viernes, 18 de junio de 2010



He was a famous devotee of Lord Gaurâôga. In 1441 Saka, he was born in Cakundi village north of Agradvipa in the district of Nadia. He was the son of Gaôgâdhara Bhattacarya, a brahmana of the Râdhâ clan, who was present when Lord Caitanya accepted sannyasa. Because Gaôgâdhara continuously chanted the Lord's name at that time, he later became known as Caitanyadâsa.

Ärînivâsa Âcârya's biography is narrated elaborately in the following works: Bhaktiratnakara, Premavilasa, Karnananda, Anuragavali and Narottamavilasa. Ärînivasa's contribution as a preacher and writer of Vaisnava-Vedanta is immeasurable. According to BRK 1.232-234, Lord Caitanya empowered Rûpa and Sanatana to write books on the science of Kèëòa consciousness, and He empowered Ärînivasa to preach.

It is said that Ärînivasa composed only five lyrical padas (Badanacanda Kon Kundare Kundila go', included in chapter six of Karnananda. Three other padas are included in Padakalpataru). The Manoharasahi musical tradition is attributed to Ärînivasa. He also wrote an excellent bhasya on the catuhsloki of Ärîmad Bhâgavatam. He also wrote Ärîman-narahari-thakur-astaka and Sad-Gosvâmî-gunalesa-sucaka.





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from first wife, Isvari devi from second wife, Gaurâôgapriya

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Vèndâvana RâdhâKèëòa Gatigovinda Hemalata Kèëòapriya Kancana-latika


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Kèëòaprasad Sundarananda Ärîhari Suvala Râdhâmadhava






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first wife second wife

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Jadabendra _______|________________________________________

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Râdhâmohan Bhuvanamohan Gauramohan Syamamohan Madana-mohana


Chaya Cakravarti:

1. Ärîdâsa Cakravarti

2. Ärî Gokulananda Cakravarti

3. Ärî Syamadâsa Cakravarti

4. Ärî Vyasa Cakravarti

5. Ärî Govinda Cakravarti

6. Ärî Narayana Cakravarti

(some variations are found in Karnananda)

Asta Kaviraja:

1. Ramacandra Kaviraja

2. Govinda Kaviraja

3. Karnapura Kaviraja

4. Nrsimha Kaviraja

5. Bhagavan Kaviraja

6. Vallabhikanta Kaviraja

7. Gopiramana Kaviraja

8. Gokula Kaviraja

Chaya Ùhâkura:

1. RamaKèëòa Cattaraja

2. Kumudananda Kularaja

3. Râdhâvallabha Mandala

4. Jayarama Cakravarti

5. ÄrîRûpa Ghatak

6. Ärî Ùhâkura dâsa Ùhâkura

One King: Vira Hamvira (his son was Dhadi Hamvira)

Ärînivasa preached in the following places:

1. Mallabhuma--Viëòupura

2. Manbhum

3. Simhabhum--Caibasa

4. Bhattabhum (Ramgad)

5. Samantabhum

6. Varahabhum

7. Tungabhum

8. Brahmanabhum

9. Sikarabhum

10. Dhalabhum

11. Dhanabhum

12. Nagabhum

13. Birbhum

14. Sabarabhum (The area stretching from the River Suvarnarekha in south-western Midnapore to the river Kamsavati in the north. (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, XII, 1916, 1:52)

The biography of Ärînivasa can be found in Jimutavahana Raya's "Ärînivâsa Âcârya O Sodâsa Satavdira Gaudiya Vaisnava Samaja" (Ärînivâsa Âcârya and the Gaudiya Vaisnava community of the 16th century), Santiniketana, Visva bharati Gavesana Prakasana Samiti, 1984, 363 p.

Chapter 1: Sources for biography of Ärînivasa

Chapter 2: Opinions of various scholars relating to the biography of


Chapter 3: Biography of Ärînivasa

Chapter 4: Role of Ärînivasa in organizing the Vaisnava community in Bengal.

Chapter 5: Influence exerted by Ärînivasa on Gaudiya Vaisnava Dharma

Chapter 6: An account of the lineage of Ärînivasa

Chapter 7: Contribution of Ärînivasa in Padavali literature

Chapter 8: Bibliography

(The following information is from GPC)

Ärînivâsa Âcârya's mother was Ärî Laksmipriya and his father was Ärî Gaôgâdhara Bhattacarya (later known as Ärî Caitanya dâsa). They lived in the village of Cakhandi near the Bhagirathi river. When Ärî Gaurasundara completed His activities in Nadia and went to the asrama of Ärî Kesava Bharati in Kantak to take sannyasa, the news spread rapidly and thousands of people from far and wide assembled to witness the ceremony of Mahâprabhu's sannyasa initiation. Gaôgâdhara Bhattacarya also went to witness the event. The devotees were overwhelmed with grief at the thought of Mahâprabhu shaving off His beautiful curly hair. Madhu, the barber, was completely depressed and stood motionless, unable to cut the Lord's hair. Only after the Lord repeatedly insisted, did Madhu finally cut off Mahâprabhu's beautiful locks. However, immediately thereafter Madhu fainted on the ground crying pathetically, "Oh what have I done, what have I done?" The entire atmosphere was filled with lamentation and no one was able to console each other. Even the birds in the trees began to cry, and Gaôgâdhara Bhattacarya fainted in grief.

After a long time Gaôgâdhara Bhattacarya regained consciousness and began reciting the name "Ärî Kèëòa Caitanya, Ärî Kèëòa Caitanya." He then returned to Cakhandi village and like a madman incessantly chanted the name of Ärî Caitanya. His devoted wife also cried her heart out when she heard the news of Mahâprabhu's acceptance of sannyasa. Thus people began calling Gaôgâdhara, Caitanya dâsa.

Later, Caitanya dâsa and his wife went to Purî to visit Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. From a distance Caitanya dâsa spotted the Lord and immediately he and his wife fell prostrate, offering obeisances with tearful eyes. The Lord called them near to Him and lovingly addressed them in a sweet voice, "By the grace of Lord Jagannâtha you have reached here safely, now you must proceed at once to take darsana of the Lord and He will fulfill your desire" (Bhakti R.).

