viernes, 18 de junio de 2010

Santos Vaishnavas - V2


She was the disciple of Narottama Ùhâkura and the wife of Raghuvendra Raya. Her two sons were King Cand Raya and Santosa Raya. (Prema-vilasa 20)


She was a disciple of Narottama Ùhâkura and daughter of Gaôgânarayana Cakravarti. She took diksa from her father and settled at Râdhâkunda. Her mother was Narayani devi. (Narottamavilasa 12)


He was considered to be one of the nine roots of the tree of bhakti (CC. 1.9.14). ViëòuPurî was a sannyasi and according to CC. he was a disciple of Mâdhavendra Purî, however GGD. refers to him as a disciple of Jayadharma. He wrote the book Viëòu Bhakti-ratnavali (VV. of Jiva 132, Devakin. 49, Vrnd.).

Haraparasada Sastri in Catalogue of Sanskrit Mss. Vol. V, Purana, P. (XXXIII) states that in 1633 A.D. (Saka 1555) ViëòuPurî completed the writing of Bhakti-ratnavali. If this statement is taken as accurate then ViëòuPurî's period comes one hundred years after Lord Caitanya. It is understood from the India Office Catalogue of Eggling, Vol. VI, PP. 1272-1273 that ms's. of Bhakti-ratnavali were copied in 1595 A.D.

Dr. S.K. De in Padyavali, notes on authors, p. 232, places ViëòuPurî as one who long preceded Lord Caitanya. It is found in Sankara Carita of Daityari Paòàita, written in Assamese, that ViëòuPurî collected Bhakti-ratnavali from Sankara Deva Kanthabhusana. Similar statements are found in the Assamese manuscript of "Gurucaritra." It appears from Assamese sources that Dr. S.K. De's argument is correct.

Four pieces of evidence are available to prove that ViëòuPurî was a contemporary of Lord Gaurâôga.

1) CC. places him as a disciple of Mâdhavendra Purî. 2) Priyadâsaji, the commentator of Hindi Bhaktamala P.554, writes that on receiving a letter from Lord Caitanya, ViëòuPurî compiled Bhakti-ratnavali and sent it off. 3) In 1809 A.D. Buchanam Hamilton heard at Purnea that about 300 years ago there lived an erudite sannyasi named ViëòuPurî, who later entered married life (See Purnea report p. 275). If 300 years are subtracted from 1809 A.D. we arrive at 1509 A.D when Lord Caitanya was 23 years old. In an Assamese book titled Sankaracarita verse 3296 Ramacarana Ùhâkura writes that ViëòuPurî looked for a wife to have romantic pleasure. 4) Jayananda P. 126 and Locana P. 2 count ViëòuPurî within Lord Caitanya's circle of devotees. B.B. Majumdar states that ViëòuPurî was possibly a disciple of Jayadharma. But since he lived a very long life he received the grace of Mâdhavendra Purî and Lord Caitanya.


He was the brother of Lord Nityânanda. (Prema-vilasa 24)


See under "Kèëòacaitanya Mahâprabhu"


He wrote "Jagannâtha Mangala"


He was a resident of Hatbasi village near Kahnakul Kèëòanagar. He was a scholar and Vaisnava poet. His compositions are as follows: Sangita Madhava, Bhakta-ratnamala, Kandarpa Kaumudi, Vèndâvana Praptyupaya, Prema-samputa, etc.


He was the elder brother of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. In Kèëòa lila he was Baladeva. (VV. of Jiva 25-26, Devakin. 7, Vrnd., Murari 1.2.8, CC Kavya 2.20, CBh. 1.1.9, Jayananda P.11, CC. 1.15.9)


VisvaRûpa dâsa Babaji was a great scholar, full of renunciation and reserved in his speech. He practiced bhajan living as the chief of the Thoura of Siddha Totarama dâsa Babaji Mahasaya of Ärî Vèndâvana. He was introduced to Siddha Totarama by Ärî Radhika Rajarsi Bahadura, the Babaji's servant. At the time when Vanamali Babu was living in Ärî Kunda, the Vaisnava Committee from that area took all the water out of Syamakunda to clean it. However, due to a shortage of funds they were not able to complete the work. During the time of Ärî Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî the kunda had been restored but it had not been done since then. Hearing about the unsuccessful attempt to clean the kunda Babaji Mahasaya went there to investigate the situation. Upon seeing the condition of the kunda Babaji began to cry. He then took the firm decision that the kunda must be cleaned by raising the necessary funds. Five thousand rupees was given by Rajarsi Bahadura and Babaji took the money and appointed Rajarsi as the cashier and supervisor of the job. Whatever he was able to collect by begging Babaji deposited with Rajarsi, and the secretary of Rajarsi, Kamini babu, started on the job. Everyone was surprised to see Babaji Mahasaya's determination and perseverance to carry out this mission. He never spent even a single paisa from the fund for his personal use, even the money which was required for travelling to Ärî Kunda from Vèndâvana he collected from other source. Neither did he spend any money from the fund for postage. He used to say, "If anyone requests me to perform some dishonest works but he gives some money for the restoration of Ärî Kunda, I will do that dishonest job for him. Ärî Syamasundara is the life of the Vaisnavas, so He did not allow the Babaji to perform any such work. But for two or three years Babaji Mahasaya had to undergo numerous hardships, personal loss. He passed through many difficult days in order to complete his mission. In due course of time he was able complete the work and Ärî Syama Kunda was restored to its original beauty.


He was an employee in the Muslim government. When Lord Caitanya arrived at the border of the state of Orissa on his way to Vèndâvana, a government officer came there to meet Him. He informed the Lord that the territory ahead was ruled by a Muslim governor, who was a drunkard. Out of fear for this king, no one could walk the road freely. Thus he advised the Lord to stay at the Orissa border for some days so that a peaceful agreement could be negotiated with the Mohammedan governor. In that way, the Lord would be able to cross the river peacefully in a boat. At that time, a follower of the Mohammedan governor arrived at the Orissa encampment dressed in disguise. After observing Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, he returned to the Mohammedan governor and told him about the wonderful characteristics of the Lord. Upon hearing this, the mind of the Mohammedan governor was changed and he desired to meet the Lord. He then sent his own secretary, Visvasa, to the representative of the Orissa government. The Mohammedan secretary came to see Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. Upon seeing the Lord, Visvasa immediately began to chant the holy name of the Lord, "Kèëòa, Kèëòa", and was overwhelmed with ecstatic love. After calming down, Visvasa fell at the feet of the Lord and conveyed the message of the Muslim governor. (CC. 2.16-177)


She was the Queen of Mithila who wrote `Gaôgâvakyavali', a work on Smrti. She wrote this work with the help of the famous poet Vidyapati. This information is recorded in the concluding sloka of Gaôgâvakyavali. She was the wife of King Padmasimha.


Lord Nityânanda's daughter Gaôgâ was married to Madhavacarya, the son of Visvesvara. Bhagiratha Âcârya was a close friend of Visvesvara, as they both lived in the same village. When Visvesvara lost his wife, he left his son Madhava in the custody of Jayadurga, the wife of Bhagiratha. He then took sannyasa and settled at Kasi (Prema-vilasa 21). In his past incarnation he was Divakara (GGD. 113, VV. of Jiva 135, Devakin. 51, Vrnd. 46).


He was the second son of Vallabhacarya. Despite being the head of the Vallabha sampradaya he practiced bhajan of Lord Gaurâôga. He served the Gopalaji Deity in the village of Gathuli in Vèndâvana. CC. 2.4 describes the story relating to the revelation of this Gopala Deity.

Mâdhavendra Purî installed the Gopala Deity on top of Govardhana Hill. Later, Lord Caitanya wanted to see the Gopala Deity, but would not climb Govardhana Hill. Thus Gopala arranged to come down from the hill and give darsana to Mahâprabhu. Originally Mâdhavendra Purî himself worshiped the Deity, but later turned over the charge of the Deity service to two Gaudiya Vaisnavas. (see also "Mâdhavendra Purî)

According to BRK. 5.815 after the death of the said two Gaudiya Vaisnavas, Vitthalesvara was nominated as the priest in charge after consulting Dâsa Gosvâmî and others.

