viernes, 18 de junio de 2010

Santos Vaishnavas - V1


"Sundarananda, another branch of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu, was Lord Nityânanda's most intimate servant. Lord Nityânanda perceived the life of Vrajabhumi in his company." (C.c. 11.23)

In Kèëòa-lila he was the gopala Sudama. His Ärîpat was in Maheshpur, which is within the present district of Jessore, Bangladesh. Nowadays only his birthplace can be seen there. He never married but the descendents of his brother and disciples are still residing there. Sundarananda was an ocean of mellows of love of Kèëòa. He is one of the main associates of Lord Nityânanda.

His disappearance is on the Kartik purnima. His samadhi is in Vrindavana and his worshipable Deity, Ärî Kalacand, are residing in the 'new' Govindaji Mandira.


"Sundarananda, another branch of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu, was Lord Nityânanda's most intimate servant. Lord Nityânanda perceived the life of Vrajabhumi in his company." (C.c. 11.23)

In Kèëòa-lila he was the gopala Sudama. His Ärîpat was in Maheshpur, which is within the present district of Jessore, Bangladesh. Nowadays only his birthplace can be seen there. He never married but the descendents of his brother and disciples are still residing there. Sundarananda was an ocean of mellows of love of Kèëòa. He is one of the main associates of Lord Nityânanda. His disappearance is on the Kartik purnima. His samadhi is in Vrindavana and his worshipable Deity, Ärî Kalacand, are residing in the 'new' Govindaji Mandira.


Ärî Swarup Damodar is the eternal associate of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. His previous name was Ärî Purusottam Âcârya and he resided at Navadwip.

He was always present with Mahâprabhu. When Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu exhibited His pastimes of accepting sannyasa, Swarup Damodar became like a madman and, journeying to Varanasi he also accepted sannyasa from one sannyasi named Caitanyananda. His sannyasa guru ordered him that, "You should yourself study the Vedanta and also teach it to others." Ärî Purusottama Âcârya didn't accept the garments of sannyasa, but simply gave up his sikha and brahmana thread. Therefore his name became Swarup (a brahmacari name). Thereafter, by the order of his guru, he came to Ärî Nilacal, where he again met Mahâprabhu.

Then one day, Swarup Damodar, who was very intimate with Mahâprabhu, and an ocean of the mellows of devotion, came to Ärî Jagannath Purî. His previous name was Purusottam Âcârya and he resided at Navadwip, at the lotus feet of Mahâprabhu. Seeing that Mahâprabhu had accepted sannyasa, he became like a madman and also accepted sannyasa at Varanasi. (C. C. Mad. 10.102).

Though his scholarship was practically unlimited, he spoke very little with others and preferred to remain alone. Thus very few were aware of his actual position. He was completely conversant with the understanding of the mellows of devotion to Ärî Kèëòa and his body was fully imbued with love for Him. He was as though a second Mahâprabhu. Whenever anyone wanted to present to Mahâprabhu some book, verse or song that they had composed, Swarup Damodar would first hear what they had written before it could be presented to Mahâprabhu. If these compositions contained any points which were in contradiction to the superior position of bhakti, as concluded in scriptures, then hearing these writings would not be a source of transcendental pleasure for Mahâprabhu. Therefore Swarup Gosai would first examine what had been composed and if it was untainted then it could be presented to Mahâprabhu.

Usually he would recite Ärî Gita Govinda, and the writings of Candidas and Vidyapati, for the transcendental happiness of Mahâprabhu. In music and singing he was like a Gandharva and in knowledge of the sastras he was like Brhaspati. There was no one to compare with him in talent and intelligence. He was extremely dear to Ärî Advaita and Nityânanda Prabhu and was the life and soul of devotees like Ärîvas and others.

When Ärî Swarup Damodar arrived in Purî from Kasi (Varanasi) he recited this sloka in praise of Mahâprabhu: "Oh You, who are the personification of mercy - Ärî Caitanya. That which very easily causes grief to retreat far away, and which is spotlessly pure; which causes the appearance of the highest happiness, and by whose appearance disputation over the intricacies of scriptural statements ceases; that which causes the spirit to become extremely agitated in ecstatic love, by a shower of grace and beauty; may that extremely expansive and auspicious mercy by its sweetness and dignity shine its rays upon me." (Ärî Caitanya Candrodoy Natak.)

Seeing that Swarup Damodar was offering his dandavats to Him, Mahâprabhu picked him up and as He embraced him he said, "I saw in a dream this morning that you had come. Just as a blind man finds unlimited happiness by regaining his eyesight, so I am feeling by regaining your association."

Swarup Damodar replied: "Prabhu, please forgive me. By leaving You and running off to Varanasi, I made a great mistake. I don't have even a hint of attachment to your lotus feet, and I have actually become a great sinner by leaving you and going to a distant country. I gave up your association, but You didn't give me up. Binding the rope of mercy around my neck You brought me again to Your lotus feet." (C. C. Mad 10)

Hearing these words of Swarup Damodar, spoken in such humility, Mahâprabhu again embraced him and said: "Kèëòa is very kind. He has very mercifully brought us together again."?

Mahâprabhu kept Swarup Damodar close to Him. Whenever Mahâprabhu became immersed in a particular ecstatic emotion, Swarup Damodar would perform a kirtan in that particular mood. During this period Ärî Ray Ramananda also arrived from Vidyanagar in South India. Thus the two of them, Swarup Damodar and Ramananda Ray would enhance the ecstatic moods of Mahâprabhu by singing different songs and reciting various poetic verses.

During the day, Mahâprabhu would engage in his pastimes of sankirtan with His devotees, and at night He would taste the mellows of the ecstatic love of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Kèëòa in the company of these two. As Lalita and Visakha were very intimate with Ärîmati Râdhârani, Ray Ramananda and Swarup Damodar were similarly intimate with Caitanya Mahâprabhu.

Swarup Damodar's place of residence in Purî was the "Satasan Math". This is located near Bhaktivinode Thakur's "Bhakti kutir", near the ocean at Svarga


Mahâprabhu entrusted him to look after and instruct Raghunath Das Goswami.

Swarup Damodar Goswami disappeared on the second day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asar.



He was born in a sadgopa caste. His name as a youth was "Duhkhi va Duhkhini" and "Kèëòadâsa". BRK. 1.351-352,359,401 and 6.52 explains that Syamananda came from the village of Dandesvara. His parents were Ärî Kèëòa Mandal and Durika. The family originally lived at Dharenda Bahadurpur. Syamananda was born In 1456 Saka (1534 A.D.). At the time of his birth his elder brother and sister died, thus his parents called him Duhkhi.

Syamananda was a disciple of Hrdaya Caitanya. A detailed biography of Syamananda came be found in Syamanandaprakasa, Abhirama lilamrta, Premavilasa, Bhaktiratnakara.

Syamananda's father was from Gauda and later moved to Dharenda Bahadurpura, located in Dandesvara in Orissa. His parents arranged for him to acquire an adequate education. In Vaisnava works Syamananda is hailed as "the incarnation of Lord Advaita."

From his early childhood Syamananda manifested strong religious tendencies. At the age of twenty he went on pilgrimage. Arriving at Amvikanagara he was overwhelmed with ecstasy upon seeing the Deities of Gaura-Nitai installed there by Gaurîdâsa Paòàita. Hrdaya Caitanya, a disciple of Gaurîdâsa, was deeply impressed with the boy's spiritual advancement and gave him diksa. Syamananda first made an extensive tour of Bengal. Thereafter he visited all the holy places of India, eventually arriving in Vèndâvana where he studied Bhakti sastra and engaged in devotional service under the direct guidance of Jiva Gosvâmî

Once, while Syamananda prabhu was cleaning the Rasamandala in Vèndâvana, he found the anklet of Ärîmati Radhika and as soon as he touched it to his forehead a mark of tilaka shaped like an ankle bell appeared there. Since that time descendants of Syamananda prabhu's family wear a similar tilak mark on their foreheads.

In 1504 Saka (1582 A.D.) Syamananda, Narottama and Ärînivâsa Âcârya carried all the Gosvâmî's writings from Vèndâvana to Bengal to be printed and distributed there (See "Ärînivâsa Âcârya").

Toward the later years of his life Syamananda settled at Nrsimhapura in Orissa and vigorously preached the message of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He converted a large number of Muslims to Vaisnavism. Out of Syamananda's numerous disciples, the foremost was Rasikamurari. Syamananda installed Deities of Râdhâgovinda at Ärîpata Gopiballavpura (BRK. 15.63-65)

Syamananda died in 1552 Saka (1630 A.D.) in the house of Uddanda Raya Bhuiyan at Nrsimhapura.


Ärî Symananda made his appearance at Utkala in the village of Dharenda Bahadurpur. His father's name was Ärî Kèëòa Mandal and his mother's name was Ärî Durika. Ärî Kèëòa Mandal, who descended in the line of sad-gopas, had many sons and daughters who unfortunately passed away before the birth of this son. For this reason this son was named Dukhiya. Everyone said that this child would be a very high-souled saintly person. "On the full moon day of the month of Caitra he has taken his birth at a very auspicious moment, by the mercy of Lord Jagannâtha. It is as though Lord Jagannâtha has personally brought him here in order to propagate His teachings, and therefore He is personally maintaining him. He looks just like a new cupid. One's eyes and mind are soothed just to look upon him."

As time passed, the Purîficatory rites, his first taking of grains, tonsure (the hair-cutting ceremony) and the rites for beginning his education were performed, one after the other. The scholars were astounded to see his profound intellect. Within a short period he completed his studies of grammar, poetry and rhetoric. When he heard of the glories of Ärî Gaura-Nityânanda from the Vaisnavas of his village, a very deep attachment to Their lotus feet developed in him. Ärî Kèëòa Mandal was himself a very advanced devotee. Seeing that his son was always absorbed in thinking of Gaura-Nityânanda he told him that he should be initiated into the divine mantra. The boy replied, "Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya is my guru. He is at Ambika Kalna. His guru is Ärî Gaurî dâsa Paòàita. The two brothers, Ärî Gaura-Nityânanda, are eternally present in his house. If you give your permission, I will proceed to there to become his disciple."

His father asked, "But Duhkhiya, how will you get there?" "Father, there are many people from here who go there to bath in the Ganges. I will go with them." His father deliberated for a great while on this matter and after going so he finally gave his permision. Thus Duhkhiya set out for Gaudadesa. Gradually he came to Navadwipa, then Santipur and finally Ambika Kalna, where he inquired from the local people where he might find the house of Gaurî dâsa Paòàita. Outside the gate of the mandira, he fell down and offered his dandavats.

Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya happened to be passing by at this time. Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu looked at him for a few moments and then asked, "Who are you?" Dukhiya replied, "I have come to serve Your lotus feet. My home is at Dharenda Bahadurpur. I was born in the caste of sad-gopas. My father's name is Ärî Kèëòa Mandal. My name is Duhkhiya." Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya was very pleased by this sweet speech. He told the boy, "From now your name is Kèëòa das. Since early this morning I was feeling that someone would come today."