Accompanied by Govinda, Mahâprabhu's servant, Caitanya dâsa and his wife went to see Ärî Jagannâtha. They tearfully offered prayers to the Lord, then went to the residence arranged for them by Mahâprabhu.

The days passed and Caitanya dâsa and his wife relished every moment of their stay in Nilacala. One day Ärî Gaurasundara informed Govinda that both Caitanya dâsa and his wife had prayed to Lord Jagannâtha to give them a son, thus they would soon be the proud parents of a beautiful son named Ärînivasa. The Lord further explained, "Through Rûpa and Sanatana, I manifested wonderful devotional literatures, and through Ärînivasa, I will distribute those sastras far and wide. Now you may tell Caitanya dâsa to return to Gauda immediately."

As desired by the Lord, Caitanya dâsa happily returned to Bengal. Ärî Laksmipriya's father Balarama Bipra, who was a great astrologer and scholar, predicted that soon a great personality would be born to Laksmi devi. Sure enough, on the auspicious full moon day in the month of Vaisaka (April-May), when the star Rohini was visible in the sky, a son was born to Laksmipriya. All the markings of a great personality were visible on the child's body. Immediately Ärî Caitanya dâsa offered the boy to the lotus feet of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and happily distributed gifts and charity to numerous brahmanas. Everyone was overwhelmed with joy.

As the child grew Laksmipriya chanted the holy name of Ärî Gaurâôga constantly and taught her son to do the same. Time passed quickly and soon he accepted the sacred thread and began his studies under the guidance of Dhanañjaya Vidyavacaspati. Within a very short period he became well versed in every subject.

In his boyhood, Ärînivasa received the mercy of Ärî Govinda Ghosh and Ärî Narahari Sarkara Ùhâkura, as well as others. However, at a young age he lost his father and was greatly aggrieved. Ärî Laksmidevi was overwhelmed with sorrow and could be pacified only be seeing the face of her beloved son. Shortly thereafter Ärînivasa took his mother to his grandfather's house in Yajigrama. The residents there were delighted to meet Ärînivasa, and the learned brahmanas were charmed by the boy's divine characteristics, his vast knowledge and love for the Lord. Ärînivasa had no interest whatsoever in materialistic activities and was above all temptations. He was always immersed in thought of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and eagerly awaited the time when he would be able to visit Nilacala.

Ärînivasa eventually went to meet Ärî Narahari Sarkara in Ärîkhanda. With tears streaming from his eyes, Ärînivasa fell at the feet of Ärî Sarkara, who lovingly picked him up and embraced him. Ärînivasa then prayed that he would be allowed to visit the places of Ärî Gaurâôga's transcendental pastimes in Nilacala. Ärî Narahari Ùhâkura and Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura both welcomed this proposal and advised Ärînivasa go to Purî along with the other devotees of Bengal who would be visiting there shortly.

Ärînivasa then returned to Yajigrama and requested his mother's permission to visit Nilacala. Although she was reluctant to let him go, she eventually gave her consent. Thus a few days later he met the other devotees of Bengal and started for Purî. Arriving in Nilacala he stayed the night in the house of a priest near the Simhadvara. In the morning he went to the house of Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita. Crying incessantly, Ärînivasa fell prostrate at his lotus feet. Ärî Gadâdhara picked him up and embraced him, but Ärînivasa could not stop crying. After spending some time with Ärî Gadâdhara, Ärînivasa proceeded to meet Ärî Ramananda Raya, Ärî Sarvabhauma Paòàita, Vakresvara Paòàita, Paramananda Purî, Sikhi Mahiti, Govinda Sankara, Gopinatha Âcârya and other associates of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. Upon meeting Ärînivasa all the Vaisnavas were filled with happiness, understanding that Ärînivasa was empowered by Ärî Gaurâôga and would eventually take an active role in distributing books and spreading the message of the Lord. Thus the devotees were very kind to Ärînivasa and offered him invaluable advice. Ärînivasa stayed in Purî for some time, visiting all the places of the Ärî Gaurasundara's pastimes. Thereafter he sought permission from the devotees to return to Bengal. Thus the devotees embraced him and bade farewell.

While returning to Bengal, Ärînivasa received the news of Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita's disappearance from this world, and he fell unconscious on the ground. That night Gadâdhara Paòàita appeared before Ärînivasa in his dream and pacified him. Ärînivasa then regained enough strength to continue his journey. However, shortly thereafter, he again received word that Ärî Advaita Âcârya and Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu had also departed from the world. Ärînivasa was overwhelmed with grief and cried incessantly, but Ärî Nityânanda and Ärî Advaita also consoled him in a dream. At last Ärînivasa reached Bengal. He first visited Ärî Narahari Sarkara and Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura at Ärîkhanda, who wholeheartedly gave him their blessings.

He then traveled on to Navadvipa Mayapura, where he visited the birthplace of Ärî Gaurasundara and rolled on the ground in ecstatic pleasure. At that time Ärî Vamsivadana Ùhâkura was living in the house of Mahâprabhu and upon seeing him, Ärînivasa fell humbly at his feet, weeping loudly and calling out the holy name of Mahâprabhu. Ärî Vamsivadana Ùhâkura was also overcome with joy upon meeting him. Ärînivasa then begged to meet Ärî Viëòupriya Ùhâkurani. At that time no one was allowed to meet her, but when Ärî Vamsivadana Ùhâkura mentioned Ärînivasa's name to her, she thought for a moment and then agreed to see him. When Ärînivasa was brought before her, he fell prostrate on the ground with tearful eyes. Ärî Viëòupriya blessed him and requested that he take prasada there that day.