The name of Vitthalesvara is found in the section Ärî Gopala-stavaraja in Stavavali of Dâsa Gosvâmî (13,14) and `Ärî Gopala Devastaka' (7) of Cakravarti Ùhâkura. When Raghunatha dâsa Gosvâmî had an attack of indigestion, Vitthalesvara called two physicians to treat him.(BRK. 5.577)

When Ärînivâsa Âcârya in course of his pilgrimage to Vèndâvana arrived at Gathuli, Vitthalanatha welcomed him warmly (BRK. 5.804). To escape the wrath of the Muslim rulers the Gopala Deity was kept hidden in the house of Vitthalanatha for one month (CC. 2.18.47). There a large number of devotees went to have darsana of Gopala. This Gopalaji is now at Nathadvara. The opulent worship offered at Nathadvara cannot be found anywhere else in India.

Vitthalanatha wrote a commentary on `Premamrta-rasayana' written by Lord Caitanya and a book titled Vidvanmandana. In addition he wrote several other works as follows to vindicate his own sampradaya: Ärî Brahma-sutra-nubhasya- purti, Vivrti-prakasa, Nivandha-prakasa-purti, Srngara-rasa mandana, etc. He died in 1508 Saka (1585 A.D.).


He was renowned for his humbleness, renunciation and bhajan, and was one of the main disciples of Ärî Nityânanda Babaji. He never lived in a hut, but stayed in a place in Bhatrol which was supposed to be haunted. Once a ghost was frightened by his spiritual power, thus Babaji thought that it was not proper for a Vaisnava to trouble even a ghost, so he left that place and went to stay under a bridge between the village of Sironduk and Ärî Vèndâvana, where he lived for the rest of his life. Thinking that his touch might harm others he never entered the temple to have darsana of Ärî Govinda or any other temple. Ärî Premananda Prabhu, scion of Ärî Nityânanda of Srngaravata, learned bhajan from him. Vrajakisore dâsa Babaji memorized the entire Govinda-lilamrta. Throughout his life his only possessions were a bowl and a quilt. Fearing that others might worship him, he used to keep himself hidden.


He was the eldest son of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Daksina 11.35)

Vèndâvana ACARYA

He was also known as Vèndâvanavallabha and Vèndâvanacandra. He was the eldest son of and a disciple of Ärînivâsa Âcârya. His wife was Satyabhama devi (Karnananda 1). Jiva Gosvâmî christened him and often inquired about him (Narottamavilasa 11, BRK. 14.19-20)


He was the disciple of Kèëòadeva Sarvabhauma. He wrote a lucid commentary titled `Sadananda-vidhayini' on the book Ärî Govinda lilamrta. This tika was completed in 1701 Saka. In the beginning of this tika the author invokes the grace of Yugalakisora, Kèëòa, Lord Nityânanda, Rûpa and Sanatana, Kaviraja Gosvâmî and other devotees of Lord Gaurâôga. The tika is simple and brief yet thoroughly scholastic. His analysis of rhetoric in dealing with chapters 11, 16 and 17 bears out his sound command of philosophy. His tika on chapters 22 and 23 relating to tune, rhythm, etc. show that he was an accomplished theoretician in music also.

Vèndâvana CANDRA

He was a disciple of Gopâla Bhaùùa and the youngest son of Harivamsa Gosvâmî. He served the Deity Râdhâvallabha at Vèndâvana (Prema-vilasa 18)

Vèndâvana DASA

He was a Gaudiya Vaisnava who lived in Vraja. He translated in Vrajbhasa Vilapa-kusumanjali, Prema-bhakti-candrika and Vaisnavabhidhana in some special meters. These works were done in 1813 Samvat.

Vèndâvana Dâsa BABAJI

He lived in Varsana, but everyday he would rise early and after performing his mornking duties, he would walk to Vèndâvana taking his japa mala with him. In Vèndâvana he visited the seven famous temples and took caranamrta, Tulasi and the dust of the temples. He then returned to Varsana in the evening and went out on madhukari. He never took prasada anywhere. Once in Ärî Vèndâvana in the temple of Ärî Govinda many Vaisnavas were invited for prasada. All of them requested Vèndâvana dâsa to take prasada with them. Thinking that it would be improper not to honor their request, he took the prasada and left for Varsana. At dawn he got up as usual, finished his morning duties and went out with japa mala in his hand. Strangely, the thumb of his right hand refused to move as if it were paralyzed, yet there was no pain. Confused he rushed to Ärî Manohara dâsa Babaji of Ärî Govinda kunda, threw himself at his feet and began to cry and said, "Baba, I am undone. I do not know why my right thumb refuses to move while chanting the holy name." Maharaja asked him where he had taken prasada on the previous day, and requested Vèndâvana dâsa to enquire about the source of the money given for the prasada. Vèndâvana dâsa came to find out that the money had been given by a prostitute. Thus Maharaja instructed Vèndâvana dâsa to take his bath in Ärî Kunda and to circumambulate Giriraja in wet clothes for three days, eating only what he was able to get along the way. Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa did so and on the fourth day his thumb was restored to its former healthy state.

Vèndâvana Dâsa Ùhâkura

Ärî Narayani devi was the mother of Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura and the niece of Ärîvasa Paòàita. Ärîvasa had three brothers who all came from Ärîhatta to live in Navadvipa. Ärîvasa's only son died at a very early age. At the time when Mahâprabhu began to manifest His divine nature in the courtyard of Ärîvasa, Narayani devi was four years old. Her son was Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa, the author of Ärî Caitanya Bhâgavata. He describes therein that his mother was very dear to Lord Gaurâôga.

Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa was the manifestation of Vyasa and Kusumapida (GGD. 109). Ärî Gaura-Nityânanda were his life. In his writings he never mentioned the identity of his father's but frequently speaks of his mother.

In the introduction of CBh, Ärîla Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada states that Vèndâvana dâsa was born in the house of Malini devi.

After completing a thorough investigation it was revealed that Ärî Narayani devi was married in a village near Mamagachi. She became a widow when she was pregnant. When poverty struck her she had no other alternative but to accept work in the house of Ärî Vasudeva Datta Ùhâkura. There Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa took his birth and started his education.

Just four years before the birth of Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa, Ärî Gaurasundara took sannyasa. When Mahâprabhu disappeared, at that time Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa was not more than twenty years old. He received initiation from Ärî Nityânanda and was His last disciple. Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa visited Kheturi with Jahnava Mata. Ärî Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja specifically sings the glories of Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa. CCU. P. 692-693 states as follows: (VV. of Jiva 83-84, Devaki 126, Vrnd. 120-121). JayaKèëòa dâsa writes that Vèndâvana dâsa was born at Kumarahatta and lived at Mamagachi. Like the Vaisnava poet Uddhava dâsa, JayaKèëòa writes that Vèndâvana dâsa's mother Narayani was a child widow. (manuscripts no. 1691 in the collection of Bangiya Sahitya Parisat is a Sanskrit translation of CBh.)

Nrsimha, the seventh descendant from Vasudeva, a contemporary of Lord Caitanya, wrote the Sanskrit work `Caitanya-Mahabhagavata' based on CBh. of Vèndâvana dâsa. Cintaharana Cakravarti wrote about this work based on the mss. preserved in Sahitya Parisad. See Sahitya Parisat Patrika 1342: 2: P. 89. One more copy of this work was collected by Haridâsa Gosvâmî of Navadvipa from the collection of the Ùhâkura family of Daksinakhanda.

Vèndâvana dâsa was the son of the brahmana Vaikuntha dâsa and Narayani, the later being the daughter of Ärîvasa Paòàita's brother. Vèndâvana dâsa lost his father when his mother was carrying him. At the lose of her husband, Narayani was entrusted with the responsibility for offering service to the Deity installed by Vasudeva Datta at Mamagachi village. It seems that the childhood of Vèndâvana dâsa was spent only at Mamagachi.

Vèndâvana dâsa acquired a profound command of several theological works which is born out by his own work CBh. He was the last disciple of Lord Nityânanda at whose command he took up writing the divine sports of Lord Gaurâôga in CBh. Some of the lyrical poems composed by Vèndâvana dâsa are found in Padakalpataru.

CBh. of Vèndâvana dâsa stands as a unique store of nectar of the divine pastimes of Lord Gaurâôga and Nityânanda. Deeply immersed in the stream of this nectar, Vèndâvana dâsa seems to have delivered for other devotees what he himself enjoyed. Being thoroughly dedicated to the task of describing the lila of Lord Nityânanda, the size of the book grew larger and Vèndâvana was unable to describe the last days of Lord Gaurâôga. Devotees of Vèndâvana were so fascinated by reading CBh. that they commanded Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja to complete what had not been finished by Vèndâvana dâsa.

