ardra; 2, the son of Prasenajit, and father of Mandhatra, q. v.; 3, the son of Ambarisha.

Yuyudhana: (sáns. hindú). The son of Satyaka, and grandson of Sini.

Yuyutsu: (sáns. hindú). The youngest son of Dhritarashtra, by. a woman of the Vaisya caste, making altogether a hundred and two children.



Adityas: (sáns. hindú). (Page lO)- The sous of Aditi. They were first reckoned as seven or eight. In the later Indian literature they are always said to be twelve. Contradictory accounts of them are cited by Dr. Muir (IV, 104). In texts from the Mahabharata the Adityas, though their names are not always uniformly given, are stated to be twelve in number, except in one case where only eleven are specified. Vishnu is always named as one of them, and as by the time when these works were written, his dignity had become enhanced in general estimation, he is declared to be the greatest of the twelve. In the V. P, and Harivamsha it is stated that those who formerly, in the Chakshusha Manwantara, were called the Tushitas, are known as the twelve Adityas in the Vaivasvata Manwantara.

Professor Roth, (in the Journal of the Germ. Or. Soc. VI, 68) has the following observations on the Adityas. There (in the highest heaven) dwell and reign those gods who bear in common the name of Adityas. We must, however, if we would discover their earliest character, abandon the conceptions which in a later age, and even in that of the heroic poems, were entertained regarding these deities. According to this conception they were twelve sun-gods, bearing evident reference to the twelve months.

But for the most ancient period we must hold fast the primary signification of their name. They are the inviolable, imperishable, eternal beings. Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the element which sustains them, and is sustained by them. The eternal and inviolable element in which the Adityas dwell, and which forms their essence, is the celestial light. The Adityas, the gods of this light, do not therefore by any means coincide with any of the forms in which light is manifested in the universe. They are neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, but the eternal sustainers of this luminous life, which exists, as it were, behind all these phenomena. - 0. S. T., F, 56.

Ahi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vrittra, the demon who personifies drought, and is also called Sushna.

Ajobhaga: (sáns. hindú). The unborn part of man. After death and the cremation of the body, Agni is supplicated to kindle the unborn part with his heat and flame, and, assuming his most auspicious form, to convey it to the world of the righteous. Before, however, this unborn part can complete its course from earth to the third heaven, it has to traverse a vast gulf of darkness. Leaving behind on earth all that is evil and imperfect, and proceeding by the paths which the fathers trod, the spirit, invested with a lustre like that of the gods, soars to the realms of eternal light, &c. - 0. S. T., Vol. F, p, 303.

Akampana: (sáns. hindú). A king who lived in the Krita Yuga, but who was so far from enjoying the tranquillity generally predicated of that happy time, that he was overcome by his enemies in a battle, in which he lost his son, and suffered in consequence severe affliction.- O. S. T., Vol /, p. 505.

Anakadundubhi: (sáns. hindú). A name of Vasudeva, q. v.

Aranyani: (sáns. hindú). The goddess of forest solitude. Several hymns in the Rig- and Atharva-vedas are addressed to this goddess. See O. S. T., V, 423.

Arhat: (sáns. hindú). A perfect saint, amongst the Jains or Buddhists; one in whom evil desire is entirely destroyed; one entitled to the homage of gods and men.

Aruna: (sáns. hindú). The ruddy. The son of the patriarch Kasyapa and his wife Vinata; the younger brother of Garuda, the bird vehicle of Vishnu. This deity has in the classical period taken the place of Ushas, the personification of dawn in the Vedic creed.

Arushi: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Manu and wife of the great sage Chyavana.- 0. S. T., Vol, 7, p. 124.

Arvalan: (sáns. hindú). The son and heir of Raja Kehama, who offered violence to Kaliyal, the beautiful daughter of a peasant in the neighbourhood of the palace, and was felled to the earth and slain by the avenging arm of her father.

Aryabhata: (sáns. hindú). At page 48 this name was spelt after Colebrooke as Aryabhatta; but in old Sanskrit works recently discovered it is written almost invariably with one t Aryabhata; and this is therefore the spelling now adopted. It is ascertained on his own authority that he was born at Kusumapura, near the modern Patna. The date which he assigns for his birth corresponds with A. D. 476. Aryabhata was evidently a great man and is recognised as such by all Orientalists. Lassen calls him ' the founder of mathematical and astronomical science in India.' His chief work is the Arabhatiya Sutra, which includes two other works, the Dasagiti Sutra, and the Aryashtasata. - Mrs. Manning, A. M.I., Vol I, p. 365-6.

Asruvindumati: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Kamadeva, who was sent by Indra, along with her father, to endeavour to excite passion in the breast of Yayati. In this they succeeded, and in order to become a fit husband for his young bride, the aged king applied to his sons to give him their youth in exchange for his decrepitude.

As elsewhere related they all refused, except Puru, the youngest.

After a time, however, Yayati was prevailed upon by the persuasion of his young bride, at the instigation of Indra, to go to heaven, on which he restored his youth to Puru, and proceeded with his subjects to Indra, who sent them to Äiva, and he directed them to Vishnu, in whose sphere they obtained a final abode. - Wilson's Works, III, 37.

Atikaya: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the giant Ravana, who was killed at the siege of Lanka.

Atit: (sáns. hindú). From Atita, passed away; a religious mendicant liberated from worldly cares and feelings.

Atyarati: (sáns. hindú). The unwise mau mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana, who by means of aRajasuya sacrifice or religious ceremony, subdued the whole earth; but when the brahman who had oficiated asked for his reward, Atyarati replied; " When I conquer Uttara Kuru, thou shalt be king of the earth, holy man, and I will be merely thy general." The brahmau replied: " Uttara Kuru is the land of the gods; no mortal can conquer it. Thou hast cheated me, therefore I take all from thee. And Atyai-ati, thus deprived of vigour, was slain by king Sushimua. For Atyai-ati had not kept his oath.- . M. I., Vol, I, -p. 104.


Badarikasrama: (sáns. hindú). The part of the Himalaya known as Badarinath. It is a shrine of ancient celebrity. - Wilson.

Bahu: (sáns. hindú). A king of Ayodhya, the seventh in descent from Harischandra . He was overcome by the Haihayas and Talajangas, and compelled to fly with his queens to the forest, where he died.

After his death one of his wives gave birth to a son, who received the name of Sagara (q. v.) When he had grown up the youth learnt from his mother all that had befallen his father, and vowed to exterminate the enemies who had conquered his paternal kingdom. He acquired great celebrity, and takes a conspicuous place in Hindu history.

Bahusalin: (sáns. hindú). A name of Bhlma.

Bhima: (sáns. hindú). Page 95. " Bhlma is the Hercules or Orlando of the mythological poetry of the Hindus; his uncommon strength was a supernatural endowment. In his youth he was the great plague of the Kuru princes, beating them in every sport and contest.