In Navadvipa, Ärînivasa met Ärî Murari Gupta, Ärîvasa Paòàita, Damodara Paòàita, Sanjaya, Ärî Vijoy, Suklambara brahmacari, Dâsa Gadâdhara and others. He then went to the house of Ärî Advaita Âcârya, in hopes of meeting Ärî Sita Ùhâkurani. She immediately called him to her room and blessed him heartily. He also met the other devotees of Santipura. From there he went to Khardaha, where Ärî Paramesvari dâsa Ùhâkura was staying in the house of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu. He happily introduced Ärînivasa to Ärî Vasudha, Ärî Jahnava and Ärî Viracandra. When Ärînivasa lay at their feet crying, Ärî Jahnava placed the dust of her feet on his head, and the others greeted him affectionately. After spending a few days in Khardaha, Jahnava mata advised him to proceed towards Vèndâvana. Ärînivasa then traveled on to the house of Ärî Abhirama Ùhâkura in Khanakula. When he worshiped Ärî Abhirama, he touched Ärînivasa's body three times with his "Jaya mangala" whip, although Malini devi, Abhirama's wife, tried to prevent him from doing so. When the whip touched Ärînivasa's body, he felt his body become surcharged with divine love. Ärînivasa then started for Ärîkhanda, where Ärî Narahari Sarkara and Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura happily greeted him . Thereafter he went to Yajigrama where he visited his mother and offered worship to her. He then sought her permission to visit Vèndâvana and she gladly gave her sanction.

On his way to Vèndâvana, he saw the lotus feet of Lord Viëòu at Gayadhama at the place where Mahâprabhu received initiation from Isvara Purî. From Gayadhama, he went to the house of Ärî Candrasekhar in Kasi and met the other devotees. There he joyfully listened to Ärî Candrasekhar and Ärî Tapana Misra recount the wonderful pastimes of the Lord in Kasi. After spending a few days in Kasi, Ärînivasa traveled on to Mathura where he bathed at Visrama ghata (the place where Ärî Kèëòa took rest after killing Kamsa). In Mathura he visited the birth place of Ärî Kèëòa and then started for Vèndâvana. On his way to Vèndâvana some brahmanas from the area told Ärînivasa the heart-breaking news that Ärî Rûpa, Sanatana and Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî had departed from the world. The brahmanas tried to console the grief-stricken Ärînivasa and in the afternoon of the full moon day in the month of Vaisaka they took him to meet Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî.

Ärînivasa happily worshiped the lotus feet of Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî, who embraced Ärînivasa with great pleasure. They eagerly sat down and discussed numerous topics together and Ärî Jiva enquired about the devotees from Bengal. After some time Ärî Kèëòa Paòàita, the priest of Ärî Govinda Deva, brought prasada and Ärî Jiva and Ärînivasa relished prasada together.

The following morning, Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî and Ärînivasa went to visit Ärî Râdhâramana, where Ärînivasa was introduced to Ärî Gopâla Bhaùùa Gosvâmî. Ärînivasa worshiped the lotus feet of Gopâla Bhaùùa and humbly prayed for his spiritual guidance. Gopâla Bhaùùa happily agreed and the following morning, Ärînivasa received spiritual initiation from him. The next day Ärî Jiva sent Ärînivasa to meet Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî at Ärî Râdhâkunda. With great pleasure Ärînivasa worshiped the sacred feet of Ärî Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî, Ärî Kèëòa dâsa Kaviraja and Ärî Raghava Paòàita. Ärînivasa remained in their association for three days relishing the nectar of their invaluable instructions. Thereafter, with their kind permission, he returned to Ärî Jiva in Vèndâvana.

Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî then began instructing Ärînivasa on Ärîmad Bhâgavatam and the Gosvâmî's books. To Ärî Jiva's delight, Ärînivasa was able to imbibe all these teachings within a very short time. Thus Ärî Jiva did not hesitate to confer upon him the title of Âcârya. From that day he became famous as Ärînivâsa Âcârya amongst the Vaisnava community of Bengal. Ärînivâsa Âcârya had previously heard the glories of Ärî Narottama dâsa and was anxious to meet him. Eventually Narottama arrived in Vèndâvana and immediately upon meeting each other, they became great friends. Ärî Jiva advised Ärînivasa and Narottama to visit all the forests of Mathura and Vèndâvana along with Ärî Raghava Gosvâmî, a brahmana from the South and intimate associate of Ärî Gaurasundara. Kavi Karnapura wrote that Raghava Paòàita was Ärî Campakalata (the life of Ärî Râdhâ) in Kèëòa lila. Ärî Narahari Cakravarti has given a beautiful description of their travels in the fifth chapter of Bhaktiratnakara.

After completing their travels to all the forests, Ärînivasa and Narottama returned to Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî's place in Vèndâvana. Around that time Ärî Kèëòa dâsa (Syamananda prabhu) reached Vèndâvana from Bengal. Kèëòa dâsa was a favorite disciple of Ärî Hrdaicaitanya prabhu, and he himself had sent Kèëòa dâsa to receive instructions from Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî. The devotees sat together and listened as Kèëòa dâsa conveyed the good news of the devotees of Bengal and Orissa to Ärî Jiva.

Kèëòa dâsa, Ärînivasa and Narottama became very intimate friends and studied happily together under Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî. Because these three devotees were extremely dedicated, well-versed in the scripture, and completely renounced they were chosen by the Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana to distribute the books of the Gosvâmîs in Bengal, a task which was eagerly accepted by these three exalted souls. In this way Ärî Jiva's long cherished desire to distribute the Gosvâmîs' books was eventually fulfilled. Ärînivasa was appointed the chief of this journey and their departure date was fixed on any day of the bright fort-night in the month of Agrahayana (Nov.-Dec).

After seeking the permission of the Gosvâmîs, and worshipping Ärî Govinda, Ärî Gopinatha and Ärî Madana mohana, Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî sent Ärînivasa, Narottama and Kèëòa dâsa to Bengal with the books written by the Gosvâmîs. A few armed guards were deputed to protect the vehicle which carried the precious books. As the caravan moved on from Mathura to Bengal, many travellers followed along behind the carts. At various places special arrangements were made to shelter the traveling party, and they happily engaged in sankirtana and worshipped the Lord wherever they stopped. Eventually the party arrived at the outskirts of Vana Viëòupura, which was ruled by a bandit leader named Vira Hamvira. When the king was informed that a caravan was passing through Vana Viëòupura on its way to Bengal, carrying a cart filled with a valuable treasure, he at once decided to attack the travelers and steal their treasure.