There is no way of knowing for certain exactly when Vèndâvana dâsa wrote CBh. One can at best make an attempt to guess the probable date based on the following information: In 1431 Saka Lord Caitanya accepted sannyasa at the age of 24 years. For a year preceding that date the Lord performed kirtana at the house of Ärîvasa and manifested his divine nature. Somewhere within this period of one year the Lord showered His mercy upon Narayani, possibly early in 1431 Saka or late 1430 Saka. Narayani was then only four years old. It seems that Vèndâvana dâsa was born when Narayani was about 14 or 15 years old which leads us to conclude that around 1440 Saka Vèndâvana dâsa was born. In GGD. 109 Vèndâvana dâsa is referred to as Vedavyasa. GGD. was written in 1498 Saka which is clearly stated by Kavikarnapura himself. Hence one can conclude that Vèndâvana dâsa's CBh. became fairly well known before 1498 Saka. Some think that CBh. was written in 1495 Saka and some say 1497 Saka. But it seems improbable that the book gained wide fame within the span of only one or two years, so much so that in 1498 Saka Vèndâvana dâsa was recognized as Vyasa himself.

According to Ramagati Nyayaratna CBh. was written in 1548 A.D. (1470 Saka). This seems acceptable. At that time Vèndâvana dâsa was about thirty years old and when Kavikarnapura described Vèndâvana dâsa as Vedavyasa, Vèndâvana dâsa was about 58 years old.

It is said that the title of Vèndâvana dâsa's book was originally Caitanya-mangala and was later changed to Ärî Caitanya-bhagavata. In several places throughout CC., even in the last chapter of Antya-lila, Vèndâvana dâsa's book is referred to as Caitanya-mangala. This clearly shows that until the time of writing CC (Saka 1537) the book was known as Caitanya-mangala. Thus the idea that the Vèndâvana devotees were instrumental in changing the title does not hold as it was only after studying and analyzing Vèndâvana dâsa's work that CC. was written at the command of the Vèndâvana devotees. Had these devotees already changed the title of Vèndâvana dâsa's work then Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja would surely have mentioned that in CC.

There is, however, some evidence to refute this idea. In Gaura-ganoddesa- dipika, which was written early in 1498 Saka, Kavikarnapura refers to Vèndâvana dâsa as Vedavyasa. This indicates that at the time GGD was written Vèndâvana dâsa's book was quite well known as CBh.

In Caitanya-mangala Locana dâsa also refers to Vèndâvana dâsa's work as CBh. Caitanya-mangala was written sometime between 1482 and 1488 Saka. It appears therefore that the book CBh. which attained fame by 1482/1488 Saka was mentioned by Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja repeatedly as Caitanya-mangala, the reason for this is not clear.

According to some scholars the title of Vèndâvana dâsa's work was entitled CBh. right from the beginning, but since it is traditional to refer to books which are written in glorification of a particular deity by adding the suffix `mangala' (e.g. Candimangala, Manasamangala), it is natural to refer to a book describing the glories to Lord Caitanya as Caitanya-mangala. Hence Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja termed the Bengali book by Vèndâvana dâsa which was written for the glorification of Lord Caitanya as Caitanya-mangala (See CCU. by B.B. Majumdar).

The doubt which arises here is that had CBh. been the title of the work right from the beginning and was only popularly referred to as CM then the book of Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja would have surely contained some reference to this, direct or indirect.

It appears from statements of Locanadâsa and Kavikarnapura that Vèndâvana dâsa's work was titled CBh. right from the beginning. Unlike Kaviraja Gosvâmî, who concludes every chapter of CC. with the statement "Thus Kèëòadâsa narrates CC.", Vèndâvana dâsa did not refer to the title of his book. All the editions of CBh. consulted by R.G. Nath, except one, write the concluding lines as "Ärî Kèëòa caitanya nityanandacand jana Vèndâvanadâsa tachu padayuge gana" (Vèndâvana dâsa sings following the footsteps of Lord Caitanya-Nityânanda). In the AtulKèëòa Gosvâmî edition of CBh. 3rd ed., the concluding verse of the first chapter is written as follows: "Contemplating the lotus-feet of Lord Caitanya, Vèndâvanadâsa sings Caitanya-mangala." In the footnote Prabhupada A.K. Gosvâmî writes that at the end of each chapter the text varies (stated in other editions noted earlier) in some books. This shows that A.K. Gosvâmî found the bhanita with reference to Caitanya-mangala in all the other chapters although he never repeated this bhanita at the end of any other chapter except the first one.

It therefore leads one to conclude that had the bhanita "Vèndâvana dâsa kahe caitanya-mangala" been there in the book of Vèndâvana dâsa right from the beginning at least in chapter one and since the author nowhere in the book specifies the title CBh. then it is natural for some to argue that the book was known as CM. The mss. copy of CBh. found in Vèndâvana possibly had the bhanita of "Vèndâvana dâsa gana caitanya-mangala" hence Kaviraja Gosvâmî mentioned the book as CM throughout his own work.


Ärî Vakresvar Pandit was present with Ärîman Mahâprabhu during His pastimes in Navadwipa and after his acceptance of Sannyasa he also accompanied Him to Jagannath Purî. During the time of the Lord's residence in Purî he continued to live with Him there as well. Ärî Vakresvar Pandit took birth in the village of Guptipara near Triveni. He was an especially proficient dancer and kirtaniya and could dance continously for 72 hours.

When Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu began His pastimes of congregational chanting of the Holy Name of Ärî Hari in Navadwip, Ärî Vakresvar Pandit was an important singer and dancer in that assembly. It was by His mercy that Devânanda Pandit was delivered from the wrath of Mahâprabhu. He was also present during the Lord's journey to Ramakeli. Devânanda Pandit was, at one time, known as the foremost lecturer on the Bhagavat. One day Ärîvas Pandit went to hear his discourse, and being moved in ecstatic love by hearing the Bhâgavatam, he began to cry.

A few of the ignorant students of Devânanda Pandit, thinking that this was creating a disturbance, removed Ärîvas Pandit from the assembly and left him outside. Though this was done in front of Devânanda, he didn't restrain his students from this act of disregard to the devotee-Bhagavat. There are two types of Bhagavat - the book bhagavat and the devotee bhagavat. For this reason, Devânanda Pandit became implicated in an offense to a great devotee (maha-bhagavat).

When Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu came to hear how his dear devotee, Ärîvas Pandit, had been disrespected, he gave many instructions concerning the Bhagavat. He told that those who read the book Bhagavat but don't offer respects to the devotee-Bhagavat, are simply offenders, though they may read the Bhagavat for eons, still they will never attain love of Godhead. The devotee bhagavata and the book bhagavata are non-different. In order to understand the book-bhagavat one must first sincerely serve the devotee-bhagavata. Therefore Mahâprabhu neglected Devânanda and didn't bestow His mercy on him.

One evening Vakresvar Pandit came to perform dancing and chanting of the Holy Name at the house of one devotee from Kulia, across the bank of the Gaôgâ from Nadia. Receiving this auspicious news Devânanda proceeded there, and upon seeing the appearance of the symtoms of divine love in the person of Ärî Vakresvar Pandit he became charmed. Gradually a great crowd gathered at that place, and Devânanda Pandit, taking a cane in his hand, kept the crowd in order so as not to obstruct the ecstatic dancing of Ärî Vakresvar Pandit. In this way, Vakresvar Pandit performed chanting, and dancing for two praharas (six hours), on into the night.

When he finished dancing and sat down, Devânanda came and offered dandavats at the lotus feet of Ärî Vakresvar Pandit, who became pleased with this service and blessed Devânanda with the words "Kèëòa-bhakti hauk" - "May you attain devotion to Ärî Lord Kèëòa." From that day devotion was awakened in the heart of Devânanda by the mercy of Vakresvar Pandit.

Thereafter when Mahâprabhu came to Nadia to have darsan of his mother and mother Ganges, he bestowed His mercy on Devânanda at Kulia.

"Because you have served Vakresvar I have noticed you. Vakresvar is fully imbued with the Lord's transcendental energy, and whoever becomes devoted to him, attains to the lotus feet of Ärî Kèëòa. His heart is the personal abode of Ärî Kèëòa and as Ärî Kèëòa dances, so Vakresvar also dances. Wherever one can get the association of Vakresvar, that place is the sum total of all Holy places and is as good as Ärî Vaikuntha."