They therefore plotted to get rid of him, and at a juvenile party at one of the water palaces of the king, administered a poisonous drug to him, and took advantage of his slumber to push him into the Ganges. He fell into the region of the sub-terrene snakes, by whom he was bitten; one poison was the antidote of the other, and Bhima, recovering from his sleep, soon beat off his antagonists; they fled to their king Vasuki who was induced by their report to see the wonderful boy, and went to meet him. In his train was Aryaka, the maternal great great grandfather of Bhima, who recognised, and welcomed liig descendant. Aryaka being a great favourite with the king of the Nagas, Vasuki offered to give his relation any treasure or gems he could desire, but Aryaka asked permission for him to quaff the invigorating beverage, of which one bowl contained the strength of a thousand Nagas; permission being granted, Bhima drained this bowl eight times at as many draughts, and then went quietly to sleep for eight days: on his waking he was feasted by the Nagas and then restored to his sorrowing mother and brethren. From this period, dates his miraculous strength. Many of these incidents find parallels in Western Romance. The lady of the Lake inhabits the depths of the water, and is called by Merlin the " white serpent ;" the Fata Morgana resided beneath a lake while caressing one of her lovers as a serpent. She is also styled the Fairy of Riches: her treasures were spread over a plain to which Orlando arrived by falling in a conflict with Arridano to the bottom of an enchanted lake: Manto, the protecting fairy of Mantua (Orl. Fur. 43, 74.) being saved by Adonis when pursued in the form of a snake, proffers him anything he may desire. The account she gives of herself makes her to be a regular Naga Kanya, or Ophite Maiden. The feat of Bhima may be paralleled by a similar one of Orlando, and many others of the preux chevaliers of chivalry." - Wilson's Works, III, 337.

Bhimasena: (sáns. hindú). A name of Bhima.

Bhujyu: (sáns. hindú). The son of Tugra, Avho was abandoned by his malevolent companions in the middle of the sea, and rescued by the Asvins, who are said to have conveyed Bhujyu out of the liquid ocean with their headlong flying horses. Another account states " Tugra abandoned Bhujyu on the water-cloud, as any dead man leaves his property. Ye, Asvins, bore him in animated water-tight ships, which traversed the air. Three nights and three days did ye convey him in three flying cars, with a hundred feet and six horses, which crossed over to the dry land beyond the liquid ocean."

- 0. S. T., V,p. 244.

Bibhatsu: (sáns. hindú). A name of Arjuna.

Bindumati: (sáns. hindú). The daughter of Sasabindu, who was married to the celebrated king Mandhatri, and became the mother of three sons and fifty daughters.

Brahmaketu: (sáns. hindú). A priace, the son of Visvaketu, king of Dravida, who was doomed to die in his sixteenth year, but who, by advice of Augiras, went to Benares, and lay down in the path of Yama, when on a visit to Äiva. Yama who never deviates from a straight path, and even an equal step, and could therefore neither walk round Brahmaketu nor stride over him, at last, to induce him to rise, promised to allow him to live a century, which accordingly happened. There is an underplot of Brahmaketu's marrying the daughter of the king of Kampilya, in lieu of the hunchbacked son of the king of Kekaya, which has some resemblance to a story in the Arabian Nights. - Wilson's Works, HI, 44.

Bura Pennon: (sáns. hindú). The deity worshipped by the Khonds; he is called the god of light and source of good; while his consort TariPennou is the source of evil in the world.

Byroba: (sáns. hindú). A demi-god of the herdsmen; worshipped wherever a few of the pastoral tribes are settled.


Chanda: (sáns. hindú). A demon servant of the demon chief Sumbha, who was killed by the goddess Uma, who ultimately slew his master also. The Kalipuja festival is in commemoration of the victory of Uma over Chanda and Munda.

Chandrakanta: (sáns. hindú). The moon-gem, which is supposed to absorb the rays of the moon, and emit them again in the form of pure and cool moisture.

Cobra: (sáns. hindú). " Next to the Rakshasas the Cobra, or deadly-hooded snake, plays the most important part in the legends, as a supernatural personage. This is only one of the many traces still extant of that serpent-worship formerly so general in western India Serpent-worship, as it still exists is something more active than a mere popular superstition. The Cobra, unless disturbed, rarely goes far from home, and is supposed to watch jealously over a hidden treasure. He is, in the estimation of the lower classes, invested with supernatural powers, and according to the treatment he receives, he builds up or destroys the fortunes of the house to which he belongs. No native will willingly kill him if he can get rid of him in any other way; and the poorer classes always after he is killed, give him all the honours of a regular cremation, assuring him, with many protestations, as the pile burns, * that they are guiltless of his blood; that they slew him by order of their master ;' or * that they had no other way to prevent his biting the children or the chickens.' " Sir B. Frere.*


Dadhicha: (sáns. hindú). One of the nineteen Bhrigus, composers of hymns.

- 0. S, r.. Vol. /, p 279.

Dadhyauch: (sáns. hindú). One of the ancient great sages, the son of Atharvan.

Damins: (sáns. hindú). The name of brahmans in Kusa-dvvipa.

Danayja: (sáns. hindú). A name of Arjuna.

Dasagriva: (sáns. hindú). A name of the giant Ravana.

Devadatta: (sáns. hindú). One of the five sons of a brahman named Govindadatta who lived on the banks of the Ganges. The sons were of goodly persons, but rude manners and uncultivated minds. A brahman of great learning having on one occasion, when the father was abroad, demanded the rites of hospitality, was treated with disrespect by the youths, and was about to depart in wrath when the father arrived. The severity with which he rebuked the lads pacified the brahman and he was induced to remain. The anger of his parent produced a favourable impression on Devadatta, who, repenting of his idle habits, set off to Badarikasrama to propitiate Äiva. The rigour of his austerities engaged the approbation of the god. Äiva appeared to him and promised that he should become possessed of learning, for which purpose he directed him to go to Pataliputra, and study under Vedakhumba. He afterwards repaired to Pratishthana, where he studied with diligence and success under another teacher of repute.

* Introduction to Old Deccan Days.

He there beheld the daughter of the king Susarma at a balcony of the palace. She also noticed him, and the attraction was mutual. After they had interchanged glances she beckoned to him to approach. He obeyed; on which she took a flower, and having touched her teeth with it, threw it to him, and then disappeared. Devadatta taking the flower returned home. The flame that preyed on his heart soon betrayed itself to the experience of his preceptor, and he quickly drew from him the secret of his passion. He explained the story of the flower to signify an assignation on the part of the princess to meet Devadatta at a temple called Pushpa, (a flower.) The youth was charmed with this explanation, and set off" to the temple to await the coming of the princess. On her arrival in due course she enquired how he had so readily apprehended her meaning; but when he confessed he was indebted to his preceptor's sagacity, rather than to his own, she was highly offended with his lack of discernment and left him in displeasure.