As the caravan plied on, unaware of the evil desires of the king, dusk approached and they stopped near a lake for the night. In the evening the three exalted Vaisnavas began ecstatic kirtana and the people of the nearby village watched in amazement, astonished by their graceful dancing and beautiful singing. Meanwhile, happily anticipating his grand victory, Vira Hamvira remained alert, anxiously waiting for the devotees to retire for the night. Eventually the Vaisnavas accepted prasada and then lay down around the cart to rest. When they were sound asleep, the dacoits stealthily approached. With great care they snatched the chest full of books and rushed to the inner apartment of the king's palace. The king's astrologer had informed him that the chest was filled with the most priceless treasure, thus he greedily gazed at the chest with delight. Praising the robbers for a job well done, he offered them beautiful cloths and valuable gifts.

Early in the morning the Vaisnavas awoke and were shocked to find the cart empty. Their grief was unbearable. Rushing in all directions they frantically tried to find some trace of the books, but their search was to no avail. They were mad with despair, but after considerable time passed they managed to console themselves thinking that Ärî Govinda Deva would surely help them to recover the books.

Meanwhile, the king opened the chest and found the books covered with valuable cloths. When he saw Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî's pearl like handwriting on the books, Hamvira was suddenly freed from all past sins, his heart became Purîfied and swelled with loving sentiments. That night he had a wonderful dream; a beautiful man smilingly told him not to worry, the owner of the books would soon arrive and Hamvira should become his servant.

Ärînivasa decided to send Narottama to Kheturi and Ärî Kèëòa dâsa to Amvika, while he himself stayed in Viëòupura to recover the lost books. At that time a brahmana Paòàita from Viëòupura, Ärî Kèëòavallava, happened to see Ärînivasa. Being charmed by his appearance, Ärî Kèëòavallava invited Ärînivasa to his house, where he was welcomed and worshipped respectfully. Kèëòavallava, along with several others attentively received spiritual guidance from Ärînivasa, and shortly thereafter many of them accepted initiation from him.

When Ärînivasa happened to learn that the king was accustomed to listening to Bhâgavata readings daily at his court, he wanted to go to the king's palace to read the Bhâgavatam. Thus Kèëòavallava took Ärînivasa to the palace. When Vira Hamvira saw the effulgent countenance of Ärînivasa, he fell prostrate on the floor and offered him scented flowers and garlands. Ärînivasa then began reciting from the Bhâgavata in a sweet and melodious voice. Hearing his excellent pronunciation and succinct explanation, everyone present, including the King, was charmed and their hearts overflowed with loving sentiments.

After completing his Bhâgavata reading, Ärînivasa began chanting and dancing in sankirtana. The King humbly worshipped the holy feet of Ärînivâsa Âcârya and repeatedly prayed for his mercy. Ärî Âcârya embraced the King and assured him that Ärî Gaurasundara would bestow His mercy upon him. Finally the king brought forth the trunk full of missing books and falling on the ground, offered himself, as well as the books, at the lotus feet of Ärî Âcârya. Overwhelmed with happiness, Ärînivasa showed his kindness to the king and immediately sent news to Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî in Vèndâvana that the books had been recovered.

Shortly thereafter Ärînivasa took the books and went to Yajigrama, where he narrated the whole story of their journey to the devotees. At that time Ärînivasa received a message from Navadvipa informing him of the demise of Ärî Viëòupriya Ùhâkurani. Grief-stricken, Ärînivasa fell to the ground unconscious. When the devotees eventually managed to pacify Ärî Âcârya, another message suddenly arrived from Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura inviting Ärînivasa to Ärîkhanda. Without delay, Ärînivasa immediately rushed to Ärîkhanda. Upon seeing him, Ärî Narahari Ùhâkura, Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura and the other devotees were filled with joy. Ärînivasa worshipped the lotus feet of all the associates of Mahâprabhu and told them the news of the Gosvâmîs in Vèndâvana.

At that time, Narahari Sarkara Ùhâkura requested Ärînivasa to marry, as it was the desire of his mother. Ärînivasa followed the order of his mother without objection. After staying for sometime in Ärîkhanda, he went to Kantaka nagara to visit Ärî Gadâdhara dâsa Ùhâkura, who welcomed him warmly with great affection. Ärînivasa spent a few days with Gadâdhara, who happily listened to the news of the Gosvâmîs in Vèndâvana. Ärînivasa then left for Yajigrama, but before his departure, Gadâdhara Ùhâkura offered his blessings and valuable advice.

As soon as Ärînivasa arrived in Yajigrama, Ärî Raghunândana began making arrangements for his marriage to Draupadi, the beautiful daughter of a devout brahmana living in Yajigrama. On the Akshya Tritiya day in the month of Vaisaka (April-May), the marriage took place and afterwards Draupadi was renamed Isvari. Some time later Gopala Cakravarti, as well as his two sons, Syamadâsa and Ramacandra, took initiation from Ärî Âcârya. Ärî Narahari Sarkara was very happy when he heard the news of Ärînivasa's marriage.

Thereafter Ärînivâsa Âcârya began teaching from the Gosvâmîs' books to his disciples in Yajigrama. Dvija Haridâsa's sons, Ärîdâsa and Ärî Gokulananda, took initiation from Âcârya and studied under him intently. Day by day Ärînivasa's popularity grew and many people came to Yajigrama to receive his mercy.