Ärî Kèëòa dâsa began his service with great devotion, and on an auspicious day his guru initiated him into the divine mantra. Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya could see that his new disciple was extremely intelligent and at the same time very devoted, so he ordered him to go to Vrindavana to study the literatures of the Gosvâmîs under the tutelage of Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî. Ärî Kèëòa das bowed his head in assent, and on an auspicious day he set out for the holy dhama. At the time of his departure, his guru gave him many instructions and conveyed through his disciple his obeisances to the lotus feet of the Gosvâmîs of Vrindavan.

Duhkhi Kèëòa das first came to Navadwipa. After inquiring from someone as to the whereabouts of Ärî Jagannâtha Misra Bhavan, he came there and went inside. Seeing Ärî Isana Ùhâkura, he fell down and offered his obeisances. Isana Ùhâkura then asked him who he was, and so the boy introduced himself. Isana Ùhâkura blessed him and he remained there that day. The next day he set out for Mathura with a party of pilgrims. Upon coming to Gaya Dham he took darsana of the lotus feet of Ärî Viëòu there. He remembered Mahâprabhu's lila of accepting initiation from Ärî Isvara Purî here and became ovewhelmed in ecstatic love. From Gaya he came to Kasi Dham where he met with Tapan Misra, Candrasekhara and the other devotees, and he offered his salutations to their lotus feet. They in turn blessed him.

He finally entered Mathura Dhama. After taking bath at Visrama Ghata, he took darsana of Ärî Adikesava and rolled on the ground in ecstasy in the dust of the birthplace of Ärî Kèëòa. From here he proceeded towards Vrindavana where, after learning the whereabouts of Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî, he offered his obeisances to the lotus feet of that great acarya. After being asked, he introduced himself with full particulars. "Guru deva has committed me to your charge. His petition to Your Divine Grace is, ' I am entrusting Duhkhi Kèëòa das to your care. Please fullfill his mind's desire and send him back to me after some time.'" Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî was extremely happy to receive Duhkhi Kèëòa dâsa into his care. Kèëòa das very carefully began to serve Jiva Gosvâmî as well as study the literatures of the Gosvâmîs. Ärînivâsa Âcârya and Narottama dâsa Ùhâkura also came to Ärî Jiva at this time to study under him. Thus Kèëòa das had the opportunity to meet them.

Kèëòa das requested Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî for a special service. Ärî Jiva instructed him to sweep the forest grove of Sevakunja everyday. From that day he began to carry out this service with great pleasure. He felt that his life had become succesful. As he swept, tears flowed from his eyes. Sometimes he would loudly chant the names of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Govinda and sometimes he would become inert while remembering Their pastimes. Sometimes he would put the broom, which was full of dust, on his head. Even Lord Brahma and Lord Äiva pray to receive a little of this dust of Vrindavana on their heads. The Lord of Vrindavana and His consort were very pleased with the service of Kèëòa das, and desired to grant him Their darsan.

One day while Kèëòa das was cleaning the kunja, his heart filled with love. Just then he happnened to notice a very beautiful ankle bracelet lying in the dust. He picked it up, touched it to his head and then bound it in the corner of his upper cloth. "I'll give it to whomever it belongs to when they come to look for it," he thought. The next morning the sakhis were quite shocked when they noticed that Ärîmati Râdhârani's left ankle bracelet was missing. Râdhârani explained, "Last night, when I was dancing in the kunja, it must have fallen off. Please look for it and bring it back to me, whoever finds it."

When the gopis came to search for the bracelet, Visakha devi noticed Kèëòa das sweeping the grove. She asked him, "Have you found an ankle bracelet here?" Duhkhi Kèëòa dâsa was so mesmerized by her sweet words and radiant form, which was like that of a demigoddess descended from heaven, that he simply stared at her dumbfounded. Again she asked him, "Have you found an ankle bracelet here?" Duhkhi Kèëòa made obeisances and humbly replied, "Yes, I found it. Who are you?" "I am a cowherd girl." "Where do you stay?" "In this village." "Is it your ankle bracelet?" "No it isn't mine. It belongs to a new bride in our house." "How did it get here?" "She came here yesterday to pick flowers and it must have fallen off then." "All right, then please tell her she can come and collect it from me." "No, you can just give it to me." "No, I want to give it to her personally."

After a few moments, Visakha devi returned with Ärîmati Râdhâ Ùhâkurani who stood in the shade at the foot of a large tree. Visakha called out to Kèëòa dâsa, "Bhakta, the person who lost her ankle bracelet has come to receive it." Duhkhi Kèëòa das completely forgot himself while gazing, even though it was from some distance, at the unparalelled, brilliant spendor of Ärî Vrsabhanunandini. In great joy he handed the ankle bracelet to Visakha. At this point, Duhkhi Kèëòa dâsa could sense that something very profound was about to take place. His eyes filled with tears and he fell down on the ground to offer his obeisances. In great ecstasy he rolled in the dust.

Visakha then told him, "O best of the devotees! Our Sakhi wants to give you a benediction to express her gratitude." Duhkhi Kèëòa dâsa saw the holy waters of Râdhâ kunda before him. After offering his obeisances, he immersed himself in her waters. Thus he attained a transcendentally beautiful feminine form. Coming out of the sacred kunda, he stood before Visakha devi and offered prayers. Taking this 'forest sakhi' by the hand, Visakha approached Ärîmati Râdhâ Ùhâkurani, and the new sakhi fell down at Her lotus feet. Then Ärîmati Râdhârani decorated her forehead with tilaka using the ankle bracelet and the kumkum of her lotus feet. "This tilak will remain on your forehead. From today you will be known as Syamananda. Now you can go."

After She said this, Ärîmati Râdhâ Ùhâkurani and Her sakhis were no longer to be seen. Dukhi Kèëòa dâsa's trance broke and he found himself as before, alone and in his male body: yet with the tilaka applied by Ärîmati Râdhârani still on his forehead. Being overwhelmed with emotion, he repeated over and over, "What have I seen? What have I seen?", while tears of ecstasy rolled down his cheeks. After reciting prayers hundreds and hundreds of times to Ärî Radhika, he finally returned to Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî.

Ärî Jiva Prabhu was struck with wonder when he saw the brilliant new design of tilaka on his young student's forehead. After offering his prostrated obeisances, Dukhi Kèëòa dâsa, his eyes brimming with tears, recounted at Jiva Goswami's request his experience in Sevakunja. Hearing of his great fortune, Ärî Jiva was elated, but cautioned Dukhi, "Don't reveal this blessed event to anyone. From today, just carry on with the name Syamananda."

Noticing that Dukhi Kèëòa dâsa's name and style of tilaka had for reasons unknown been changed, the Vaisnavas naturally began to discuss this strange development amongst themselves. The news finally reached Ambika Kalna. When he heard of the seemingly unauthorized behavior of his disciple, Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu was unsettled and angered. He immediately set out for Vrindavana. Arriving there some months later, he let it be known he wished to see Dukhi Kèëòa dâsa. Syamananda came and offered his prostrated obeisances at his gurudeva's lotus feet. Seeing his disciple's tilaka, Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu was enraged and exclaimed , "Your conduct towards me is completely abominable." He continued to chastise him and even began beating him. The Vaisnavas finally managed to restrain and pacify him by offering various explanations on Syamananda's behalf. Shyamananda simply tolerated it all with an unfaded countenance and continued to serve his gurudeva faithfully.

That night, Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu had a dream in which Ärî Râdhâ Ùhâkurani appeared in a very severe mood. She rebuked him by saying, "I am the one who, being very satisfied by Duhkhi Kèëòa dâsa's service, changed his tilaka and his name. What do you or anyone else have to say about it?" Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu prayed for forgiveness at the lotus feet of Ärî Vrajesvari and considered what an offender he had become. The next morning he called for Syamananda. Taking him in his lap, he embraced him again and again in great affection. With his eyes brimming with tears he repeated, "You are so fortunate." Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu remained at Vrajadhama for a while and then, after instructing Syamananda to remain with Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî for some more days, he returned to Gaudadesa.

Ärî Syamananda, Ärînivasa and Ärî Narottama began to pass their days in great bliss, studying the literatures of the Goswamis and begging a little to eat from door to door. The three of them resolved to continue in this way and thus devote the better part of their time to serving and worshiping Ärî Kèëòa in Vrindavana. The Goswamis held a council together and decided that these three should be sent to Gaudadesa to preach the teachings of Mahâprabhu as presented in the Gosvâmî literature.

One day Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî called the three of them together and informed them of this decision. Thus the three of them accepted that order on their bowed heads. Thereafter, on an auspicious day Ärîla Jiva Gosvâmî sent them on their way with a large, nicely decorated container filled with scriptures. But the books were stolen by the dacoit king, Sir Hambhir, in Bisnupur. There Ärînivâsa Âcârya prabhu remained behind to recover the books while Narottama continued on towards Kheturi and Shyamananda proceeded to Ambika Kalna.

Arriving there, Syamananda paid his obeisances to his guru, and Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu embraced him and inquired about the well being of the Gosvâmîs of Vrindavana. When he heard that the books of the Gosvâmîs had been stolen in Bishnupur, he was very concerned. Syamananda served the lotus feet of his guru in great happiness and in this way passed his days. At this time most of the devotees of Lord Caitanya in Orissa had all passed away. Thus the preaching of Mahâprabhu's teachings had all but come to a halt. Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu considered this a very serious problem and finally instructed Syamananda Prabhu to go there to carry on the preaching of Mahâprabhu's mission. Syamananda was at first very sad that he would have to be separated again so soon from his spiritual master, but Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu explained clearly that he had other alternative but to accept this order on his head. Syamananda set out for Utkaladesh (Orissa).

After entering Orissa he first went to his birthplace at Dharenda Bahadurpur. The villagers were overjoyed to see him after so many years. He remained there for some days and preached Kèëòa consciousness, the result of which was that many people became attracted and took shelter at his lotus feet. From there he came to Dandeshwar, where his father, Ärî Kèëòa Mandal, had previously resided. The people there were similarly delighted to receive him and a festival of Hari katha was held there for a few days. Here also many people were attracted by his spiritual potency and became his disciples. Thus, by the auspicious arrival of Syamananda Prabhu in Utkala the teachings of Mahâprabhu revived.

On the banks of the Suvarnarekha River lived one pious and devoted landholder by the name Ärî Acyuta deva. His only son was called Rasik. From his very childhood Rasik was very devoted to Lord Kèëòa. As he gradually attained the appropriate, age his father engaged some Paòàitas to see to his education. However he didn't have much regard for material knowledge. He had already ascertained that the greatest goal in life is devotion to Lord Hari. Rasik became anxious to take shelter at the lotus feet of a bonafide spiritual master. One day as he was sitting alone, contemplating on this subject, when he heard a divine voice: "Rasik! Don't be in anxiety anymore. Very soon a very great personality of the name Syamananda will arrive here. Just take shelter of his lotus feet."

Hearing this, Rasika was encouraged and took to continuously waiting and watching for the arrival of Prabhu Syamananda. After a few days Shyamananda prabhu, accompanied by his disciples, came to the village of Rohini, situated very beautifully on the banks of the Suvarnarekha River. Rasik's happiness knew no bounds. After offering his prostrated obeisances, he very humbly led Syamananda prabhu into his house and worshiped his lotus feet along with his family members, wife and sons, who all surrendered completely to Shyamananda.