Devadatta was now more wretched than ever, when Sambhu, commisserating his condition, sent one of his attendants, Panchisikha, to console and assist him. Panchisikha made the youth put on a female garb, whilst he assumed the appearance of an aged brahman. Thus changed, they repaired to the palace, when the supposed brahman thus addressed the monarch: " King, I am an old man, without connections in your capital. I sent my only son on family affairs some time ago to a distant country, and he does not return. I am weary of expecting him, and fear some evil may have befallen him. I will therefore go forth in quest of him; but how can I dispose of my daughter-in-law in the mean time ? I leave her, king, as a sacred deposit in your charge." The monarch, afraid of the brahman's malediction, reluctantly accepted the trust, and the supposed brahman departed. The daughter was transferred to the interior of the palace, where, revealing himself to the princess, Devadatta succeeded in pacifying her indignation, and recovering her regard. She listened to his suit with complacency, and they pledged their troth to each other by the ritual that unites in wedlock the inferior spirits of heaven.

When it became no longer possible to conceal their secret intercourse, the friendly spirit was summoned by a wish to their assistance - he appeared, and conveyed Devadatta out of the palace by night. The next morning he made the youth discard his female habiliments, and accompany him, again metamorphosed to a venerable brahman, to the palace, in the character of the son of whom he had been in search. He came, he said, to claim his daughter-in-law, and the king ordered her to be sent for; but all parties were struck with real, or seeming consternation, when it was announced that she was nowhere to be found. The king, at a loss to comprehend the possibility of her evasion, and recollecting old legends, suspected that the brahman was not what he seemed to be, and, apprehensive of incurring his displeasure, professed himself willing to submit to any conditions he should impose. These were readily arranged, and the princess was given to the brahman's supposed son, in exchange for the bride that he pretended to have lost. The princess bore a son, who was named Mahidhara. When the king was advanced in years, he retired to the forests, resigning his sovereignty to his grandson; and after witnessing the glory of Mahidhara, his parents also withdrew from the world to the silence of the hermitage: devoting all their thoughts to Sambhu, they obtained his favour; and when released from this mortal coil, they were elevated to the rank of spirits, attendant on the god and his celestial consort, as Pushpadanta and his wife Jaya, the same whose indiscreet curiosity had lately been punished by their temporary return to the infirmities of human nature. - Wilson's Works, III, 185.

Devantaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the sons of the giant Ravana, who was killed at the siege of Lanka.

Dhananjaya: (sáns. hindú). " The conqueror of wealth ;" a name of Arjuna, the third of the Pandava princes, eminent for his valour, and the particular friend of Krishna.

Dhanyas: (sáns. hindú). The designation of Vaisyas in Krauncha Dwipa.

Dhumraksha: (sáns. hindú). One of Havana's generals who was killed at the siege of Lanka.

Dipakarni: (sáns. hindú). Au ancient monarch, whose wife, named Saktimati, more dear to him than his existence, whilst reposing in a bower in the gardeo, was bitten by a snake, and died. The king, overcome with grief for her loss, made a vow to observe perpetual continence - a vow to which he rigidly adhered, although the want of a son to succeed him in the kingdom was a subject of profound affliction to him. Whilst thus distressed, he was directed by Äiva, in a dream, in what manner to obtain a son and successor, without violating his faith to his departed wife. For the remainder of the legend, see Satavahana.

Dyutirnan: (sáns. hindú). The king of Krauncha Dwipa.


Ekashtaka: (sáns. hindú). The mother of Indra. Ekashtaka, practising austere fervour, bore as a child the glorious Indra. In the next verse Ekashtaka is called the mother of Soma as well as of Indra, and the daughter of Prajapati."- 0. S. T., Vol, V, p. 80.

Ereenia: (sáns. hindú). The benevolent Glendoveer (Gandharba) in Southey's poem "the curse of Keharaa."


Garuda: (sáns. hindú). (Page 224)- A wundervogul, or wonderful bird, is the property of all people; and the Garuda of the Hindus is represented by the Eorosh of the Zend, Simoorgh of the Persians, the Anka of the Arabs, the Kerkes of the Turks, the Kirni of the Japanese, the sacred dragon of the Chinese, the Griffin of Chivalry, the Phoenix of classical fable, the wise and ancient bird that sits upon the ash Yggdrasit of the Edda, and according to Faber, in common with all the rest, is a misrepresentation of the holy cherubim that guarded the gate of paradise. Some writers have even traced the twelve knights of the round Table to the twelve Rocs of Persian story. - Wilson's Works, III, 193.

Gonika: (sáns. hindú). The mother of Patanjali the grammarian.

Govindadatta: (sáns. hindú). A brahman who lived on the banks of the Ganges; he had five sons, one of whom was Devadatta, (q. v.) whose subsequent celebrity conferred distinction on the father.

Gritsamada: (sáns. hindú). A name given by Indra to the Muni Saunahotra, because he delighted in praising. His hymn was termed Indrasya indriyama the might of Indra. He was born again as Saunaka, in the race of Bhrigu, and saw the second Mandala of the Rig Veda as it was revealed to him together with the hymn Sajaniya, &c. - A. S. L., 231.

Gudakesa: (sáns. hindú). A name of Arjuna. '

Gunadhya: (sáns. hindú). The human name of Malyavan, when he was condemned to return to the infirmities of human nature. He was born at Pratishthana, the capital of Salivahana, supposed to be the same as Pattan or Pyetan on the Godaveri. - Wilson.


Ida: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Manu, and mother of the human race after the deluge.

Indrasena: (sáns. hindú). The charioteer of Yudhishthira.


Jrimbhaka: (sáns. hindú). A celestial or magical weapon, which causes drowsiness. These weapons are of a very unintelligible character.

Some of them are occasionally wielded as missiles, but in general they appear to be mystical powers exercised by the individual; such as those of paralysing an enemy, or locking his senses fast in sleep, or bringing down storm and rain and fire from heaven.

There is a list of one hunderd of these weapons given in the first book of the Râmâyaòa. - Wilson, XI, 297.


Kaliyal: (sáns. hindú). The beautiful daughter of the peasant Ladurlad whose violation was attempted by Arvalan, the son of Raja Kehama. Arvalan was slain in consequence by Ladurlad, upon whom was afterwards pronounced the doom which gives the title to Southey's poem. Kaliyal afterwards joined her father, and often soothed him under the withering effects of Kchama's curse, and Ladurlad is often able to extricate his daughter frona great dau'^ers of fire and flood.

Kamadhenu: (sáns. hindú). The sacred cow of the Muni Jamadagni, which was stolen by Raja Kartavirya, and afterwards recovered by the Muni's son Parasardma. who slew the robber kins.