Vakresvar Pandit's disciple was Gopal Guru Goswami and Gopal Guru Goswami's disciple was Ärî Dhyancananda Goswami. In his Dhyan Candra Paddhati Dhyan Candra Goswami has written, "that person who was previously very expert in the arts of singing and dancing, the gopi, Tungavidya, is presently renowned in the world as Vakresvar Pandit. He has appeared on the fifth day of the dark fortnight of the month of Asar and he closed his pastimes in this world on the sixth day of the bright fortnight of the month Asar.

While Vakresvar danced, Mahâprabhu Himself would sing and Vakresvar would catch hold of His lotus feet, saying; "O moon-faced one, give me 10,000 Gandharvas, and let them sing while I dance. Then I will be happy." Mahâprabhu answered, "You are one of my wings. If I had another (like you) I could fly in the sky." (C. C. Adi 10.17).

Vakresvar Pandit's worshippable deity is Ärî Ärî Râdhâ-kanta, whom he worshipped in Kasi Misra's house, which was also the residence of Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu (Gambhira). These deities are still being worshipped there to this day.


He was born in Majitpura in the subdivision of Kisoraganja in the district of Mayamanasimha. His father's name was Sanatana Malovrahma. His former name was Bhairavacandra. According to usual custom, he married at an early age but he had no attraction for married life. Being repeatedly requested by his mother, he dealt with his wife for a single day only. He was initiated into the family of Narottama Ùhâkura and accepted the garb of an ascetic. At that time the influence of the Kalacanda doctrine was very prominent throughout the country. He first began worshipping following that particular doctrine, but later entered into the realm of pure Gaudiya Vaisnavism.

At one one Siddha Ärî Gaurakisore Baba went to Navadvipa and seeing the sincerity of service of Siddha baba opined, "After Gaurakisore, he will be a great successor but his doctrine will be different."

While in Navadvipa, Vamsidâsa Baba lived in a hermitage and begged alms. Later when the charge of serving Ärî Gaura fell on him, he became totally dependent on begging. He built a simply hut near the house of the elder Gosvâmî in Caumuhani and lived there with his Gaurahari. When he went out begging, he would sometimes carry Gaurahari with him.

Vamsidâsa never shut the door of his hut, though occasionally his belongings would be stolen by thieves. When his devotees requested him to lock the door he replied, "If He neglects His own house, what Vamsidâsa will do?" Once a devotee gave a golden chain for Gaurahari and a thief stole it. When Vamsidâsa came back from begging he said to his Deity, "To whom have you given Your chain?" In the evening he got some clue and went to the house of the thief. When he requested the thief to give back the chain the thief pushed him from the verandah to the ground. He did not speak a word, but since then he lost one of his legs. Eventually that thief lost everyone in his family. Being harassed by the municipality, Vamsidâsa left his hut and began to live near the social center house of Jhautala. Once in the rainy season, he covered his Gaurahari with a ragged blanket and from time to time wiped His face which was wet with drops of rain. Ärîmati Lalita Sakhi dasi could not drag him to live in the Nathmandir or to build a roof over his head.

Vamsidâsa's Deity used to speak to him. Babaji never went anywhere except once to Kenduvilva and once to Kheturi. At the end of his life he stayed for a long time in a room north of the Badala ghat. There he served Ärî Nitai-Gaura and

Gadâdhara, Ärî Râdhâ-Govinda and Ärî Gopala. He engaged in their service constantly without wasting a minute.

He memorised the entire Prarthana and Prema-bhakti-candrika by Ärî Narottama Ùhâkura. Sometimes he sang from Prarthana. He never spoke angrily to anyone, neither did he speak of "I" or "my". He used to address himself as Vamsidâsa. He always cooked for himself and offered whatever he made to his Deity, never accepting anything but prasada. Even when he became ill, he simply fasted and never allowed anyone to nurse him.

There was a campaka tree in the garden nearby which gave two campaka flowers everyday to him. Even in his old age, he could climb the tree like a strong young man. One day, however, he fell from the tree and was severely injured. From that time forward he was unable to go outside and at that time his disciples, Manohara dâsa, Govinda dâsa and Jagadvandhu dâsa, looked after him.


Ärî Vansivadananda Ùhâkura appeared on the full moon day of the month of Caitra. Within Kulia exist the villages, Teghari, Beciya, Bedrapara and Cinedanga. The sons of Ärîkar Cattopadhyay moved from Bilvagram (Patuli) to Beciyanagram. Ärî Ärî Yudhisthir Cattopadhyay had three sons: Madhava das (Chakari Cattopadhyay), Ärî Hari dâsa (Tin Kari) and Ärî Kèëòa Sampati (Dui Kari).

When Mahâprabhu came from Purî to have darsan of his mother and the river Ganges he stayed for seven days in the house of Madhava dâsa at Kulia. At this time he excused Devânanda Pandit along with all of the offences of everyone else. Therefore the place came to be known as 'Aparadh Banjan Pat.'

Ärî Vansi Ùhâkura appeared in the home of Ärî Madhava dâsa. His mother's name was Ärîmati Candrakala Devi. Vansivadananda is the incarnation of Ärî Kèëòa's flute. On the day of his birth Mahâprabhu was present in the house of Ärî Madhava das, along with Ärî Advaita Âcârya. Madhava was very devoted to

Mahâprabhu and Prabhu was also very affectionate to him and his son Vansi. Vansi das was present at Navadwipa when Âcârya Prabhu came there.

Vamsi was engaged in the service of Viëòupriya and was the receptacle of her unlimited mercy. One time Viëòupriya devi and Vansi Ùhâkura decided to give up taking food and water, there not being any point in maintaining their bodies which were so racked with the pain of separation from Mahâprabhu. Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, however, didn't approve of this and manifested Himself before them. Then He requested them not to behave so rashly, and then instructed them both to worship His Deity form in order to mitigate their feelings of separation.

After Viëòupriya's disappearance Vamsivadana brought this Deity of Mahâprabhu from Mayapura to Kulia. This Deity of Mahâprabhu is very beautiful and is still being worshipped in the present town of Navadwip. The name of the temple and Deity is Dhameswara. It is said that the name Vansivadananda is carved into the underneath of the base of the Deity.

When his descendant, Ramacandra Gosvâmî came to live at Baghna Para by the mercy of Jahnava Mata, the worship of the Deity passed into the hands of the residents of Malancha.

There was a Deity of Gopinath at Kulia worshipped by Vamsi's ancestors and he personally installed a Deity of Pranaballabha at their home in Kulia. Where these Deities are at present is unknown. Vamsi Thakur resided at Bilvagram for some time with his relatives there. He had two sons, Ärî Caitanya dâsa and Ärî Nityânanda dâsa. The two sons of Caitanya dâsa were Ärî Ramacandra and Ärî Sacinândana. Ramacandra was the adopted son and disciple of Jahnava Mata. He established the worship of Ärî Ärî Kanai Balai at Baghna Para. As he never married the worship passed on to his brother Sacinândana whose descendants are the resident Gosvâmîs there.

Ärî Vansivadananda was a poet and composer of songs. He composed one song about the Lord's acceptance of sannyasa based on the lamentations of Ärî Sacimata and Ärî Viëòupriya. Some say that Ramai (Ramacandra Gosvâmî), the son of Caitanya dâsa (Vansi Ùhâkura's son) Gosai was an incarnation of Vansi Ùhâkura.


Vamsivadana Ùhâkura was born on the full moon day of Caitra (March-April) in 1416 Saka (Vamsi sikhsa). He was referred to as Vamsivadana, Vamsidâsa, Vamsi and Ärî Vadana. The sons of the famous Ärîkara Cattapadhya came to live in Kuliya Vendiada village from Vilvagrama or Patuli. Ärî Yudhisthira Cattapadhya, the descendant of Ärîkara, had three sons: Ärî Madhava dâsa Cattapadhya (Chakadi Cattapadhya), Ärî Haridâsa Cattapadhya (Tinkadi) and Ärî Kèëòasampatti Cattapadhya (Duikadi).