On an auspicious day Syamananda prabhu initiated Rasika into the Râdhâ-Kèëòa mantra and Ärî Rasik Deva began a festival of nama sankirtan in his home. He invited all of his friends as well as the tenants of his estates and everyone was so attracted by the teachings of Ärî Gaura Nityânanda, as expounded by Syamananda prabhu, that they immediately wanted to take shelter at his lotus feet. Thus many people of Rohini became disciples of Syamananda prabhu.

There lived a very well known yogi in Rohini by the name Damodara. One day he came to have darsana of Syamananda Prabhu. He became captivated. Even from a distance he saw a brilliant effulgence emanating from his body. Coming closer he offered salutations at the Âcârya's lotus feet. Syamananda in turn offered his greetings. With tears in his eyes, Shyamananda requested the yogi, "In your Purîfied state you should always chant the holy names of Ärî Gaura-Nityânanda. They are extremely merciful, and they will bestow upon you love of Kèëòa." Hearing these statements of the Âcârya, the yogi Damodara's mind became softened in love, and he replied, "I will worship the lotus feet of Gaura Nityânanda. Please be merciful to me." And so the Âcârya blessed him. Thus the yogi became a great devotee and continously sang the glories of Gaura-Nityânanda with tears in his eyes.

Many wealthy gentlemen lived in the village of Balarampur. When they heard of the glories of Syamananda, they became very eager to see him, and a few came to beseech him to visit their town. Syamananda very mercifully accepted their invitation and, with Rasikananda, Damodar and some of his other disciples, he very triumphantly entered Balarampur, where the noble and upright citizens very ecstatically received him by worshiping his lotus feet and making arrangements for his meal. A festival of Hari-katha was held over the next few days during which many people accepted shelter at his lotus feet.

From here Ärî Syamananda Prabhu went to Ärî Nrsimhapur, where many atheists lived. But when Syamananda stayed a few days, these atheists got the chance to hear his nectarian talks, which melted their hard hearts in love for Kèëòa. Thus, in this place also, he gained many disciples. Day by day the glories of Syamanada spread throughout Utkaladesa.

From Nrsimhapur he came to Gopiballabhpur. Here again, many well-to-do people were attracted to his lotus feet and so took shelter there. The people here especially requested him to install the Ärî Vigraha of Râdhâ-Kèëòa. Thus from their contributions, a temple for the deity complete with a hall for sankirtana, a kitchen, quarters for the devotees, a pond (bathing tank) and surrounding gardens were constructed. Thereafter Âcârya Ärî Syamananda performed the installation of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Govinda and a great festival was held at which it seemed the greater part of the population of Bengal, Orissa was present. Seeing the graceful, sweet loveliness of the transcendental forms of Ärî Râdhâ and Govinda, the peoples' hearts were fully satisfied. Syamananda Prabhu entrusted Ärî Rasikananda with the worship.

After traveling throughout the length and breath of Orissa and preaching the message of Ärî Gaura-Nityânanda, Syamananda returned to the lotus feet of Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu at Ambika Kalna. After offering his prostrated obeisances at the lotus feet of his guru, Syamananda narrated how the victory banner of Ärî Gaura Nitai was now flying throughout Utkaladesa. Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya very affectionately embraced him in gratitude.

Syamananda was invited to the festival at Kheturi, which he attended with his disciples. Once again he was united with his old friends Ärînivasa and Ärî Narottama. These three floated in an ocean of happiness as they exchanged affections and embraces. Ärî Jahnava Mata, Ärî Raghunanândana Ùhâkura, Ärî Acyutananda, Ärî Vrindavana dâsa Ùhâkura, as well as many other stalwart leaders of the preaching mission of Mahâprabhu of this time, were also present.

After the conclusion of the celebrations, Syamananda took leave from the Vaisnavas there and set out for Utkala desa. When he came to Kantaknagar, he again met with Ärînivâsa Âcârya Prabhu, and in Yajigram he saw Ärî Raghunândana Ùhâkura once more. He was informed that by this time many of the last remaining personal associates of Mahâprabhu had recently disappeared from this world.

Gradually, Syamananda Prabhu entered Utkaladesa. Along the way he stayed at the homes of different devotees and blessed them with his mercy. In this way he again came to Gopiballabhpur.

Here he received the news that his guru, Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya prabhu, had also departed from this world, and he fainted dead away. After recovering his consciousness, he wept for some time, terribly distraught. Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya appeared to him in a dream and comforted him.

The greatness of Syamananda became known throughout all of Orissa and the worship of Ärî Gaura-Nityânanda was inaugurated in many, many places. Ärî Rasika Murari, Ärî Râdhânanda, Ärî Purusottama, Ärî Manohara, Cintamani, Balabhadra, Ärî Jagadisvara, Ärî Uddhava, Akrura Madhurana, Ärî Govinda, Ärî Jagannâtha, Gadadhar, Anândanandana and Ärî Râdhâ Mohan were among the intimate and dear disciples of Ärî Syamananda prabhu.

After conquering in all directions Syamananda returned to Gopiballabhpur where he observed a great festival for some days. Then he came to Uddanda Raya Bhui's house, at Nrsimhapur where he held a great festival.

On the first day of the dark fortnight in the month of Asar Ärî Syamananda Prabhu left this world. Syamananda Prabhu's puspa samadhi and the place where he found Ärîmati Râdhârani's ankle bracelet is just across the street from Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Syamsundara's temple in Vèndâvana. Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Syamsundara are his worshipable Deities. Today, he is still worshiped regularly at his samadhi.


"Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura, the eleventh among the twelve cowherd boys, was an exalted devotee of Lord Nityânanda Prabhu. He worshiped the lotus feet of Lord Nityânanda in all respects." In Braja lila he was Subahu sakha. (G.g.d.)

After remaining at Khardaha for some days, Nityânanda Prabhu and His associates came to Saptagram. Saptagram was the abode of the seven rsi's and is known in this world also as Triveni-ghata. Previously, the seven rsis did austerities at this ghata by which they obtained the lotus feet of Govinda. Three goddesses are present at this Triveni sangam, namely the Jahnavi (Gaôgâ), Yamuna and Sarasvati. This most renowned place can destroy the sinful reactions of those who simply see it. Nityânanda Prabhu along with His associates took bath in great happiness at this very place. The temple of the most fortunate Ärî Uddharana was located on the banks of that very Triveni-ghata.

"With his body, mind and words, free from falsehood, he always worshiped the lotus feet of Lord Nityânanda. He was extremely fortunate as he received the right to serve the eternal form of Nityânanda. Birth after birth, Lord Nityânanda is the Supreme controller, and birth after birth, Uddharana is His servant. All of the various families of vaniks (merchants by caste) were Purîfied by the influence of Uddharan Datta, there is no doubt about it. Nityânanda Prabhu descended in this world to deliver the vaniks. He gave them the right to perform loving devotional service. Nitai Cand personally wandered from door to door throughout Saptagram, chanting the Holy Names as His pastimes. In reciprocation, all the families worshiped His lotus feet and took shelter there. All the world becomes charmed to see Their worship of Lord Kèëòa. Who can estimate the glories of Lord Nityânanda who delivered these vaniks, who were originally low class, mean minded and foolish. In one hundred years I cannot describe the sankirtana pastimes of Nityânanda Ray which He performed with His associates in Saptagram. The bliss that was previously felt in Nadia during the Lord's pastimes of sankirtan there was again felt, in equal measure, during Prabhu Nityânanda's sankirtan pastimes here." (C.B. Antya 5.443-461)

"Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura's father's name was Ärîkar Datta and his mother's name, Ärî Bhadravati. Ärî Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura was the finance minister of the king of Naihati village. The ruins of the king's palace can still be seen there today. The place where Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura lived and from which he managed the business of the king is even today known as Uddharanpur." (C.C. Adi 11.81)

A six-armed Deity of Mahâprabhu (sad-bhuja murti), which was the worshippable Deity of Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura, is still present at Saptagram. To the right of Mahâprabhu is Nityânanda Prabhu and to His left Ärî Gadâdhara. On another simhasana is Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Govinda, and below, a painting and Deity of Ärî Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura. Ärî Jahnava Mata came to Uddharana Datta's house (B.R. 11.775), but he was not present on this earth then. His son's name was Ärînivasa Datta Ùhâkura.

Saptagram is the first station after Bandel on the Bandel-Bard-dhaman line. Within the ruins of the king's palace at Bonauaribat there is a grand temple where the Deities of Ärî Ärî Nitai-Gaurâôga and Lord Balarama are still being worshiped. Bonauaribad can be reached from Katwa by bus.

Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura's disappearance is on the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of the month of Pausa.


She was the wife of Suryadâsa Misra, a resident of Navadvipa. She had two sons, Sanatana and Kalidâsa. According to Prema-vilasa 19, Kalidâsa, named originally Parasara, became so named as he was a devotee of goddess Kali. Sanatana Misra's daughter was Viëòupriya Devi.


A resident of Navadvipa, he belonged to the sakha of Lord Caitanya. He had beautiful handwriting, hence he was popularly known as "Akhariya" (copyist). He copied several books for Lord Gaurâôga. The Lord referred to him as "Ratnavahu". In his past incarnation was Kundanidhi (GGD. 103). He was overwhelmed with ecstacy on the day in which Lord Gaurâôga revealed his spiritual opulence (CC. 1.10.65-66, BRK. 12.3770-71).


He was a monk descending seventh in the line from Madhva, belonging to Pejavara Matha. He wrote a commentary on Bhâgavata-Tatparya of Madhvacarya (Padaratnavali), Yamakabharatatika, Dasavatara-Harigathastotra, Ärî Kèëòastaka, etc. Jiva Gosvâmî mentions Vijayadhvaja and Vyasatirtha as "Veda Vedarthavit-srestha (supreme authority on the Vedas) in his Tattvasandarbha and Sarvasamvadini.


He was born to Ärîmati Svarnamayi devi in the house of Ananda Candra Gosvâmî of Sikarpura village in the district of Nadia on 19th Sravana (July-August), 1841 A.D., Jhulana Purnima. Ärî Ananda Candra Gosvâmî, the father of VijayaKèëòa, was the seventh generation descendent of Ärî Advaita Prabhu. VijayaKèëòa's father was a great scholar of Ärîmad Bhâgavatam and noted religionist. It is said that he personally cooked all the bhoga for Ärî Syamasundara. He would first prepare by washing all the wood for cooking in the Ganges. He was known to always carry the Salagrama sila around his neck. Svarnamayi devi was also exceedingly devotional and extremely kind-hearted.

In his childhood VijayaKèëòa was very restless and naughty. Although involved in numerous accidents, he always survived miraculously. He excelled in education, talent and memory. VijayaKèëòa was admitted to the Santipura Sanskrit Grammar School and within a very short period he mastered Mugdhavodha grammar. As per the old family tradition, he was converted by his mother. His kind behavior and proper respect to all women was visible throughout his life.

While studying at the Sanskrit college he married. Shortly thereafter he became an Advaitavadi after reading the commentary of Sankaracarya. Once he went to his disciple's house in the village of Amalagachi in the district of Rangapura where he listened as his disciple expressed his deep dedication to him. From that day he gave of his post of spiritual master, considering his great attachment. Later he heard an oracle which said, "Think of the world beyond death." He inquired about the speaker but could not find him. Vijay became afraid and was suddenly attacked with fever and from that very moment the foundation of the doctrine of Vedanta shattered.