Kamalasna: (sáns. hindú). A name of Brahma, as the soul of the universe, contained in the Egg of the world.

Kanakhala: (sáns. hindú). A place of pilgrimage celebrated in Hindu fiction; it is near Gangadwara, the modern Haridwar.

Katyayana: (sáns. hindú). A name of great celebrity in the literary history of India. It belongs in all probability, to several personages renowned for their contributions to the grammatical and ritual literature of the Brahmanical Hindus; but it is met with also amongst the names of the chief disciples of the Buddha, Sakyamuni. The most celebrated personage of this name, how^ever, is Katyayana, the critic of the great grammarian Panini; and he is most likely the same with the Katyayana who wrote the grammatical treatise called the Pratisakhya of the white Yajurveda, (q. V.) Professor Goldstucker, in his Panini, &c., his Place in Sanscrit Literature (London, 1861,) has shewn that he cannot have been a contemporary of Panini, as was generally assumed; and in a paper recently read by him before the Royal Asiatic Society (February, 1863,) he has proved that this Katyayana lived at the same time as the great grammarian Patanjali, whose date he had previously fixed between 140 and 120 before the Christian era. See Patanjali. - Chambers'' Encyclopcedia, Kehama - The name of the mythical Raja who is the principal gure in Southey's poem " The Curse of Kehama." By a long course of penances and austerities he acquired supreme power over the world, and caused the gods themselves to tremble for their independence. His son Arvalan, the heir apparent to all his poAver and wickedness, was slain with a stake by a peasant whose daughter he was attempting to violate. The incensed Raja pronounced on the peasant, Ladurlad, the doom which gives name to the poem.

Kuhu: (sáns. hindú). The goddess of the day, when the moon is in the first and second quarters.

Kundoba: (sáns. hindú). A deified hero of the shepherds, who, amongst the pastoral tribes supersedes all other popular idols.

Kunjara: (sáns. hindú). An old parrot mentioned in the Padma Parana.

When the sage Chyavana was wandering over the world in pilgrimage, he came to the south bank of the Narmada, where a linga called Omkara was erected; and having worshipped it, he sat under an Indian fig tree where he overheard a conversation between Kunjara and his four sons, in which the latter related to the former what they had beheld in their flight during the day.

Several stories were related the moral of which was the same, the good effects of veneratiag holy men, and meditating upon Vishnu.

Kunjara then related to Chyavana an account of the preceding births of his sons and himself.- Wilson's Works, Vol. HI, p. 37.

Kusadhvaja: (sáns. hindú). A rishl, the father of Vedavati. He was slain by Sambhu, king of the Daityas.


Ladurlad: (sáns. hindú). The name of the peasant in Southey's poem, on whom the curse of Kehama is pronounced. See Yedillian, Kehama, &c.

Mada: (sáns. hindú). A demon, created by the sage Chyavana, intoxication personified; in terror of whom and of the power of the saint, the gods acceded to the participation of the Asvini Kumaras in divine honours. Mada was afterwards divided, and distributed amongst dice, women, and wine. - Wilson, XI, 263.

Mahatmya: (sáns. hindú). A legendary and local description of the greatness or holiness of particular temples, or individual divinities. A chapter taken from some Purâòa, descriptive of the virtues of some place or person, is termed a Mahatmya. - -Wilson.

Mahidhara: (sáns. hindú). The son of Devadatta, (q. v.)

Mandakini: (sáns. hindú). A river near the hill Chitrakuta in Bundelkund; regarded as a sort of sacred stream on account of Râma, Lakshmana, and Sita, having resided in its neighbourhood, Râma thus points out to Sita, some of the beauties of the river.

" My life in fair Ayodhya's town Was not so sweet to me, As gazing on this lovely flood, That glorious hill and thee.

Bathe in the gentle stream, to her With friendly love repair.

And pluck her lilies in thy play, And twine them in thy hair.

This mount, with all its savage life, Ayodhya'a city deem.

And on this beauteous river look

As our own Sarju's stream.

O Sita, I am wild with joy.

So rare a lot is mine.

Cheered by a duteous brother's care.

And loved with love like thine."

Griffith. Scenes from the 'Ram&yana, Maruty - A name of Hanuman, the offspring of Marut, a name of Pavana or Vayu, all meaning wind.

Mrigavati: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Sahasranika, (q. v.)

Munda: (sáns. hindú). A demon servant of the demon ruler Nisumbha, who was killed by Uma. The goddess ultimately slew his master also.

The Kalipuja festival in Bengal is held annually in commemoration of the victoiy of Uma over Chanda and Munda.


Namuchi: (sáns. hindú). One of the demons who personify drought; they are represented in the Rig Veda as hostile powers in the atmosphere, who malcvolcutly shut up the watery treasures in the clouds.

Nandaka: (sáns. hindú). One of the hundred sons of Dhritai-ashtra. Duryodhana was the eldest, but as the legend of their birth was not given in the article under his name, it may be recited here. One day the sage Vyasa was hospitably entertained by the queen Grdndhari, and in return he granted her a boon. She choose to be the mother of a hundred sons, and soon afterwards became pregnant. After two years gestation she produced a mass of flesh which was divided by Vyasa into a hundred and one pieces, (as big as the joint of a thumb) and placed in jars. In due time the eldest son Duryodhana was born, but not till after the birth of Pritha's son Yudhishthira.

In another month the remaining ninety-nine sons were born from the remaining jars, and one daughter, called Duhsala (afterwards married to Jayadratha.) The hundred names are all given in the Mahabharata; it will be sufficient here to mention the principal ones: - Duryodhana, Durvishaha, Durmukha, Dushpradarsana, Vivinsati, Vikarna, Duhsasana, Virochana, Kundaka, Nandaka, &c.

-Williams. I. E. P.

Nishada: (sáns. hindú). The progenitor of the wild races, extracted from the left thigh of king Vena. - Wilson.

Nisumbha: (sáns. hindú). A demon ruler of prodigious strength and power who was destroyed by the goddess Uma. The Devimahatmya narrates this as one of her chief martial exploits.


Panchasikha: (sáns. hindú). One of Äiva's attendants who was sent down to earth to console and assist Devadatta, when his course of true love did not seem likely to run smooth.

Paramarthika: (sáns. hindú). Being, in its highest sense.

Pataliputra: (sáns. hindú). The famous and much disputed city of Palibothra; an ancient place of great sanctity, being the favoured shrine of Lakshmi and Sarasvati. Its origin is thus narrated. A Brahman from the south, whilst engaged on a pilgrimage to Kanakhala, near Gangadwara, died, and left three sons. , They subsequently repaired to Rajagriha for instruction, and thence removed to Chiuchini, a city on the seashore, south from the shrine of Kumara Swami. They were kindly entertained by Bhojika, a Brahman, who gave them his three daughters in marriage. After a time, the country was afflicted by famine; and the three husbands, deserting their wives, set off to seek their fortunes elsewhere.