When Lord Caitanya from Purî to Navadvipa Kuliya to visit Sacimata and Gaôgâ devi, He stayed in the house of Madhava dâsa Cattapadhya for seven days and there showed His mercy to Ärî Devânanda Paòàita and others (GGD. 179, Pata Paryatana)

Ärî Vamsivadananda Ùhâkura was born in the house of Ärî Madhava dâsa (Chakadi). His mother's name was Ärîmati Candrakala devi. He was the manifestation of Ärî Kèëòa's flute. At the time of his birth, Mahâprabhu was present, as well as Advaita Âcârya. Chakadi Cattapadhya was a very ardent devotee of Mahâprabhu. Lord Gaurâôga was very affectionate to Vamsivadananda. He is not mentioned in CC, but is refered to in CCN. In BRK, chapter nine pp. 122-123, Ärî Narahari Cakravarti states that when Ärînivasa came to the house of Mahâprabhu in Navadvipa, Vamsivadananda Ùhâkura showed his mercy to Ärînivasa and helped him to have a darsana of Ärî Viëòupriya devi. After the disappearance of Lord Caitanya, Vamsivadananda took care of Viëòupriya devi. He was famous as an ardent follower of Viëòupriya devi. After the death of Viëòupriya devi, he transferred the Deity to Mayapura Kuliya Pahadapura. When his descendants took shelter in Baghnapada after taking shelter of Ärî Jahnava mata, at that time that Deity was still in the hands of Malanca dwellers in Kuliya village.

In Kuliya Pahadapura the ancestors of Ärî Vamsivadananda Ùhâkura took care of the Deity of Ärî Gopinatha. There he himself installed the Deity of Premavallava. In later years, he lived in Vilvagrama. The Bhattacarya family of Vilvagrama were his relatives. Ärî Vamsivadananda had two sons, Ärî Caitanya dâsa and Ärî Nitai dâsa. Ärî Ramacandra and Ärî Sacinândana were the sons of Ärî Caitanya dâsa. Ärî Jahnava mata prayed for Ramacandra and took him into her own care. She initiated him and kept him in Adadaha to teach him the Vaisnava tattva (Gaudiya no. 22/30-37). Ärî Ramacandra Gosvâmî remained as brahmacari and gave the charge of worshiping Ärî RamaKèëòa of Baghnapada to his younger brother Ärî Sacinândana. Ärî Sacinândana's sons are the Gosvâmîs of Baghnapada.

Ärî Vamsivadananda Ùhâkura composed padas which were were lively and beautiful. He composed an equisite song about Sacimata's lamentation when the Lord took sannyasa. He also composed many songs on Dana lila, Nauka vilasa, and Vana vihara of Ärî Kèëòa.

There are 17 padas in Padakalpataru with the bhanita of Vamsidâsa and 25 padas with the bhanita of Vamsivadana. Vamsivadananda was the founding father of the Gosvâmî family of Baghnapada. His biography is narrated in the following semi-authentic books: Muralivilasa, Vamsisiksa, Vamsivilasa, Vaisnava Vandana of Jiva 249, Devakinândana 86, Vèndâvanadâsa 114.


Ärî Viracandra or Virabhadra Prabhu appeared on the ninth day of the dark fortnight of the month of Kartik. Kèëòa dâsa Kaviraja Gosvâmî has given this description of Him in the C.c. Adi 11.8-12:

"After Nityânanda Prabhu, the greatest branch is Virabhadra Gosani, who also has innumerable branches and subbranches. It is not possible to describe them all. Although Virabhadra Gosani was the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He presented Himself as a great devotee. And although the Supreme Godhead is transcendental to all Vedic injunctions, He strictly followed the Vedic rituals. He is the main pillar in the hall of devotional service erected by Ärî Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He knew within himself that He acted as the Supreme Lord Viëòu, but externally He was prideless. It is by the mercy of Ärî Virabhadra Gosani that people all over the world now have the chance to chant the names of Caitanya and Nityânanda. I therefore take shelter of the lotus feet of Virabhadra Gosani so that by His mercy my great desire to write Ärî Caitanya-caritamrta will be properly guided."

Ärî Virabhadra Gosvâmî is the son of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu and the disciple of Ärî Jahnava Mata. His mother is Ärîmati Vasudha Devi. In the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika it is described that Ärî Viracandra Prabhu is an incarnation of Ksirodakasayi Viëòu, one of the expansions of Ärî Sankarsana. He is thus not different from Lord Caitanya Himself.

Once upon a time, Isvari (Ärî Jahnava Mata) went to the house of one Yadunândana Âcârya of Jhamatpur near Rajbol Hat (?) and by her mercy he became a devotee. Yadunândana's wife was extremely devoted to her husband and his two daughters, Ärîmati and Narayani, posessed bodily forms which excelled the limits of mortal beauty. By the desire of Isvari that very perfect brahmana gave these two daughters in marriage to Prabhu Viracandra. (B.R. 13)

Ärî Yadunândana Âcârya became the disciple of Viracandra Prabhu and Ärîmati and Ärî Narayani were given initiation in mantra by Ärî Jahnava Mata. Viracandra Prabhu had a sister, Ärîmati Gaôgâdevi, who was none other than Mother Gaôgâ herself. Her husband Madhavacarya was an incarnation of Raja Santanu.

Taking permission from his mother, Viracandra Prabhu set out on a pilgrimmage to Vrindavana. First he came to Saptagram and proceeded to the house of Ärî Uddharana Datta Ùhâkura where He was met by Uddharana Datta's son, Ärînivasa Datta. Ärînivasa greeted Him with respect and showed Him all hospitality for the two days that he stayed there. From there He went to Santipur where He was led to Advaita Bhavan in a kirtan procession by Advaita Âcârya's son, Ärî Kèëòa Misra. Next he crossed the Ganges River and came to Gaurî dâsa Paòàita's house in Ambika Kalna. Ärî Hrdaya Caitanya Prabhu respectfully greeted Him and honored Him as His guest. From here He came to Navadvipa, to the house of Jagannâtha Miära. When the family members and associates of Mahâprabhu learned that He was the son of Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu, they were highly pleased and showed Him all courtesies.

After spending two days there He came to Ärî Khanda where He was greeted very respectfully and affectionately by Ärî Raghunândana and by Ärî Kanai Ùhâkura. He spent a few days there, and then went to Ärînivâsa Âcârya Prabhu's house in Jajigram, where Âcârya Prabhu received his exalted guest by offering Him the appropriate worship. A few days passed in the ecstasy of sankirtan and then Viracandra Prabhu came to Kantak Nagan (Katwa). He remained there for one day and then proceeded to Bhudarigram. There He was received by Ärî Govinda Kaviraj who worshiped His lotus feet and offered Him all hospitality. Ärî Viracandra Prabhu was very pleased at his devotion and remained there for a couple of days. Thereafter He made His auspicious arrival in Kheturi.

As soon as he received news of His arrival, Ärî Narottama Ùhâkura came out in great ecstasy to meet Ärî Viracandra Prabhu. He led Him into the courtyard of the temple of Ärî Gaurâôga where sankirtan accompanied with ecstatic dancing commenced. A steady crowd of people thronged to get a glimpse of Prabhu Viracandra. (B.R. 13)

After spending a few days in Kheturi in ecstatic sankirtana, Viracandra Prabhu set off for Ärî Vrindavana Dhama. Along the way many sinful and atheistic people were delivered by His influence. As news of His arrival reached Vrindavana, the Gosvâmîs, namely Ärîla Jiva Goswvami, Ärîla Kèëòa dâsa Kaviraj Gosvâmî, Ärî Ananta Âcârya, Ärî Hari dâsa Paòàita, Ärî Kèëòa dâsa Brahmacari (Ärî Madhu Gopala's pujari, a disciple of Ärî Gadâdhara Paòàita), Ärî Madhu Paòàita (pujari of Ärî Gopinatha), Ärî Bhavananda, Ärî Kasisvara, as well as his disciple Ärî Govinda Gosvâmî and Ärî Yadavacarya were all informed.

The Gosvâmîs, accompanied by many residents of Ärî Vrindavana Dhama, all came out to meet Prabhu Viracandra. Everyone was overwhelmed by His appearance in ecstatic love, and they all were humming like bumble bees in discussing His good qualities. Prabhu Viracandra, in the company of these exalted souls, took darsana of Ärî Madana Mohana, Ärî Govindaji, Ärî Gopinatha, the principal Deities in Vrindavana. (B.R. 13)

After receiving the consent of Ärî Jiva Gosvâmî and Ärî Bhugarbha Gosvâmî, Prabhu Viracandra set out to wander in the twelve forests of Vrajamandala, becoming completely overwhelmed by seeing the various places of Kèëòa's pastimes, like Ärî Râdhâ Kunda, Ärî Shyama Kunda and Giri Govardhana. His display of ecstatic symptoms captivated the Brijbasis. After seeing the sights of Ärî Vrajadhama, Viracandra Prabhu returned to Gaudadesa.