One day while Ärînivasa was engaged in devotional discussions with his devotees at his house in Yajigrama, Ärî Ramacandra Kaviraja, son of Ärî Ciranjiva Sen, passed by along with his newly wed bride. When Ärînivâsa Âcârya and Ärî Ramacandra Kaviraja saw each other from a distance, feelings of love suddenly arose in both of their hearts and they immediately desired to meet one another. The following day Ramacandra Kaviraja went to the house of Ärînivasa and they meet each other with great delight. After a few days Ärînivasa initiated him in the Râdhâ-Kèëòa mantra. Some time later Ärînivasa, along with a few devotees, again left Yajigrama for Vèndâvana. Along the way he visited Ärî Viëòupada padma in Gaya and then Kasi. There he joyfully met Ärî Candrasekhar and the other devotees. After spending two-three days in Kasi, he traveled on to Mathura, where he visited the temple of Adi Kesava after taking bath at Visrama Ghat. He then eagerly rushed to Vèndâvana and met Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî, who was eagerly waiting for him. Ärî Syamananda Prabhu also arrived in Vèndâvana from Purî and Ärî Jiva embraced both of them happily. However, they were both stricken with grief upon hearing of the demise of Dvija Haridâsa.

Ärînivasa and Syamananda stayed in Vèndâvana and studied the Sat-sandarbha under the expert guidance of Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî. During that time, Ärî Jiva began writing Ärî Gopala Campu, and he read the mangalacarana slokas to Ärînivasa and Syamananda. After some time Ärî Ramacandra arrived in Vèndâvana hoping to bring Ärînivasa back to Gauda, as requested by the residents of Gauda.

Ärînivâsa Âcârya introduced Ärî Ramacandra Kaviraja to Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî, and Ramacandra fell at his lotus feet. Ärî Jiva embraced Ramacandra affectionately and advised him to take darsana of Ärî Râdhâramana, Ärî Govinda, Ärî Gopinatha and the Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana. Thus Ärînivasa and Syamananda happily took him to various sacred places of Vraja. Eventually they arrived at the bhajan kutir of Ärî Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî and Ärî Kèëòa dâsa Kaviraja at Râdhâ kunda. The Gosvâmîs were very pleased to observe Ramacandra's humility and devotion.

Later, as directed by Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî, Ärînivâsa Âcârya and Ärî Syamananda Prabhu traveled to Vana Viëòupura on their way to Bengal. When king Vira Hamvira saw Ärînivasa, he danced in ecstacy and after worshiping his lotus feet, immediately fed Ärînivasa many varieties of foodstuff. Thus a grand festival ensued in the king's palace. Ärî Syamananda Prabhu was charmed by the king's display of devotion. Ärînivasa then initiated the king into the sacred Râdhâ Kèëòa mantra and gave him the name Ärî Caitanya dâsa. The king's son, Dhadi Hamvira, also accepted initiation and was named Ärî Gopala dâsa.

Thereafter, through Vira Hamvira, Âcârya Prabhu installed the Deity Ärî Kalacand and personally performed the abhisekha and puja.

After spending a few days in Vana Viëòupura, Ärî Syamananda Prabhu proceeded towards Purî. Ärînivasa also began preparations to leave for Yajigrama, but at that time the king of Sikharesvara, Ärî Harinarayana deva, invited him to his house. Thus Ärî Âcârya and his associates spent some days with the king, where he gave wonderful discourses from the Bhâgavata. In this way many persons there received the mercy of Ärînivâsa Âcârya.

From Sikharesvara he traveled to Ärîkhanda. There, in the month of Agrahayana (Nov-Dec), on the 11th day of the dark fortnight, Ärînivasa received the heartbreaking news of Ärî Narahari Sarkara Ùhâkura's demise. Ärînivasa fell on the ground unconscious and cried in lamentation. Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura was also shocked by the departure of Ärî Narahari Ùhâkura, but was relieved to some extent when he met Ärînivasa. After spending a few days at Ärîkhanda, Ärî Âcârya went to Kantaka nagara and was informed of the death of Ärî Gadâdhara dâsa Ùhâkura in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov), which was a shock difficult for Ärînivasa to bear.

After sometime Ärînivasa managed to calm himself and traveled on to Yajigrama, where he invited the devotees to his house for a grand festival in honor of Ärî Gadâdhara. Then on the 11th day of the dark fortnight in the month of Magh (Jan-Feb), he started for Kancana Gaida to observe the death ceremony of Ärî Dvija Haridâsa, which was celebrated with great pomp. On that festival day, Ärîdâsa and Ärî Gokulananda, the sons of Dvija Haridâsa, received initiation from Ärî Âcârya Prabhu.

After a few days, Ärînivasa proceeded towards Kheturi to participate in the grand festival arranged by Narottama Ùhâkura on the Purnima day of Phalguna (Feb-March). This festival was arranged by Ärî Santosa Datta, the nephew and disciple of Ärî Narottama. Ärî Jahnava mata herself attended this wonderful festival. At that time the six Deities; Ärî Gaurâôga, Ärî Vallavikanta, Ärî Vrajamohana, Ärî Kèëòa, Ärî Râdhâkanta and Ärî Râdhâramana, were installed.

After the festival, Ärînivasa and Syamananda Prabhu went to Yajigrama where another wonderful festival began in the house of Âcârya Prabhu. A few days later Ärî Narottama Ùhâkura also joined them. After some time, Ärî Syamananda Prabhu left for Orissa and Ärînivâsa Âcârya, Ärî Narottama and Ärî Ramacandra Kaviraja proceeded to Navadvipa. There they visited the house of Ärî Gaurâôga, where they introduced themselves to the aged Ärî Isana Ùhâkura and worshipped his lotus feet. Isana Ùhâkura embraced them warmly with great pleasure. At that time Isana Ùhâkura was the only resident in the house of Ärî Gaurâôga Mahâprabhu. The following day the devotees arranged to tour the sacred places of Navadvipa with Isana Ùhâkura as their guide. They spent the entire day listening intently to the sweet pastimes of Ärî Gaurasundara as told to them by Isana. After completing the tour they worshipped Isana Ùhâkura, tearfully bade him farewell and returned to Ärîkhanda.

Shortly thereafter they received the news of Isana Ùhâkura's departure from this world, thus the devotees lamented loudly. In this way all the associates of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu in Navadvipa breathed their last one by one.