In 1860 A.D. he discarded his sacred thread after being converted into the Brahmo religion by Maharsi Devandranatha Ùhâkura. As a preacher he taught Brahmoism in various places such as Baghanchar, Santragachi, Santipura, etc. in the year 1863 A.D. He was elected the chancellor of Adi Brahmo Samaj. He went to Santipura and at the request of Ärî Harimohana Pramanik, a devotee, he started reading Ärî Caitanya Caritamrta and gained mental peace. He went to meet Ärî Caitanya dâsa Babaji and Ärî Bhagavan dâsa Babaji and relished their cordial gestures and sweet conversation. After hearing a devotional song from his elder brother Ärî Vrajagopala Prabhu, VijayaKèëòa tried to introduce devotional songs in the Brahmo Samaj.

In 1865, while living in Dacca, Vijay started publicity and medical practice in places like Barishal, Tripura, Noakhali and Syllet. Though he earned fame in the medical practice, he decided to leave the practice, considering it to be a waste of time, and began concentrating more on preaching activities. His preaching attracted many people. They were also charmed by his ideal way of life. Ärî Kesava Sen and others gave him great encouragement.

While he stayed with the Indian Brahmo Samaj he started medical practice, teaching, writing essays for journals all through the day and night. Due to this hard labor he was attacked with heart ailment. After being inspired by a dream, he went to a saint in Jagannâtha Ghat and recovered slightly by his medicine. While staying in Kasi, Ärîman Trailanga Swami took him in a secluded place near the Varuna river and initiated him. In search of a spiritual teacher, Vijay travelled to many place and in the year 1883 A.D. in the month of Asadha he received initiation and the method of worshiping from Brahmananda Paramahamsaji of Manasa Sarovara in Akasaganga hill in Gaya. When he was engaged in deep meditation and worship, his guru appeared and advised him to take sannyasa from Hariharananda Sarasvati in Kasi. But after, at the order of his religious teacher, he again began living with his wife. When he was in Dacca, he became frustrated and left his meditation but again, by the order of his guru, he went to Jvalamukhi and acquired mental peace and again he was engaged in meditation. In 1888 A.D. in the month of Vadra (Aug-Sept), he established the asrama in Gendaria on the auspicious day of Janmasthami and started living with his family. He stayed with the saints in Kasi and other places and then in 1927 A.D. he went to Vèndâvana as per the order of Paramahamsaji and lived one year in the temple of Deuji which belonged to Gopinatha Bagha. During this time he had frequent exchanges with Gaurasiromani during which time he witnessed many strange incidents. Vijay, along with many other saints, went in their astral bodies to see Muktinatha. In 1927 A.D., on 10th Phalguna after the death of Yogamaya devi, he went to the Kumbha Mela in Hardwar where he stayed with many saints. In 1306 B.S on 22nd Jaistha he breathed his last after eating sweets poisoned by the priests of a certain Matha in Purî.

He wrote Vaktrta and Upadesa and Asavatira Upakhyana.


He was the maternal uncle of Advaita Âcârya, not by blood-relations, but through their residence in the same village. He lived in Navagrama earlier. Advaita called him "Durvasa", while Nabha Devi, Advaita's mother, called Vijaya "brother." He took spiritual initiation from Laksmipati, the guru of Mâdhavendra Purî. Vijaya used to travel with Mâdhavendra Purî (Prema-vilasa 24.228)

Haricarana dâsa, the author of Advaitamangala heard the biography of Advaita Âcârya orally from Vijay Purî at Navagrama in Ärîhatta and then he wrote this book.

Another book (Advaita Prakasa 4.14) records Vijaya's meeting with Advaita Âcârya at Kasi.

Chapter three of Advaitavilasa states that on his arrival at the house of Advaita, Vijaya listened to the interpretation of Ärîmad Bhâgavatam presented by Advaita and on request from the devotees Vijaya narrated the childhood and adolescent sports of Advaita Prabhu.


He was a resident of Beleti village of Chittagong. He was the court-scholar of the local King Citrasena. His son was Madhava Misra, who was the father of Gadâdhara Paòàita Gosvâmî. (Prema-vilasa 24)


He belonged to a brahmana-caste family residing on the western bank of the river Kèëòavenva in South India. Due to past sinful acts he became deeply attached to the company of a prostitute named Cintamani who resided on the eastern bank of the said river. This attachment was so intense that one monsoon night even ignoring the observance of his father's funeral rites, Vilvamangala went through extreme difficulty to reach the place of Cintamani. He had to cross the turbulent river by holding on to a corpse and later finding the doors of her house closed, he climbed the wall holding on to a snake. Once entering the premises he lost consciousness.

Cintamani nursed him back to his senses and then spoke with detachment as follows: Listen to me, o son of a brahmana. If you had directed the passion you felt for me to attaining the Supreme Lord, you would have certainly obtained the divine grace of the Supreme Lord."

Vilvamangala spent the night there and the following morning went to the asrama of a guru residing in nearby Somagiri. Serving his guru with unfaltering devotion, Vilvamangala at last went to Vèndâvana. On the way he chanted spontaneously some slokas as prompted by Lord Kèëòa. These slokas were compiled by his companions and presented in the book titled Ärî Kèëòakarnamrta. The name Lilasuka was given to Vilvamangala by his guru.

During the Gambhira-lila Lord Caitanya enjoyed listening to this book day and night. (CC. 2.9.307-308)


Vipina Bihari was born in the month of Pausa in the Bengali year 1276 (1869 A.D.) in a Radhi clan Kulina family of Kayastha lineage at the village of Makadadaha on the bank of a river, previously known as Sarasvati, in the district of Howrah. The place was well known on account of its temple of the goddess Makadacaudi. It is said that the deity of Makadacaudi was originally very tall but gradually became smaller due to the deity going underground over a period of time. The inhabitants of the village mainly consist of a group of prosperous and respectable brahmanas.

Vipina bihari was the second son of Syamacarana Cattopadhya, (his mother's name was Tarangini devi, while Kedara babu was Vipin's elder brother), a devout Vaisnava of virtuous practices, and lived in a house in close proximity of the famous temple. Syamacarana, a highly-ranked employee in charge of a group of post offices, had his posting at Ärîhatta. He used to hold Harinama-sankirtana at his residence everyday. It is said that in course of his kirtana Syamacarana and his associate, Devendra Cakravarti, used to become so charged with devotional ecstacy that they would drop on the floor and remain unconscious for hours after concluding their nama-recital. Some non-believers among the audience who lived in the neighborhood, did not accept the said state of unconsciousness of Syamacarana and Devendra. Thus one day they held pieces of burning charcoal against their unconscious bodies. However, they were shocked to see that there was no visible reaction from the bodies lying on the floor, neither where there an marks of injury on them. Upon realizing their mistake, the non-believers had a change of heart and became devotees of Syamacarana.

Vipina babu had to face many obstacles in the progress of study during his boyhood due to financial difficulties. Nevertheless, through sheer perseverance and dedication he passed his B.A. examination with honors and went on to complete his law degree with success. In due course he started to practice as a lawyer at the Hugli Court (at that time Howrah and Hugli were under one district).

He had a religious trend of mind from a very early age. He is stated to have asked his kula-guru (family priest) when the latter had been reciting Vedic incantations during his Upanayana ritual, to reveal to him the prescribed mantra. The Kula-guru said that he was not empowered to do so and advised Vipina to keep company of saints and ascetics.

During his boyhood Vipina was fond of enacting rasa-lila in the company of boys and girls of his own age. Sometimes he would sit in the posture of meditation with his eyes closed and then become fully absorbed. Vipina himself was a very simple and truthful person and acted according to the advice of others without hesitation, which endangered his life on many occasions. In course of his search for the association of saints as advised by his kula-guru, Vipina became the target of many wicked persons in the guise of sadhus. On one occasion he was convinced by a so-called sadhu to smoke ganja, though with repugnance, and was robbed of his possessions.

On another occasion a sadhu came to Vipina's place at Makadadaha and told him that he would be able to have the darsana of Devi provided Vipina would worship kavna-pisaci (evil spirits) for twenty one days without taking any food except the juice of a green coconut at night only after completion of his daily worship. Natural believer that he was, Vipina at once agreed to abide by the sadhu's advice and after receiving the mantra dedicated himself to the prescribed method of worship. He rapidly lost weight and became weak, yet without paying any heed to the advice of his relatives and friends, he continued with the worship. On the night of the twentieth day of worship, Vipina experienced a vision Sarasvati and was startled. So, he requested his boyhood friend Madhusudana Bhattacarya to sleep near the adjoining veranda on the following night and warned him to come to his rescue if he heard a loud scream. After going through the routine worship around midnight of the last day when Vipina was offering leaves of vela to invoke the goddess, he suddenly realized that the vela leaves instead of falling on the ground were becoming disappearing instantaneously. Out of fear he lost his concentration and began chanting the prescribed mantra incorrectly. He felt as if his body were being forcibly pulled by the evil spirit of Kavna and screamed out in fright. As pre-arranged, his friend Bhattacarya quickly came into the room and slowly nursed Vipina back to a normal state of mind.

But there was no respite for Vipina babu, because soon after this incident, as if under the influence of an evil spirit, he became seriously ill with very high fever resulting in a state of delirium, malfunctions of his liver and kidney and constant bleeding from his gums. He remained bed-ridden for a long time and the doctors gave up all hopes of his survival. A deed of will in respect of his properties was drawn up. Vipina had become so weak that he could neither talk nor express his feelings. He helplessly watched his mother shedding tears of grief sitting by his bedside. Although he was not so bothered about the impending danger to his life, but he became apprehensive that people around him may attribute the cause of his dangerous state of health to the dishonest and mischievous actions of sadhus with whom he got mixed up, and turn antagonistic against all sadhus in general.

Thinking in this way Vipina felt despondent and exclaimed "Oh Hari, Oh Hari." The very remembrance of the name of the Lord caused a spontaneous turbulence within, which permeated through his body and mind. Before he was able to get control of himself, he heard the musical recital of some kirtana from very close quarters saying, "Premadata, Nitai says Gaura-Hari Haribol. Nitai has brought the nama Gaura-Hari Haribol." Hearing this his whole physical structure became energized. Vipina babu, who had remained speechless for over a month, who could not even turn on his side without the help of others, suddenly sat upright on his bed, as if released from the influence of the evil spell of Kavna-pisaci and requested his mother Tarangini devi to invite the kirtaniyas inside his room. In great joy his mother rushed downstairs covering two and three steps at a time and begged the devotees to go up to her son's bedroom.

Vipina fell prostrate before them and collecting the holy dust of their feet rubbed it on his body. He then washed their feet with water and drank the `carana-jala.' At Vipina's earnest request the Vaisnavas spent a few days with him and Vipina served them with great devotion. During the course of conversations with them Vipina found out one of the Vaisnavas in the group was his maternal cousin, Bhupala Harivola, and that they were all disciples of Ärî Harivola Ùhâkura, under whose instructions they had come to Vipina's house at Makadadaha. Ärî Ùhâkura lived at Kasi and did not wish to visit Bengal.

