viernes, 18 de junio de 2010

Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî

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Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî

Ärîla Rûpa Gosvâmî was extremely dear to Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. Through him and his elder brother, Ärî Sanatan, Mahâprabhu disseminated His own teachings, the essential conclusions of all the scriptures. Amongst the devotees of Mahâprabhu these two were known as His generals.

In the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, Kavi Karnapura has written that Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî was known as Ärî Rûpa Manjari during Kèëòa lila.

There is an anecdote as to how they came to be the ministers of the king of Gaudadesa, Hussain Shah Badsa. Even at a very young age they had become quite learned in all of the scriptures. The guru (maulabi) of Hussain Shah was supposedly capable of seeing into the future. Hussain Shah inquired him about the prosperity of his kingdom.

The maulabi replied, "There are two extremely learned brahmana boys who are endowed with all good qualities. If you appoint them as your ministers then you will attain a very opulent kingdom."

Having heard of the glories of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, Ärî Rûpa had written a letter to Him praying for His darsan. In His reply Mahâprabhu explained to him, "As a woman who is attached to another man makes a show of being devoted to her husband, so you should, while being internally attached to the lotus feet of Ärî Kèëòa, externally make a show of being engaged in your worldly duties. Kèëòa will bestow His mercy on you very soon."

While residing at Ramakeli, Ärî Rûpa and Ärî Sanatana were visited by many brahmanas and Paòàitas from Navadwipa, Karnataka and various other parts of India. They were always careful to receive these guests and serve them in a befitting manner. They lived in a very opulent surroundings at Ramakeli. Their court, which rivalled that of Lord Indra, was always attended by brahmanas, Paòàitas from many lands as well as poets, singers, musicians and dancers. At great expense they maintained these guests and were always very careful that no one was disrespected in any way. They were always engaged in studying the sastras and could establish and defeat the same philosophical arguments alternatively. Near their house were solitary gardens of Kadamba and other trees in the middle of which were Râdhâ-kunda and Syama-kunda. There they would meditate on the Vrindavana pastimes of Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Syama and thus, losing their patience, a constant stream of tears would flow from their eyes. They were always absorbed in the service of Ärî Madana Mohana and constantly assuaged their grief by praying for His mercy. Hearing of the pastimes of Ärî Gaurasundara at Nadia they were always meditating when they might get His darsan. (B.R. 1/585).

Rûpa Gosvâmî's worshipable Deity in Vèndâvana was Ärî Govinda Deva. Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu had instructed the Gosvâmîs to re-discover the holy places of Kèëòa's pastimes in Braja and to establish worship of His Ärî vigraha. One day Ärî Rûpa was sitting on the banks of the Jamuna, lamenting that they hadn't been able to properly carry out His instructions.

It was known to them that Ärî Kèëòa's grandson Vajranabha had installed a number of Deities in Braja, among them Hari Deva, Madana Mohana Deva, Gopinath Deva and Ärî Govinda Deva. Ärî Rûpa had tried to locate these Deities, but to no avail. As he was sitting and thinking in this way a very beautiful cowherd boy came along and asked him, "He Swamin! Why do you look so sad?" Hearing the boy's cheerful voice, Ärî Rûpa's melancholy reverie was broken and his heart felt engladdened. He replied that he was feeling sad because he hadn't been able to follow Mahâprabhu's instructions properly. The cowherd boy told him, "Swamin! Please come with me. I know where what you are looking for is."

Then the boy brought him to Gomatila and explained, "Everyday a cow comes on top of this hill and pours down her milk here. There is a good chance you will find what you are looking for inside. Now I have to go."

Ärî Rûpa turned to see the cowherd boy off, but found no one present. He began to reflect, "Who was that cowherd boy and where did he run off so suddenly?" His body thrilled with ecstatic symptoms as he intently gazed at the Mahayoga Pith (Gomatila), and then went back to his kutir. The next morning he again came to Gomatila and quietly waited. After a little while an exquisitely beautiful Surabhi cow came there and poured milk down on top of the hill which immediately disappeared inside the earth. Then she sauntered on into the woods.