One day Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura sent a devotee to Yajigrama to bring Ärî Âcârya. At once, Ärînivasa rushed to Ärîkhanda and worshipped the lotus feet of Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura, who in turn blessed Ärî Âcârya and wished him a long life for the purpose of spreading the message of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. With these words he came before the Deities and offered his son Kanai to the lotus feet of Ärî Madana Gopala and Ärî Gaurâôga Deva. The three following days were spent entirely immersed in sankirtana. At the end of the third day, Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura fixed his eyes on the Deities and breathed his last. Kanai Ùhâkura, Ärînivâsa Âcârya and the other devotees could not endure the pain of separation and fell unconscious on the ground. Eventually Kanai Ùhâkura managed to organize a grand festival in honor of his father and sent Vaisnavas all around the country to invite everyone to the celebration.

On the festival day, the Vaisnavas assembled and began sankirtana in the courtyard in front of Raghunândana Ùhâkura's samadhi. The festival was so ecstatic that it seemed as if Raghunândana himself had appeared to join in their sankirtana. Ärînivasa supervised the various activities of the festival and at the end of the festival he, along with the other devotees, took leave and went to Vana Viëòupura to visit Vira Hamvira. There Ärînivasa, surrounded by many devotees, read from the Bhâgavata and engaged in sankirtana in the king's palace. At that time the king took pleasure in serving the devotees and from that day Vana Viëòupura became rightfully known as Viëòupura. Taking advantage of the situation, many persons took shelter of the lotus feet of Ärînivâsa Âcârya.

At that time one great devotee brahmana named Ärî Raghava Cakravarti lived in Gopalapura. He had a daughter named Ärî Gaurâôgapriya, but unfortunately he had not been able to arrange for her marriage. One night he dreamed that he was giving his daughter's hand to Ärînivâsa Âcârya. Raghava explained the dream to his wife the following morning and they were both filled with happiness. The brahmana then went to meet Ärînivasa. After worshiping his lotus feet, the brahmana stood humbly before Ärî Âcârya. Ärînivasa could understand his intention and smilingly asked the reason why he had come. The brahmana then revealed his mind, as Ärî Âcârya listened smilingly. The devotees were all very happy to hear his proposal and at last Ärî Âcârya Prabhu agreed.

Vira Hamvira made arrangements to celebrate the marriage ceremony of Ärînivasa with great pomp. Thus Ärî Raghava Cakravarti happily presented his daughter with ornaments and nice dresses to Ärî Âcârya Prabhu. Thereafter Ärînivasa returned to Yajigrama with his newly wed wife. At that time Ärî Jahnava mata also arrived at Yajigrama on her way from Vèndâvana, and came to the house of Ärînivasa. Seeing the beautiful and devoted wife of Ärînivasa, Jahnava happily took the bride on her lap. She showed great affection to both the two wives of Ärînivasa, then informed Ärînivasa of the well-being of the Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana. After spending a few happy days in the house of Ärî Âcârya, she returned to Khardaha.

Ärînivâsa Âcârya and his disciples lived happily in Yajigrama studying and giving lectures on the Gosvâmî Grantha. Everyone who heard him speak was enchanted by his divine appearance and wealth of spiritual knowledge. Even the most notorious immoral persons could not avoid his influence and came before him seeking his mercy.

Ärînivasa, Ärî Narottama and Ärî Ramacandra were inseparable friends. Ärînivasa had three sons and three daughters. The daughters were Kèëòapriya, Hemalata and Phulapi Ùhâkurani. The three sons were Vèndâvana Vallava, RâdhâKèëòa and Ärî Gatigovinda.

Ärî Gatigovinda's son was Kèëòaprasad Ùhâkura and his son was Jagadananda Ùhâkura. Ärî Jagadananda Ùhâkura had two wives. From his first wife he had one son, Yadavendra Ùhâkura, and from his second wife he had five sons, Râdhâmohana Ùhâkura, Bhuvana mohana Ùhâkura, Gaura mohana Ùhâkura, Syama mohana Ùhâkura and Madana mohana Ùhâkura. The descendants of Bhuvana mohana Ùhâkura are still living in the village of Manikyahara in the district of Mursidabad.

ÄrîLA ÄrîVASA Paòàita

Ärîla Vrindavana dâsa Ùhâkura, the Vyasadeva of Ärî Gaurasundara's pastimes, has sung the praises of Ärîvasa Paòàita in this way:

"It was in Ärîvasa Paòàita's house that Ärî Caitanya enacted His pastimes of sankirtana. Those four brothers (Ärîvasa, Ärî Rama, Ärîpati and Ärînidhi) were continuously engaged in singing the names of Ärî Kèëòa. They worshiped Ärî Kèëòa and bathed in the Ganges thrice daily."

These four brothers previously lived in the district of Ärî Hatta. Later on they came to reside on the banks of the Ganges. There they regularly used to attend the assembly of devotees who gathered at Ärî Advaita Âcârya's house to hear the Ärîmad-Bhâgavatam and engage in congregational chanting of the Holy Names. Gradually the brothers became very close friends of Ärî Jagannâtha Misra, with whom they would chant and listen to the Bhâgavatam.

In all matters Ärîvasa was the leader of the four brothers. By the strengh of his devotion, he could understand that Ärî Kèëòa was going to appear in the house of Jagannâtha Misra.

Ärîvasa Pandits's wife's name was Ärî Malinidevi. She was a very close friend of Ärî Sacidevi and was always very helpful to her.

Seing the wretched state of the fallen living entities in Kali yuga, the devotees began to plaintively pray to the Lord for their deliverance. Kèëòa hears the call of His devotees. On the full moon day in tho month of Phalguna, in the year 1407 (Christian era 1486), the Lord incarnated Himself. With His appearance there was the simultaneous dawning of all-auspiciousness within the world as it became filled with Harinama. Just as Ärî Advaita Âcârya, from Santipura, could understand that the Lord had appeared, similarly, Ärîvasa and some of the other devotees of Navadwipa also understood.

Since previously Malinidevi was engaged in attending upon Sacidevi, Ärîvasa and Jagannâtha Misra came to her at this time and hinted that she was especially needed now.