Talents and relationship touch not the hearts of the wicked. The wife of the second brother proved pregnant, and was delivered of a son, whose helpless situation attracted the pity, and propitiated the guardian care of Devi and Äiva. The first effect of this powerful patronage was the discovery, by the women, of an immense treasure, which being judiciously expended, elevated the boy to princely possessions. By the advice of his grandfather's friend, and his own guardian Yajnadatta, Putraka, as the lad had been named, distributed publicly splendid gifts, at various seasons, to the Brahmaus, in the hope of attracting and discovering his father. The scheme succeeded, and the three brothers returned to claim their wives, and interest in the young Raja. The claim was joyfully recognized; but the evil propensities of the fraternity prevailing over natural affection, they conspired the death of the prince, and his own father led him into a temple, where he left him to be murdered by assassins, covertly stationed for the purpose.

The murderers were, however, induced, by the intreaties and presents of Putraka, to let him escape, and he fled into the forests.

His father and uncles met the fate that ever attends the ungrateful: the officers of the young Raja accused them of having killed him, and falling upon the culprits, sacrificed them to his memory.

In the meantime, Putraka, whilst wandering in the woods, beheld two men struggling with each other. He enquired who they were.

They replied, that they were the sons of Mayasur, and were contending for a magic cup, staff, and pair of slippers: the first of which yielded inexhaustible viands, the second generated any object which it delineated, and the third transported a person through the air. The strongest of the two was to possess these articles. Putraka then observed to them, that violence was a very improper mode of settling their pretensions, and that it would be better they should adjust the dispute by less objectionable means.

He therefore proposed that they should run a race for the contested articles, and the fleetest win them. They agreed, and set off.

They were no sooner at a little distance, than Putraka, putting his feet into the sleepers, and seizing the cup and staff, mounted into the air, and left the racers to lament in vain their being outwitted.

Putraka alighted at a city called Akarshika, and took up his residence with an old woman, from whom he received accounts of the beauty of the king's daughter, whose name was Patali. Having in consequence formed an intimacy with the princess, he carried her off, and alighted on the bank of the Ganges, where tracing the walls and buildings of a city with his staff, a stately town immediately arose. The people attracted to this place he maintained by the stores of his cup; and the place named after his bride and himself Pataliputraka, became the capital of a mighty empire. - Wilson, III, 165.

Patanjali: (sáns. hindú). Is the name of two celebrated authors of ancient India, who are generally looked upon as the same personage, but apparently for no other reason than that they bear the same name.

The one is the author of the system of philosophy called Yoga, the other the great critic of Katyayana and Panini. Of the former nothing is known beyond his work - see Yoga. The few historical facts relating to the latter, as at present ascertained, may be gathered from his great work the Mahabhashya, or the great Commentary. The name of his mother was Gonika; his birthplace was Gouarda, situated in the east of India, and he resided temporarily in Kashmir, where his work was especially patronised.

From circumstantial evidence Professor Goldstucker has, moreover, proved that he wrote between 140 and 120 b. c. {Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.) The Mahabhashya of Patanjali is not a full commentary on Panini, but with a few exceptions, only a commentary on the Varttikas, or critical remarks of Katyayana on Panini. Patanjali being the third of the grammatical triad of India, and his work therefore having the advantage of profiting by the scholarship of his predecessors, he is looked upon as a paramount authority in all matters relating to classical Sanskrit Grammar; and very justly so, for as to learning, ingenuity, and conscientiousness, there is no grammatical author of India who can be held superior to him. - Chambers' Encyclopedia.

Pavana: (sáns. hindú). The god of the wind, Vayu, (q. v.)

Pitamaha: (sáns. hindú). A name of Brahma.

Pratibhasika: (sáns. hindú). Being, merely seeming- -that belonging to what presents itself in dreams, &c., illusions rather than realities.

Pumravas: (sáns. hindú). See pages 486-90. In a recent paper read before the Philological Society, " On Nomina Numina in its Two Phases."

Professor Goldstucker said its object was to illustrate the influence which in ancient times, the mistaken etymology of words exercised on the formation of religious ideas and myths, and in modern times the mistaken interpretation of myths on the formation of wrong etymologies. In adverting to Max Müller's view of the supposed original import of Daphne in Greek, and of Urvasi in Hindu mythology, Professor Goldstucker observed that the common feature of the Greek and Hindu legends of Daphne and Urvasi, was the transformation of these beings - of Urvasi into a bird or vine, and of Daphne into a laurel tree. Moreover in the Hindu legend, Urvasi disappears in the lightning of the Gandharbas who steal her rams, and Pururavas establishes a new ceremony, which consists in producing fire by means of the attrition of two pieces of wood. And finally in all legendary accounts Urvasi is represented as an Apsarasas, or as the name indicates (from ap water, and saras, arising,) from a water-born being; while Daphne as we are told by the Greek mythonomists, is the daughter of a river.

Not any one of these essential features of the legend receives any light from the assumption that Daphne or Urvasi is the Dawn.

Professor Goldstucker therefore proposed to read the legend thus: the sky is clouded (the ram being the symbol of the cloud) and the atmosphere charged with electricity. Lightning flashing through the cloud disperses them (the Gandharbas,) under lightning, steal the rams of Urvasi; the sun comes forth and absorbs the vapours which had enveloped the scene, when the objects hidden until then become visible. Again the effect of the tropical sun may be a conflagration of the dry forest wood; or as the legend says, Pururavas is the institution of the ceremony by which fire is produced through natural heat.

Pushpotkata: (sáns. hindú). One of the wives of the patriarch Pulastya and the mother of the great giant Ravana.

Putraka: (sáns. hindú). The founder and sovereign of Pataliputra; his history will be found under that heading.


Raktavija: (sáns. hindú). A powerful demon possessed of a charmed life, each drop of his blood when shed producing hundreds of demons like himself; he was slain by Uma, and his destruction is regarded as one of the great martial feats of the goddess.