Soon thereafter, Vipina left for Kasi, but told his relatives and friends that he was going to Vaidyanatha to recoup his health. Vipina's father-in-law was a distinguished and prosperous Zamindar of Gourdalpada in Caudanagar, and had a house at Kasi. Upon arriving at Kasi, Vipina stayed with his in-laws. He then located Ärî Harivola Ùhâkura and had his darsana. Thereafter he regularly visited Ùhâkura's place.

Although Vipina loved to hear discourses on Hari-katha from Ùhâkura, he could not grasp the intrinsic religious value of Ùhâkura's words even after visiting him for fifteen days. When he humbly presented his problem before Ùhâkura the latter said, "Oh yes, oh yes." From that day forward, Vipina not only understood what he heard, but also stored everything like a treasure in his memory. Ùhâkura then initiated him with the eighteen lettered holy mantra, gave Vipina the name Nityânanda and bestowed divine power in him.

After some time, Ùhâkura Harivola decided to test the advancement of his disciple Nityânanda (Vipina). On the pretext of his own financial problem, Ùhâkura asked Vipina if he would sit in front of the Annapurna temple with a piece of cloth spread before him like a mendicant and at the end of the day, make over all his collection to Ùhâkura. Without any hesitation Vipina positioned himself as directed by his guru. Some members of his in-laws family noticed Vipina on their way to Annapurna-Visvesvara temple. They tried every possible means to persuade him to stop begging, but Vipina's determination to execute the order of his guru was fixed and he would not yield to their pressure. In the evening, when Vipina handed over his days collection of alms consisting of some cloth, holy thread, some small coins and rice to his guru, Ùhâkura held the collections on his head and danced in joy.

Vipina continued to serve his guru with devotion, efficiency and punctuality and in appreciation of his commendable performance Ùhâkura made him the chief of all disciples. After three months Ùhâkura advised Vipina to return to his family and home. Vipina was not keen to return to his life of a practicing lawyer, which involved dealing with lies and fraudulence. However, when his guru told him that he would become a munsiff within seven days, he returned to his work. Sure enough, within seven days of his return Vipina joined his new post as a munsiff (moonshee, translator and language teacher).

He used to attend Harinama sankirtana twice everyday with the members and servants of his family regardless of his place of posting. His neighbors like him very much and craved his company. Vipina babu had an exceptionally sweet and melodious voice and his kirtana recitals were unique. Those who were fortunate enough to hear his recitals cherished them throughout their lifetime. In the course of his recitals he became so surcharged with devotion that he would begin to dance in a manner of skipping, frisking and leaping with occasional loud sounds. Sometimes, while dancing in a devotional trance, he would slap someone lovingly or mount on some other person's shoulders.

While he was posted as a Munsiff at Rouyana in the district of Cattagrama, some of his devotees approached him just before the Ratha yatra festival and requested him to lead the procession with his kirtana recital. Vipina babu agreed on the condition that people from all communities must participate and join him in a chorus. His opening recital "Vole-Haribol-Gaura Haribol" followed by his kirtana recital was stated to be so outstanding and intoxicating that many devotees had the vision of Lord Jagannâtha in person on the chariot and many others were overwhelmed with deep devotional absorbtion.

Vipina babu had the habit of chanting aloud "Haribol" regularly at daybreak and hearing his voice his devotes from far and near would arrive at his place to join his kirtana session from 4:00 AM to 7:00 AM. Then Vipina would perform his daily prescribed prayer, sit down and write his professional judgement, take a bath and after doing routine tilaka seva, perform his worship of the Deity. Finally after taking prasadam he would leave for the court.

Before commencing his court proceedings he would bow his head in obeisances and after completing his days work he would chant "Haribol." When he returned home his devotees would already be there waiting for him. After taking a bath Vipina would join them for the evening session of kirtana and also recitals from Ärîmad Bhâgavatam. Thereafter he would take prasadam with his devotees before retiring to bed. Even on the day of (Ärî Harivasara) fasting, Vipina would follow the same routine, except that he would not take any meal.

The preaching and practice of Vipina was filled with devotion and dedication at the lotus feet of his guru, by whose grace he was able to realize the Supreme Lord as depicted in the Ärîmad Bhâgavatam. Due to their deep attachment for each other, guru (Ùhâkura) and his disciple (Nityânanda) though physically apart, enjoyed the company of each others association on the spiritual platform.

It is said that once in the course of his recital of the verses on `Kazi-daman' from Ärî Caitanya Bhâgavata, Vipina became so engrossed in prema-bhava that a shining reflection of a picture, depicting Lord Gaurâôga on his way to subjugate the Kazi, appeared on the wall in full view of the devout audience, then disappeared shortly thereafter. It has also been said that Vipina Babu received darsana of Ärî Haridâsa Ùhâkura at Comilla and that of Prabhu Nityânanda at another place.

While Vipina would not hesitate to reprimand his sons or disciples for any lapses on their part, he remained silent when his daughters or the women folk acted in a similar manner. He inculcated a spirit of devotion and love amongst all the members of his family.

He never allowed his daily kirtana session to be interrupted even when he was seriously ill. Any devotee, irrespective of his caste, creed or religion was welcome to live under his shelter and dedicate himself to his own way of mediation, while Vipina would bear the expenses for the maintenance of the said devotee's family.

While posted at Nadaila, many teenage boys, inhabitants of Mahisakhola colony, used to assemble at his place to participate in kirtana. Amongst these boys Kirana Caudra Mitra and Girindranatha Ghosh were the leaders. Vipina's charming kirtanas transformed Girindra and he became a permanent servant of Nityânanda. Girindra gave up his studies and went along with his master from Nadaila to Bankura. Girindra served Nityânanda for more than twenty years, during which time he was fortunate enough to witness bhava-lila of Nityânanda. Their relationship was more of a father and son, full of love and affection, rather than that of a master and servant. Nityânanda did not hesitate to chastise Girindra whenever he noticed any lapse on his part. Sometimes he would go out of his way to help Girindra during difficult periods and even cured him from a dangerous illness through his divine power.

While Nityânanda was posted at Kumilla (Viëòupura), Raja Bahadura Manindra Candra Nandi organized a Vaisnava conference. A few days prior to the occasion, Nityânanda, for no apparent reason, began to put on the pattern of tilaka according to Ärî Gadâdhara's clan instead of his prescribed pattern of Prabhu Nityânanda's clan. Soon thereafter, the famous Gauda-bhakta Ärîpada Harimohana Siromani Gosvâmî of Ärîpata Adial (Vikvampura) in Dacca appeared at Nityânanda's place without any prior intimation. The meeting of the two great Vaisnavas brought about an atmosphere of transcendental bliss. Nityânanda was so impressed with Siromani's firm faith and love in Lord Gaurâôga that he himself became a member of the family of Ärî Gadâdhara after receiving initiation in Gaura-mantra from Ärîpada Siromani Prabhu. When Ärîpada Siromani visited Makadadaha again on Nityânanda's request, Nityânanda arranged that all his family members, servants and associates were initiated in Gaura-mantra by Ärîpada Siromani Prabhu.

Due to taking some medicine from a `Bhairavi', Nityânanda again became seriously ill with bronchitis. He took leave from work and first went to Kasidhama and from there went to Calcutta, under the advice of his nephew and other associates. There he stayed with his boyhood friend Vipina Datta at Hogala Kuvide Lane (now known as Sahitya Parisada Street). After recovering from his illness under the care of Dr. Bidhana Candra Raya he returned to his work.

His beloved disciple Girindra used to sleep near the feet of his guru. One night he had a bad dream suggesting that Nityânanda would leave the world after two days. Upon awaking Girindra began to sob at the feet of Nityânanda, whose consolation did not change his gloomy state of mind. Two days after Girindra's dream, Atula Campati Mahasaya, a very close friend of Nityânanda, came to the latter's residence at Makadadaha at about three in the afternoon. When the two friends started their conversation, with Nityânanda holding the smoking pipe, Campati Mahasaya said, "Look Vipina, you need not worry about your death. When Nityânanda asked the reason for such a remark, Campati replied, "After all you have your wife and son, at least they will give you some drops of water at your last moment, whereas I have no one to do so at the end of my life." As soon as Nityânanda heard Campati's reply he threw away the smoking pipe from his hand and said, "What do you say Campati? Nityânanda Dasa' would just chant "Hari" and drop dead." At that moment he expired. Later, Campati was heard to say that Vipina had taught him a good lesson as to how one should die. Vipina died on the eight lunar day of the dark fortnight of the month of Magha in 1923 A.D. (1330)


He was a resident of Baghnapada in the district of Burdwan. He was a follower of the famous Rami Gosvâmî. He translated the following titles: Dasamularasa, Haribhaktitarangini, Harinamamrtasindhu, Viëòushasranama. He was alive toward the early part of the 19th saka century.


He was the disciple of Narottama Ùhâkura. His Ärîpata was at Pachpada near Gopalapura. His wife was Bhagavati and his two sons were Jadunatha and Ramanatha (BRK. 10.193)

It was from the granary of this Vipradâsa that Narottama Ùhâkura found a Deity of Lord Gaurâôga (Prema-vilasa 20).


He was the King of Kachad (Assam) who got a conch made carrying the Deities of ten avataras in Saka 1553 (1631 A.D.).


He was the King of VanaViëòupura in the district of Bankura and a disciple of Ärînivâsa Âcârya. His wife was Sulaksana and his son was Dhira Hamvira (or Dhadi Hamvira). Vira Hamvira was a tyrant but was later converted to Vaisnavism. Jiva Gosvâmî named him Caitanyadâsa (BRK. 7.61, 9.5, 9.265-266, 273, 9-270). When he installed the Deity of Kalacand, the installation ceremony was conducted by Ärînivâsa Âcârya.

Two padas composed by him are found in Padavali literature (Karnananda p. 19)


He translated in brief the essence of the entire Ärîmad Bhâgavatam which was published in two volumes in 1858-1861 A.D. (1265-1268).


He was the step-brother of Raghunândana Gosvâmî, a descendant of the family of Lord Nityânanda, and a resident of Madograma. He wrote commentaries on Ärî Gopalacampu and Padyavali (1878 A.D.)


He was the son of Lord Nityânanda and was also known as "Viracandra" and "Jagatdurlabha." He was born of Vasudha. In his past incarnation he was Payodhisayi, Nisatha, Ulmuka (GGD. 67). He was a disciple of Jahnava Mata.

According to BRK. 9.420, Viracandra, at the desire of Jahnava, married both the daughters of Yadunândana Âcârya, a resident of Jhamatpura near Rajabalahat. His wives were named Ärîmati and Narayani. Jahnava gave diksa to these two women, while Viracandra gave diksa to his father-in-law, Yadunândana.

Viracandra had three sons namely Gopijanavallabha, RamaKèëòa and Ramacandra. All three were ardent devotees.

Viracandra once left Khardaha on a pilgrimage to Vèndâvana passing through Saptagrama, Santipura, Amvika, Navadvipa, Ärîkhanda, Yajigrama, Kantakanagara and Kheturi. Right through he was warmly received by devotees and he performed and danced ecstatically in love of God.