As long as the Lord chooses not to reveal Himself, no one can possibly recognize Him. Therefore, even though from His childhood the Lord exhibited many supernatural abilities, still, due to His deluding potency, the devotees could not fully understand His true nature.

Their hearts were simply filled with parental affection for Him, without a trace of awe or reverence. Ärîvasa and Malini gave Sacidevi and Jagannâtha much advice how to raise their new son. Ärîvasa and Malini were just like a mother and father to Ärî Gaurasundara. Because young Nimai Paòàita seemed to have grown arrogant by His scholarship, one day Ärîvasa Paòàita decided to give Him good counsel.

"Why do people study? So that they might understand what is devotion to Ärî Kèëòa," he told Nimai. "If by scholarship one doesn't gain devotion to Ärî Kèëòa, then how will that learning help him? It becomes simply a tedious endeavour which in the end is nothing but a waste of time. If you have actually learned something then begin your worship of Ärî Kèëòa now. Make haste. This is the purpose of your life."

Nimai laughed as He replied, "By your mercy certainly that will come to be. If you are all kind enough for me, then definitely I'll attain devotion to Ärî Kèëòa's lotus feet."

Shortly thereafter Mahâprabhu journeyed to Gaya where He performed the pastimes of accepting initiation from Ärî Isvara Purî. Thus gradually, He began to take up His real work of distributing loving devotion to Ärî Kèëòa.

One day, in an ecstatic mood, Lord Gaurâôga entered Ärîvasa's house asking, "Ärîvas, whom do you worship? Whom do you meditate upon? Now with your own two eyes, see that person standing before you." (C.B. Madya 2/258)

Saying this, Mahâprabhu entered the Deity room within Ärîvasa's home temple and sat down on the simhasana of Lord Viëòu, revealing His own four-armed form, holding the conch, disc, club and lotus flower. Seeing this form, Ärîvasa was totally stupefied.

Ärî Gaurasundara then said, "Due to being called by your sankirtana and the loud roaring of Ärî Advaita Âcârya, I have left Vaikuntha and have descended upon this mortal world, accompanied by My eternal associates. I will destroy the miscreants and deliver the pious. Now, without fear, you can chant My glories."

Hearing these words of His Lord, which dispelled all fear, Ärîvasa fell on the ground, offering his obeisances. Then he began to recite hymns in praise of the Lord.

"My obeisances at the lotus feet of the support of the entire universe Visvambhara, Whose bodily colour is like that of a newly arrived rain cloud and whose garments are the color of a thunderbolt. My obeisances at the lotus feet of the son of Saci, who is bedecked with ornaments of peacock feathers and a garland of read beads (gunja). My obeisances at the lotus feet of the pupil of Gaôgâ dâsa, the beauty of whose lotus face conquers that of ten million moons. My obeisances at your lotus feet, You who carry a buffalo horn, stick and flute. The four Vedas have proclaimed You to be the son of Nanda. Unto You my dear Lord, my obeisances I offer again and again." (C.B.Madya 2/272)

"Today my birth, my activities, my everything has become succesful. Today my very existence has been crowned with the greatest auspiciousness. Today the race of my forefathers has finally born fruit, and my house, which was also their house, has become blessed. Today the great fortune of my eyes is completely beyond calculation, because I have been able to see that person whose lotus feet are served by the goddess of fortune, Laksmidevi".

Having described the glories of Ärî Gaurasundara in various ways, Ärî Gaurasundara showed even more compassion to Ärîvasa by revealing Himself to all of his family members. Seeing the niece of Ärîvasa Paòàita present before Him, Prabhu called to her, "Narayani! Call upon Ärî Kèëòa with tears in your eyes."

And immediately this little girl, only four years of age, as if in a delirious frenzy began to cry out, "Hari! Kèëòa!" while shedding tears incessantly. In fact the flood of tears coursed down her body to such an extent that the ground around her feet became soaked." (C.B. Mad. 2).

Seeing little Narayani totally agitated in ecstatic love, Ärîvasa's wife and even the household servants also began to shed tears of love. The courtyard of Ärîvasa took on a very beautiful appearance, being decorated with ecstatic love for Kèëòa.

There was one maidservant in Ärîvasa Paòàita's house by the name Duhkhi. Every day she used to bring water from the Gaôgâ for Mahâprabhu's bath. One day Gaurasundara asked Ärîvasa, "Who brings this water?"

"Duhkhi brings it," Ärîvasa replied.

"From today her name is Sukhi." Thus the Lord indicated that those who serve the Lord and the Lord's devotees are not duhkhi (sad); rather, they are sukhi (happy).

At this time Ärî Gaurasundara began His lila as the yuga-avatara at the house of Ärîvasa Pandit. Having been reunited with Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu He started congregational chanting of the Lord's Holy Names in the courtyard of Ärîvasa's house. Nityânanda Prabhu took up His residence there. Ärî Malinidevi served Nityânanda as though He were her own son.

Ärî Nityânanda was actually Ärî Baladeva Himself, and in His pastimes as Lord Nityânanda He behaved somewhat like a madman. He was always overwhelmed by love of Kèëòa, and was not aware of the state of His outward dress or ornaments.

One evening, Ärî Gaurasundara, accompanied by His associates, was engaged in chanting and dancing at the house of Ärîvasa Ùhâkura when one of Ärîvas Thakur's sons passed away after having suffered the effects of some disease. Within the inner apartment of his house, the women began to wail in lamentation at the boy's untimely death. Ärîvasa Paòàita, who was outside in the courtyard, understood some tragedy must have taken place. He quickly entered the house only to find that his son had passed on to the next world. As he was a very grave devotee and completely conversant in the science of the Absolute Truth, he was able to console the women in their grief.

"You are all aware of Kèëòa's glories, so please restrain yourselves and don't cry. Whoever during his last moment hears the Lord's Holy Name, even though he might be the greatest sinner, attains Kèëòa's abode. And that incomparably wonderful Lord, He whose glories are sung by all His servants up to and including Lord Brahma, is now personally dancing in the courtyard of your house.