Rudra: (sáns. hindú). In the Vedic period, Eudra was the god of the tempest. The Maruts are called the sons of Rudra. As their father he is very often mentioned; as a divinity with independent attributes he is of much rarer occurrence; hymns addressed to him alone are but few. He is, as might be expected, a terrible god: he carries a great bow from which he hurls a sharp missile at the earth; he is called the slayer of men; his wrath is deprecated, and he is besought not to harm his worshipper; if not in the Rik, at least in the Atharva and Brahmanas, he is styled * lord of the animals,' as the unhoused beasts of the field are especially at the mercy of the pitiless storm. At the same time, he is to propitiate him, addressed as master of a thousand remedies, best of physicians, protector from harm; this may have its ground, too, partly in the beneficial effects of the tempest in freshening the atmosphere of that sultry clime. Rudra's chief interest consists in the circumstance that he forms the point of connection between the Vedic religion and the later Äiva worship. Äiva is a god unknown to the Vedas; his name is a word of not unfrequent occurrence in the hymns, but means simply propitious; not even in the Atharva is it the epithet of a particular divinity, or distinguished by its usage from any other adjective. As given to him, whose title it has since become, it seems one of those euphemisms so frequent in the Indian religion, applied as a soothing and flattering address to the most terrible god in the whole pantheon. The precise relation between Äiva and Rudra is not yet satisfactorily traced out. The introduction of an entirely new divinity from the mountains of the north has been supposed, who was grafted in upon the ancient religion by being identified with Rudra; or again, a blending of some of Agni's attributes with those of Rudra to originate a new development: perhaps neither of these may be necessary: Äiva may be a local form of Rudi-a, arisen under the influence of peculiar climatic relations in the districts from which he made his way into Hindustan proper; introduced among, and readily accepted by, a people which, as the Atharva shows, was strongly tending towards a terrorism in its religion." - Professor Whitneya as quoted in O. S. T., ir, 337.


Sabhika: (sáns. hindú). A person who presides at houses where assemblies are held for purposes of gambling, and who provides the dice and all other materials.

Saganka: (sáns. hindú). "Fawn-spotted," a name of the god Soma or Chandra. He is also called Sasin; from a fancied resemblance of the spots of the moon to a leveret.

Sahasranika: (sáns. hindú). The son of Satanika, (q. v.) The fate of his father naturally interested Indra for the young prince, and he not unfrequently conveyed him to visit the regions of the skies. On one of these occasions he incurred the displeasure of Tilottami, a nymph of paradise, and she denounced an imprecation on his future fortune, sentencing him to the pangs of separation from his beloved. Sahasranika was married to Mrigavati, daughter of Kripavarma, king of Oude. During her pregnancy she was seized with a strange fancy, inspired, in fact, by the influence of the imprecation, to bathe in human blood. When the king found compliance with her longing was unavoidable, he deceived her by substituting "an infusion of the lac-dye, in which the queen contentedly performed her ablutions. The crimson tint left upon her person by the effect of the immersion, deceived one of the gigantic brood of Garuda, as he pursued his flight through the air. Thinking her to be a lump of flesh, he pounced upon the queen, and carried her off to the mountain Udya, where, finding her alive, he abandoned her to her destiny, having thus been the unconscious instrument of separating Sahasranika from his bride.

In this helpless condition the queen, overcome with terror and affliction, sought alone for death to terminate her distress. With this view she threw herself in the way of the wild elephants and the vast serpents, with which the thickets were peopled; but in vain - an unseen spirit of the air protected her, and guided her unharmed amidst the ferocious monsters of the forest, until she was encountered by a holy hermit, Jamadagni, who resided on the mountain, and who led her to his cell, where he consoled her with assurances, that she would in time be re-united to her lord.

Mrigiivati was here delivered of a son, whom, in allusion to the place of his nativity, she named Udayana, and who was trained in letters and arms, and in the duties of his regal birth, by his venerable guardian.- Wilson, III, 192. (Vatsa.)

Salivahana: (sáns. hindú). A Hindu king who reigned in Magadha. He instituted an era which bears his name and is still commonly used in the Deckan. It commenced when 3179 years of the Kali-Yuga, or the present mundane age, had expired; that is 78 years after the beginning of the Christian era. This era is called Salivahana Saka, or simply Saka. Thus 1871 of the Christian era would be tantamount to 1 793 of the Saka era. The Saka year is the same as and begins with the common solar year.

Sambhu: (sáns. hindú). A name of Äiva.

Thy journey next o'er Kanakhala bends, Where Jahuu's daughter from the hills descends; Whose sacred waters to Bhagirath given, Conveyed the sons of Sagara to heaven.

She who with smiling waves disportive strayed Through Sambha's locks, and with his tresses played; Unheeding, as she flowed delighted down, The gathering storm of Gauri's jealous frown.

Sambhu: (sáns. hindú). 2, The king of the Daityas, who slew the rishi Kusadhvaja, the father of Vedavati.

Sammada: (sáns. hindú). The name of the fish that lived in the pond where the sage Saubhari was immersed for twelve years, Sanmukha- A name of Kartikeya, the war-god.

Satabali: (sáns. hindú). One of the generals of the monkey king Sugriva.

Satanika: (sáns. hindú). The son of Janamejaya and grandson of Parikshit.

He was killed in battle with the Titans, having gone to the assistance of Indra, and was succeeded in his throne by Sahasranika.

Satva-devi: (sáns. hindú). 1, A name of Parvati; 2, The name of a nurse to the children of the giant Havana.

Satavahana: (sáns. hindú). The son and successor of Dipakarni, (q. v.) Dipakarni, in obedience to Äiva's commands, repaired to a certain forest to hunt; and whilst thus employed, met, as he had been forewarned, a lovely boy riding upon a monstrous lion. Still actiug as he had been enjoined, the king aimed an arrow at the beast, and he fell as dead. Immediately, however, up rose from the carcase a celestial form, who thus addressed the astonished monarch. ' Dismiss your apprehension; I am a Yaksha, Sata by name. It was my chance to see and love the beautiful daughter of a holy sage; my passion was returned; and this boy whom you behold, is our son. When the secret of our union was discovered, the angry sire condemned us both to wear the forms of brutes during the remainder of our earthly cai'eer. My bride was liberated from the effects of the curse in giving birth to her son; and your shaft has rendered me the same kind office. I am now at liberty; but ere I depart to the region of the gods, I bequeath to you this child, to be cherished by you as your own.' So saying, he vanished, leaving the boy with the king, who gladly received him, and gave him the name Satavdhana, in reference to fhe appellation of his father and the vahana, or vehicle, on which the king had first beheld the infant mounted. Upon the death of his adoptive father Satavahana succeeded to the throne and became a mighty monarch.: (sáns. hindú). Wilson's Works, III, 183.

Satyavama: (sáns. hindú). One of the wives of Krishna. She is also known as one of the wives of Vishnu; in his avatar of Krishna she was with him, and Lakshmi is said to have been also incarnate as Rukmini.

Satyavrata: (sáns. hindú). The original name of Trisanku, (q. v.)

Savitri: (sáns. hindú). One of the twelve Adityas. Surya and Savitri are exact personifications of the sun. It is under these two different appellations that the sun is chiefly celebrated in the Rig Veda.