Now Ärî Rûpa was positive that Ärî Govinda Deva must be within the earth here. He came very quickly to the village of cowherds nearby and excitedly told them everything that had happened. The cowherd men hurriedly gathered up some spades and hatchets and came running to Gomatila. Digging where Ärî Rûpa indicated they saw, after removing a small amount of earth, the all-enchanting form of Ärî Govinda appeared. They all erupted in shouts of ecstasy, "Hari! Hari! Ärî Govinda has again manifested Himself." Ärî Rûpa with tears flowing from his eyes fell down at the lotus feet of Ärî Govinda bowed to offer his obeisances, all the while reciting prayers and hymns.

Very quickly the news spread and the other Gosvâmîs, floating in an ocean of joy, came there also. Soon an incessant flow of people from all quarters began to arrive, carried by waves of joy. Lord Brahma and the other demigods, having assumed mortal appearances, mixed in with the other people and gazed upon the body of Ärî Govinda. There was not a lull in the crowd for even a moment as people continued to pour in from places unknown. Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî immediately sent word to Mahâprabhu in Purî concerning this auspicious event. Ärî Gaurasundara along with His associates couldn't contain their ecstasy on receiving this happy news. Meanwhile the brahmanas performed the abhiseka of the Deity and began to prepare offerings of bhoga from the milk, yogurt, rice, flour and vegetables which the villagers were bringing. Mahâprabhu sent Kasisvar Pandit from Purî to assist in worshiping the Deity.

Ärî Govinda Deva is presently being worshiped in Jaipur, Rajasthan, which is easily reached by bus from Vrindavana. One has to proceed by rickshaw to Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-Govinda Mandir from the bus stand.

Overjoyed that Ärî Govindaji and Madan Mohan had re-appeared and thus the responsibilities which Mahâprabhu had given them were gradually being carried out, Ärî Rûpa and Sanatan began to compose the Bhakti-sastras, in compliance with Mahâprabhu's further instructions.

After completing Vidagdha-madhava, Lalita-madhava, and various other books, Ärî Rûpa began to work on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu.

One day Ärî Vallabhacarya (of the Viëòuswami sampradaya) came to visit Rûpa Gosvâmî. After offering him a seat the two of them began to discuss Kèëòa-katha. In the house of their conversation, Ärî Rûpa presented the opening verse of Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhu to Vallabhacarya to read. After studying this verse for some time Vallabha commented that there were a few mistakes. At this time Ärî Jiva, who had arrived from Bengal a few days before, was fanning his uncle Ärî Rûpa. He was extremely learned in all the sastras and was unsatisfied with Vallabha's remark.

When Vallabhacarya went to the Jamuna to take his bath, Ärî Jiva also came there on the pretext of fetching some water. He inquired from the acarya as to what actually were the mistakes in that verse. Vallabhacarya, after discussing some points with him, was amazed at the boy's scholarship.

After a few days Vallabha again came to Ärî Rûpa. After inquiring about the boy scholar, he greatly praised his learning. After Vallabha had gone to his residence, Ärî Rûpa called Jiva and spoke to him, "Those whom we respect as our Guru and to whom we offer our obeisances you are ready to debate with on an equal level? This is not at all polite. What he spoke was for my benefit but you couldn't tolerate that. You should return home and when you can control your mind then you can come back to Vrindavana." (B.R. 5.1643)

Hearing this decision of his uncle Ärî Jiva left that place and decided to proceed eastwards. When he came to an old dilapidated temple at Nanda-ghat, he sat down and began to cry. Soon the villagers began to worry: "Such a handsome young man, but he sits there crying for so long without taking food."

After a while, Ärî Sanatana Gosvâmî came by and the villagers informed Sanatana of the boy's presence at the old temple. Sanatana went there and saw his nephew, who looked very pale from not eating. Sanatana picked him up from the ground and affectionately asked him what was the matter. Ärî Jiva explained everything that had happened. Sanatana Gosvâmî pacified him and, taking his nephew with him, went to see his brother.

Sanatana spoke with Rûpa alone. When Ärî Rûpa happened to mention Jiva, Sanatana explained everything. Ärî Rûpa immmediately called Jiva seeing his forlorns and pale appearance, he gradually nursed him back to eat and happy sit with him. Then he entrusted him with proofreading of various literature, which he had composed. Just as he was very strict with hsi young nephew, so also he was very affetionate and moving. Their relationship was an ideal example of how the Guru and sisya behave together.