"This moment is so auspicious that it is sure this boy has successfully completed his journey from this world. Is there anything to be lamented at in this? His good fortune is completely assured. I can understand that whatever part I have played in this is also crowned with success." (C.B.M 25.30)

He concluded by telling them, "If you can't control your emotions because of your family affection to the boy, then at least don't cry now, you can cry later. The Supreme Lord of Gokula Himself, Ärî Gaurasundara, is performing sankirtana accompanied by His devotees in this house. If, due to your crying, the happiness that He is experiencing from dancing in ecstasy during sankirtana is disturbed, then I will just this minute jump into the Ganges and thus give up my own life."

"Not a blade of grass moves unless by Kèëòa's will. To see in this, happiness or distress, or knowledge or ignorance is simply imagination. Know that whatever Kèëòa wills is good, and thus, giving up your own selfish desires, become free from confusion and unnecessary botheration. Kèëòa is giving and Kèëòa is taking away, and it is Kèëòa alone Who is maintaining everyone. Someone He protects and someone He destroys, all according to His will. If someone contemplates something contrary to Kèëòa's will, then as a result of His desire He only get torment. Giving up all lamentation, simply hear Kèëòa's name, and thus pass through all difficulties feeling great happiness. Then your desires will actually be fulfilled.'

Having given all of these instructions to those present, Ärîvasa again went outside to join Mahâprabhu in ecstatic chanting and dancing. The women, leaving the dead body, came to hear the kirtan of Mahâprabhu. And so Mahâprabhu continued His chanting until the middle of the night.

When everyone was at last leaving to take rest, Mahâprabhu spoke. "Today My mind is feeling some tribulation. I think some sad event has occured in Ärîvasa's house."

The pandit replied, "What possible unhappiness could there be in that person's house where Your divinely blissful countenance is seen?"

"Ärîvasa! Why wasn't I feeling bliss in kirtana today? What inauspicious thing transpired in your house?"

Ärîvasa answered, "My Lord, You are Yourself all-auspicious. Where You are present, no sorrow can be found anywhere!" But the other devotees informed the Lord that Ärîvasa's son had passed away.

Hearing this news, Gaura Raya cried out, "Alas, what a tragic event. Why didn't you tell me of this unfortunate news before?"

"I will explain," Ärîvasa Paòàita replied. "I couldn't tolerate disturbing You while You were enjoying sankirtana. If one of my sons dies, what sorrow is there in that for me? If we all die while seeing You, that would actually be a matter of great happiness. On the other hand, if You would have to stop dancing, then perhaps I would have died. My Lord, this was the danger that I feared, and thus I didn't tell you at the time."

Seeing Ärîvasa Paòàita's profound devotion, Ärî Gaurasundara said, "How can I give up such company as this?" With tears in His eyes He continued. "Due to love for Me, he didn't even feel lamentation at the death of his son. How will I abandon their companionship?"

The Lord continued to cry, and the devotees began to worry within, having heard Him speak of leaving them.

Thereafter Mahâprabhu came to where the dead body of the infant was lying. Touching it, He called, "Boy! Why are you going away and leaving Ärîvasa Paòàita?"

The life of the dead child returned at the touch of Mahâprabhu's hand. After offering obeisances to the Lord, he replied, "O Prabhu! Whatever You ordain is absolute. No one can do anything but what is sanctioned by You. As many days as I was destined to remain here, that many days I have stayed. Now that my time has elapsed, I have proceeded to leave.

"My Lord, I have taken birth and died repeatedly. But this time, at the time of death, I passed away quite happily, having taken darsana of Your beautiful face."

After saying this, the child became silent. Ärî Gaurâôga Raya thus enjoyed a kind of transcendental sport. Having heard the uncommon words of the dead child, the devotees floated in the ocean of bliss. Ärîvasa Paòàita, along with his family members, then fell at the lotus feet of Ärî Gaurasundara and cried in ecstatic love.

Mahâprabhu then told him, "Since Myself and Nityânanda are your two sons, please don't feel any more distress in your mind over what has happened." Hearing these compassionate words of their Lord, the devotees cheers were resounded throughout the heavens. Prooving the statements of sastra, Their Lordships Gaura-Nityânanda became deeply indebted to Ärîvasa due to his great love for and service to Them.

After Mahâprabhu took sannyasa, Ärîvasa Pandit came to live at Kumarhatta. Every year he would go with His brothers to see Mahâprabhu at Purî. He also regularly came to see Ärî Sacimata in Navadwip and would spend a few days there during those times.

When Mahâprabhu came from Nilacala to see His mother and the river Ganges, He also stopped at Kumarhatta to see Ärîvasa.

"After staying some days at Advaita's house, Mahâprabhu came to Ärîvasa's temple at Kumarhatta." (C.B)

It was at this time that Mahâprabhu gave this benediction to Ärîvasa: "There will never be poverty in your house. If you simply remain indoors, never even venturing out of your house, whatever you require for your worship will come to your door."

Ärîvasa Paòàita, along with his three brothers, eternally serve Ärî Gaurasundara. He is the incarnation of Narada and accompanied Mahâprabhu in all His Navadwipa lilas.

Across the Ganges from Halisahar (the present name of the village of Kumarhatta), there is a town of the name Chuchura. Located here are some very beutiful Deities of Ärî Ärî Nitai-Gaurâôga. At present the seva-puja is becoming carried on by Devânanda Gaudiya Matha. The resident Swami Maharaja recalls that when the Gaurîya Math took over the sevaitship of this temple, its name was Ärîvasa-Mahâprabhu Mandir. Thus there is a strong possibility that these are the worshipable Deities of Ärîvasa Paòàita. The temple is at present named 'Uddhavar Gaudiya Math.' It is near 'Chaumatha', close to the 'Chori Mor' intersection where the town clock stands.

There is a rail station at Chuchura (Chinsura) on the Bandel-Navadwip line. Chuchura may also be reached by ferry from Halisahar on the other side of the Gaôgâ, where Caitanya Boda, the birthplace of Ärî Isvara Purî, is located.

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