Savitri is permanently the golden deity; being hiranyiksha, goldeneyed; hiranya-hasta, golden-handed, &c. Luminous in his aspect, he ascends a golden car, drawn by radiant, brown, whitefooted horses; and beholding all creatures he pursues an ascending and descending path. Surrounded by a golden lustre, he illuminates the atmosphere and all the regions of the earth. His robust and golden arms, which he stretches out to bless, and infuse energy into all creatures, reach to the utmost ends of heaven. In one place, however, he is called ayohanu, the iron-jawed, though even there the commentator says that ayas, which ordinarily means iron, is to be rendered by gold. His ancient paths in the sky are said to be free from dust. He is called (like Varuòa and others of the gods) asura a divine spirit. His will and independent authority cannot be resisted by Indra, Varuòa, Mitra, Aryaman, Rudra, or by any other being. The other gods follow his lead. The waters and the wind obey his ordinance. His praises are celebrated by the Vasus, by Aditi, by the royal Varuòa, by Mitra, and by Aryaman. He is lord of all desirable things, and sends blessings from the sky, from the atmosphere, and from the earth. He impels the car of the Asvins before the dawn. He is Frajdpafi, the lord of all creatures, the supporter of the sky and of the world, and is supplicated to hasten to his worshippers with the same eagerness as cattle to a village, as warriors to their horses, as a cow to give milk to a calf, as a husband to his wife. He is called visvadeva, " in all attributes a god." He measured (or fashioned) the terrestrial regions. He bestows immortality on the gods, as he did on the Ribhus, who by the greatness of their merits attained to his abode. He is prayed to convey the departed spirit to the abode of the righteous. He is supplicated to deliver his worshippers from sin.

Savitri is sometimes called apa7n napaf, on of the watei's, an epithet which is more commonly applied to Agni.

The word Savitri is not always a proper name; but is sometimes used as an epithet. - 0. S. T., V, 164.

Sena or Sein: (sáns. hindú). Sometimes written Gaudharba-Sena, or Gundrusein, a Gandharba who was condemned for an affront to Indra, to be born on earth in the shape of an ass, but on entreaty the sentence was mitigated, and he was allowed at night to re-assume the form and functions of a man. This incarnation took place at Ujein, in the reign of Raja Sundersein, whose daughter was demanded in marriage by the ass; and his consent was obtained on learning the divine origin of his intended son-in-law, confirmed, as he witnessed, by certain prodigies. All day he lived in the stables like an ass; at night, secretly slipping out of his skin, and assuming the appearance of a handsome and accomplished young prince, he repaired to the palace and enjoyed the conversation of his beauteous bride.

In due time the princess became pregnant; and her chastity being suspected, she revealed to her father the mystery of her husband's happy nocturnal metamorphosis; which the Raja, being conveniently concealed, himself beheld; and unwilling that his son should return to his uncouth disguise, set fire to, and consumed, the vacant ass's skin.

Although rejoiced at his release, the Gandharba foresaw the resentment of Indra, disappointed of his vengeance; and warned his wife to quit the city, about to be overwhelmed with a shower of earth. She fled to a village at a safe distance, and brought forth a son, the celebrated Vikramaditya; and a shower of cold earth, poured down by Indra, buried the city and its inhabitants.

-5. Res., Vol, VL (Ujein.)
This legend gives a date to the catastrophe; for the prince, so renowned in his origin and birth, was not less so as a monarch and an astronomer; and his name marks an era much used all over India, commencing fifty-six years before our era. - Moor, H. P., p. 262.

This story is supposed to be the original form of the * Golden Ass' of Apuleius, which is in fact the story of Beauty and the Beast.

Sramanaka: (sáns. hindú). A Buddhist mendicant.


Tunda: (sáns. hindú). A powerful demon, that was destroyed by Nalmsha, the son of Ayus; the Padma Purcina contains a long narrative of the event.


Ujein: (sáns. hindú). The ancient Avanti; a city of great antiquity, that is considered the first meridian by Hindu geographers and astronomers. The ancient city was about a mile further south, and now lies buried in the earth, to the depth of from fifteen to eighteen feet: on digging, its walls are said to be found entire, pillars unbroken, &c. Whatever may have been the real cause of this catastrophe, Hindu fancy has attributed it to the intervention of the gods, and dressed it up in a mythological allegory which is believed to be the original form of the " Golden Ass of Apuleius." See Sena.

Upakosa: (sáns. hindú). The wife of Vararuchi, (q. v.) During her husband's absence she attracted the notice and desires of several suitors, whom &he succeeded in exposing and punishing in* a very ludicrous manner. See Wilson's Works, III, 170.

Upayaja: (sáns. hindú). A brahman of eminent learning and sanctity, to whom king Drupada applied in his anxiety to procure a son, promising a million of cows if he enabled him to obtain the son he desired. Upayaja however declined the task, and referred him to his elder brother Yaja, (q. v.)


Vaitalika: (sáns. hindú). A sort of poetical warder or bard, who announces fixed periods of the day, as dawn and evening, &c., in measured lines, and occasionally pours forth strains arising from any incidental occuiTence.: (sáns. hindú). Wilson, XI, 209.

Vatsa: (sáns. hindú). A celebrated character in Hindu fiction. He was the son of Sahasranika, (q, v.) and king of Kuusambi. Vatsa was named Udayana, from being educated on the Udya mountain, by the sage Jamadagui. When arrived at maturity he was decoyed into captivity by the kiug of Ujein. On his escape he carried off Vasavadatta, the daughter of his captor. Vatsa is the hero of the Ratnavali. - See Wilson, Xll, 264.

Vigneswaxa: (sáns. hindú). A name of Ganesa, (q. v.) o

Vina: (sáns. hindú). The Hindu lute; an instrument of much sweetness and compass, but little power.

Vittora: (sáns. hindú). The name of Vishnu in one of his minor Avatars, as related in some of the Purâòas. He is represented as retaining on his breast an indelible mark of Bhrigu's foot, with which the following legend is connected. In a divine assembly Bhrigu was asked who, of the gods, was the most mighty; he said he would proceed to inquire, and first went to Brahma, in approaching whom it was usual to pay very respectful obeisance, which on this occasion, Bhrigu purposely omitted, and experienced in consequence severe reprehension, including copious abuse, (for the Hindu gods, like Homer's, are very abusive,) from Brahma, who however became pacified by seasonable apologies. Bhrigu next proceeded to Äiva, and omitted, as before, the usual tokens of adoration on entering the divine presence; Äiva was still more enraged than Brahma, but was in like manner pacified by Bhrigu's apologies.

He then repaired to Vaikuntha, the celestial residence of Vishnu, whom he found asleep, with Lakshmi shampooing his feet. Bhrigu knew that the mere omission of respect would not be sufficient to move the gentle god to auger, and to make a trial of his temper he boldly gave the recumbent deity a severe kick on his breast.

Vishnu awoke, and seeing Bhrigu arose, and in place of anger, expressed apprehensions that he must have hurt his foot by striking it against his (Vishnu's) breast, and proceeded to lament it and to rub and chafe Bhrigu's foot to remove any consequent pain.