All of the divine qualities of His father, Ärî Nityânanda Prabhu, were fully present in Him. Those who were fortunate enough to witness His ecstatic love praised His glories far and wide.

Gopijana Vallabha, Rama Kèëòa and Ramacandra, who are thought by some to be the sons of Virabhadra Gosai, were actually His disciples. The youngest, Rama Kèëòa, who resided at Khardaha, belonged to the Sandilya Gotra and was a member of the Batabyal brahmana community, known for their accomplishment in studying the Vedas. The oldest, Gopijana Vallabha, lived at Latagram near Manakar, in the district of Barddhaman. The middle one, Ramacandra, lived at Ganeshpur near Maldah. Because their gotras and surnames (titles) were different, and because they lived at different places, it is concluded they were not actually Viracandra Prabhu's sons.

His birthplace is at Khardaha, which now is a rail station on the Sealdah-Kèëòanagar line. The village where Nityânanda Prabhu made His advent in this world - Ekacakra - is also named Viracandrapur. Here the Deity of Ärî Bankim Raya was worshiped by Viracandra Prabhu.


She was the second wife of Lord Gaurâôga. In her past incarnation she was Bhusakti and Satyabhama (GGD. 48). The following is her genealogical line:

Durgadâsa Misra



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Sanatana Misra Kalidâsa Misra

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Viëòupriya Madhava Misra



Yadava Misra

According to another view, Viëòupriya was the daughter of Durgadâsa Misra and his son was Yadava, while Yadava's son was Madhava. Prema-vilasa states that Yadavacarya took diksa from Viëòupriya and served the deity of Lord Gaurâôga. Descendants of Yadava are referred to as belonging to the `Viëòupriya family.'

As a child Viëòupriya bathed three times daily in the Ganges, she had great reverence for her parents, and received the blessings of Mother Saci (CBh. 1.15.46-48).

The marriage between Viëòupriya and Visvambhara was negotiated by Kasinatha Paòàita (CBh. 1.15.49-214)

Viëòupriya's reaction after hearing of Lord Gaurâôga's decision to accept sannyasa, and the words of comfort offered to her by Her husband are recorded in Caitanyamangala 2.12.1-40.

Later, Lord Caitanya listened to news of Viëòupriya conveyed by Jagadananda (Advaita-prakasa 21).

After the Lord's acceptance of sannyasa Viëòupriya always remained within the house, with the exception of taking bath daily at the Ganges along with Saci devi. When devotees went there to partake of prasadam, they saw only the feet of Viëòupriya. Never did they see her face, nor hear her voice. A constant flow of tears continually streamed down her saddened face. She ate only the remnants of food left by Mother Saci, and constantly chanted the holy name. She installed a picture of Lord Gaurâôga and offered service to it with great love and devotion.

BRK. 4.48-52 describes Viëòupriya's suffering in separation from the Lord as follows: "Due to separation from the Lord, Viëòupriya lay on the floor with wide-open eyes, seldom able to sleep, and her bright golden complexion grew pale. She gradually became extremely thin, like the moon on the fourteenth day of the dark fortnight. While chanting the holy name she collected a few grains of rice which she cooked and ate. No one knew how she maintained her life."

In a dream Lord Caitanya commanded her to shower mercy upon Ärînivâsa Âcârya (BRK. 4.25-36). Thus with deep affection she placed her feet on the head of Ärînivasa (BRK. 4.44.46)

The following is a narration from Prema-vilasa 5 which explains how Viëòupriya practiced namabhajan: "Come brothers, listen to how Isvari (Viëòupriya) is chanting the holy name of the Lord, as it arouses in the listener a feeling of what lila is. She would place two fresh earthen pots on either side of her. One pot was empty and the other contained grains of rice. After chanting one round of japa she placed one grain of rice into the empty pot. She thus continued her japa until the third quarter of the day. Those grains which she had placed in the empty pot were then cooked and offered to the Lord with tears. Day and night she chanted the holy name..."

The following is taken from GPC:

The supreme power of God is divided into three categories--Ärî, Bhu and Nila. Ärî Viëòupriya is the manifestation of `Bhu' and she was also formerly Satyabhama. In Gaura-lila, Ärî Viëòupriya Ùhâkurani appeared to assist in the preaching of the holy name.

Sanatana Misra, a brahmana and ardent devotee of Lord Viëòu, lived in Navadvipa. He used to maintain many families and was famous as a court- Paòàita. In Dvapara-yuga he was King Satrajit. By virtue of worshiping Lord Viëòu, Sanatana Misra had a very beautiful daughter named Ärî Viëòupriya who was adorned with all good qualities. From her early childhood she bathed in the Ganges twice or thrice daily. In worshiping or observing vows she was most interested in following her elders. Whenever she happened to meet Mother Saci on the river side she offered her respect in a very gentle way. Mother Saci was eager to have her as a daughter-in-law.

While the Lord was absorbed in His activities, Mother Saci constantly thought of the Lord's marriage. Ärî Sanatana Misra was a pious and charitable brahmana, a benevolent and pure-hearted devotee of Lord Viëòu. He lived in Navadvipa where he was engaged in serving guests and assisting less fortunate people. Born of a noble family, he was truthful and self controlled. As a scholar he earned the title Raja Paòàita and as a gentleman in Navadvipa he personally maintained many needy people.

Sanatana Misra's daughter was like Laksmi Devi in beauty and character. As soon as Mother Saci saw her, she was convinced that this girl was the best choice to be her son's wife. From early childhood the young girl bathed regularly in the Gaôgâ two or three times a day. She was dedicated and obedient to her parents and she had no other interest than devotion to Lord Kèëòa. Everyday when she met Mother Saci at the bathing place in the Gaôgâ, she humbly offered her respects. Mother Saci reciprocated and blessed her saying, "May Kèëòa bless you with a suitable husband." But as Mother Saci bathed she thought, "This girl should marry my son." Ärî Sanatana Misra and all his near relatives were equally eager to have the Lord as a son in law . One day Mother Saci sent for Kasinatha Paòàita and told him, "My dear sir, I have a proposition: go tell the Raja Paòàita that if he so desires he may offer his daughter's hand in marriage to my son." Kasinatha Paòàita proceeded immediately to Ärî Sanatana Misra's house, repeating the Lord's name in silent joy.

When the Raja Paòàita saw Kasinatha Paòàita at his door he immediately offered him a seat with due respect. "What brings you here, my dear Sir?" asked Ärî Misra.

"I have come with a proposal, and if you so desire I will reveal it to you, replied Kasinatha Paòàita. "You should offer your daughter Viëòupriya in marriage to Visvambhara Paòàita. I think it is a perfect match. He is a divine personality, suitable in all respects for your daughter. Your daughter, who is chastity personified, will be the best for him. Viëòupriya and Nimai Paòàita remind me of the divine couple Kèëòa and Rukmini, so perfectly suited they are for each other."

Raja Paòàita disclosed the news to his wife and near relatives and waited for their advice and comments. Unanimously they agreed, "What is the need for further debate? This is a perfect proposition. Quickly make all the necessary arrangements." The Raja Paòàita happily replied to Kasinatha Paòàita, "I have decided to marry my daughter to Visvambhara Paòàita so I will proceed with all the arrangements. If the Lord desires my family and ancestors will be greatly blessed by this marriage for my daughter. Kindly go to their house and tell them everything, I am fully in favor of this marriage."

Ärî Kasinatha Paòàita was extremely satisfied with the outcome of his mission and he promptly told Mother Saci everything that had transpired. Mother Saci was relieved that everything had gone smoothly. Without wasting further time she began the preparations.

Nimai's students were jubilant when news of His marriage reached them. A rich gentleman named Buddhimanta Khan immediately offered, "I shall bear the cost of the entire marriage."

But Mukunda Sanjaya objected, "My dear brother and friend, if you take all the responsibilities, then what am I supposed to do?"

"Listen my dear friend," said Buddhimanta Khan "I will not allow this marriage to become another poor brahmana's wedding, I will make such arrangements for Nimai Paòàita's wedding that everyone will think a prince is getting married."