In Vèndâvana his presence was a great pleasure for the devotees there such as Bhugarbha, Jiva Gosvâmî, etc. who showed him great respect. Viracandra and his devotees visited Dvadâsa Vana and met Kaviraja Gosvâmî at Râdhâkunda. Kaviraja Gosvâmî accompanied Viracandra from Râdhâ Kunda to Vèndâvana.

On the occasion of the installation ceremony of Râdhâvinoda in the house of Govinda Cakravarti, a disciple of Ärînivâsa Âcârya and a resident of Borakuli village, Viracandra charmed the audience by his ecstatic dancing in harmony with the kirtana sung by Narottama Ùhâkura.

Viracandra zealously took up the task of preaching and maintaining the sanctity of the faith. There was a person named Jayagopala belonging to the Kayastha caste who lived in the village of Kandra in the land of Râdhâ. He was extremely proud of his erudition. Since Jayagopala's guru was not very learned the former never spoke about and his guru and when specifically asked to mention who his guru was Jayagopala referred to his parama-guru.

Once, out of vanity, Jayagopala showed disrespect to the prasadam. Thereafter Viracandra cut off all relations with Jayagopala and informed the rest of the Vaisnava community of it. Thus the entire community also threw Jayagopala out.

In CC. 1.11.8 it is stated that Virabhadra was the trunk and from him sprang numerous branches.

Viracandra's third and youngest son Ramacandra lived at Khardaha and his family-descendants settled in the following places: Vèndâvana, Navadvipa, Khardaha, Calcutta, Dhaka, Butni, Uddharanapura, Saptagrama, etc. Viracandra's second son RamaKèëòa settled at Maldaha and his family descendants lived at Vèndâvana, Gayespura, Sodpur, Kanaidanga, Gorabajar, Mado, etc. Viracandra's eldest son Gopijanavallabha lived at Lata. His family descendants spread and settled in the following places: Latadaha, Nupuravallabhapura, Purunia in Bankura district, Kodala, Moktarpur, Agartala, Jessore, etc. The genealogical line descends as follows:

Ramacandra | __________________________|___________________________ | | | | | |

| | Ramadeva Kèëòadeva Râdhâmadhava Viëòudeva |

_________________________|______________________ | | | | | Gopikanta Raghava

Ragendra Yadava Balarama | Harigovinda (migrated from Khardaha to Butni village

in Dhaka) | ______________|________________ | | | Sarvesvara Vangesvara

Nandesvara | _______________|______________ | | | Laksmikanta GopiKèëòa

RatnaKèëòa | _________| | | Kèëòakisora | |_______________________ | |

Candramohana Atlokamohana | ____________|______________ | | | | Kèëòagopala


In CCU P. 690-692 B.B. Majumdar writes as follows: VV. of Jiva 51-54, Devakinândana 12-13, Vèndâvanadâsa 15-17. There is no mention of Viracandra's name in CBh., CC. 1.11.5-9 refers to Virabhadra.

When mentioning the names of Advaita Âcârya's sons, Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja in each case introduced them as "Advaitanândana" but while writing about Virabhadra, Kaviraja Gosvâmî never mentioned him as the son of Nityânanda. This led some to argue that Virabhadra was not the son, but disciple of Nityânanda.

Jayananda P. 151 and BRK. P. 589 refer to Virabhadra as the son of Nityânanda. Virabhadra must have been born during the lifetime of Lord Caitanya, otherwise his name wouldn't have been found in GGD and VV. Perhaps he was a child when Vèndâvana dâsa wrote CBh. and hence his name was not mentioned.

It is said that Viracandra converted 1,200 Nedanedi into Vaisnavism. They were possibly Sahajiya Buddhists.

The following is taken from GPC:

Ärîmad Viracandra or Ärî Virabhadra was born in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov), on the 9th day of the black fortnight. He was the manifestation of Ärî Sankarsana. He was the inseparable vigraha-svaRûpa of Ärî Caitanya. In Bhakti-ratnakara, Ärî Narahari Cakravarti has written that Viracandra Prabhu was the son of Ärî Nityânanda and Ärîmati Vasudha. He was the disciple of Jahnava Mata. Ärî Yadunândana Âcârya was the disciple of Ärî Viracandra and his two daughters Ärî Sat and Ärî Narayani were initiated by Ärî Jahnava Mata. The daughter of Ärî Vasudha and sister of Ärî Viracandra Ärî Gaôgâ devi was the manifestation of the Ganges. She was married to Ärî Madhava Âcârya and he was the manifestation of King Santanu. VV. mentions the name of Ärî Madhava Âcârya.

After receiving his mother's permission, Ärî Viracandra Prabhu proceeded to Ärî Vèndâvana. He first reached the house of Ärî Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura in Saptagrama. Ärînivasa Ùhâkura, the son of Ärî Uddharana Ùhâkura, entertained him with much honor for two days. From there Viracandra Prabhu came to Ärî Advaita Bhavan in Santipura and was received and treated with much care by Ärî Kèëòa Misra, the son of Advaita Âcârya. From Santipura he reached Amvika-Kalna and stayed at Ärî Gaurîdâsa Paòàita's house. Ärî Hrday Caitanya Prabhu entertained him nicely. When he reached Jagannâtha Misra's house in Navadvipa a hearty reception was given to him by the relatives of Mahâprabhu. He then went to Ärîkhanda where Ärî Raghunândana and Kanai Ùhâkura showed him great respect and embraced him. After spending a few days, Ärî Viracandra Prabhu reached the house of Ärînivâsa Âcârya in Yajigrama. Âcârya Prabhu worshiped him with deep respect. There he participated in a grand sankirtana festival and afterwards went to Kantakanagara. He stayed for one day and then went on to Ärî Govindaraja's house in Budhari. Ärî Govinda Kaviraja worshiped him along with his many associates. Ärî Viracandra was very pleased with their devotion and stayed there for two days. After that he went to Kheturi. There he spent time with Ärî Narottama Ùhâkura, performing sankirtana with great delight and then left for Ärî Vèndâvana.

On his way to Vèndâvana, many degraded and fallen persons came under his influence and were completely rectified. When he reached Vèndâvana all the Gosvâmîs of Vèndâvana came forward to welcome him. They were Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî, Ärî Kèëòa dâsa Kaviraja, Ärî Ananta Âcârya, Ärî Haridâsa Paòàita-Ärî Madana gopala deva's priest, Ärî Gopinatha Adhikari, Ärî Madhu Paòàita and his brother Ärî Bhavananda the priest of Ärî Gopinatha, Ärî Kasisvara and his disciple Ärî Govinda Gosvâmî and Ärî Yadavacarya and others (BRK).

Then Ärî Viracandra Prabhu was permitted by Ärî Bhugarbha Gosvâmî and Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî to visit the forests of Vèndâvana. He visited the twelve forests in Mathura, Ärî Râdhâkunda and Syamakunda and Govardhana hill, etc. Many people who saw him were charmed by his display of devotional ecstacy. After spending some time in Vèndâvana, he returned to Gauda and his fame spread far and wide. Like Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu, he was enriched with divine wealth.

Ärîla Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada has written in CC. Anubhasya that Gopijanavallabha, RamaKèëòa and Ramacandra were his three sons, and also his disciples. Ramacandra, the youngest one lived in Khardaha. The eldest, Ärî Gopijanavallabha lived in Latagrama near Manakara, and the second son RamaKèëòa lived in Ganesapura near Maladaha.

Virabhadra efficiently organized the Vaisnava community in Gaura Vanga. He showed great respect to Ärînivâsa Âcârya and Narottama Ùhâkura. The authority which Virabhadra exercised over the Vaisnava community can be understood from a letter extracted in BRK.

Jayagopala dâsa, a Kayastha and a resident of Kanda slighted his guru, being puffed up with the arrogance of erudition hence Viracandra socially excommunicated him and forbid all the devotees to associate with him.

Jayagopala dâsa was not a person of insignificant stature. He received the grace of Sundarananda Ùhâkura, a companion of Nityânanda. Jayagopala wrote Sanskrit books such as: Hari-bhakti-ratnakra, Bhakti-bhava-pradipa, Kèëòa-vilasa, Manovuddhi-sandarbha, Dharma-sandarbha, Anumana-samanvaya and in Bengali Gopalavilasa. It is clear from the story of Jayagopala that thereafter a hostile group turned against Viracandra. The associates of Nityânanda were accustomed to wear the dress of a cowherd and a Cuda on the head. Viracandra forbade them to wear a Cuda. When one refused to abide by his order, Viracandra excommunicated him also. People following this dissenting group are known to belong to the Cudadhari sampradaya.


He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityânanda (CC. 1.11.50). In his past incarnation he was born as Kalavinka in Vraja.


He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Caitanya and stayed with the Lord at Purî (CC. 1.10.149-151). He came from the Kayastha caste of a South Râdhâ clan. His father was named Sadasiva. Viëòudâsa was also referred to as Kavindra Viëòudâsa. It is said that at the command of Lord Caitanya, Viëòudâsa settled at Sanora village in the district of Dhaka. He is in no way related to the Kapindra-sampradaya. It is stated in the periodical Birabhumi 8.3.40 that a number of people from the Gado tribe were converted into Vaisnavism by Gosvâmîs of the Kavindra family. BRK. P. 1045 refers to one Kavindra as a notorious sinner.


A resident of Orissa and devotee of Lord Caitanya. Sarvabhauma introduced him to MahaPrabhu when the Lord arrived at Purî after His pilgrimage in the South (CC. 2.10.45).


He was a brahmana from Navadvipa who taught Lord Gaurâôga. (VV. of Jiva 102, Devaki. 34, Vrnd. 34, Murari 1.9.1, CC Mahakavya 3.2)


He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityânanda. He was a brahmana from Navadvipa and the brother of nândana Âcârya.


He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Advaita Âcârya (CC. 1.12.58) and was present during the festival of Kheturi (BRK. 10.403).

Haridâsa dâsa writes on P. 135 of GVA V.I that there were two Viëòudâsa Âcârya's. From one descended the Gosvâmî family of Varendra brahmana clan at Manikyadihi and from the other the Gosvâmîs of Kandikhali of the Radhi clan descended. Both of these villages still exist on the bank of the Bhagirathi.


He was a Kayastha by caste and was driven out of the Gaudiya Vaisnava community. (Prema-vilasa 25, BRK. 14.165-168)


Originally from Manipura, he became a priest serving Govindaji at Ghati in Jaipur. He wrote a voluminous manual on Smrti titled Ärî Govindarcana-candrika consisting of sixteen chapters following the style of Hari-bhakti-vilasa. It was published by Venkateswara Press, Bombay.


She was the second wife of Lord Gaurâôga. In her past incarnation she was Bhusakti and Satyabhama (GGD. 48). The following is her genealogical line:

Durgadâsa Misra | _____________|______________ | | | | Sanatana Misra Kalidâsa

Misra | | | | Viëòupriya Madhava Misra | | Yadava Misra

According to another view, Viëòupriya was the daughter of Durgadâsa Misra and his son was Yadava, while Yadava's son was Madhava. Prema-vilasa states that Yadavacarya took diksa from Viëòupriya and served the deity of Lord Gaurâôga. Descendants of Yadava are referred to as belonging to the `Viëòupriya family.' As a child Viëòupriya bathed three times daily in the Ganges, she had great reverence for her parents, and received the blessings of Mother Saci (CBh. 1.15.46-48).