* This, said Bhrigu, is the mightiest god; he overpowers by the most potent of all arms, affability and generosity V See Moor's Hindu Pantheon, p. 418. - This is a favourite story amongst the Brahmans of the south.

Vithoba: (sáns. hindú). A deified sage, very popular, and extensively worfihipped m the Pooua Deccan.

Vetal: (sáns. hindú). The demon-god of the outcaste helot races; the circle of large stones, which may be observed outside almost every village, is sacred to this god; the superstition has for ages held, and still holds, its ground against all Brahmanical innovations.

The stones remind the traveller of the Druid circles of the northern nations. Sir B. Frere.*


Yaja: (sáns. hindú). A brahman of distinguished attainments to whom king Drupada was referred when he was seeking to obtain a son. The king promised Yaja ten million of kine; and with much reluctance Yaja undertook to direct a sacrificial ceremony by which the king should obtain offspring and called his younger brother to his assistance. When the rite had reached the proper period, the queen was invited to partake of it, but she had not completed her toilet and begged the brahmans to delay the ceremony. It was too late, and the sacrifice proceeding without her, the children were born independent of her participation. --Wilson, III, 326.

Yajur Veda: (sáns. hindú). " The history of the Yajur Veda differs in so far from that of the other Vedas, as it is marked by a dissension between its own schools, far more important than the differences which separated the schools of each other Veda. It is known by the distinction between a YajurVeda, called the Black- and another, called the White- Yajur Veda. Tradition, especially that of the Purâòas, records a legend to account for it. Vaisampayana, it says, the disciple of Vyasa, who had received from him the Yajur Veda, once having committed an offence, desired his disciples to assist him in the performing of some expiatory act. One of these, however, Yajnavalkya, proposed that he should alone perform the whole rite; upon which, Vaisampayana, enraged at what he considered to be the arrogance of Yijnavalkya, uttered a curse on him, the effect of which was, that Yijnavalkya disgorged all the Yajus texts he had learned from Vaisampayana. The other Introduction to Old Deccan Days. disciples having meanwhile been transformed into partridges (tittiri), picked up these tainted texts, and retained thera. Hence these texts are called Taittiriyas. But Yajnavalkya, desirous of obtaining other Yajus texts, devoutly prayed to the Sun, and had granted to him his wish - * to possess such texts as were not known to his teacher.' And because the Sufa on that occasion appeared to Yajnavalkya in the shape of a horse (mja), those who studied these texts were called Vajins. That part of this legend was invented merely to account for the name of the Taittiriyas after whom a Sanhita and Brahmana of the Black Yajur Veda, and for that of the Vajasaneyins, after whom the Sanhita of the White Yajur Veda is named, is clear enough. Nor is greater faith to be placed on it when it implies that the origin of this dissension ascended to the very oldest period of the Yajur Veda; for there is strong reason to assume that the division took place even after the time of the grammarian Panini, (q. v.). But so much in it is consistent with truth - that the Black Yajur Veda is the older of the two; that the White Yajur Veda contains texts which are not in the Black; and that, compared to the motley character of the former, it looks * white,' or orderly. This motley character of the Black Yajur Veda, however, arises from the circumstance, that the distinction between a Mantra and Brahmana portion, is not so clearly established in it as the other Vedas; hymns and matter properly belonging to the Brahmanas there being intermixed.

This defect is remedied in the White Yajur Veda; and it points, therefore, to a period when the material of the old Yajus was brought into a system consonant w4th prevalent theories, literary and ritual.

The contents of both divisions of the Yajur Veda are similar in many respects. Two of the principal sacrifices of which they treat are the Darsapurnamasa, or the sacrifice to be performed at new and full moon, and the Aswamedha, or the horse-sacrifice, at the performance of which 609 animals of various descriptions, domestic and wild, were tied to 21 sacrificial posts. A Purusha' medha, or man-sacrifice, unknown to the other Vedas, is also mentioned in it; its character, however, is symbolical.

The text of the Black Yajur Veda is extant in the recension of two schools - that of Apastamba, to which the Taittiriya Sanhitd belongs, and that of Charaka. The former, which is in course of publication - the first volume and part of the second having been already published, with the commentary of Madhavdcharya (Sayana), by Dr. E. Roer and E. B. Cowell in the Bibliotheca Indica (Calcutta, 1860 - 1864) - consists of seven Kanda, or books, which comprise 44 Praputhaka, or chapters sub-divided into 651 Anuvaka, or sections, and containing 2,198 Kandikas, or portions.

The Vajasaneyi Sanhitd, or the Sanhita of the White Yajur Veda, exists in the recension of the Madhyandina and Kanva school. In the former - the text of which, apparently also with the commentary of Mahidkara, has been edited by Professor A. Weber (Berlin, 1852) - this Sanhita has 40 Adhyayas or books, sub-divided into 303 Anuvakas, with 1,975 Kandikas.

The principal Brahmana of the Black Yajur Veda is the Taittiriya-Brahmana, which, with the commentary of (Madhava) Sayana, is in the course of publication by Baboo Rajendralala Mitra—the first volume and part of the second having already
appeared in print (Calcutta, 1860—1865) in the Bibliotheca Indica. That of the White Yajur Veda is the Satapatha-Brahmana, the most complete and systematic of all Brahmanas. Its text, with a semblance of the commentary of Sayana, has been
edited by Professor A. Weber (Berlin, 1855).— Chambers' Encyclopcedia, Vol. IX, p. 727.

Its text, with a semblance of the commentary of Sayana, has been edited by Professor A. Weber (Berlin, ISoo).- Chambers' Encyclopcedia, Vol. IX, p. 727.






(All rights reserved.) Registered under Act XXV of 18(;7.



The Classical Dictionary of India was published ia September, 1871, and received with marked favour by the local press. The author begs to return his best thanks to the writers of the various notices of the work which appeared. As anticipated, it was pointed out that several names and subjects that should have been included had been overlooked. The Calcutta Revieiv and the Madras Times called attention to omissions of this nature, without expressing much surprise at their occurrence. It is to remedy these defects, and make the Dictionary more complete, that the present Supplement has been published.

It will of course be incorporated with the work if a new edition should be required.

J. G.

January, 1873.


B. F. G. Birth of the War-God. A Poem by Kalidasa, translated by R. T. H. Griffith, M. A.

D. P. I. Description of the Manners and Customs of the People of India, by the Abbe DuBois.

Iliad of the East, by Frederika Richardson.

Selections from the Mahabharata, by F. Johnson.

Specimens of Old Indian Poetry, by R. T. H. Griffith, M. A.

Scenes from the Ramayan, by the same.

Transactions of the Madras Literary Society, vol. I.

T. C. I. Tribes and Castes of India, by the Rev. M. A. Sherring, M. a.



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