Adhivas, an important ceremony before the day of the marriage, was held at an auspicious time amidst great joy and festivity. The area set aside for the actual marriage ceremony was decorated with colorful hangings around the sides and across the tops. Water pots with intricate designs, ghee lamps, grains, yogurt, and strings of young mango leaves were hung all around. Different auspicious ingredients required for such an occasion were placed on the floor which had been beautifully designed with colored rice paste.

The Vaisnava devotees of the Lord, the brahmanas and all the gentlemen of Navadvipa attended the auspicious occasion. Invitations had been sent to all of them requesting them to attend the feast in the evening of the day of the adhivas. By early afternoon the musicians had already arrived and began to play. Loud and melodious sounds of mrdanga and other drums, shani, and cymbals were carried in all directions. The priests began to chant the Vedic mantras and the ladies ululated, adding to the festive mood.

The crest jewel of the brahmana race, Nimai Paòàita, seated Himself in the midst of the Vedic chanters. The priests and brahmanas around Him felt a surge of joy in His presence. Different objects required to formally receive the guests were brought to Nimai Paòàita. He garlanded the respectable gentlemen with flowers and applied sandalwood paste on their foreheads, offering each of them a betel nut and betel leaf according to the custom of the time.

The brahmana population in Navadvipa was large in those days, so countless gentlemen came and went with one keeping track. Some amongst them were very greedy and returned again and again, mixing with the crowd and pretending they had just arrived in order to receive another gift. Having received invitations, people came from distant localities and were unknown to each other, but despite such anonymity there was a strong festive spirit. The Lord was in a joyful mood and He played the perfect host.

"Give all the flower garlands, sandalwood paste and other gifts to the guests at least three times," ordered Nimai. "Do not think about the cost, just give freely to everyone. The greedy brahmanas who were endeavoring to take the free gifts several times were suddenly checked and felt ashamed because of the Lord's generosity. The brahmanas were dear to the Lord and He wanted to protect their religiosity. Some men were committing offenses by deceitfully collecting extra gifts, therefore He gave the instruction to give the gifts three time to any person. After receiving the gifts three times, no one wanted anymore. They were satisfied.

No one amongst the milling guests knew that the flower garlands, sandalwood paste and betel leaf they had received were actually expansions of Lord Ananta Sesa, serving His master the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nimai Paòàita. In the profuse distribution of gifts, some flowers, sandal paste and betel leaf fell to the ground, and the quantity of those remnants would have sufficed for five opulent weddings, not counting those gifts which were taken home by the guests. Every visitor was impressed by the arrangements and left the wedding praising the opulence of the ceremonies. Even the wealthiest men of Navadvipa were impressed for their fathers had not spent so lavishly for their weddings. The profusion of flowers, sandal paste, betel leaf, betel nut and other gifts had never been seen in Navadvipa. Raja Paòàita, Ärî Sanatana Misra, was extremely happy. He and his close relatives attended the adhivas, laden with valuable gifts. At an auspicious moment, he joyfully applied tilaka to the Lord's forehead, just as the Vedas recommended. The excitement of the moment was heightened by the loud chanting of Lord Hari's name accompanied by the musicians and the ululating ladies.

Having completed all of his ceremonial duties Raja Paòàita returned home. The relatives of Nimai Paòàita then went to Raja Paòàita's house to perform the same adhivas ceremony for Viëòupriya. Whatever was customary for a marriage in those days was performed in the midst of great festivity. Early the next morning the Lord went for His bath in the Gaôgâ, and on returning he went directly to the temple to worship the Supreme Lord Viëòu. Thereafter He sat with His close relations to offer obeisances to their forefathers for their satisfaction. The festive mood was maintained by the musicians, dancers and singers performing loudly enough for everyone to hear. Every corner of the house was decorated, there were beautiful designs on the floor, water pots, grains, yogurt, lamps and strings of auspicious mango leaves hung everywhere. Colored festoons fluttered like flags in the wind, and the air was filled with festive excitement. The chaste ladies of Navadvipa accompanied Mother Saci while performing all the customary and traditional rituals. First they went to the Gaôgâ for their bath and then, followed by musicians, they visited the village deity Sasti where they prayed for her blessings. From the temple they visited the house of different relatives and then returned home. She distributed khol, bananas, oil, betel nut, betel leaf, and vermillion to the ladies who had accompanied her and satisfied them in every respect. By the will of the omnipotent Supreme Lord, there was no dearth of anything so Mother Saci generously distributed her gifts to the ladies several times over. Not a single lady was dissatisfied. They happily rubbed oil on their bodies and bathed.

Viëòupriya Devi's house was also in a state of great excitement; her mother bustled with happiness. Caught in the waves of ecstasy, Raja Paòàita spent lavishly and offered his daughter wholeheartedly to Lord Gaurasundara.

After completing all of His rituals the Lord sat down to rest and from that place He humbly distributed food and clothes to all the assembled brahmanas. He offered respects to each person according to his position and gave in charity to satisfy each person's need. The brahmanas blessed the Lord and returned to their houses fully satisfied.

In the afternoon the relatives came to dress Lord Gaurasundara for his marriage that evening. They decorated his entire body with sandalwood paste and applied aromatic perfumes on different parts of his body. On his forehead they drew a half-moon shaped tilaka with sandalwood paste, placed a beautiful crown lightly on His head and draped His neck with fragrant flower garlands. A fine, expensive silk dhoti was tied expertly around His hips; it shone golden yellow like the setting sun. His pink lotus-shaped eyes were smeared with kajal ointment, black as the bumblebee. He held the auspicious three-bladed grass and the pit of a banana tree, while exquisite and expensive golden earrings swayed from his ears and other valuable jewelry decorated His upper arms and His neck. Each of the relatives decorated the Lord according to his own taste, hanging different types of jewelry on different parts of His body. Men and women both marvelled at the Lord's exquisite beauty. They forgot themselves fixed as they were on the beauty of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Almost an hour before the time of marriage the relatives decided that the Lord should proceed to the house of the bride. "Let us begin the journey," they announced. "For an hour the bridegroom will parade through the town before arriving at the bride's house." Buddhimanta Khan appeared suddenly with a beautiful palanquin. The musicians started up afresh and the priests began chanting Vedic mantras; singers, dancers and guests all joined in a jubilant clamor. The Lord first circumambulated Mother Saci and offered her respects, then offered respects to the brahmanas and sat on the palanquin in the midst of the joyful confusion which included the ululating ladies.

It was early evening and the marriage procession went first to the bank of the river Gaôgâ. The waxing moon hung nearly full above their heads and shimmered in the water of the Gaôgâ. Hundreds of lamps were lit and music played on with undying enthusiasm. In front of the Lord's palanquin were two long rows of Ärî Buddhimanta Khan's estate employees followed by the festoon holders bearing colored flags. In their midst were the jesters, joking and evoking laughter. There were a variety of dancers performing many different dance styles, while the countless musicians played at least five kinds of drums, cymbals, conch shells, flutes, bells, kettle drums and a variety of horns. Excited young children danced amongst the musicians and caught in the festive atmosphere, even older people abandoned their reserve and joined the children while the Lord smiled at the happy sight. On the bank of the Gaôgâ they stopped for a while singing, dancing and playing the instruments before proceeding to the bride's house. After offering flowers to Mother Gaôgâ, the entire procession turned towards town. Whoever witnessed the parade was struck with wonder at its opulence. "I have seen many extravagant marriages, but I have never witnessed anything like this one before," said one person. The residents of Navadvipa were fortunate to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead in person as He swayed past them in His palanquin.

The brahmanas who had beautiful, unmarried daughters in their homes all lamented. "It is a great pity and certainly my misfortune that I could not give my daughter in marriage to this handsome young man. But what can l do?" I offer my obeisances at the feet of all the residents of Navadvipa who witnessed this transcendental joyful pastime of the Lord.