The marriage between Viëòupriya and Visvambhara was negotiated by Kasinatha Paòàita (CBh. 1.15.49-214).

Viëòupriya's reaction after hearing of Lord Gaurâôga's decision to accept sannyasa, and the words of comfort offered to her by Her husband are recorded in Caitanya-mangala 2.12.1-40.

Later, Lord Caitanya listened to news of Viëòupriya conveyed by Jagadananda (Advaitaprakasa 21).

After the Lord's acceptance of sannyasa Viëòupriya always remained within the house, with the exception of taking bath daily at the Ganges along with Saci devi. When devotees went there to partake of prasadam, they saw only the feet of Viëòupriya. Never did they see her face, nor hear her voice. A constant flow of tears continually streamed down her saddened face. She ate only the remnants of food left by Mother Saci, and constantly chanted the holy name. She installed a picture of Lord Gaurâôga and offered service to it with great love and devotion.

Ghanasyama in BRK. 4.48-52 describes Viëòupriya's suffering in separation from the Lord as follows: "Due to separation from the Lord, Viëòupriya lay on the floor with wide-open eyes, seldom able to sleep, and her bright golden complexion grew pale. She gradually became extremely thin, like the moon on the fourteenth day of the dark fortnight. While chanting the holy name she collected a few grains of rice which she cooked and ate. No one knew how she maintained her life."

In a dream Lord Caitanya commanded her to shower mercy upon Ärînivâsa Âcârya (BRK. 4.25-36). Thus with deep affection she placed her feet on the head of Ärînivasa (BRK. 4.44.46)

The following is a narration from Prema-vilasa 5 which explains how Viëòupriya practiced namabhajan: "Come brothers, listen to how Isvari (Viëòupriya) was chanting the holy name of the Lord, as it arouses in the listener a feeling of what lila is. She would place two fresh earthen pots on either side of her. One pot was empty and the other contained grains of rice. After chanting one round of japa she placed one grain of rice into the empty pot. She thus continued her japa until the third quarter of the day. Those grains which she had placed in the empty pot where then cooked and offered to the Lord with tears. Day and night she chanted the holy name..."

The following is taken from GPC:

The supreme power of God is divided into three categories Ärî, Bhu and Lila. Ärî Viëòupriya is the manifestation of `Bhu' and she was also formerly Satyabhama. In Gaura-lila, Ärî Viëòupriya Ùhâkurani appeared to assist in the preaching of the holy name.

Sanatana Misra, a brahmana and ardent devotee of Lord Viëòu, lived in Navadvipa. He used to maintain many families and was famous as a court-Paòàita. In Dvapara-yuga he was King Satrajit. By virtue of worshiping Lord Viëòu, Sanatana Misra had a very beautiful daughter named Ärî Viëòupriya who was adorned with all good qualities. From her early childhood she bathed in the Ganges twice or thrice daily. In worshiping or observing vows she was most interested in following her elders. Whenever she happened to meet Mother Saci on the river side she offered her respect in a very gentle way. Mother Saci was eager to have her as a daughter-in-law.

While the Lord was absorbed in His activities, Mother Saci constantly thought of the Lord's marriage. Ärî Sanatana Misra was a pious and charitable brahmana, a benevolent and pure-hearted devotee of Lord Viëòu. He lived in Navadvipa where he was engaged in serving guests and assisting less fortunate people. Born of a noble family, he was truthful and self controlled. As a scholar he earned the title Raja Paòàita and as a gentleman in Navadvipa he personally maintained many needy people.

Sanatana Misra's daughter was like Laksmi Devi in beauty and character. As soon as Mother Saci saw her, she was convinced that this girl was the best choice to be her son's wife. From early childhood the young girl bathed regularly in the Gaôgâ two or three times a day. She was dedicated and obedient to her parents and she had no other interest than devotion to Lord Kèëòa. Everyday when she met Mother Saci at the bathing place in the Gaôgâ, she humbly offered her respects. Mother Saci reciprocated and blessed her saying, "May Kèëòa bless you with a suitable husband." But as Mother Saci bathed she thought, "This girl should marry my son." Ärî Sanatana Misra and all his near relatives were equally eager to have the Lord as a son-in-law. One day Mother Saci sent for Kasinatha Paòàita and told him, "My dear sir, I have a proposition: go tell the Raja Paòàita that if he so desires he may offer his daughter's hand in marriage to my son." Kasinatha Paòàita proceeded immediately to Ärî Sanatana Misra's house, repeating the Lord's name in silent joy.

When the Raja Paòàita saw Kasinatha Paòàita at his door he immediately offered him a seat with due respect. "What brings you here, my dear Sir?" asked Ärî Misra.

"I have come with a proposal, and if you so desire I will reveal it to you,, replied Kasinatha Paòàita. "You should offer your daughter Viëòupriya in marriage to Visvambhara Paòàita. I think it is a perfect match. He is a divine personality, suitable in all respects for your daughter. Your daughter, who is chastity personified, will be the best for him. Viëòupriya and Nimai Paòàita remind me of the divine couple Kèëòa and Rukmini, so perfectly suited they are for each other."

Raja Paòàita disclosed the news to his wife and near relatives and waited for their advice and comments. Unanimously they agreed, "What is the need for further debate? This is a perfect proposition. Quickly make all the necessary arrangements." The Raja Paòàita happily replied to Kasinatha Paòàita, "I have decided to marry my daughter to Visvambhara Paòàita so I will proceed with all the arrangements. If the Lord desires my family and ancestors will be greatly blessed by this marriage for my daughter. Kindly go to their house and tell them everything, I am fully in favor of this marriage."

Ärî Kasinatha Paòàita was extremely satisfied with the outcome of his mission and he promptly told Mother Saci everything that had transpired. Mother Saci was relieved that everything had gone smoothly. Without wasting further time she began the preparations.

Nimai's students were jubilant when news of His marriage reached them. A rich gentleman named Buddhimanta Khan immediately offered, "I shall bear the cost of the entire marriage."

But Mukunda Sanjaya objected, "My dear brother and friend, if you take all the responsibilities, then what am I supposed to do?"

"Listen my dear friend," said Buddhimanta Khan "I will not allow this marriage to become another poor brahmana's wedding, I will make such arrangements for Nimai Paòàita's wedding that everyone will think a prince is getting married."

Adhivas, an important ceremony before the day of the marriage, was held at an auspicious time amidst great joy and festivity. The area set aside for the actual marriage ceremony was decorated with colorful hangings around the sides and across the tops. Water pots with intricate designs, ghee lamps, grains, yogurt, and strings of young mango leaves were hung all around. Different auspicious ingredients required for such an occasion were placed on the floor which had been beautifully designed with colored rice paste.

The Vaisnava devotees of the Lord, the brahmanas and all the gentlemen and of Navadvipa attended the auspicious occasion. Invitations had been sent to all of them requesting them to attend the feast in the evening of the day of the adhivas. By early afternoon the musicians had already arrived and began to play. Loud and melodious sounds of mrdanga and other drums, shani, and cymbals were carried in all directions. The priests began to chant the Vedic mantras and the ladies ululated, adding to the festive mood. The crest jewel of the brahmana race, Nimai Paòàita, seated Himself in the midst of the Vedic chanters. The priests and brahmanas around Him felt a surge of joy in His presence. Different objects required to formally receive the guests were brought to Nimai Paòàita. He garlanded the respectable gentlemen with flowers and applied sandal wood paste on their foreheads, offering each of them a betel nut and betel leaf according to the custom of the time.

The brahmana population in Navadvipa was large in those days, so countless gentlemen came and went with one keeping track. Some amongst them were very greedy and returned again and again, mixing with the crowd and pretending they had just arrived in order to receive another gift. Having received invitations, people came from distant localities and were unknown to each other, but despite such anonymity there was a strong festive spirit. The Lord was in a joyful mood and He played the perfect host.

"Give all the flower garlands, sandal wood paste and other gifts to the guests at least three times," ordered Nimai. "Do not think about the cost, just give freely to everyone. The greedy brahmanas who were endeavoring to take the free gifts several times were suddenly checked and felt ashamed because of the Lord's generosity. The brahmanas were dear to the Lord and He wanted to protect their religiosity. Some men were committing offenses by deceitfully collecting extra gifts, therefore He gave the instruction to give the gifts three time to any person. After receiving the gifts three times, no one wanted anymore. They were satisfied.

No one amongst the milling guests knew that the flower garlands, sandalwood paste and betel leaf they had received were actually expansions of Lord Ananta Sesa, serving his master, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nimai Paòàita. In the profuse distribution of gifts, some flowers, sandal paste and betel leaf fell to the ground, and the quantity of those remnants would have sufficed from five opulent weddings, not counting those gifts which were taken home by the guests. Every visitor was impressed by the arrangements and left the wedding praising the opulence of the ceremonies. Even the wealthiest men of Navadvipa were impressed for their father's had not spent so lavishly for their weddings. The profusity of flowers, sandal paste, betel leaf, betel nut and other gifts had never been seen in Navadvipa. Raja Paòàita, Ärî Sanatana Misra, was extremely happy. He and his close relatives attended the adhivas, laden with valuable gifts. At an auspicious moment, he joyfully applied tilaka to the Lord's forehead, just as the Vedas recommended. The excitement of the moment was heightened by the loud chanting of Lord Hari's name accompanied by the musicians and the ululating ladies.

Having completed all of his ceremonial duties Raja Paòàita returned home. The relatives of Nimai Paòàita then went to Raja Paòàita's house to perform the same adhivas ceremony for Viëòupriya. Whatever was customary for a marriage in those days was performed in the midst of great festivity. Early the next morning the Lord went for His bath in the Gaôgâ, and on returning he went directly to the temple to worship the Supreme Lord Viëòu. Thereafter He sat with His close relations to offer obeisances to their forefathers for their satisfaction. The festive mood was maintained by the musicians, dancers and singers performing loudly enough for everyone to hear. Every corner of the house was decorated, there were beautiful designs on the floor, water pots, grains, yogurt, lamps and strings of auspicious mango leaves hung everywhere. Colored festoons fluttered like flags in the wind, and the air was filled with festive excitement. The chaste ladies of Navadvipa accompanied Mother Saci while performing all the customary and traditional rituals. First they went to the Gaôgâ for their bath and then, followed by musicians, they visited the village deity Sasti where they prayed for her blessings. From the temple they visited the house of different relatives and then returned home. She distributed khol, bananas, oil, betel nut, betel leaf, and vermillion to the ladies who had accompanied her and satisfied them in every respect. By the will of the omnipotent Supreme Lord, there was no dearth of anything so mother Saci generously distributed her gifts to the ladies several times over. Not a single lady was dissatisfied. They happily rubbed oil on their bodies and bathed.

Viëòupriya Devi's house was also in a state of great excitement; her mother bustled with happiness. Caught in the waves of ecstasy, Raja Paòàita spent lavishly and offered his daughter wholeheartedly to Lord Gaurasundara.