When Ärî Rûpa had finished writing Lalita-madhava, he gave it to Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî to read. Lalita-madhava is description of Kèëòa's pastimes after he left Vrindavana and is thus full with sentiments in the mood of separation. By reading this Dâsa Gosvâmî began to cry day and night, having become completely absorbed in love in separation to the point of being ready to leave his body. (B.R5.768). He became as though deranged in mind from sadness and he completely lost all patience. When Ärî Rûpa requested Ärî Dâsa Gosvâmî to return the manuscrip, so that he could correct it, Raghunatha das held on it very mightly, not allowing to add anything, or rewrite it or extract anything from it.

After considering what to do, Ärî Rûpa composed Dana-keli-kaumudi. He managed to exchange this manuscript with Lalita-madhava. By reading Dana-keli-kaumudi, full of narrations of Kèëòa's Vrindavan pastime, Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî now became totaly absorbed in the ecstasy of hapiness.

On another occasion the Gosvâmîs were having a discussion about the ecstatic feelings of separation of Râdhâ-Kèëòa and Their associates. Some of the Vaisnavas were fainting to the ground, while Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî began to breath very hevily. His heart felt as though as burning. At one point, as he sighed his breath, he happened to fall on the body of one devotee present there. Shortly after a while ecstatic symptoms developed on that devotee's body where Ärî Rûpa's breath touched it. (B.R. 5.326).

After the reappearance of Ärî Govinda, Madana Mohana and the Yoga Pits, Ärî Rûpa began to contemplate where Vrinda deity might be. One night she came to him in a dream and said, I am on the banks of Brahma-kunda. You can have my darsan there."

The next morning, after finishing his baths and puja, he came to Brahma-kunda and began to look everywhere. Suddenly, he saw a heavenly damsel, whose bodily effulgence defeated the luster of gold, all the directions were illuminated by this glow and the atmosphere created by her presence was very fine and cooling. Ärî Rûpa offered his dandavats and various prayers and hymns. In this way, the Vrinda deity appeared in Vrajabhumi.

Ärî Gaurasundara established the glories of Ärî Vraja-dhama through His two generals, Ärî Rûpa and Ärî Sanatan Gosvâmî. Within their hearts He awakened, through ear transmission, the knowledge of what was in His own ear. Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî has established in this world the mission to fulfil the desire of Lord Caitanya. When will he give me the shelter of his lotus feet?" (Ärîla Narottama dâsa Ùhâkura in his song Ärî Rûpa manjari-pada).

Ärî Rûpa Gosvâmî completed many literatures, among them, Ärî Hamsaduta, Karya, Ärî Uddhava-sandesa, Ärî Kèëòa-janma-titha-vidhi, Brhat Bhâgavatamrta, Kèëòa-ganoddesa-dipika, Laghu Bhâgavatamrta, Stava-mala, Vidagha-madhava, Lalita-madhava, Dana-keli-kaumudi, Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Ujjvala-nilamani, Prayuktakhyaita-manjari, Mathura-mahima, Padyavali, Nataka-candra-tika, among others.

Birth: 1493 (Christian calendar), 1415 (Sakabda)

Disappearance: 1564 (Christian calendar), 1486 (Sakabda)

Appearance day: ?

Disappearance day: 12the day of the bright fortnight of Stava (?)

Householder life: 22 years. Vraja: 51 years. Age: 73.

Rüpa Gosvämé - an eternal associate of Çréman Mahäprabhu. He is glorified as having established the inner desire of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu in this world. He understood the confidential moods of Çré Kåñëa and broadcast them in his many books. He was personally instructed by Mahäprabhu at Prayäga and empowered to write books explaining the esoteric truths of uttama-bhakti. His unique contribution was to explain how bhakti is transformed into rasa and how rasa is the real basis of loving relationships with Çré Kåñëa. Some of his prominent books are Bhakti-rasämåtasindhu, Ujjvala-nélamaëi, Vidagdha-mädhava, and Lalita-mädhava.

According to Gaura-gaëoddeça-dépikä (180), he is Çré Rüpa Maïjaré in kåñëa-lélä.

rupa_gosvami/ 20-May-2008 12:09 -

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