After the procession had passed through all the different localities of Navadvipa they arrived at the house of Ärî Sanatana Misra, the Raja Paòàita. Everyone came out of the house, ululating and making other loud sounds of welcome for the procession. Raja Paòàita came forward to receive the Lord from the palanquin, helped Him step down and took Him inside where a seat had been prepared. The joy Raja Paòàita felt was indescribable and the love and respect he felt for the Lord was visible on his face as he escorted Nimai Paòàita into his house. He showered flowers on the Lord as a blessing and welcome. The reception party from the bride's side consisted of relatives and priests who came forward with fine clothes, jewelry and other precious gifts for the Lord. The bride's mother placed the auspicious three-bladed grass on the Lord's head and then worshipped him with seven ghee lamps. At that time Viëòupriya Devi, who had been dressed exquisitely took her seat. The relatives of Nimai Paòàita were both impressed and satisfied to see such a beautiful bride. They lifted the Lord onto His seat according to the marriage ritual. They hung a curtain around the Lord, and Viëòupriya Devi circumambulated Ärî Gaurasundara seven times. Then facing Him with folded hands, she offered her respectful obeisances. The relatives threw flowers on the couple, and the air filled with loud music and the ululations of the ladies. Viëòupriya Devi placed a flower garland at the lotus feet of her Lord offering Him her life and soul. The Lord picked up the flower garland and smiling sweetly, placed it a round her neck. Again the divine couple was drowned in a shower of flower petals. Unseen by the common men, demigods like Lord Brahma also showered flowers on Ärî Viëòupriya Devi and Ärî Gaurasundara. Lord Gaurasundara's group competed with Viëòupriya Devi's group in showering flowers and making joyous sounds. Absorbed in the contest, everyone forgot their own cares and worries. Sometimes the Lord's side seemed to be victorious and at other times Viëòupriya Devi's side seemed more enthusiastic. The Lord was pleased to see everyone enjoying themselves in such a wonderful way.

Thousands of lamps shed bright light everywhere and the loud and joyous sounds of song and instruments filled the sky. By the time the moment came for the bride and bridegroom to exchange glances, the universe seemed inundated by tumultuous and joyful sounds. Then the divine couple sat down and Raja Paòàita sat with them to officially offer his daughter to Lord Gaurasundara. In the midst of all the rituals and chanting of mantras, the marriage began with Raja Paòàita offering his daughter and praying for the Lord's pleasure. Along with his daughter Raja Paòàita also gave nice cows full of milk, lots of land and property, beds and furniture, maids and servants, and other valuable gifts. Viëòupriya Devi sat on the left of the Lord as the brahmanas lit the fire and began the `Homa'. After all the customs and traditional rituals were completed the bride and the bridegroom went into a well decorated reception room.

Raja Paòàita's house was transformed into Vaikuntha, and the guests came in to enjoy the marvelous feast. Countless people came and all left fully satisfied. The newly-wed bride and groom spent the night in Viëòupriya Devi's house amidst great joy.

The happiness Sanatana Paòàita felt can not be described. He reveled in the same inconceivable good fortune which befall great sages such as Nagnajit, Janaka, Bhisma and Jambavan who also became the fathers-in-law of Lord Kèëòa or Lord Ramacandra. The divine couple passed the night and next morning till mid-day in Sanatana Misra's house. Then the Raja Paòàita and his relatives bid farewell to Lord Gaurasundara and Viëòupriya. In the midst of music, kirtana, the blessings of the brahmanas and the chanting of mantras appropriate for such a journey, Nimai offered His respects to the elderly members of His father-in-law's family and left with Viëòupriya Devi on a palanquin for Saci Mata's house.

The people they met along the way all blessed them and congratulated them, ladies spoke respectfully of the good fortune of the bride saying, "She is very fortunate, she must have worshipped Laksmi Devi for many births."

Others commented, "This couple is just like Lord Äiva and Gaurî."

Still others said, "They must be Laksmi and Ärî Hari."

"They are Cupid and Rati, or Indra and Saci, or they must be Ramacandra and Sita Devi."

Truly, the good fortune of the residents of Navadvipa is unfathomable, for they were able to see the Supreme Lord and His eternal consort. Such was the extent of their piety. The whole of Nadia was blessed and the residents experienced unrestrained joy by being able to see Viëòupriya Devi and Lord Gaurasundara, Narayana.

Finally the divine couple arrived at the house of Mother Saci. Accompanied by other ladies, Mother Saci went out to jubilantly welcome the divine couple into her house, where she seated them amidst joyous sounds and music. How can one express the joy Mother Saci and everyone else felt at the presence of Viëòupriya and Gaurahari? So magnanimous is the Supreme Lord that one becomes completely free from all sinful activities and their reactions just by looking at the transcendental lustre of the Lord. Moreover, he becomes eligible to enter the spiritual sky, the Vaikuntha planets. Everyone from all walks of life could see the Lord and His spiritual effulgence. Therefore He has been called the most compassionate, the only friend of the fallen souls.

Nimai Paòàita freely distributed clothes and gifts to all the performers, dancers and the beggars who had come to the house of Mother Saci. To the brahmana relatives and friends, He gave sufficient gifts to satisfy them all, and satisfy Himself as well. To Buddhimanta Khan the Lord gave a tight and affectionate embrace, leaving Buddhimanta Khan in indescribable ecstasy (CBh. Adi 15). After describing the marriage ceremony, Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura seldom mentioned the name of Ärî Viëòupriya Devi again.

Later, when Mahâprabhu returned from Gaya He began expressing ecstatic love for Lord Kèëòa. On seeing his divine sentiments, Mother Saci thought that her son had been attacked with a severe disease and so she began to intently worship Lord Viëòu and goddess Gaôgâ for the protection of her son. She also placed Viëòupriya in front of the Lord in order to give Him company, but Mahâprabhu stared at her with a vacant look in His eyes (CBh. Madhya). When Mother Saci tried to feed her son with rice offered to Lord Kèëòa, Mahâprabhu simply chanted the holy name of the Lord incessantly while the devoted wife Viëòupriya watched everything from within her room. Absorbed in love of Godhead, Mahâprabhu displayed extraordinary symptoms which Mother Saci could not understand. Sometimes He became agitated and shouted loudly. When Mother Saci advised Viëòupriya to sit near Him, the Lord would sometimes try to assault Viëòupriya. When he regained His external consciousness, He felt ashamed of his behavior (CBh. Madhya)

Sometimes Viëòupriya would offer her husband betel leaf, and the Lord would express His satisfaction while chewing it. On seeing Mahâprabhu in a happy mood, Viëòupriya became delighted. Mahâprabhu used to sit with Viëòupriya to satisfy his mother.

When Mahâprabhu danced, absorbed in the feelings of Rukmini, in the house of Candrasekhar, Ärî Viëòupriya went to watch the performance along with Mother Saci. After describing the Lord's acceptance of the sannyasa order, Ärî Vèndâvana dâsa Ùhâkura never again mentions the name of Viëòupriya. In CC. Kèëòadâsa Kaviraja only describes the marriage ceremony of Mahâprabhu (CC. Adi 15)

On the night when Mahâprabhu took sannyasa, leaving His house, He gave instructions to Ärî Viëòupriya. This is described by Locana dâsa in Caitanya-mangala.

When Viëòupriya was asleep, Mahâprabhu decided to leave the house. He approached Mother Saci and worshiped her. He convinced her by exhibiting His divine power and then crossed the river Ganges by swimming and proceeded towards Katwa. Vasu Ghosh has elaborately described the reaction of both Viëòupriya and Sacimata at dawn. In the early morning Viëòupriya did not find Mahâprabhu in His cot. As if stricken by a thunderbolt she realized what had happened. She did not even comb her hair, but crying incessantly rushed to Mother Saci. In BRK. Ärî Ghanasyama Cakravarti said that in the absence of Mahâprabhu, Viëòupriya passed most of her nights lying on the floor without sleep. Her complexion which had previously been brighter than gold became pale and her body was as thin as the moon on the 14th day of the dark fortnight. As many rounds as she chanted daily, that many grains of rice she would cook, offer to Mahâprabhu, and accept as prasada. No one could understand how she was able to maintain her life on such a meager quantity of food. Murari Gupta wrote in his Kadaca that Viëòupriya Ùhâkurani was the first to install the deity of Mahâprabhu and begin His worship.

After the departure of Mahâprabhu, their servant, Isana Ùhâkura looked after Mother Saci and Viëòupriya. Vamsivadana Ùhâkura and Mother Saci also stayed with Viëòupriya at all times. Ärî Vamsivadana was very dear to Viëòupriya. When Ärînivâsa Âcârya came to Mayapura, he met the aged Isana Ùhâkura and Viëòupriya Devi. Ärî Vamsivadana Ùhâkura showered his mercy on Ärînivasa.

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