After completing all of His rituals the Lord sat down to rest and from that place He humbly distributed food and clothes to all the assembled brahmanas. He offered respects to each person according to his position and gave in charity to satisfy each person's need. The brahmanas blessed the Lord and returned to their houses fully satisfied.

In the afternoon the relatives came to dress Lord Gaurasundara for his marriage that evening. They decorated his entire body with sandalwood paste and applied aromatic perfumes on different parts of his body. On his forehead they drew a half-moon shaped tilaka with sandalwood paste, placed a beautiful crown lightly on His head and draped His neck with fragrant flower garlands. A fine, expensive silk dhoti was tied expertly around His hips; it shone golden yellow like the setting sun. His pink lotus-shaped eyes were smeared with kajal ointment, black as the bumblebee. He held the auspicious three-bladed grass and the pit of a banana tree, while exquisite and expensive golden earrings swayed from his ears and other valuable jewelry decorated His upper arms and His neck. Each of the relatives decorated the Lord according to his own taste, hanging different types of jewelry on different parts of His body. Men and women both marvelled at the Lord's exquisite beauty. They forgot themselves fixed as they were on the beauty of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Almost an hour before the time of marriage the relatives decided that the Lord should proceed to the house of the bride. "Let us begin the journey," they announced. "For an hour the bridegroom will parade through the town before arriving at the bride's house." Buddhimanta Khan appeared suddenly with a beautiful palanquin. The musicians started up afresh and the priests began chanting Vedic mantras; singers, dancers and guests all joined in a jubilant clamor. The Lord first circumambulated Mother Saci and offered her respects, then offered respects to the brahmanas and sat on the palanquin in the midst of the joyful confusion which included the ululating ladies.

It was early evening and the marriage procession went first to the bank of the river Gaôgâ. The waxing moon hung nearly full above their heads and shimmered in the water of the Gaôgâ. Hundreds of lamps were lit and music played on with undying enthusiasm. In front of the Lord's palanquin were two long rows of Ärî Buddhimanta Khan's estate employees followed by the festoon holders bering colored flags. In their midst were the jesters, joking and evoking laughter. There were a variety of dancers performing many different dance styles, while the countless musicians played at least five kinds of drums, cymbals, conch shells, flutes, bells, kettle drums and a variety of horns. Excited young children danced amongst the musicians and caught in the festive atmosphere, even older people abandoned their reserve and joined the children while the Lord smiled at the happy sight. On the bank of the Gaôgâ they stopped for a while singing, dancing and playing the instruments before proceeding to the bride's house. After offering flowers to Mother Gaôgâ, the entire procession turned towards town. Whoever witnessed the parade was struck with wonder at its opulence. "I have seen many extravagant marriages, but I have never witnessed anything like this one before," said one person. The residents of Navadvipa were fortunate to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead in person as He swayed past them in His palanquin.

The brahmanas who had beautiful, unmarried daughters in their homes all lamented. "It is a great pity and certainly my misfortune that I could not give my daughter in marriage to this handsome young man. But what can I do?" I offer my obeisances at the feet of all the residents of Navadvipa who witnessed this transcendental joyful pastime of the Lord.

After the procession had passed through all the different localities of Navadvipa they arrived at the house of Ärî Sanatana Misra, the Raja Paòàita. Everyone came out of the house, ululating and making other loud sounds of welcome for the procession. Raja Paòàita came forward to receive the Lord from the palanquin, helped Him step down and took Him inside where a seat had been prepared. The joy Raja Paòàita felt was indescribable and the love and respect he felt for the Lord was visible on his face as he escorted Nimai Paòàita into his house. He showered flowers on the Lord as a blessing and welcome. The reception party from the bride's side consisted of relatives and priests who came forward with fine clothes, jewelry and other precious gifts for the Lord. The bride's mother placed the auspicious three-bladed grass on the Lord's head and then worshipped him with seven ghee lamps. At that time Viëòupriya devi, who had been dressed exquisitely took her seat. The relatives of Nimai Paòàita were both impressed and satisfied to see such a beautiful bride. They lifted the Lord onto His seat according to the marriage ritual. They hung a curtain around the Lord and Viëòupriya Devi circumambulated Ärî Gaurasundara seven times. Then facing Him with folded hands, she offered her respectful obeisances. The relatives threw flowers on the couple, and the air filled with loud music and the ululations of the ladies. Viëòupriya Devi placed a flower garland at the lotus feet of her Lord offering Him her life and soul. The Lord picked up the flower garland and smiling sweetly, placed it around her neck. Again the divine couple was drowned in a shower of flower petals. Unseen by the common men, demigods like Lord Brahma also showered flowers on Ärî Viëòupriya Devi and Ärî Gaurasundara. Lord Gaurasundara's group competed with Viëòupriya Devi's group in showering flowers and making joyous sounds. Absorbed in the contest, everyone forgot their own cares and worries. Sometimes the Lord's side seemed to be victorious and at other times Viëòupriya Devi's side seemed more enthusiastic. The Lord was pleased to see everyone enjoying themselves in such a wonderful way.

Thousands of lamps shed bright light everywhere and the loud and joyous sounds of song and instruments filled the sky. By the time the moment came for the bride and bridegroom to exchange glances, the universe seemed inundated by tumultuous and joyful sounds. Then the divine couple sat down and Raja Paòàita sat with them to officially offer his daughter to Lord Gaurasundara. In the midst of all the rituals and chanting of mantras, the marriage began with Raja Paòàita offering his daughter and praying for the Lord's pleasure. Along with his daughter Raja Paòàita also gave nice cows full of milk, lots of land and property, beds and furniture, maids and servants, and other valuable gifts. Viëòupriya Devi sat on the left of the Lord as the brahmanas lit the fire and began the `Homa'. After all the customs and traditional rituals were completed the bride and the bridegroom went into a well decorated reception room.

Raja Paòàita's house was transformed into Vaikuntha, and the guests came in to enjoy the marvelous feast. Countless people came and all left fully satisfied. The newly-wed bride and groom spent the night in Viëòupriya Devi's house amidst great joy. The happiness Sanatana Paòàita felt can not be described. He reveled in the same inconceivable good fortune which befall great sages such as Nagajit, Janaka, Bhisma and Jambuvan who also became the fathers-in-law of Lord Kèëòa or Lord Ramacandra. The divine couple passed the night and next morning till mid-day in Sanatana Misra's house. Then the Raja Paòàita and his relatives bid farewell to Lord Gaurasundara and Viëòupriya. In the midst of music, kirtana, the blessings of the brahmanas and the chanting of mantras appropriate for such a journey, Nimai offered His respects to the elderly members of His father-in-law's family and left with Viëòupriya Devi on a palanquin for Saci Mata's house.

The people they met along the way all blessed them and congratulated them, ladies spoke respectfully of the good fortune of the bride saying, "She is very fortunate, she must have worshipped Laksmi Devi for many births."

Others commented, "This couple is just like Lord Äiva and Gaurî."

Still others said, "They must be Laksmi and Ärî Hari."

"They are Cupid and Rati, or Indra and Saci, or they must be Ramacandra and Sita Devi."

Truly, the good fortune of the residents of Navadvipa is unfathomable, for they were able to see the Supreme Lord and His eternal consort. Such was the extent of their piety. The whole of Nadia was blessed and the residents experienced unrestrained joy by being able to see Viëòupriya Devi and Lord Gaurasundara, Narayana.

Finally the divine couple arrived at the house of Mother Saci. Accompanied by other ladies, Mother Saci went out to jubilantly welcome the divine couple into her house, where she seated them amidst joyous sounds and music. How can one express the joy Mother Saci and everyone else felt at the presence of Viëòupriya and Gaurahari? So magnanimous is the Supreme Lord that one becomes completely free from all sinful activities and their reactions just by looking at the transcendental lustre of the Lord. Moreover, he becomes eligible to enter the spiritual sky, the Vaikuntha planets. Everyone from all walks of life could see the Lord and His spiritual effulgence. Therefore He has been called the most compassionate, the only friend of the fallen souls.

Nimai Paòàita freely distributed clothes and gifts to all the performers, dancers and the beggars who had come to the house of Mother Saci. To the brahmana relatives and friends, He gave sufficient gifts to satisfy then all, and satisfy Himself as well. To Buddhimanta Khan the Lord gave a tight and affectionate embrace, leaving Buddhimanta Khan in indescribable ecstasy (CBh. Adi 15). After describing the marriage ceremony, Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura seldom mentioned the name of Ärî Viëòupriya devi again.

Later, when Mahâprabhu returned from Gaya He began expressing ecstatic love for Lord Kèëòa. On seeing his divine sentiments, Mother Saci thought that her son had been attacked with a severe disease and so she began to intently worship Lord Viëòu and goddess Gaôgâ for the protection of her son. She also placed Viëòupriya in front of the Lord in order to give Him company, but Mahâprabhu stared at her with a vacant look in His eyes (CBh. Madhya). When Mother Saci tried to feed her son with rice offered to Lord Kèëòa, Mahâprabhu simply chanted the holy name of the Lord incessantly while the devoted wife Viëòupriya watched everything from within her room. Absorbed in love of Godhead, Mahâprabhu displayed extraordinary symptoms which Mother Saci could not understand. Sometimes He became agitated and shouted loudly. When Mother Saci advised Viëòupriya to sit near Him, the Lord would sometimes try to assault Viëòupriya. When he regained His external consciousness, He felt ashamed of his behavior (CBh. Madhya).

Sometimes Viëòupriya would offer her husband betel leaf, and the Lord would express His satisfaction while chewing it. On seeing Mahâprabhu in a happy mood, Viëòupriya became delighted. Mahâprabhu used to sit with Viëòupriya to satisfy his mother.

When Mahâprabhu danced, absorbed in the feelings of Rukmini, in the house of Candrasekhar, Ärî Viëòupriya went to watch the performance along with Mother Saci. After describing the Lord's acceptance of the sannyasa order, Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura never again mentions the name of Viëòupriya. In CC. Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja only describes the marriage ceremony of Mahâprabhu (CC. Adi 15).

On the night when Mahâprabhu took sannyasa, leaving His house, He gave instructions to Ärî Viëòupriya. This is described by Locana dâsa in Caitanya-mangala.

When Viëòupriya was asleep, Mahâprabhu decided to leave the house. He approached Mother Saci and worshiped her. He convinced her by exhibiting His divine power and then crossed the river Ganges by swimming and proceeded towards Katwa. Vasu Ghosh has elaborately described the reaction of both Viëòupriya and Sacimata at dawn. In the early morning Viëòupriya did not find Mahâprabhu in His cot. As if stricken by a thunderbolt she realized what had happened. She did not even comb her hair, but crying incessantly rushed to Mother Saci.

After the departure of Mahâprabhu, their servant, Isana Ùhâkura looked after Mother Saci and Viëòupriya. Vamsivadana Ùhâkura and Mother Saci also stayed with Viëòupriya at all times. Ärî Vamsivadana was very dear to Viëòupriya. When Ärînivâsa Âcârya came to Mayapura, he met the aged Isana Ùhâkura and Viëòupriya devi. Ärî Vamsivadana Ùhâkura showered his mercy on Ärînivasa.

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